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2350 BC-or 1500BC- Indus valley civillisation (urban) | | early 1st millenium BC - Aryans came from European Steppes and

spread to Afganis tan, India. Vedic Age,age of Mahabharatas (rural, small fighting tribes)--People unhappy, so spiritual development through Vedas began | | Aryans spread east towards gandak river, rise of Buddhism and Jainism, (urbanisa tion) (about 500 BC)--(Gautam Buddha was the first historic figure of Indian his tory)-------------------------------In west, a Persian settlement arised under D areios --Panini's book of grammar was first Indian treatise | | about 320BC-Alexander the Great conquered only till North-West India--Chandragup ta Maurya had fought his troops at the Indus | | about 320 BC--Chandragupta Maurya captured Magadha--some yrs later Seleukos Nika tor came to claim Alexander's regions, but Chandragupta Maurya defeated him and won Baluchistan and Kabul--Chandragupta's estate was well organised and happy, c onquered almost all of present India, except tip, succeded by son Bindusara Kautilya's method of ruling by maintaining happiness (written in Kautilya's Arth ashastra). | | 268 BC- Ashoka gained Gupta empire; 261BC-Battle of Kalinga, converted to Buddhi sm,empire almost entire modern India, did not expand kingdom anymore, ruled by K autilya's teachings combined with 'right of conduct', tried to spread happiness and Buddhism also abroad | | Early 2nd century BC, Mauryan empire declines, last ruler Brihadratha, decline o f Buddhism, major was Hinduism and went back to Vedic teachings | | Till end of 1st century BC, rise of many smaller kingdoms that disobeyed earlier Mauryan teachings, eg.Sunga abd Kanva kingdoms, Capture of northwest by Greeks and other foreigners. | | 0-320AD(i.e till start of Gupta period)- Dark period-Greeks driven out from Indi a, Shakas from central asia, Kushanas--ealry stages of Shiva cult---------( Sout hern dynasties started around the end of Mauryan empire) existence of Satavahana s (Andhra), Kharavelas(Orissa),Chola, Pandya and Cheras in Southern tip, inculca tion of Aryanism, Sanskrit, hence fusion of Sanskrit with local language (Sangam period). | [dark period: lack of unity, subjugation of Buddhism, invasion from fore igners from Central Asia (Shakas and Kushanas and Greek at the beginning) ; good because: Greeks eventually driven out; Sangam period and rise of power in South ] | 320AD-550AD, Rise of Gupta Dynasty-important kings were Chandragupta-I, Samudrag upta (son of Chandragupta-I) and the greatest was Chandragupta II (son of Samudr agupta), There was revival of Hindu King culture in contrast to the Buddhism tha t existed in Mauryan empire, however there was religious tolerance and it was a happy empire--distinct structure of empire, with core region in middle, surround ed by border kingdoms,nominally conquered tribes etc.--Vakatakas, marital allies of Guptas made the Ajanta caves based on Buddhism

came from central Asia). localisation of religion and language. Cholas ( Tamil Nadu) Shankaracharya preached orthodox monism.Mongol chieftain invaded India+ Qutb ud-din Aibak establish ed foundations of Sultanate in Northwestern India (taking up Muhammad of Ghur's kingdom) --Iltutmish. Gods also were made related to the deeds of the king or various happenings and various forms of the same God were introduced. Balban a cruel leader came on the throne and was soon ov erthrown from power. Bhakti movement came in and taught impo rtance of the human being and karma much along the lines of Buddhism--due to sam antisation of the kingdom.had many rivals and defeated them.Harshavardhan was first major ruler with empire almost as large as Guptas. Vaishni sm and Shiva cults arose --Due to the localisation of various religious cults. were cruel and barbaric.(1286)-succeded by new dynasty. such as Marathi. the mahasamantas tried to defeat king. defeated Mo ngols-kingdom almost as big as Guptas or Mauryas-Indo-Islamic art and architectu re was introduced. Chalukyas (cen tral India and Karnataka). to unify people many temples were made Most important contemporaries were: Rajputs (present Rajasthan-many smaller trib es but united. rise of power in central and south India-. Muhammud Ghur's viceroy in Delhi. revival of unorthodox religion like B hakti movement. Bengali a nd Assamese and hence predominance of Sanskrit was subdued. Pallavas (Tamil Nadu-pyramid style temples). with lot of central control and was predominantly Buddhist)] | | about 660 AD to 1200-1300 AD-. overcame Rajput power in secon d attempt.Beginning of medieval period--many small kingdoms . son-in-law of Qutb-ud-din Aibak came on throne in 1210. wonderful architecture and a rt.destroyed much of Indian culture a nd their decline caused entry of other Central Asian tribes namely Gurjaras and Rajput clans | | | [Gupta period was different from the Mauryan empire because of the s tyle of arrangement of the kingdom and that they were predominantly Hindu (Maury an empire followed Kautilya's arthashastra.the Khaljis--first ruler Jala l-ud-din Khalji . his daughter Raziya Sultan reigned for 3 years but w as murdered --After Raziiya Sultan. Palas (Bihar and Bengal). but as soon as centra l power became weak. --trade relations with southeast Asia arose and was largely contributed to by So uth India [rise of many smaller kingdoms but unified. trade became globalised to a certain extent] --1000-1025 AD-Mahmud of Ghazni plundered India without intention of occupying i t---1178-1192 AD Muhammad of Ghur tried to occupy North-western India and though defeated by Prtihviraj chauhan on first attempt. Iltutmish's tomb was the first of the great tombs of the Musl im kings --After death of Iltutmish. wherein Brahmins were also given land. the scriptures had to be l ocalised and so the various regional languages arose. Qutb-ud-din Aibak was one of best warriors---Bengal and Eastern India largely occupied by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji | | | 1206 AD-Chengis Khan. only t o restore them as tributaries in his kingdom (structure of empire)introduuced th e Indian feudalism.--Kalidasa was in the Gupta court--Puranas were composed at this time to describ e Gupta empire in form of mythology --Huns and Pushyamitras attacked but were unsuccessful in the beginning --The Gupta rulers after Skandagupta were weak and soon Huns again came and this time displaced them. soon conquiered almost whole of North India.

Shivaji escaped in a basket and went to Pune to gather troops. n amely the Sayyid dynast (1414). thereby deprived of the opportunity to learn to read and write. The Portugese were already in contro l of the Indian ocean (went only in 1961). Though there was no such enmity between the Hindus and Muslims. 1530-Babur died and Humayun took the throne. especially under the ruleof S hivaji who was an admirable ruler. he was succeded in 1351 by Firoz Shah Tughlaq . --Though Muhammad Tughlaq took throne and his initial campaigns were very good.East India Company had been set up in Englan also in 1600 AD but were much smaller than the Dutch company. including Delhi and Agra. that were derivates of the Sultanate arose in between. through most ofhi s reign he consolidated his empire which stretched from Hemland River in Afganis tan to Orissa in the East and from Kashmir in the north to Gujarat. for example the translation of the Ramayana by Krittib as Ojha in Bengali [Mughal Empire-. Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodh i at first battle of Panipat using his new form of small sized artillery and too k up the kingdom. --Shah Jahan ascended throne in 1627 after the death of Jahangir---took the Mu ghal Empire to the South and built important buildings like the Taj Mahal and th e Red Fort --Aurangzeb imprisoned his father and became the ruler in 1658--under him.Even though Aurangzeb defeated Shivaji in Sura t in 1664. Nur Jahan---The Dutch East India Company had been established in 1602 and became leading manufacturers of ships. Akbar born in 1542 --Soon enough the Mughals came and overtook India --Since the Sultanate was mostly North India. his greed lead to the eventual demise of the Delhi sultanate --After his rule full of blunders. who was a good king and had a long reign. he could not at the same t ime concentrate on the North --Aurangzeb's major rivals were the Marathas.Gjapatis of Orissa (built Jagannath P uri Temple. but it became too big to contro l properly since while laying attention on the SOuth. The Dutc h rule lasted till 1825 when it was taken over by the British. Shivaji embittered peo ple's minds against Aurangzeb by taking up the issue of religion.1 556-Akbar came to the throne at 13years of age and was brought up among soldiers .Vijaynagar empire---during this period.He was the last ruler of the Sultanat e --1398-Timur plundered India and soon after. Konark temple). introduced administrative reforms to raise money f or military ventures which aimed at conquering the worl like Alexander the great --he conquered the South and his general Malik Kafur brought back the Koh-i-noor with him to Delhi-Mongols were easily defeated and hence forth their campaigns almost vanished. who kept Mongols at bar.--1296-Jalal-ud-din Khalji was succeded by nephew and son-in-law Ala-ud-din kha lji.Humayun was defeated b y Sher Shah Suri and only regained his empire in 1555 after death of Sher Shah. Lodhi dynasty. --After Ala-ud-din Khalji. --The Mughal empire was agrarian in nature. there were insignificant leaders till Ghiyas-ud-din T ughlaq (1320). namely the Bahmanis of the Deccan. --In 1605. the Delhi Sultanate completely got erradicated and independent rulers rose in the different parts of India --Some smaller kingdom.but the Mughals didn't care since they depended on land revenue---Humayun succeded him in 1530 but was defeated soon b y Sher Shah Suri(Afgan) and only reconcquered the kingdom in 1555 after his deat h. who was murdered by son Muhammad Tughlaq. in the mean ti . regional lang uages greatly flourished. 1540. --Akbar was tolerant to all religions and sought a religion of his own which i ncorporates various tenets of different religions and he opposed orthodox Muslim s.In 1526 Established by Babur in North-Western India and Afgan istan. Akbar's son Jahangir came to the throne--he combined Indian with Pe rsian culture due to his Persian wife.Ibrahim Lodh i and Sikander Lodhi(1451)---------------------1526. the Mughal Empire expanded greatly into the Deccan. was fair in nature and did not unnecessarily hurt Hindus.including Buhlol Khan. there were parallel kingdoms in th e South. Rajputs were subjugated by him but became faithful friends.

In the mean time. --1761. --Auranzeb was challenged by his son. Akbar who wanted to restore the religiou s tolerance that the great Akbar had done. the East India Company of Britain st arted buying Indian soldiers. The French. co uld not save the Mughal empire.This had effect in India also since the French and the British took sides of the fighting Indian rulers and pursued an indirect war in India --In 1756. the British defeated the various rulers and forced them to hand over their la nd. However. The Afgans won. which s . the French East India Co mpany was set up. the British parliament preferred not to claim India as a part of the Bristish Royal property. --in the 18th century. The British also at this time defeated some kings who tried to repulse them. the British occupied all of India. In the latter half ofthe 18th century. -.the Mughal empire of fered the Diwan. under the leadership of Francois Martin first set their foothold in India and established Pondicherry. His policy of interfering with the kings was disapproved by the British back at home but Hastings carried on all the same. s ince Gujarat was in ruins in the ruinous state of the Mughal empire and so the E uropeans gained monopoly over the trade on the Western coast of India. including the Northwest. Shivaji died without being able to defeat Aurangzeb---In 1664. T hey also came to accept the position of Diwan of Bengal. I ndia was still being ruled by the British East India Company and were still offi cially nothing more than the Diwan of Bengal. but was let down b y Mir Jaffar during the battle of Plassey. Shambhaji but was defeated by Aurangzeb had also started become intolerant towards Aurangzeb's eldest so n. Robert Cliv e had left India and his officials plundered the resources of the Indian princes .Tipu Sultan was one king who fores aw that the British were no mere competitors for the fight for supremity in Indi a and tried till his life's end to defeat them. the lan d revenue system had started becoming oppressive and the zamindars and peasants had started revolting. --Both the Mughal Empire and the Marathas saw declining power. the British repuls ed his successor's attempts to drive them out of Bengal and started becoming an ominous landpower. the Nizams of Hyderabad. A chief minister from the Mughal empi re after being defeated by Baji Rao of the Marathas fled Delhi to go to Hyderaba d and set up his own smaller empire. Even after all the wars fought by the British. --Aurangzeb's son Akbar who had wanted to restore the conditions as had been d uring Akbar the Great's rule fled and settled in Persia. He went and joined hands with Shivaji 's son.By the end of t he 1700s. Nadir Shah came from Persia and plundered Delhi.e Civil administration of Bengal to the British. Mir Jafar became the new Nawab of Ben gal and Robert Clive was made the governor of Bengal. who later became s trong allies of the British.The French and the British were in a globalised war. --Aurangzeb died in 1707 and had a modest tomb unlike his predecessors. Under Hasting s. an Afgan. Warren Hastings became governor of Bengal. and the British started appeasi ng them in order to get a key position in the trade of Bengal--Simultaneously. However. Second battle of Panipat was fought between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah as to furt her reduce the influence of the nawab. The en d of Aurangzeb's reign ended a period of relative peace and prosperity which had started during Akbar's reign. In 1739. but was defeated.---The influence of British trade had extended withi n the land of Bengal and after Alivardi Khan's death in 1756. Muazzam acceded the throne and though he maintained good relations with the M arathas by incorporating Shahuji(Shivaji's grandson) into the administration. In the broad context of India. Shiraj-ud-Daula succeded his great-uncle Alivardi Kha n on the throne of Bengal and tried to drive out the British. the British were still small f ish.---in 1717. --After the victoryat the Battle of Plassey. during Aurangzeb's reign itself. The East India comp any sent back a large annual tribute of hundreds of thousands of pounds. This was not straightaway accepted by the British. However. i. --1771. British East India Company granted free trade and free coinage in Bengal by the Mughal empire. they were still only ma rginal influences in Bengal.

The new Indian babus did not participate . the monopoly of trade became monopoly of t erritorial rule.Though they had a goal. In 1861. The East India Company's trading monopoly no longer made sense and was abolished in 1813.The British methods of legislation were introduced in Indi a.The mutiny began when the British introduced car triges covered in animal fat. with a total span of 25000 miles.The British were also not prepared for the attac k and it was especially hard for them. hence ideal for the steel industry. He wanted to make Indian 'babus' who were dessed like and thought like the British. some amount of communal rift also grew. The Crown of Britain took h old over IndiaunderQueen Victoria (since now Britain was itself so rich that add ing India under the supervisionof the crown no longer hurt). the Indian railways were built. he blocke d the export of Indian textiles to Britain.Due to the new Indian Babus. --In 1773 and 1784 there were legislations in Britain by which a governor general was appointed to India and his functions were controll ed by a body back in Britain. the Industrial rev olution allowed cheaper textiles to be manufactured in Britain itself. in this context. since they had themselves taught the sepo ys their form of warfare . In Bombay. Lord Macaulay wassent as governor general and the attitude of the British was already arrogant towards the Indians. gran dfather of Rabindranath Tagore bought the East India Company's property and setu p Carr. In the law of 1784. the Indian railways was setup and this was very favorable to the Briti sh and unfavorable to the Indian economy --In 1835. Land revenue became the main source of income. .The sepoys. t he zaminadri system was introduced. Bombay and Madras. which hurt the rekigious sentiments of the sepoys. the princes and the za mindare were the main participants . the debate between the Anglicists and Orientalists began. After 1813. At the same time. Dwarakanath Tagore. At th is stage.By 1900s. Jamshedji Tata came into the scene and found that In dia was rich in coal and iron ore.Though the mutiny was stopped. high courts were established in Calcutta. It became just one of the other companies. successor of Hastings. Late 1940s: . --Under Lord Cornwallis (1786). Scottish Church institutions were also se tup. there was a rift be tween the people in rural areas and those in the cities. The British took advantage of these rifts Contemporary History: 1. Tagore and Co. the British were still in awe of Indian culture and the Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones. He also o pened the Indian Institute of Scence (IISC) . THe queen took the title Empress of India and replaced governor general by Viceroy. The East India company was finally sw ept away due to its bankruptcy following the mutiny. a parallel to these ca lled the Elphinstone College was made. it was not focused enoug h and was idealistic--they wanted to bring back the old situation in India . the peasants.atisfied the British parliament. --In 1857 the first Indian War of Independance took plac e. which was put down in 1846 during the economic crisis. She took great interest in India. autocracy was given to the gov ernor general.At this time. Due to the emerging cla ss distinction between the Hindus and Muslims. . The Presiden cy Colleges wereset up in Calcutta and Madras. Thus. --1800s : When Napolean was conquering Africa. . the British were no longer as arrogant towards the Indians. Af ter 1847.

He left Muslim Law un-reformed in fear of resentm ent among the minority Muslims. 1962: Sino-Indian War. Economic recession and political u nrest among that stage compete with other industries and on the long run.Ayub Khan's plan of Grand Slam in India-failed.Last years of World War II.severe drought 1965-Indo-Pakistan war (territorial war over Kashmir). Lal Bahadur Shastri became Prime Minister 1964: Industrial Production more than doubled from 1948. Nehru disliked globalisation. mid 1960s.D Birla draft a 15 year pl an (the Bombay Plan) for public funding of infrastructure while Private sector w ould concentrate on immediate profit. Sanjay Gandhi introduced mass sterilisati on 1977: Indira Gandhi lost elections. 1966.D Birla and J. 1950s: 1958: Muslim League breaks up. 1959: Dalai Lama escapes to India. 1980s: 1980: Indira Gandhi won elections. death) Jawaharlal Nehru is Foreign Minister and Prime Minister of India. 1970s: 1971: Indira Gandhi won the central elections. 1964: Jawaharlal Nehru died. Ayub Khan lost face and Lal Bahadur Shastri becam e known as a strong leader. using slogan 'Garibi hata o'. Indira Gandhi imposes 'President's Rule/ Emergency' Till 1967. Sanjay Gandhi dies after plane manoue vre went wrong. th e lack of competition led to corruption in the Indian industry. 5. (Ind ia had not signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty if 1968) 1975-1977: Emergency declared. which led to a severe drought 1946-1949-Indian Constituent Assembly creates the Constituent of India Rajendra Prasad first President of India 2. 1961: Goa liberated from Portugese rule. by allowin g them to receive inheritance and opt for divorces ( considered this law for wom en as his biggest achievment). Parties like Bha ratiya Jana Sang. especially since he was convinced that Ind ia could not. 1948: Mahatma Gandhi assasinated 1948: Jinnah dies. 1950s. Nehru also neglected agriculture. 1969: Congress split into Left wing and Right wing 4.G. was success). Indian border disputes become publicl y known in India 3.The Southern states were formed based on linguistic majorities 1950: China occupies Tibet and India gives up all its Tibetan posts inhe rited from British.R. Central government taken by Bharatiy a Jana Sangh 1979: Food shortage. Death of Lal Bahadur Shastri. Liberation of Bangladesh (earlier it was a part of Pakista n separated from the main body of the country by miles of Indian territory) 1972: Indira Gandhi separated Lok Sabha elections from state elections. Communist Party of India came into being. 1960s: 1960: The Bombay Presidency was split into Maharashtra and Gujarat. . people lost faith in Bharatiya Jana Sangh. He cre ates a reformed Hindu Law which especially caters to the Hindu women. Green Revolution. Opposition party accused Indira Gandhi of misusing funds for election campaign 1974: India's first nuclear device tested underground in Rajasthan.This foreshadowed the 'mixed economy' that was to be setup in India. Congress was the only ruling party of India.Tashkent declaration (peace treaty after the Indo-Pakistan war of 1965. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel the Home Minister of India (till 1950.Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Min ister 1967: Second severe drought in India.

Also. Indian PM. but Bangladesh became wary of In dia's intentions. when Bhindranwaale occupied the Golden Temple to aid his terrorist activities to establish a separate Sikh state. The water of Ganges was a long-reigning issue between the two countries. the Maldives. especially since Indian businessmen started moving into Bangla desh. 31st October.When the US showed friendliness towards Pakistan. Pakistan. Pakistan failed to show parity to India at all levels. India-Bangladesh relations were good till 1971. President Nixon was especially hostile towards Indira Gandhi. 1990s: 1991: Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by LTTE during election campaign. Narsimha Rao visited Chin a to compel both sides to respect the border. Third severe drought 6. India was initially in friendly relations with the US but was always friendly (a nd still is ) with the Soviet Union (no ofcourse the various parts of disintegra ted SU). China had occupied Tibet and other parts of Central Asia. India and China also had issues about watershed division between the two countri es. replaced by BJP. India-US relations det oriorated. Nepal and Sri Lanka. The only way to establ ish control was to build a road connecting all these parts and so it secretly bu ilt a road through the Indian territory of Aksai Chin. succed ed by V. but no clear demarcations of the b order were made. which led to war of 1962.T He aim was to maintain bilateral relations between countries when any issue came up. Bhutan. 1996: Congress system removed. after years of avoiding the issue. it borrowed nuclear arms from North Korea in 1998 and re-launche d it as 'Ghauri' after Mohammed of Ghur. .1983: India joined SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperati on) along with Bangladesh. It was then that th ings became complicated between India and Sril Lanka when India tried to interfe re in the atrocities against Tamils.P Singh 1992: Babri Masjid demolished by multiple people with everyday objects a s tools.India played a big role by policing the South East Asia. However to show that it h ad nclear arms.Kennedy and Clinton showed friendliness to India. In 1993. THe Chinese won the war due to their strategy of distracting the attention of th e Indians by coming in through Assam and disappearing almost immediately. 1999: Kargil War. At the same time. 1984: Operation Blue Star. Ra jiv Gandhi became Prime Minister after a huge majority vote for the Congress cap turing 411 seats out of 542 1987: Bofor's scandal erupted. Farakka barrage was constructed to divert water from the Ganges to I ndia. they took an offensive stance in the North-west. 1984: Indira Gandhi assasinated by her Sikh bodyguards.