KC TUITION: 012 – 3877 265

Chapter Two: Nutrition 1. Energy needed by a person depends on: i) age ii) body size iii) gender iv) job/occupation v) climate vi) state of health 2. Eating too much will cause diabetes (sugar) & other health problems. But, eating too little will cause deficiency. 1 calorie = 4.2 Joule (only carbohydrates, proteins & fats produce energy) Class of food Carbohydrate Protein Fats • 4. Calorific value/kJ 17.2 22.2 38.5



Digestion: break down of large insoluble food molecules into smaller soluble molecules that can be readily absorbed by body Physical digestion: • Break down of food into smaller particle (in the form of bollus – ball shaped) mechanically (chew & chun) Chemical digestion: • Break down food substance by digestive enzymes Food passes along the alimentary canal by the process of peristalsis (contraction & relaxation of muscles).


Fats provides twice the energy as provided by carbohydrate

Calorific value: amount of heat released when 1 g of food substance burnt completely


Alimentary canal: Mouth Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum Small Intestine Rectum Anus Enzymes & corresponding actions: Secretion Saliva (alkaline) Gastric juice (acid) Bile Enzyme Salivary amylase Protease Action Starch maltose


Digestion place Mouth Stomach Let’s Test Yourself 2.2 1. Explain the difference in the diet of a growing child and an adult. 2. 3. What is calorific value of food? State the amount of servings recommended for a) fruits and vegetables b) rice and cereals. Duodenum (1st part of small intestine)

Pancreatic juice (By pancreas) (alkaline) Intestinal juice (alkaline)

Pancreatic amylase Protease Lipase Amylase Protease Lipase

Proteins polypeptides / peptones Emulsify fats Starch maltose Proteins polypeptides Fats fatty acids + glycerol Maltose glucose Polypeptides amino acids Fats fatty acids + glycerol

Small intestine

Prepared By: K.C. Ngu

Form 2: Chapter 2 – Week 10

Bile (secrete by liver. Cautions: • Enzymes perform the best at 37 o C (body temperature) • Duodenum does not secrete any enzymes. a) What is the role of bile in digestion? b) Name the organ that produces bile. brownish green liquid) neutralise the acid in stomach prepare alkaline medium for action of enzymes in pancreatic juice emulsify fats – break down large fat globule into tiny droplets 12. 2. Hydrochloric acid (in gastric juice – stomach) kill micro organisms in food prepare acidic medium for action of protease stop reaction of salivary amylase by neutralising the alkaline saliva 11. Class of food Carbohydrates Proteins Fats End product Glucose Amino acids Fatty acids + glycerol State (if any) the action of enzymes in the regions of the alimentary canal below. Large intestine: reabsorb water on undigested food A: C: E: G: I: Mouth Liver Duodenum Anus Pancreas B: D: F: H: J: Oesophagus Gall bladder Small intestine Large intestine Stomach 10. a) Mouth b) Stomach c) Large intestine Let’s Test Yourself 2. Digestive system: 14. Ngu Form 2: Chapter 2 – Week 10 .C.KC TUITION: 012 – 3877 265 9. it just receives enzymes from pancreas • Stomach only digest proteins into peptones • Mouth only digest starch into maltose • Digestion ends at small intestine 13.3 1. Prepared By: K. Complete the labels in the following diagram. store in gall bladder. End products: 3.

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