Chapter 1 – Rate of Reactions List of PEKA experiments

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1. Average rate of reaction and instantaneous rate of reaction 2. Effect of surface area on the rate of reaction 3. Effect of concentration on the rate of reaction 4. Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction 5. Effect of cata !st on the rate of reaction ". Effect of the amount of cata !st on the rate of reaction #um$er La$orator! %or& 1.2 Pg. 3 'it e Average rate of reaction and instantaneous rate of reaction Aim 'o determine the average rate of reaction and the instantaneous rate of reaction Apparatus  5( cm3 $ea&er  'est tu$e  )patu a *ateria  *ar$ e chip  2.( mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid ,-. /  (.1 mo dm+3 sodium thiosu phate0 #a2)213so ution  1.( mo dm+3 ead,22/ nitrate so ution . #um$er Pg. 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Experiment 1.1 " Effect of surface area on the rate of reaction 'o investigate the effect of tota surface area of the reactant on the rate of reaction -o3 does the tota exposed surface area of a so id reactant affect the rate of reaction4 %hen the tota surface area of mar$ e chips increases0 the rate of reaction increases. 5 'he sma er the si6e of the reactant partic es0 that is0 the arger the tota surface area of the reactant partic es0 the higher the rate of reaction.  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  15( cm3 conica f as&  )topper 3ith de iver! tu$e  7asin  7urette  )patu a  E ectronic $a ance  )top3atch

Apparatus

( mo dm+3 su phuric acid  . :or the graph of the vo ume of gas re eased against time0 the curve 3ith higher initia gradient indicates a higher initia rate of reaction.  2.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: *ass of mar$ e chips0 vo ume and concentration of h!droch oric acid . 'ota vo ume of reactants 9ate of reaction is inverse ! proportiona to the time ta&en for the the mar& <=> to disappear from sight Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es 1perationa . )ma er mar$ e chips have a arger tota surface area than arger mar$ e chips of the same mass. /0 temperature  1.2 mo dm+3 sodium thiosu phate so ution  1.efinition .  15( cm3 conica f as&  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  1( cm3 measuring c! inder  )top3atch  (.efinition (.     .3 13 .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: .5 mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid . #um$er Pg.oncentration0 vo ume and initia temperature of su phuric acid0 -2)14.oes high concentration of sodium thiosu phate #a2)213 so ution decrease the time ta&en for the mar& <=> to disappear from sight4 %hen the concentration of sodium thiosu phate0 #a2)213 so ution increases0 the rate of reaction increases.2 1( Effect of concentration on the rate of reaction 'o investigate the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction -o3 does the concentration of a reactant affect the rate of reaction4 5 . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Experiment 1.-.-. Experiment 1.isti ed 3ater  %hite paper mar&ed <=> at the centre  *anipu ated varia$ e: . 5 'he higher the concentration of sodium thiosu phate #a2)213 so ution0 the shorter the time ta&en for the mar& <=> to disappear from sight. / 2 g arge mar$ e chips 2 g sma mar$ e chips %ater  *anipu ated varia$ e: 'ota surface area of mar$ e chips  9esponding varia$ e: 9ate of reaction  .*ateria 8aria$ es 1perationa .oncentration of sodium thiosu phate0 #a2)213 so ution  9esponding varia$ e: 9ate of reaction  . #um$er Pg.

efinition . #um$er Pg.  15( cm3 conica f as&  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  1( cm3 measuring c! inder  )top3atch  'hermometer  7unsen $urner  'ripod stand  %ire gau6e  (.( g *anganese.( mo dm+3 su phuric acid  %hite paper mar&ed <=> at the centre  *anipu ated varia$ e: 'emperature of sodium thiosu phate0 #a2)213 so ution  9esponding varia$ e: 'he time ta&en for the cross <=> to disappear  . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es Experiment 1.28/ oxide po3der  *anipu ated varia$ e: Presence or a$sence of a cata !st  9esponding varia$ e: 'he re ease of ox!gen gas 5 9ate of reaction . 5 *anganese.4 15 Effect of cata !st on the rate of reaction 'o investigate the effect of a cata !st on the rate of reaction -o3 does a cata !st affect the rate of reaction4 5 -o3 do cata !sts affect the rate of decomposition of h!drogen peroxide4 'he presence of a cata !st increases the rate of reaction.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: vo ume and concentration of sodium thiosu phate #a2)213so ution0 vo ume and concentration of su phuric acid0 si6e of conica f as& 9ate of reaction is inverse ! proportiona to the time ta&en for the mar& <=> to disappear from sight *ateria 8aria$ es 1perationa .  'est tu$e  'est tu$e rac&  )patu a  %ooden sp inter  9etort stand and c amp  1( cm3 measuring c! inder  E ectronic $a ance  %eighing $ott e  2(+vo ume h!drogen peroxide0 -212 so ution  1.28/ oxide increases the rate of decomposition of h!drogen peroxide.2 mo dm+3 sodium thiosu phate so ution  1.'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus Effect of temperature on the rate of reaction 'o investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction -o3 does temperature affect the rate of reaction4 An increase in temperature 3i increase the rate of reaction.

22/ to iron.5 1? Effect of the amount of cata !st on the rate of reaction 'o investigate the effect of the amount of cata !st on the rate of reaction.hange of iron.28/ oxide po3der  *anipu ated varia$ e: amount 5 mass of cata !st  9esponding varia$ e: 9ate of reaction  .isp acement of meta s .efinition . -o3 does the amount of a cata !st affect the rate of reaction4 5 .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume and concentration of h!drogen peroxide .  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  15( cm3 conica f as&  )topper 3ith de iver! tu$e  7urette  9etort stand and c amp  7asin  )top3atch  E ectronic $a ance  )patu a  %eighing $ott e  7ea&ers  2+vo ume h!drogen peroxide so ution  1.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 'emperature0 vo ume and concentration of h!drogen peroxide so ution 'he curves for the graph of vo ume of gas i$erated against time a higher gradient indicated a higher rate of reaction.  'he decomposition of h!drogen peroxide is s o3 if the g o3ing 3ooden sp inter g o3s dim ! and s o3 !.  .-212/ so ution0 temperature  'he decomposition of h!drogen peroxide is fast if the g o3ing 3ooden sp inter re&ind es $right ! and rapid !.1perationa . 9edox reaction as oss or gain of ox!gen 2. .oes higher amount of cata !sts increases the rate of reaction4 %hen the amount of a cata !st used increases0 the rate of reaction increases. 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus Experiment 1. .( g manganese. 5 'he higher the amount of the cata !sts0 the higher the rate of reaction. #um$er Pg. *ateria 8aria$ es 1perationa .efinition Chapter 3 – Oxidation and Reduction List of PEKA experiments: 1.222/ ions and vice versa 3.

. Effect of other meta s on rusting ?.om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  'o investigate redox reaction in the com$ustion of meta in ox!gen gas0 12  7.om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  . 9eactivit! of meta s 3ith ox!gen @.emonstration $! teacher/ 1(.22/ .7/ -eating car$on dioxide 3ith meta s A. -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on  'o investigate redox reaction in the heating of meta oxide 3ith car$on A. .opper.om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  A pair of tongs  7unsen $urner   . -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on  Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus .222/ oxide and ead. 1xidation and reduction in vo taic ce 3ith a sa t $ridge 13. 1xidation and reduction in e ectro !tic ce s 11. -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on 2n the reaction $et3een meta oxide and car$on0 3hich reagent undergoes oxidation and 3hich reagent undergoes reduction4 A.1 "? 9edox reaction as oss or gain of ox!gen 'o investigate oxidation and reduction  A. .ar$on undergoes oxidation to form car$on dioxide gas .isp acement of ha ogens 5. #um$er Pg.22/ oxide0 iron. 'it e Aim La$orator! %or& 3. 'he position of h!drogen in the reactivit! series of meta s . 1xidation and reduction in chemica ce s 12.2/ . .om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  2n the reaction $et3een meta s in ox!gen0 3hich reagent undergoes oxidation and 3hich reagent undergoes reduction4 7. .4.22/ oxide undergo reduction to form copper0 iron and ead respective ! A. 'ransfer of e ectrons at a distance ".A/ 'he position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s 3ith ox!gen .22/ 1x!gen gas undergoes reduction to form oxide ion0 12+ 7. .2/ *agnesium undergoes oxidation to form magnesium ion0 *g2B  . .

22/ ions0 :e2B/  .222/ ions0 :e3B and vice versa . -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on      *anipu ated varia$ e: '!pe of meta oxide 9esponding varia$ e: 9eaction product .5 mo dm+3 fresh ! prepared iron.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 1x!gen gas and the conditions of reaction 7.so ution Apparatus *ateria .ruci$ e Pipe+c a! triang e 'ripod stand 7unsen $urner )patu a A.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: .ar$on and the conditions of reaction .2 ?1 .22/ oxide po3der 5 2ron.om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  5cm magnesium ri$$on  )andpaper  Cas Dar containing ox!gen 7.22/ oxide po3der A.om$ustion of meta in ox!gen  *anipu ated varia$ e: '!pe of meta  9esponding varia$ e: 9eaction product  .222/ ions and vice versa 'o investigate oxidation and reduction in the change of iron. 'it e Aim La$orator! %or& 3. #um$er Pg.22/ su phate0 :e)14 so ution  (.)14/3so ution  7romine 3ater  Einc po3der  :i ter paper . .222/ ions0 :e3B to iron.( mo dm+3 sodium h!droxide0 #a1. -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on .ar$on po3der .change of iron.ropper  )patu a  'est tu$e  'est tu$e ho der  'est tu$e rac&  7unsen $urner  :i ter funne  *easuring c! inder  (.22/ ions0 :e2B to iron. -eating of meta oxide 3ith car$on      *ateria 8aria$ es .222/ oxide po3der 5 Lead.222/ su phate0 :e2.5 mo dm+3 iron. .22/ to iron.7.hange of iron.1 piece/  2.opper.

#um$er Pg.22/ su phate  (.5 mo dm+3 potassium ch orine0 K.5 mo dm+3 si ver nitrate  (.4 ?4 .isp acement of meta s 'o investigate oxidation and reduction in the disp acement of meta s from their sa t so utions -o3 does redox reaction occur in a disp acement reaction in 3hich a meta is disp aced from its sa t so ution4  .5 mo dm+3 potassium hexac!noferrate.5 mo dm+3 copper.2/ 'he meta that acts as a reducing agent 3i form meta ion  .3 ?3 .h orine 3ater  7romine 3ater  2odine 3ater  (.5 mo dm+3 potassium $romine0 K7r so ution ..5 mo dm+3 magnesium su phate  *anipu ated varia$ e: A pair of meta s and sa t so utions  9esponding varia$ e: Precipitation of meta and co our changes in the so utions  . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis La$orator! %or& 3. so ution  (.22/ 'he meta ion that acts as an oxidising agent 3i $e precipated as meta  'est tu$es  'est tu$e rac&  Einc strip  .isp acement of ha ogens 'o investigate oxidation and reduction in the disp acement of ha ogen from its ha ide so ution -o3 do redox reactions occur in disp acement reactions $et3een ha ogens and aFueous so utions of ha ide ions4 A more reactive ha ogen disp ace a ess reactive ha ogen from an aFueous so utions of its ha ide ions  'est tu$es  'est tu$e rac&  .222/0 K3:e.#/" so ution .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o umes and concentrations of so utions containing the meta ions Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es .opper strip  *agnesium ri$$on  (. 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus *ateria La$orator! %or& 3. #um$er Pg. (.

3  . #um$er Pg.-3.2 mo dm+3 acidified potassium manganate.onnecting 3ire 3ith crocodi e c ips  Craphite e ectrode  9etort stand and c amp  'est tu$e  . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement Experiment 3.5 mo dm+3 fresh ! prepared iron.1 @1 Effect of other meta s on rusting 'o investigate the effect of other meta s on rusting -o3 do different t!pes of meta s in contact 3ith iron affect rusting4 .r21? so ution  7romine 3ater  (.22/ su phate0 :e)14 so ution  (.82/0 K2.ropper 5 g ass tu$e  )topper 3ith 1 ho e  2.5 ?? 'ransfer of e ectrons at a distance 'o investigate oxidation and reduction in the transfer of e ectrons at a distance -o3 do redox reactions occur in disp acement reactions $et3een ha ogens and aFueous so utions of ha ide ions4 A more reactive ha ogen disp ace a ess reactive ha ogen from an aFueous so ution of its ha ide ions  G+tu$e  Ca vanometer  .-3.5 mo dm+3 potassium iodine0 K2 so ution 10101+tricho oethane0 .8aria$ es (.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume of reaction mixture   ..ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume of reaction mixture *ateria 8aria$ es .2 mo dm+3 acidified potassium dichromate.5 mo dm+3 potassium iodide0 K2 so ution  (..hanges in co our in 10101+trich oroethana0 . #um$er Pg.hanges in co our in 10101+trich oroethane0 .-3. 3  *anipu ated varia$ e: A pair of ha ogens and their ha ide ions  9esponding varia$ e: .2 mo dm+3 potassium thioc!anate0 K).( mo dm+3 su phuric acid0 -2)14  (. 'it e Aim Pro$ em statement -!pothesis Apparatus La$orator! %or& 3.822/0 K*n14 so ution  (.# so ution  1H starch so ution  *anipu ated varia$ e: A pair of ha ogen and their ha ide ions  9esponding varia$ e: .. 3  .

%hen a ess e ectropositive meta is in contact 3ith iron0 the meta speeds up rusting  'est tu$e  'est tu$e rac&  2ron nai  *agnesium ri$$on  .efinition .ifferent t!pes of meta s  9esponding varia$ e: the $rightness of the f ame *ateria 8aria$ es .822/0 K*n14  As$estos paper  C ass 3oo  *anipu ated varia$ e: .ifferent t!pes of meta s  9esponding varia$ e: Presence of co ouration 5 2ntensit! of dar& $ ue co ouration 5 9usting of iron  ..22/ 'o arrange meta s in terms of their reactivit! 3ith ox!gen -o3 do different t!pes of meta s react 3ith ox!gen4 'he more reactive meta react more vigorous ! 3ith ox!gen  7oi ing tu$e  9etort stand and c amp  7unsen $urner  )patu a  :orceps  *agnesium po3der  . ean iron nai s0 medium in 3hich the iron nai s are &ept 5 hot De ! so ution0 temperature 7 ue co ouration indicates rusting of iron La$orator! %or& 3.2/ 'o investigate the reactivit! of meta s 3ith ox!gen  .opper strip  Einc strip  'in strip  -ot De ! so ution 3ith a itt e potassium hexac!anoferrate.#/" so ution and pheno phtha ein  )andpaper  *anipu ated varia$ e: '!pes of meta s that are in contact 3ith iron 5 ." @5 9eactivit! of meta s 3ith ox!gen  . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus %hen a more e ectropositive meta is in contact 3ith iron0 the meta inhi$its rusting. #um$er Pg.opper po3der  2ron fi ings  Lead po3der  Einc po3der  )o id potassium manganate.-!pothesis Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es 1perationa .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: .222/0 K3:e.

'he position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s 3ith ox!gen  7.? @?  A. -eating car$on dioxide 3ith meta s    Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus *ateria Cas Dar Cas Dar cover A pair of tongs A.22/ A reaction not occur if car$on is ess reactive than the meta .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: .    7. -eating car$on dioxide 3ith meta s  A. 'o determine the position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s  7.22/ oxide0 ..ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 'he amount of the meta and potassium manganate. 'he position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s 3ith ox!gen  .2/ A reaction occur if car$on is more reactive than the meta . #um$er Pg. -eating car$on dioxide 3ith meta s       *agnesium ri$$on Cas Dar fi ed 3ith car$on dioxide gas0 .ruci$ e 5 Porce ain dish 5 As$estos paper  )patu a  7unsen $urner  Pipe+c a! triang e  'ripod stand 7. 'o determine the a$i it! of a meta to remove ox!gen from car$on dioxide.822/ po3der  .222/ . 'it e Aim La$orator! %or& 3.  *anipu ated varia$ e: '!pe of meta .u1  )o id magnesium oxide0 *g1  )o id a uminium oxide0 A 213  )o id 6inc oxide0 En1 7.ar$on po3der 8aria$ es A. -o3 is the position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s determined4 .12 )andpaper *anipu ated varia$ e: '!pe of meta oxide 9esponding varia$ e: 2ntensit! of f ame . 'he position of car$on in the reactivit! series of meta s 3ith ox!gen  .ar$on po3der  )o id copper.ar$on is p aced $et3een a uminium and 6inc in the reactivit! series of meta s A.

'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus La$orator! %or& 30@ @A 'he position of h!drogen in the reactivit! series of meta s .e iver! tu$e  7unsen $urner  9etort stand and c amps  )topper 3ith 1 ho e  )topper 3ith 2 ho es  2.A A5 1xidation and reduction in e ectro !tic ce s 'o investigate oxidation and reduction in e ectro !tic ce sA. E ectro !tic ce invo ving aFueous e ectro !te A.22/ oxide  )o id 6inc oxide  )o id ead.emonstration $! teacher/ 'o determine the position of h!drogen in the reactivit! series of meta s -o3 is the position of h!drogen in the reactivit! series of meta s determined4 -!drogen is p aced $et3een 6inc and iron in the reactivit! series of meta s  .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: . #um$er Pg.222/ oxide  Anh!drous ca cium ch oride  *anipu ated varia$ e: .22/ su phate0 . E ectro !tic ce invo ving mo ten e ectro !te  . #um$er Pg.22/ oxide  )o id iron.9esponding varia$ e: 2ntensit! of f ame ..ifferent t!pes of meta oxides  9esponding varia$ e: 2ntensit! of f ame. 'it e Aim Apparatus La$orator! %or& 3.( mo dm+3 copper.ard$oard  7atter! .ar$on dioxide gas and the conditions of reaction   .u)14 so ution  Einc granu es  )o id copper.ruci$ e  . E ectro !tic ce invo ving mo ten e ectro !te7.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: -!drogen gas and the conditions of reaction *ateria 8aria$ es .( mo dm+3 su phuric acid0 -2)14  1.om$ustion tu$e  Porce ain dish  : at+$ottomed f as&  G+tu$e  'hist e funne  .

#um$er Pg. 'it e Aim Apparatus La$orator! %or& 3. E ectro !tic ce invo ving aFueous e ectro !te           *ateria 7atter! .onnecting 3ire 3ith crocodi e c ips E ectro !tic ce . E ectro !tic ce invo ving aFueous e ectro !te               (.5 mo dm+3 potassium iodide0 K2 so ution )tarch so ution )andpaper %ooden sp inter .ar$on e ectrode )3itch Ammeter Light $u $ A pair of tongs )patu a 7.( mo dm+3 copper.1( A? 1xidation and reduction in chemica ce s 'o investigate the oxidation and reduction in chemica ce s  Porous pot  8o tmeter  .onnecting 3ire 3ith crocodi e c ips 'ripod stand 7unsen $urner Pipe+c a! triang e .ar$on e ectrode )3itch Ammeter Light $u $ )ma test tu$e 7ea&er A pair of tongs A.22/ su phate0 .22/ $romide0 P$7r2 7.opper strip  Einc strip  )andpaper *ateria .( mo dm+3 6inc su phate En)14 so ution  ..u)14 so ution  1. E ectro !tic ce invo ving mo ten e ectro !te  )o id ead.onnecting 3ires 3ith crocodi e c ips  7ea&er  *easuring c! inder  1.

( mo dm+3 iron.( mo dm+3 copper. 'it e Aim Apparatus La$orator! %or& 3. #um$er Pg. -eat of neutra isation 5.u)14 so ution  1.)imi ar experiment/ A? 1xidation and reduction in vo taic ce 3ith a sa t $ridge 'o investigate the oxidation and reduction in chemica ce s  8o tmeter  . 1(1 'it e Exothermic and endothermic reactions Aim 'o identif! an exothermic or endothermic reaction Pro$ em -o3 to identif! exothermic or endothermic reactions4 )tatement -!pothesis Exothermic reaction occurs 3hen the temperature of the reaction mixture .. -eat of disp acement 4.22/ su phate :e)14 so ution  . so ution  :i ter paper strip *ateria Chapter 4 – Thermochemistry List of PEKA experiments: 1. -eat of neutra isation ?.22/ nitrate P$.#13/2 so ution  1.onnecting 3ires 3ith crocodi e c ips  1(( cm3 $ea&ers  *easuring c! inder  1. Exothermic and endothermic reactions 2. -eat of neutra isation of acids and a &a is of different strength ". -eats of com$ustion for a coho s #um$er La$orator! %or& 4.opper p ate  Einc p ate  Lead p ate  2ron nai  )andpaper  )aturated potassium ch oride0 K.( mo dm+3 ead.1 Pg.( mo dm+3 6inc su phate En)14 so ution  1. -eat of precipitation 3.22/ su phate0 .1( .

5 mo dm+3 sodium ch oride so ution *ateria KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK #um$er Pg. thermometer  C ass rod  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  (. 'it e Aim Apparatus La$orator! %or& 4.22/ su phate so ution  Einc po3er *ateria KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK .2 1(4 -eat of precipitation 'o determine the heat of precipitation of si ver ch oride0 Ag.  )o id ammonium nitrate0 #-4#13  )o id ammonium su phate0 .Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es increases. thermometer  )patu a  C ass rod  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  )o id sodium h!drogen car$onate0 #a-.  P astic cup 3ith cover 5 Po !st!rene cup  ( I 11(J.#-4/2)14  2.  P astic cup 3ith cover 5 Po !st!rene cup  ( I 11(J.  .Endothermic reaction occurs 3hen the temperature of the reaction mixture decreases. 'it e Aim Apparatus La$orator! %or& 4.isti ed 3ater  *anipu ated varia$ e: Pairs of reactants  9esponding varia$ e: 'he temperature change in the reaction mixture  .13  )o id sodium h!droxide0 #a1 )o id ammonium ch oride0 #-4.5 mo dm+3 si ver nitrate so ution  (. thermometer  C ass rod  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  (.( mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid0 -.3 1(" -eat of disp acement 'o determine the heat of disp acement of copper  P astic cup 3ith cover 5 Po !st!rene cup  ( I 11(J.5 mo dm+3 copper.ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: '!pes of container0 vo ume of so ution or 3ater KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK #um$er Pg.

so ution  2. 'it e Aim La$orator! %or& 4.-3. and sodium h!droxide .  2.so ution  2.( mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid0 -.( mo dm+3 ethanoic acid0 . 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis La$orator! %or& 4.( mo dm+3 potassium h!droxide0 K1.( mo dm+3 ammonia0 #-3 so ution  *anipu ated varia$ e: .strong acid/0 -. Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK #um$er Pg.( mo dm+3 sodium h!droxide0 #a1.( mo dm+3 nitric acid0 -#13  2.so ution KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK #um$er Pg. thermometer  C ass rod  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  2.#um$er Pg.( mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid0 -.11 2.4 1(@ -eat of neutra isation 'o determine the heats of neutra isation $et3een strong acids and strong a &a is  P astic cup 3ith cover 5 Po !st!rene cup  ( I 11(J.  2.5 1(A -eat of neutra isation of acids and a &a is of different strength 'o determine and compare the heats of neutra isation $et3een acids and a &a is of different strength -o3 do the heat of neutra isation for reactions $et3een acids and a &a is of different strength4 'he va ues of heat of neutra isation for reactions $et3een strong acids and strong a &a is are higher than that of reactions $et3een strong acids and 3ea& a &a is 5 3ea& acids and strong a &a is or 3ea& acids and 3ea& a &a is.strong ." 11( -eat of neutra isation 'o determine and compare the heats of neutra isation $et3een:  -!droch oric acid .( mo dm+3 sodium h!droxide0 #a1. thermometer  C ass rod  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  2.ifferent strength of acids and a &a is  9esponding varia$ e: 'he va ue of heat of neutra isation  .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume and concentration of acids used0 vo ume and concentration of a &a is used. 'it e Aim Apparatus *ateria La$orator! %or& 4.  P astic cup 3ith cover 5 Po !st!rene cup  ( I 11(J.

so ution  Ethanoic acid .11 1.ifferent t!pes of acids and $ases  9esponding varia$ e: -eat of neutra isation  .( mo dm+3 ammonia0 #-3 so ution  *anipu ated varia$ e: .oes a coho 3ith a higher num$er of car$on atoms per mo ecu e have a higher heat of com$ustion4 'he higher the num$er of car$on atoms in the a coho mo ecu es0 the higher is the heat of com$ustion.omputer interface  )top3atch  1.opper can  'hermometer  C ass rod 5 )tirrer  *easuring c! inder .3ea& $ase/0 #-3 so ution  Ethanoic acid .  5( cm3 $urette  25.Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis $ase/0 #a1.so ution  1.so ution  -!droch oric acid .strong $ase/0 #a1.( cm3 pipette  Pipette fi er  9etort stand and c amps  P astic cup 5 Po !st!rene cup  25( cm3 $ea&er  *agnetic stirrer  *agnetic stir $ar  'emperature sensor  .-3.omputer  .( mo dm+3 sodium h!droxide0 #a1.11.strong acid/0 -. 'it e Aim Pro$ em )tatement -!pothesis Apparatus Experiment 4.3ea& $ase/0 #-3 so ution -o3 are the heats of neutra isation determined and compared4 'he heat of neutra isation $et3een h!droch oric acid and sodium h!droxide is higher than the heat of neutra isation $et3een ethanoic acid and ammonia so ution.and ammonia.3ea& acid/0 .  1. and ammonia .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume and concentration of acid and a &a i used Apparatus *ateria 8aria$ es KKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKKK #um$er Pg.11.( mo dm+3 h!droch oric acid0 -.3ea& acid/0 .1 112 -eats of com$ustion for a coho s 'o determine the heats of com$ustion for a coho s .-3.  .and sodium h!droxide .-3.( mo dm+3 ethanoic acid0 .

ca orimeter/      Chapter 5 – Chemicals for Consumers List of PEKA experiments: 1.( mo dm+3 sodium h!droxide0 #a1. )oap preparation process #um$er La$orator! %or& 5.1 Pg.*ateria 8aria$ es 'ripod stand )pirit amp %ooden $ oc& %eighing $a ance %ind shie d 5 As$estos screen  *ethano  Ethano  Propano 5 Prop+1+o  7utano 5 7ut+1+o  %ater  *anipu ated varia$ e: .ifferent t!pes of a coho s  9esponding varia$ e: -eat of com$ustion of a coho  .ontro ed 5 :ixed varia$ e: 8o ume of 3ater and copper can 5 meta container . 11? 'it e )oap preparation process Aim 'o prepare soap using the saponification process Apparatus  25( cm3 $ea&ers  5( cm3 measuring c! inder  )patu a  C ass rod  :i ter funne  %ire gau6e  'ripod stand  7unsen $urner  %ash $ott e  'est tu$e *ateria  Pa m oi  5.isti ed 3ater .so ution  )odium ch oride po3der  :i ter paper .3 pieces/  .

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