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Compressibility is the fractional change in volume of the fluid element per unit change in pressure. It is given by,

τ =−

1 dv v dp

Since the volume is reduced, dv is negative quantity. Compressibility is a property of the fluid. Liquids have very low values of compressibility (order of 10-10) whereas gases have high compressibility. (order of 10-5). Per unit mass,

τ=

1 dρ ρ dp

or dρ = ρ ⋅ τ ⋅ dp Now consider the fluid in motion. Such flows are initiated and maintained by forces on the fluid, usually created by or at least accompanied by changes in the pressure. High speed flows involve large pressure gradients. For a given change in dp, due to the flow, the resulting change in density will be small for liquids and large for gases. Therefore, for the flow of liquids, relatively large pressure gradients can create high velocities without change in density. Hence, such flows are usually assumed to be incompressible, where ρ is constant. For flow of gases with large value of compressibility, moderate to strong pressure gradients lead to substantial changes in the density. At the same time, such pressure gradients create large velocity changes in the gas. Such flows are called compressible flows, where ρ is variable. For gas velocities less than about 0.3 of the speed of sound, the associated pressure changes are small and even through compressibility is large for gases, dp may still be small enough to dictate a small dρ . So the low speed flow gases can be assumed to be incompressible.

If the density changes by 5 percent of more, the flow is considered to be compressible 2. Classify the flow based on Mach number. Subsonic flow: M < 1 at every point, and hence the flow velocity is everywhere less than the speed of sound. This flow is characterized by smooth streamlines and continuously varying properties. Here, the flow is forewarned by the presence of body. For airfoils in common use, if M<0.8, the flowfield is generally completely subsonic. Transonic flow: 0.8 < M < 1.2. If M remains subsonic, but is sufficiently near 1, the flow expansion over the top surface of the airfoil may result in locally supersonic regions. M < 1 but is high enough to produce a pocket of locally supersonic flow. This pocket terminates with a shock wave across which there is a discontinuous and sometimes rather severe change in flow properties. If M is slightly increased above unity, this shock pattern will move to the trailing edge of the airfoil, and a second shock called bow shock appears upstream of the leading edge. Supersonic flow: 1 < M < 5. M > 1 everywhere in the flowfield. The flow is not forewarned by the presence of the body. The flow is supersonic both upstream and downstream of the oplique shock. Hypersonic flow: M > 5. The temperature, pressure and density of the flow increase almost explosively across the shock. Oblique shock wave moves closer to the surface and the flowfield between the shock and the body becomes very hot- indeed hot enough to dissociate or even ionize the gas.

. A = A(x). (if the changes through the wave are strong. one dimensional flow equations. u = u(x). u = u(x). Write the steady.3. T = T(x) Example: Nozzle. What is one dimensional flow and quasi-one dimensional flow? One dimensional flow: It is one in which the flow field properties vary only with one coordinate direction. Sound wave: Weak wave is called sound wave. T = T(x) Example: Normal shock Quasi one dimensional flow: The area varies gradually along x. A = constant. it is identified as a shock wave). Continuity: ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 2 Momentum equation: p1 + ρ1u12 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2 Energy equation: h1 + v12 v2 + q = h2 + 2 2 2 5. Define sound wave and speed of sound. Speed of sound: Rate of propagation of small pressure disturbances through the medium of interest. 4. p = p(x). and it is convenient and sufficiently accurate to neglect the y and z flow variations and to assume that the flow properties are functions of x only. p = p(x).

static pressure and total pressure. Normal shock relations: Continuity: ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 2 Momentum equation: p1 + ρ1u12 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2 Energy equation: h1 + v12 v2 = h2 + 2 2 2 9. 7. Write the normal shock relations. stagnation temperature. a = γRT 6. Normal shock is assumed to be a discontinuity across which the flow properties suddenly change. Define static temperature. Shock is formed due to coalescing of weak pressure disturbances. Stagnation temperature: Temperature measured when the flow is brought to rest adiabatically. Stagnation pressure: Pressure measured when the flow is brought to rest isentropically. What is Crocco Number? CR = V where Vmax = Vmax 2C p T0 8.⎛ ∂p ⎞ a= ⎜ ⎟ is the general relation. Static pressure: Pressure which has no contribution from velocity. ⎜ ∂ρ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠s For a perfect gas. The flow is supersonic ahead of the shock and subsonic behind the shock. Static temperature: It is the characteristic temperature of the flow. Normal shock: Shock waves that are perpendicular to freestream. Shock is very thin region (10-5 cm). It has no contribution from velocity. . State the property variations across the normal shock wave. Define normal shock.

What happens to properties behind the normal shock when M1 tends to infinity? lim M 2 = γ −1 = 0. Velocity and Mach number decreases across the shock. (when M1 = 1 and M2 = 1).Static pressure. static temperature and density increases across the shock wave. stagnation temperature is constant and stagnation pressure decreases across the shock. The wavefronts form a disturbance envelope given by a straight line which is tangent to the family of circles. 10. Define Mach wave and Mach angle. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ ⎝M ⎠ Mach angle μ = sin −1 ⎜ 11.378 2γ lim ρ2 γ + 1 = =6 ρ1 γ − 1 . Also infinitely weak oblique shock is called Mach wave. The angle which the Mach wave makes with respect to the direction of motion is called Mach angle μ. Since flow across the shock is adiabatic. This line of disturbances is defined as Mach wave. Infinitely weak normal shock is defined as Mach wave. Mach wave can be either compression wave or an expansion fan.

Because the static pressure always increases across a shock wave.lim p2 =∞ p1 lim T2 =∞ T1 12. 14. the wave itself can also be visualized as a thermodynamic device which compresses the gas. For a given decrease in specific volume. these are dissipative. the viscous effect of viscosity and thermal conduction become important. In turn. a shock wave creates a higher pressure increase than an isentropic compression. on the order of 10-5 cm. In regions of large gradients. Shock is always possible from supersonic flow to subsonic flow and not from subsonic flow to supersonic flow because entropy change is less than zero which is violation of second law of thermodynamics.v1. Therefore. What really causes the entropy across a shock wave? The changes across the shock wave occur over a very short distance. Hence the velocity and temperature gradients inside the shock structure itself are very large. irreversible phenomena that generate entropy. A plot of p2 = f(p1. the shock wave . However. v2) on a pv graph is called the Hugoniot curve. e2 − e1 = p1 + p2 (v1 − v2 ) 2 This is called Hugoniot equation. Explain Hugoniot equation. Indeed. Write the Prandtl equation for shocks. The change in internal energy equals the mean pressure across the shock times the change in specific volume. the net entropy increase is provided by nature in the form of friction and thermal conduction inside the shock wave structure itself. * M 1* M 2 =1 13. the changes across a normal shock wave can be expressed in terms of purely thermodynamic variable without explicit reference to a velocity or Mach numbers.

For a calorically perfect gas. 15. Write the governing equations for one dimensional flow with heat addition. 17. For supersonic flow in region 1. Continuity: ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 2 Momentum equation: p1 + ρ1u12 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2 2 v12 v2 Energy equation: h1 + + q = h2 + 2 2 18.costs more because of the increase and consequent total pressure loss.e. What are property changes across the moving shock? Ratio of static properties does not change. i. Shock strength = p 2 − p1 p1 Entropy change across the shock is proportional to cube of shock strength. Mach number decreases. ⎛ γ + 1 ⎞ v1 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ v −1 − γ 1 p2 ⎜ ⎠ 2 =⎝ p1 ⎛ γ + 1 ⎞ v1 ⎜ ⎜ γ − 1⎟ ⎟−v ⎝ ⎠ 2 v1 and v2 are specific volumes. i. Write the equation for shock strength.shock compression is less efficient than the isentropic compression. same as that of the normal shock) Total temperature and total pressure across and behind the moving shock are different.(i.e. Pressure increases p2 > p1 . M2 < M1 b. when heat is added a. M1 > 1. Write the properties changes due to heat addition. Mach number behind the shock need not be subsonic. 16.e.

For this condition. Total pressure decreases P02 < P01 f. to the left of initial region. then a series of pressure waves will propagate upstream and nature will adjust the conditions in the initial region to a lower subsonic M. heat addition will increase M till the flow will become sonic. If the flow is supersonic. If heat is added further.c. Pressure decreases p2 < p1 c. Temperature increases for M < γ −1 / 2 and decreases for M > γ −1 / 2 d. If the flow is subsonic. Explain Rayleigh curve. M2 > M1 b. the flow is said to be chocked. M1 < 1. Lower branch of the Rayleigh curve corresponds to supersonic flow and the upper branch corresponds to subsonic flow. Velocity increases u2 > u1 For heat extraction. Total pressure decreases P02 < P01 f. Total temperature increases T02 > T01 e. . For this condition. If heat is added further. Total temperature increases T02 > T01 e. 19. Velocity decreases u2 < u1 For subsonic flow in region 1. then a normal shock will form inside the nozzle and conditions in initial region will suddenly become subsonic. Temperature increases T2 > T1 d. heat addition will decrease M till the flow will become sonic.e. Mach number decreases. when heat is added a. i. all of the above trends are opposite. the flow is said to be chocked.

Total pressure decreases P02 < P01 f. M1 > 1. For supersonic flow in region 1. Write the governing equations for one dimensional flow with heat addition. Total pressure decreases P02 < P01 f. due to friction a. Write the properties changes due to friction. i.e. Continuity: ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 4 Momentum equation: p1 + ρ u = p 2 + ρ 2 u + ∫ τ w dx D0 2 1 1 2 2 L where shear stress τ w = Energy equation: h1 + 1 f ρv 2 2 v12 v2 + q = h2 + 2 2 2 . M2 < M1 b. Mach number decreases. Temperature increases T2 > T1 d. Temperature decreases T2 < T1 d.e. Velocity increases u2 > u1 21. M2 > M1 b. M1 < 1. Mach number decreases. due to friction a.20. i. Pressure increases p2 > p1 c. Velocity decreases u2 < u1 For subsonic flow in region 1. Total temperature remains constant T02 = T01 e. Total temperature remains constant T02 = T01 e. Pressure decreases p2 < p1 c.

If duct length is increased further. The change in flow direction takes place across the shock wave which is oblique to the freestream direction. All flow properties through an expansion wave change smoothly and continuously. Expansion wave: It occurs when the supersonic flow is turned away from itself. temperature and density increase. the flow is said to be chocked. Lower branch of the Fanno curve corresponds to supersonic flow and the upper branch corresponds to subsonic flow. decelerating a supersonic flow and accelerating a subsonic flow. Explain Fanno curve. Define oblique shock and expansion wave. If the flow is supersonic. Friction always drives the Mach number toward 1. friction will decrease M till the flow will become sonic for a certain duct length L. to the left of initial region. Across the shock wave. with the exception of the wall streamline which change discontinuously at the corner. the Mach number decreases and the pressure. If duct length is increased further. Oblique shock: It usually occurs when the flow is turned into itself. 23. [the change of properties take place slowly and isentropically through the innumerable rays of fan] . the flow is said to be chocked. friction will increase M till the flow will become sonic. then a series of pressure waves will propagate upstream and nature will adjust the conditions in the initial region to a lower subsonic M. If the flow is subsonic. For this condition.22. then a normal shock will form inside the nozzle and conditions in initial region will suddenly become subsonic. For this condition.

the changes across an oblique shock wave are governed by the normal component of freestream velocity. Define shock wave angle and deflection angle. Write the oblique shock relations.Across the expansion wave. 24. Changes across the shock are more severe as wave angle increases. then no solution exists for a straight oblique shock wave. In nature. Oblique shock relations: Continuity: ρ1u1 = ρ 2 u 2 2 Momentum equation: p1 + ρ1u12 = p 2 + ρ 2 u 2 Energy equation: h1 + v12 v2 = h2 + 2 2 2 The tangential component of the flow velocity is preserved across an oblique shock wave. Deflection angle: It is the angle by which the original streamline is deflected. Instead. 25. M n1 = M 1 sin β and M 2 = M n2 sin( β − θ ) 26. the Mach number increases and the pressure. the shock will be curved and detached. In all the above equations. temperature and density decrease. Therefore. the large value of wave angle is called the strong shock solution and the small value of wave angle is called the weak shock solution. the weak shock . 27. Explain weak and strong shocks. the velocities are normal to the wave. What happen if maximum deflection angle is greater than the deflection angle? If maximum deflection angle is greater than the deflection angle. Shock wave angle: Angle which the original streamline makes with the plane of the shock.

31. Write the possible range of oblique shock wave angle.solution is favored and usually occurs. What happen if upstream Mach number is increased keeping flow deflection angle is constant and vice versa? Range: sin −1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ to 900. the shock wave becomes stronger and wave angle decreases. Addition of third dimension provides extra space to move through. M2 is supersonic. The flow over wedge is 2 dimensional whereas the flow over the cone is three dimensional. hence relieving some of the obstructions set up by the presence of the body. 32. This is called three dimensional relieving effect which is characteristic of all threedimensional flows. the shock wave becomes stronger and wave angle increases. 29. and the pressure at the cone surface ps is not same as p2 immediately behind the shock. Whether weak shock or strong shock solution occurs is determined by the backpressure. The flow streamlines behind the shock are straight and parallel to the wedge surface. 28. What is shock tube? . As deflection angle increases (holding M1 constant). ⎝M ⎠ As M1 increases (holding deflection angle constant). M2 is subsonic. What is sonic boom? A noise caused by a shock wave that emanates from an aircraft or other object traveling at or above sonic velocity. In the weak shock solution. The flowfield between the shock and the cone surface is no longer uniform. State the differences between supersonic flow over wedges and cones. What is slip line? Slip line is a line across which the entropy changes discontinuously. This relieving effect results in a weaker shock wave than for the wedge of the same angle. 30. The streamlines are curved. In the strong shock solution.

Write the governing equations for quasi one dimensional steady flow. Write the area-velocity relation and explain. Pressure increases at the expense of kinetic energy. Continuity: A1 ρ1u1 = A2 ρ 2 u 2 Momentum equation: A1 p1 + A1 ρ1u12 + A2 A1 ∫ pdA = A 2 2 p 2 + A2 ρ 2 u 2 Where integral term represents the pressure force. 35.A shock tube is a device that allows the experimental study of many of the phenomena associated with the occurrence of shock waves. Write the Prandtl – Meyer function. One section of the tube called the driver section contains a relatively high pressure gas. a shock wave propagates into the stagnant gas in the expansion section. Velocity increases at the expense of pressure drop. Diffuser: Any device that decelerates the flow. It consists of a long tube divided into two sections by a diaphragm. Nozzle: Any device that accelerates the flow. 34. Upon rupture of the diaphragm. 33. ν (M ) = γ + 1 −1 γ − 1 2 tan ( M − 1) − tan −1 M 2 − 1 γ −1 γ +1 This is the direction measured from M = 1 though which the flow has turned by an isentropic process to reach the given M. 2 v12 v2 Energy equation: h1 + = h2 + 2 2 36. dA dV = M 2 −1 A V [ ] . Define nozzle and diffuser. The second section called the expansion section contains a low pressure gas that may be different from that of the high pressure gas.

For supersonic flow. What is the effect of back pressure on nozzle exit plane pressure? If the exit Mach number is subsonic. 37. which mathematically corresponds to a minimum or maximum in the area distribution. For 0 < M < 1. The minimum in area is the only physically realistic solution. an increase in velocity is associated with a decrease in area and vice versa. the velocity increases in a diverging duct and decreases in a converging duct. m = A* γ P0 ⎛ 2 ⎞ 2(γ −1) ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ R T0 ⎜ ⎝ γ +1⎠ γ +1 38. Pe must be equal to Pb. . an increase in velocity is associated with an increase in area and vive versa. For M tends to zero.a. c. The velocity increases in a converging duct and decreases in a diverging duct. b. For M > 1. For M = 1 yields dA/A = 0. d. which in the limit corresponds to incompressible flow. What is chocked mass flow rate? Maximum mass flow rate for the given stagnation condition is called chocked mass flow rate.

accelerates in the nozzle. There is enough fluid dynamic mechanism like oblique shock and expansion fans to achieve the pressure equalization. . Assuming exit subsonic flow . a. Reduce Pb further such that the nozzle is chocked. Further reducing the pressure Pb upto nozzle exit. Reduce Pb slightly from the previous. When Pb = P0.In sonic and supersonic flow. Draw the operating characteristics of a convergent nozzle and explain. To generate supersonic flow. c. there is no flow. Pe = Pb. only possible way is to use Convergent – Divergent nozzle. Chocked mass flow rate is achieved. no change. Pe need not be equal to Pb. 39. Flow takes place. Draw the operating characteristics of a convergent – divergent nozzle and explan. After that expansion fans are formed. Pe = P*. 40. b. d.

g. (perfectly expanded condition of the CD nozzle) f. Choose a pressure value such that the flow goes through isentropically all through the nozzle with supersonic exit flow of Pe = Pb. c. But higher Me than that at ‘b’ above. Curve ‘a’ b. say to condition ‘f’. Pressure ratio corresponds to this is first critical pressure ratio. the shock wave takes up positions successively farther downstream occurring at greater upstream Mach numbers and undergoing greater pressure rises.a. Pb is reduced slightly. Curve ‘I’ has the pressure ratio corresponding to this is third critical pressure ratio. One particular ratio may be imposed that will cause the normal shock to stand in the nozzle exit plane. there is no flow. Me is subsonic. e. When Pb = P0. As Pb is lowered more. This can be found from the isentropic tables corresponding to the given Ae/A* and choosing the subsonic Mach number. . d. This particular pressure ratio is called the second critical pressure ratio. Me corresponds to this is the supersonic solution in the Ae/A* Vs M graph. Curve ‘d’ is that corresponds to the value of Pb which chock the throat first time. Curve ‘g’. Curve ‘b’ corresponds to the subsonic flow through out with Pe = Pb. Curve ‘c’ corresponds to again a subsonic flow.

Draw T-S or h-S diagram for flow with Heat addition. flow with friction. With the outflow supersonic. 42. For pressure ratios between first and second critical ratios. k. the exit plane pressure need not equal the back pressure and adjustment to the higher back pressure may take place externally. oblique shock will get formed at the exit plane to attain pressure equalization with Pb. the exit plane pressure is double valued. .08. j. Underexpanded Nozzle: When the exit pressure is more than that of back pressure. Sivakumar. Overexpanded Nozzle: When the exit pressure is less than back pressure. 44. What happen if a pipe is added to the nozzle on either side? Addition of pipe on either side decreases the mass flow rate since stagnation pressure is less. such as lift and drag. What is wind tunnel? A chamber where steady flow of air or smoke is blown over an object.V. 43.h. Draw the Fanno curve and Rayleigh curve in one graph and mark the normal shock on it.2005 to R. the exit plane outflow is subsonic and exit pressure equals back pressure. 41. isentropic process and normal shock Questions asked by Dr. such as an airfoil. i. to calculate its aerodynamic forces. expansion fans will be formed at the exit plane to equalize the pressure. At the second critical pressure ratio. Babu on 13.

What is the effect of temperature rise due to heat addition? The flow is incompressible since the pressure gradient (or pressure difference) is very small.s diagram for the following supersonic intake. 3. so the flow is incompressible. Say whether it is compressible or incompressible. . It decreases the Mach number further. the density is not changing much. There is a flow through the duct with a max. 2.1. How will you decide the whether the flow is compressible or incompressible. velocity of 20 m/s. 1 in Compressible flow q& a. The temperature rise increases the speed of sound and the flow velocity is less. Eventhough the temperature rises due to heat addition. Ans: Refer Question no. Draw the T. Combustion is takes place inside the duct.

10 in Compressible flow q& a. How to calculate the maximum mass flow rate for this? Which case has more mass flow rate? Case I is having the maximum mass flow rate because the stagnation pressure loss is less when compared to case II. strong . Draw the T –s diagram for the following two diagrams. Ans: Refer Question no. How it looks like? What happened if they coalescence? The mach angle increases for decreasing the Mach number. When they coalescence. 6. So the mach wave becomes wider and wider.4. Mark the wave pattern for that corner. 5. What is Mach wave? Is it a compression wave or an expansion wave. Draw the supersonic flow along a compression corner.

Across the mach wave. Here the mach wave comes closer and closer. So the mach wave becomes wider and wider. They won’t coalescence.oblique shock will result. How to get the same mass flow rate for this first case without making any modification in the setup. 7. Draw the T-s diagram for the following two diagrams. Draw the mach wave for an expansion corner. 8. the property changes takes place smoothly. . What happened here to the Mach wave? The mach angle increases for decreasing the Mach number. How to calculate the mass flow rate for these cases.

s diagram. the values are to be represented in the another Fanno or Rayleigh curve and not on the same curve. Mass flow rate remains constant in both the cases. So if we change the mass flow rate. Therefore to get the same mass flow rate of the first case. Increasing the length more and more will result in the shock moving towards left and finally it occur outside the duct. 9. is to change the inlet condition. this formula is not applicable. then shock will form inside the duct. That is increasing the stagnation pressure is the only way. shock form outside the duct. . If the length is increased more than L*.The maximum mass flow rate formula is to be used only for choked and the isentropic condition. Draw the fanno curve and Rayleigh curve. Choked condition is not possible in the first case because of stagnation pressure loss. So for the first case. We have to use our basic continuity equation to calculate the mass flow rate for the second case. Mass flow remains constant in both Fanno and Rayleigh flows. If the heat added further and further. Choked condition is never achieved in the first case. What happened if you increase the length more than L* in case of Fanno flow and adding more heat after the choked condition is achieved in case of Rayleigh flow? Mark it in the T.

comprehensive questions and answers in the area of compressible flows. Very useful for quizzes and interviews for aerospace engineers.

comprehensive questions and answers in the area of compressible flows. Very useful for quizzes and interviews for aerospace engineers.

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