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Lab Red - Normal: - Actual Hemoglobin: - Normal: -A direct male measure male

Values: Blood = count 4.66.2 of

Cheat Cells female red = 4.2-

Sheet (RBC): 5.2 corpuscles

= of

14-18 oxygen

g/dl

female capacity

= of

12-16 the

g/dl blood

carrying

Hematocrit : - Normal: -= Mean - Normal: Mean - Normal: -= % volume of Cell 27hemoglobin folate iron Cell Hemoglobin 31per Hemoglobin (MCH): 33 RBC deficiency deficiency Concentration): 35 Count: 0.5-2.5% indirect measure of of RBC RBC production male the males percentage = of Cell = 8096 39blood 49% that is female composed = of 3545% erythrocytes (MCV): = 8298

Volume female

* Increase: indicates * Decrease: indicates Mean - Normal: Reticulocyte - Normal: - An

Red - Normal: - Indicates

Blood variation iron

Cell in deficiency of

Distribution red anemia iron or

Width cell mixed

(RDW): 11-16% volume anemia anemia Count:

* Increase: indicates early Platelet - Normal: detection

- Note: increase in RDW occurs earlier than decrease in MCV therefore RDW is used for deficiency

140,000

-

440,000

0 function 3.Regulated * Hypokalemia: less * Hyperkalemia: greater NOTE: Chloride .Major  Causes: contributory to cell * Hypernatremia: greater sodium during Blood patient clinically Cell 3. inability to replace insensible losses.Normal: * Reduced: by * Increased: by Bicarbonate . depletion diarrhea. less dilutional thiazides  Symptoms: agitation. death.* Low: worry * High: not White . disorientation. irritability. apathy.5renal (K): 5. hyper flexia. and or or sweating.Normal: * Increase: occur * Decreases: marrow Sodium . renal or GI loss  S/sx: thirst.Normal: .Normal: 24metabolic metabolic or respiratory alkalosis acidosis (HCO3): 30 96False K than elevations are 5.0 seen in by than (panic hemolysis > of 3. seizures. muscle twitching. anorexia. restlessness. muscle cramps and .5 6) samples! (Cl): 106 in: true CHF.Normal: .4 infections suppression and will bleed significant (WBC): – physiologic and 10 stress chemotherapy (Na): 136osmolality overload and in than or volume control of water 145 balance 145 depletion  Seen in: impaired thirst. lethargy. lethargy. coma * Hyponatremia: 136  Causes:  Occur nausea Potassium .

SCr is * Increase:  Indicates worsening renal function 0.- Albumin: 9.2normal 0. hunger.The test represents bicarbonate (the base form of the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system) * Decreased: acidosis * Increased: alkalosis GLUCOSE: Normal: *  causes: * mental  causes: BUN: . decreased intake. blurred vision.. pancreatitis .Panic Serum . (Ca): 8. increase urination and increased hunger (3Ps). trembling. weakness.5than 10. renal failure. low Mg.Normal * peripheral protein: Protein normal normal to liver edema.53.5 for in constant = > Creatinine adults patients and with 0.0 5 status dysfunction edema and pulmonary edema.Total .5  Causes: low serum proteins (most common).Normal: . ascites.71. vitamin D deficiency (common).Albumin: o Related * Low: Cause: S/sx: Serum . high PO4.7 for kidney fasting.8 8.Normal: . anxiety. steroids. hypoparathyroidism (common). calcitonin.  s/sx: increase thirst. loop diuretics. May progress to coma  s/sx: sweating. Blood 8100 insulin Urea include 70110 Hyperglycemia: diabetes Hypoglycemia: status administration Nitrogen 20 mg/dl (SCr): children function. headache or altered Total . periorbital Calcium = Hypocalcemia: less = and = liver 5.

.  S/sx: weakness. cardiac tingling. Increase: occurs after MI. hepatitis and . 10. androgens.2 disease at 10-15 15 2-5 mEq/L mEq/L = = bradycardia. EKG low Ca paralysis. numbness. distress sweating. lead psychosis.Normal: leukocytes  Caueses: incrased intake in the presence of renal dysfunction (common). hallucinations and possible seizures or tetany  Lead  Early * supplements. and N/V. excessive vit D or thyroid  Causes: excessive losses from GI tract (diarrhea or vomiting) or kidneys (diuretics). tamoxifen. changes asystole. lithium.6(>14. and hypotension paresthias. depression. vomiting. .5) s/sx: risk nausea. hormone.Group of enzymes found in the liver. excessive IV Ca salts. muscle diseases and hemolysis.2 kidney 1. cerebellar ataxia and possibly coma to: signs: finger MI. S/sx: fatigue. arrhytmias burning of and extremities than Pagets disease. kidneys. = flaccid respiratory flushing. muscle fasciculation with tremor. Hypercalcemia: more chronic immobilization. small intestine.8 hyperthyroidism.5 levels arrhythmia. of dyspepsia digoxin and anorexia or death toxicity (PO4): 4. 2.Normal: Magnesium . bones. come eliminated 1. progesterone. may convulsions. psychosis. sarcoidosis.5by than to and than low cardiac the 2.Primarily * Hypomagnesemia: less Alcoholism changes.5 (Mg): 2.ALT and AST are measure indicators of liver disease. placenta and * Increased: occurs Aminotransferases necrosis. Phosphatase: ranges (most activity in (ALT from vary bones liver and and widely liver) dysfunction AST):  Severe s/sx: lethargy.Normal: . personality * Hypermagnesemia: more Addisons  S/sx: at over Alkaline . estrogen. memory loss. Sensitive to hepatic inflammation and . tetany. increased reflexes.  Acute  Increased Phosphate .  Cause: malignancy or hyperparathyroidism (most common).

Significant bacteriuria is defined by an initial positive dipstick for leukocyte esterase or nitrites.Few. chloroquine.. Urine: flora) found . preeclampsia of pregnancy. should if any. lupus analysis be sterile cells (no should nephritis of normal be and others.Normal ALT: 3- 30 Direct . senna. clear acids change senna. contaminated specimen is likely. be bile will rifampin.3 (Conjugated): mg/d. Flagyl.Side note: o Red-Orange: o Blue-Green: o Brown-Black: nitrofurantoin pH: . dyes. Microscopic .1-0.Normal: Bilirubin 0. . or medications Elavil. CHF. Clorets sulfonoamides * Protein in urine: indication of hemolysis. UTI. blue.Normal: * Foam: from . exercise. fever. methylene iron salts.5[in than 150 8 urine]: mg/day Azo Cascara. should protein some Pyridium.Urine . If more than 1 or 2 species seen. renal tubular damage. high BP.Normal: Protein . color in of yellow urine urine abuse and * Cloudy: results from urates (acid). phosphates (alkaline) or presence of RBC or WBC phenothiazines. nephrosis. * Increase: associated with increases in other liver enzymes and reflect liver disease Urine: .Normal: 0 content +1 or less 4. multiple myeloma. diabetic nephropathy.

145 mEq/ L Cl 98-107 mEq/ L Ca 8.3 secs Should be 1.7 .52% Female 35 . DVT and Pulmonary embolism 2.8 secs Female 9.2 million/ cubic mm Female 4.6-11.6 .1 mEq/ L Mg 1.5 mEq/ L Na 135 .15mins (Saunders) Electrolytes K 3.ABG Ph 7.0 .47% PT (Warfarin/ Coumadin) Male 9.4.6.5 to 2 times the Normal PTT/ APTT (Heparin) 20-36 secs / 30-45 secs Should be 1.5 .10 mg/dL .5 to 2.5-11.6 .350.7 mins.16.7.5 High dose Warfarin therapy 2-3 Atrial fibrillation.800/ cubic mm Platelets 150. 8 .300 .2.6 mEq/ L Ph 2.5 million/cubic mm WBC 4.000 .5.10.5 times the Normal INR 2 – 3 Standard Warfarin therapy 3 – 4.000/ cubic mm Hgb Male 14 .5-3.35 .5 g/dL Female 12 .5 Prosthetic heart valves Bleeding Time 3 .5 .5.15 g/ dL Hct Male 42 .45 PCO2 35 – 45 mm Hg HCO3 22 – 27 mEq/ml PO2 80 – 100 mm Hg SaO2 93 – 100% RBC Male 4.

8.5% Good 7.9% Fair greater than 9% Poor Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) 0.6 .8 .5 mg/ dL Pulmonary capillary mean wedge pressure 4-12 mmHg Central Venous Pressure 2-6 mmHg .Potassium Chloride IT IS NEVER GIVEN BY IV PUSH.8 mg/24 hrs GFR 125 ml/min Creatinine 0.6-1.1 mg/dL 0.7 .5 g/dL Amylase 25-151 units/ L Lipase 10-140 units/ L Bilirubin (Total) less than 1. IM OR SUB Q With a dilution of not more than 1mEq/10ml Maximum infusion rate of 5-10 mEq/ hr NEVER to exceed 20 mEq/ hr at any circumstance Blood Sugar 70 – 110 mg/dL Glycosylated Hgb (glycohemoglobin) less than 7.3 mg/dL (Saunders) BUN 10 – 20 mg/dL 8-25 mg/dL (Saunders) UO Adult: 30 cc/hr and 720 cc/24 hours Pedia: 2cc/ kg/ hr AST/ ALT 5-40 IU/L Ammonia 9-33 µmol/L 35-65 mcg/ dl Albumin 3 .6.

.15 (50mg/100cc of blood) greater than 8% .08 .Plasma Osmolality 280-300 mOsm/kg Serum Alcohol LEGAL .10 TOXIC! grater than 0.