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Luarca 1 Miguel V. Luarca Mr. Vince Serrano Lit 126.

2 15 January 2013 Annotated Bibliography Appel, Markus, and Barbara Malečkar. "The Influence of Paratext on Narrative Persuasion: Fact, Fiction, or Fake?" Human Communication Research 4.38 (2012): 459-84. Print. From the point of view of cognitive psychology, Appel and Malečkar investigate the effect of the paratext in terms of narrative reliability. In theory, all modes of information we receive come in the form of narratives. Paratextual appendages in the narrativity of communication lend credibility and “persuasiveness” to the information delivered. In connection with Dworkin’s assertions, and a close reading of how Eliot’s notes operate throughout the poem, is it possible to read Eliot’s paratext as a means of supporting, that is, lending “persuasiveness”, to The Waste Land in light of his own critical and literary project as laid out in his critical essay Tradition and the Individual Talent? Also, cognitive psychology studies the paratext as a self-sufficient medium of communication; a notion that mirrors the paratextual experimentations by postmodern authors as recorded in Dworkin’s critical essay Textual Prostheses. Therefore, one can assert that Eliot’s use of paratext initiates discourse with regard to how these notes can operate independently as clear claims to literary historicity (that is, to the tradition Eliot discusses in his essay), and at the same time is a separate but dependent and integral part of the poem that serves as a means of lending it “persuasiveness”. By extension, it may

Augustine and Spenser. Web. being imaginative literature. Aug. Boukalova apprehends the notes as consistent with Eliot’s call of difficulty in his essay The Metaphysical Poets (1921). GRAAT.p.fr/boukalova. 15 Jan. She recounts the various strategies employed by earlier critics of The . Cruz. Ultimately. Lucie. N. This paper directly scrutinizes Eliot’s use of the notes against the backdrop of canonicity. such as St.com. Cruz focuses on the difficulties encountered by the Reader in assimilating the information given by Eliot in his notes to the overall appreciation and interpretation of the long poem. and Basil Bunting in his Briggflatts (1966)).. <http://www. Lawrence.ph/cruzeliotessay. <http://www. "The Unquiet Boundary.H. especially in light of how latter poets employ these same apparatuses (David Jones in his Anathemata (1952). "T.html>. and Ernest Radford. in this case. Boukalova. Web. by interpreting the notes as a practice that “incorporates centuries of cultural acknowledgment” and an awareness of “literary heritage and precedence” (4). Eliot's Notes and the Figure of the Reader in "The Wasteland"" High Chair. 2013.Luarca 2 even function as an element of Eliot’s poetics that satisfy a medium’s need (the medium.highchair. The paper asserts that Eliot was self-canonizing his poetry through his myriad references to older poets and writers." GRAAT Anglophone Studies. specifically the postmodern poem) for proof of reliability and persuasiveness. D. usually afforded by utilizing paratext.S. and even acknowledges companionship with contemporary writers such as Kipling.pdf>.graat. or the Footnote Auto-exegetic Modes in (neo-)modernist Poetry. 2010. June 2005. 2013. But Boukalova recalls also Eliot’s reported change of opinion regarding the efficacy and need of paratextual “auto-exegetic modes”. 15 Jan. Conchitina.

The book revues how Eliot (and also Pound). Ellmann glosses through the modernist concept of impersonality. Cambridge: Harvard UP. Cruz straightforwardly qualifies the notes as a direct address to the Poet’s imagined figure of the Reader. an internal language. i. Ellmann. so to speak. the process of signification supposedly orchestrated by these notes put to question the whole notion of apprehension. equivocates between impersonality and subjectivity through the looming . the antiRomanticist notion that the poet effaces himself in order to lend his work some historical integrity and objectivity. But at the same time. Print. adhering to this poetic disposition as Eliot himself intimates in his essay Tradition and the Individual Talent. the notes then are supposed to serve as valuable clues to a credible interpretation of the poem. of “knowing” the meaning of the poem.e. Maud. 1987. making the Reader him/herself a character in the Poet’s waste land. And following this line of thinking. This curiously powerful suggestion then lends an almost extra-literary cohesiveness to The Waste Land’s “heap of broken images”. Cruz notices how 6 notes appear in seventeen lines in the section The Fire Sermon. and Michael North among others. in that the notes make the Reader complicit to the breaking down of meaning demonstrated by the poem’s postmodernity. as a character in the poem). The Poetics of Impersonality. familiar to all that inhabit the waste land of the poem in which the Reader is supposedly a part of by virtue of the direct address of the notes. Cleanth Brooks.Luarca 3 Waste Land such as Edmund Wilson. and tracks down even the various rates and frequency of these textual intrusions and what meaning can be gleaned from these changes (for example. where the notes serve to heighten the Reader’s awareness of his/her predicament.

deliberate misquotations) as unfamiliar. renders even the poetic gesture of quotations (or often in Eliot’s case. Kaiser studies how Wilson’s familiarity with Eliot’s then unpublished notes shaped his reading of the poem.Luarca 4 presence. rehearses an inherent tension to be found in Eliot’s brand of modernist impersonality. making an indelible influence for future literary analyses of The Waste Land. and all-powerful internal logic." Twentieth Century Literature 44. 2013. or in German. Applying this line of thinking to an investigation of the function of Eliot’s endnotes. Jo Ellen Green. past texts is defamiliarized – ultimately suggesting a “loss of origin”. 15 Jan. or “unhomely”. Discovery Service for Ateneo De Manila University-Rizal Library. Coming from an analysis of Edmund Wilson’s review of the poem. This tension mirrors too the confusing objectivity and subjectivity of endnotes. even kinship with. Web. Kaiser sees the notes as enabling the literary critics’ attempt at solving the . "Disciplining The Waste Land. in that the affinity for. and how The Waste Land has developed a critical tradition that engrosses itself over them. then. Ellmann grounds his reading with the Freudian concept of the “uncanny” and its pervasiveness as seen in the consistent repetition of tropes of death and horror. as explicated by Dworkin in Textual Prosthesis. entrusting the whole process of interpretation on the unity seemingly implied by the erudition of these references. Kaiser confronts head-on the problematic credibility of Eliot’s notes. with a special focus on how the uncanny. In the book’s intensive analysis of The Waste Land. of the poet’s “personal emotion” which Eliot permits to stage-manage throughout the poem.1 (1998): 82-99. the historicity purported by the myriad allusions and paratextuality of The Waste Land. or How to Lead Critics into Temptation. Kaiser. the unheimlich.

and 3) appreciation of the writer as alluder. Quite scientifically. In this light. Print." Brno Studies in English 37. and concludes that allusions attract reader’s attention upon recognition. Lennon charts out the process of how readers take in an allusion as 1) recognition. and lastly. meaning the writer acknowledges and introduces to the present text the existence of another secondary text via use of a cryptic quotation. recognition and interpretation of allusion also incite aesthetic pleasure through demonstrations of linguistic and literary ingenuity. 2) inferencing. Lennon notes that the etymology of allusion. or does his brand of allusion suggest an altogether different agenda? . we can use Lennon’s study of the echoic allusion as a litmus test for Eliot’s many instances of alluding to older texts – does Eliot conform to the given purpose of allusion.1 (2011): 79-95. Lennon analyzes how the allusion operates quite closely to the configuration of the pun. "Ludic Language: The Case of the Punning Echoic Allusion. it cannot be a locus of new creation of meaning through the semantics of the present and absent texts. and this mirroring of sorts rehearses quite closely the process of punning (in fact. but observes a poststructuralist breaking down of the integrity of these notes when more contemporary theorists have demonstrated how these selfsame crises prove to be the very basis of these critics’ expertise. Lennon. It also questions the necessity of alluding. He begins by defining the “echoic allusion” as the same as the “literary allusion”.Luarca 5 problems of modernity suggested by the poem. it also produces humor through instances of incongruity. the Latin allusio actually meant “word-play”. Paul. and the word “allusion” was understood as such during the Renaissance period).

Smith’s procedure then incidentally validates the role of the note as “proper repository . "The Waste Land in the Light of T. Shakespeare. This project by Smith takes to heart Eliot’s attempt at “explanation” in his endnotes to The Waste Land. and attempts to exhume this cohesion from the rubble of Eliot’s “heap of broken images” by extrapolating from a wide array of possible sources.g. and offers an interpretation of the poem in view of these identified intertexts. 67-98. Sangi and Khan assert the unity of Eliot’s poem and the notes appended to it by explicating how the notes function as Eliot’s own demonstration of his critical theories regarding tradition. such as those intimated already in Eliot’s own endnotes (e. Chicago: University of Chicago.S. and Farhan Ebadat Yar Khan. Smith assumes a cohesive narrative at the heart of the postmodernist poem. "Memory and Desire: The Waste Land. and contributing to the historical narrative initiated by a perceived unified tradition. then.12 (2011): 427-41. Dante. As per Dworkin. Muhammad Khan. Grover. the Bible. Smith’s book contains arguably the most exhaustive study of The Waste Land’s many possible sources and references. etc. Print. Print. Smith speaks in terms of “themes”. the Upanishads. S. substantiate this claim to membership with tradition." Language in India 11. Eliot defines the poet as one who acknowledges the literary heritage developed by earlier poets before him. Smith. 1971.) and Smith’s own conjectures. Interestingly. Eliot’s notes. and thus is a very handy elaboration of Eliot’s own sparse notes. Eliot's Poetry and Plays. Eliot's Concept of Tradition.Luarca 6 Sangi." T. and quite confidently ties up Eliot’s disjointed poetics by assertions made credible by Smith’s intensive familiarity with these source texts.

Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. Unger suggests reading the long poem as an “arrangement of fragments”.Luarca 7 for material beyond the writer's personal authority”. paratextual guide to signification. Hinging his whole analysis on the poem’s design as “a heap of broken images”. but rather simply terminate themselves. Unger. Unger sweeps through the whole Eliotic canon in order to identify the eponymous “patterns” that abound throughout Eliot’s poetry and plays. and antiquated sources mentioned in Eliot’s endnotes. suggesting that Eliot as a poet signifies himself through the intertextuality of all his poems and plays. Unger operates like a puzzle solver. from intertextual references. objectivity. This book treats Eliot’s poetry like hyperlinks leading to one another. more interestingly. More of a scholar than a critic. self-defining dynamic between the seeming erudition of allusions. With regard to The Waste Land. and bolsters up the notion that Eliot’s footnoting corresponds to the poem’s literary historicity. and how these “explanations” pinpoint not to an external. Moments and Patterns. canonical. and even direct revelations by the poet as to the origin of certain lines. and may account for how Eliot necessitates his footnoting not for purposes of elucidation. citing the free-flowing fade-ins and -outs of numerous poetic voices and personas all climaxing to inconclusive endings that refuse to clarify their subject(s). . but rather to an internal logic that manages to encompass even the vague. deducing meaning and interpretation through Eliot’s tendency to repeat details. 1967. and integrity. Leonard. drawing both from biographical details of the poet and. Print. quotations. but rather a continuation of his “hyperlink” style – a strange.