Design Philosophy

Class Objectives
• Clear understanding of design, analysis, and validation requirements for aircraft structures • Exposure to Structures Engineering processes and tools

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

4-2

Lifetime Safety Cycle

• Manufacturer • Operator • Civil aviation authorities
Boeing design requirements Regulatory requirements

Delivery

Design
• Operate • Maintain

Produce

Validate and certify

In-service operation

Continuous feedback of information

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

4-3

Safety Wheel
Design requirements and objectives

Typical safety subject

Final drawings

Federal Aviation Regulation standards

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures

4-4

Sources of Design Criteria

Airlines

Boeing

Regulatory agencies (including FAA)
Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures
4-5

test and continued verification Regulatory actions Airworthiness authorities Maintenance and inspection Operators 4-6 Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures .Safety Requires Diligent Performance by All Participants Manufacturers Design analysis.

Principal Guidance Documents Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-7 .

Structural Design Criteria Consist of Ten Major Elements Design loads Environment/ Discrete events Maintainability • Repairability • Inspectability Material/Fastener Stiffness and flutter Producibility Crashworthiness Structures Design Criteria Static strength Durability • Fatigue • Corrosion Damage Tolerance/ Residual Strength/ Fail Safety/Safe Life Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-8 .

Loads Are the Foundation of Airplane Design Design loads Ultimate loads Limit loads Operating loads Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-9 .

Center of Gravity/Gross Weight Envelopes Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-10 .

0 F Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-11 .Design Loads Are Based on Load Factors 3 C C L max Flaps up n = 2.0 A n = 2.5 D L max 2 Flaps down Limit 1 load factor .n V 0 S V F Airspeed – knots V C V D E -1 H n = -1.

Flight Profile Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-12 .

Operating Loads Consist of Random Cycles Air Ground Ground Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-13 .

Boeing Structural Aluminum Alloy Improvements Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-14 .

Material/Process Properties Checklist .Metals Materials/Processes Material specification Producibility Forming Static Tension Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Fatigue crack growth rate Residual strength Air Environment KIC KA KISCC Process specification Corrosion property Repair specification Machining Trimming Joining Assembly Chemical processing Real time process Compression Shear Bearing Buckling Crippling Joint Environmental factors Fatigue stength Stress corrosion Incidental damage Open hole Joints Finish Fatigue factors Environment Safety Inspection Disposal Cleaning Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-15 .

Composites Materials/Processes Material specification Process specification Repair specification Reliability Layup Cure Handling Finishing Machining Joining Assembly Real time process control Chemical safety Inspection Disposal Static Laminate Part specific layup Joint Interlaminar shear Crippling Environment factors Sandwich Residual strength Damage growth Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Damage tolerance Delamination Impact Notch Delamination Impact Notch Durability Post impact Open hole Bearing Environment factors Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-16 .Material/Process Properties Checklist .

ground vibration. Analytical approach • Unsteady aerodynamics and flutter finite element component and airplane analyses are conducted. and flight tests up to Va/Md. Validation • Analysis is verified by windtunnel models.Aircraft Must Be Free From Flutter and Service Vibration Design requirement • Aircraft is designed to be flutter free up to 1. Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-17 .15 times maximum design dive speed envelope (Vd/Md) up to Mach 1.

and destruction tests. Analytical approach • Margins of safety are computed for all members based on maximum stresses and structural allowables to verify designs. Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-18 . Validation • Design is validated by limit loads. ultimate loads.Structure Must Have Adequate Static Strength Design requirements • Structure must remain elastic up to limit loads • Structure must carry ultimate loads.

Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-19 .

developed from finite-element analysis or traditional procedures F -1 MS = f max A B Typical Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-20 .Static Margins of Safety (MS) Are Computed Based on Maximum Applied and Allowable Stresses and Structural Allowables Allowable stress or strain. material or structural allowables Maximum applied stress or strain.

Aircraft Are Designed for 30 Years of Service Design requirements • Structure must meet or exceed the design service objective with minimum service corrosion or cracking Analytical approach • Margins of safety are computed for all members based on maximum and allowable operating stresses Validation • Panel. and full scale airplane testing Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-21 . component.

000 1.489 Minimum service design objectives Hours 60.000 87.100 27.700 97.200 79.585 20.700 69.300 93.000 High time airplanes Flights 39.000 1.700 119.100 35.000 16.000 493 75.600 Hours 98.822 75.Economic and Market Conditions Result in Use of Airplanes Beyond Original Economic Design Life Objectives Boeing Commercial Jet Fleet Summary October 31.500 4-22 Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures .000 74.000 4.336 50.000 1.000 50.400 40.800 45.000 60.000 153 60.000 60. 2004 Data 747 727 707 1955 720 1960 1965 737 1970 1975 767 777 757 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Model 707 720 727 737 747 757 767 777 737NG Total airplanes Flights 20.000 50.100 38.300 39.000 735 30.700 99.000 60.000 51.040 50.000 1.000 51.000 916 40.300 18.000 50.

long operating flight profiles Standardized damage model based on rating system Good detail Standardized load conditions Quantitative scale Damage analysis Required quality Margin Actual quality Options 1 2 Based on test or service experience Calculated detail quality based on • Material • Fastener fit • Load transfer • Stress concentration Life goal and desired reliability Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-23 .Configuration Capability Must Meet Operating Requirement Short. medium.

Fatigue Margins of Safety Are Computed Based on the Fatigue Allowables and Maximum GAG Stresses Air Ground Ground Allowable ground-air-ground stress Fmax -1 MS = f max Actual ground-air-ground stress S alt N Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-24 .

737.10-Year Comparison of Service Bulletin LaborHours (727. and 757) Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-25 .

Comparison of 767 and 777 Fatigue Test Findings Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-26 .

Maintenance • Specified preventive maintenance must be performed.Aircraft Are Designed for Corrosion Prevention Design requirement • The design objective is to be free from significant corrosion during the operational life of the airplane. Validation • Operator feedback is used to improve prevention measures. Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-27 .

Design Features for Corrosion Prevention Good access Material selection Corrosion inhibitors Finishes Sealants Drainage Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-28 .

Comet Accident Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-29 .

707-300 Horizontal Stabilizer Rear Spar Failure Fatigue failure initiated at rear spar upper chord Rear spar attachment A Up Fwd Fwd Fail-Safe mid chord B Up A B Section A-A Section B-B Up Outbd Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-30 .

Safety Is the Most Important Goal Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-31 .

FAR 25. sufficient full scale fatigue test evidence must demonstrate that WFD will not occur within DSO (no airplane may be operated beyond cycles equal to ½ the cycles on fatigue test article until testing is completed).571(b) or (c) (c) Fail safe strength “It must be shown by analysis. that catastrophic failure or excessive deformation. are not probable after fatigue or obvious partial failoure of a single PSE. or both. or accidental damage. 25-45 (12/1/78) Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure Damage-tolerance and fatigue evaluation of structure 25-96 (4/30/98) Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-32 .571 Amendments Related to Fail Safety and Damage Tolerance Amendment Level and Date 25-0 (12/24/64) Title Fatigue evaluation of flight structure Summary of Changes to section 25. (b) Damage-tolerance (fail-safe) evaluation. tested. Initial flaw of maximum probable size from manufacturing defect or service induced damage used to set inspection thresholds. The residual strength evaluation must show that the remaining structure is able to withstand loads corresponding to…” (b) Damage-tolerance evaluation. that could adversely affect the flight characteristics of the airplane. corrosion. “The evaluation must include a determination of the probably locations and modes of damage due to fatigue.

Monolithic Structure is Used to Improve Producibility Outer skin 2024-T3 Clad Cast Framework D357.0-T6 Aluminum Per BMS 7-330 737-600/700/800 Airstair Door Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-33 .

Two-Bay Crack in the Wing Lower Surface Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-34 .

Example of Safe Fuselage Decompression Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-35 .

Example of Save Wing Penetrations Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-36 .

Damage Tolerance Regulation Comparison Analysis Residual strength Crack growth FAR 25.571 (after 1978) • Multiple active cracks • Extensive analysis required Inspection program • Based on service history • FAA air carrier approval • Related to structural damage characteristics and past service history • Initial FAA engineering and air carrier approval Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-37 .571 (before 1978) • Single element of obvious failure • No analysis required FAR 25.

Safety is Maintained by Damage-Tolerant / Fail-Safe Structures Damage detection and restoration Ultimate load capability required after damage detection Ultimate Structural strength Fail-safe requirement NDI detection period Operating loads Visual detection period Damage size Allowable damage Visual NDI Damage detection thresholds Service time Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-38 .

Analytical approach • Damage tolerance is verified by analytical assessment of damage growth. Validation • Damage tolerance is validated by panel and component tests. and surveillance. – – – – Residual strength Crack growth Qualification Inspection program Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-39 .Structure Must Be Damage Tolerant Design requirement • Structure must have capability to withstand damage until detected and repaired. residual strength.

Damage Detection Evaluation Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-40 .

Structural Classification and Damage Tolerance Requirements Structural category Other structure Secondary structure Required design attributes Design for loss of component or safe separation Design for faioure or partial failure of a principal structural element with continued structural integrity Inspection program matched to structural characteristics Design for conservative ratigue life (damage tolerant design is impractical) Analysis requirements Structural classification examples Flap track canoe fairings (safe separation or safe loss or segment) Wing fuel leaks Continued safe flight Damage obvious or malfunction evident • Residual strength Primary structure (Structurally significant items or principal structural elements) Damage detection by plannd inspection Safe life design • Residual strength • Crack growth • Inspection program Fatigue analysis verified by test All primary structure not included in categories and Landing gear structure Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-41 .

Residual Strength Versus Damage Size or Notch Length Ultimate strength Residual strength Limit strength 70% limit strength Damage size or notch length BVID VID Desirable source Large accidental damage Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-42 .

Shimming Etc. strength Toughness S-N/DaDT Corrosion Damage Tolerance.Probabilistic Life Cycle Design ($$) • Static/Ultimate Strength • Durability/Safe Life • Fail Safety/Damage Tolerance Probabilistic Risk Assessment • Certification Modulus Strength Load Ult. Maneuver Gust Thermal Payload Environment Fit-up stress Sensors Etc. Service Feedback Fleet Readiness • Inspection and Repair • Health Monitoring • Statistical Quality Control • Initial Defects Quantification Manufacturing ($$) Operation/ Maintenance ($$) Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-43 .

Local Versus Widespread MSD or MED Local damage Crack initiation Crack extension Llocal Multiple site damage (MSD) Maximum Lskin allowable skin damage Multiple element damage (MED) Maximum allowable damage Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-44 .

flight cycles Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-45 .Widespread Fatigue Damage Detection WFD detection Local damage period detection period Structural strength 1 Threshold Ultimate 2 Required residual strength Critical Normal inspection programs Special Inspections or actions Service period.

Aging Fleet Programs Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-46 .

Landing Gear is an Example of Safe-Life Structure Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-47 .

Airplane Designed to Survive Minor Crashes Rear spar Shear pins Landing gear beam Obstacle Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-48 .

Strut Design and Structural Fuses Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-49 .

Floor Structure is Often Designed by Crash Conditions Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-50 .

KBE Evolution and Implementation History Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-51 .

External Criteria That Affect the Design of the Structure Engine blade loss Bird strike Tire burst Tire tread Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-52 .

Fan Bladeout Test Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-53 .

Summary • Regulatory requirements have evolved over the years based on significant service and test experience • Validation and certification approach is primarily analytical supported by test evidence • Supporting evidence includes testing through a “building block” approach • The environmental effects are characterised by test and are accounted for in the analysis • Process and tools are continually improved to enhance accuracy and reduce design cost and cycle time Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-54 .

Appendix Design and Analysis of Aircraft Structures 4-55 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful