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My Industrial Training at Braithwate & co.Ltd Clive Work) Was a very different Leaning experience of my life. I enjoyed this time duration because I have never exposed myself to such experience before in short this company helped me bridge the gap between theory and practice.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude for the personal and professional support provided by Sr. Manager(Personal & Adm.).Manager works (CW/ VW),Production Executive Engineer. Without their help the project would never have been complete. I would also like to thank them for assigning me project supervisor and constantly keeping in touch with our progress despite their tight schedule I would also like to thank all the operator and the manager, staff manager who helped us a lot and provided the information with patience

Lastly, I would like to thank my parents and all other who motivated me throughout my training period as without them this report would not have seen the light of the day and all mighty God who was and is my leading light

Date: Place: Signature:



The Training at Braithwaite & co. Ltd.(Clive work) was very much helpful to me.Before the training at this premier plant, I just had the theoretical knowledge of various equipment, device and machines. After coming here and getting the supervisory hand and guidance of various senior and junior engineers, technicians, workers. I get a good knowledge of what the production & fabrication really stand for the equipment, apparatuses & machines available here were just beyond the imagination until one can see it practically, to watch them in practically was the main purpose of having the training and which was really helpful for me. I gone through the different processes of production & fabrication field. On, some apparatus I had the opportunity to work under the guidance and that was really a big advantage for me while studying. One of the aspect of this training was managerial aspect. The co-ordination provided by the technical staffs and department of training was very appreciable. So I thankful to the company to allow me to train under such guidance


The company was established as BRAITHWAITE in 1913 as the Indian subsidiary of BRAITHWAITE & CO. Engineers Limited (U.K.), for undertaking fabrication of structural steel works. In 1930 it was incorporated as Braithwaite & co. (India) Ltd at Calcutta. In 1960 Braithwaites gnus Works located at Bhadreswar was set up for manufacture of cranes, foundry products, machinery components etc.

The project division at Calcutta was established in 1978 to execute turnkey project for material handling pants. In 1987 Victoria work was taken over, which is equipped with all facilities for manufacture of Heavy structurals for Bridges and other engineering application. In 1976 company was taken over by Government of India, as fully owned public sector company. Braithwaite & company ltd (BCL Company) is a public sector company under the administrative jurisdiction of the Department of Heavy Industry, Ministry of Heavy industry and public enterprise, Government of India. The company (BCL) was incorporated in west Bengal as Braithwaite & Co. ltd on 28th February, 1930. The management of the company was taken by India on 6th March,1971. And the company was subsequently nationalised w.e.f. on 1st December 1976. BCL

became wholly owned by subsidiary of holding company BH RTI BH RI UDYOG LTD.(BBUNL) , upon its formation in September, 1986. BCL is one of the largest manufacturers of wagon in India with an installed capacity of 4350FWUS. It has composite infrastructure for manufacturing. BCL deliver Wagon work, Structural work, Steel Foundry work, etc. Previously they were accompanied with Tanks special Wagon, Cranes, Jute curding M/C , and others. It is the first manufacturing company to poses ISO 9002 certification for their management system & marketing management. There Crane manufacturing unit received ISO 9001 and their Foundry product (Angus) poses 9002 certification. Now

this railway.






*It is one of the largest manufacture having all necessary infrastructure in the company. *Export wagon to many country of the world. *The company possess 9000 certificates for their of product. *It offers a wide range of Engineering product and services. *There is adequate supply of Electric power. *Large number of experienced and skilled man power working. *Economical location near Kolkata Port, Rail route , etc. * Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) package is implemented to increases the cost effective economics. *It has capacity to develop necessary products within a short learning time such as Bogie, Coupler, Dished end, LPG Bullets etc. LPG Bullets which were installed under the supervision PDIL sindri and IOCL Digboi by Braithwaite and company ltd.


After getting the order the organization informs its drawing office for deleted design and drawing. Then calculation of raw material involvement is done. Costing of raw material is being informed to accounts department. Advice purchase to procure material accordingly. To calculate man-hour involvement & machine involvement behind the job. To select suitable area in the workshop where the job will be done. In this case tonnage of job handle, capacity of EOT (Electrical overhead traction) Crain(S) available. Bay width & length suitable route of incoming & outgoing material, loading & despatch of material etc. are consider. To fix product target schedule. Time of inspection & dispatch.

Details Of The Product : Clive Works :1 .Bogie Covered Non Transitional coupling type High Speed railway wagon, with Air brake or BCNA-HS The facilities provided are capable of producing high quality casting of approximately 3000 MT. 2 .Bogie Alumina Tank Wagon, High Pressure railway wagon(for BALCO), BATW-HP or BTAP-HP 3 .Bogie Open Special Type with Non Transitional coupling Light Weight railway wagon or BOXN-HL 4 .Bogie Open Special Non Transitional coupling type High Speed railway wagon or BOXN-HS 5 .Bogie Rail Non Transitional coupling type High Speed railway wagon with Air brake or BRN22.9 Victoria works :6 .Bogie Tank Petrol Non Transitional coupling type railway wagon, BTPN (oil tank), BTFLN (oil tank) Angus Work :- Bogie, Coupler, Striker Casting & other Foundry products


The marketing procedure in BCL follow the steps below: 1. Contract & Order 2. Planning 3.Design & Drawing 4. Purchase


Main Objective: 1) To receive the order after opening of tender , Techno-commercial evaluation of the tender is done for assignment of price according to terms and condition. 2) After the manufacturing of wagons, Dispatch memo (DM) and inspection certificate (IC) is prepared and the final bill is prepared for receiving the residual amount of money STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTATION & EXECUTION OF A RAILWAY BOARD WAGON CONTRAC:




2.BRN22.9 BOGIE RAIL NON TRANSITIONAL COUPLING TYPE HIGH SPEED RAILWAY WAGON BRN22.9 Is a high speed wagon. Its carrying capacity is 68.90T and tare weight is 22.90T. It has two end body and ten stanchion channel are fixed in both side of the wagon. Air braked wagon with CASNUB bogies for rail and steel shown in FIG(1)



3.BCNA-HS BOGIE COVERED NON TRANSITIONAL COUPLING TYPE HIGH SPEED RAILWAY WAGON BCNA-HS wagon are modified design of BCNA wagon with CASNUB HS High speed bogie rising the max. Speed upto 100km/h. These wagon are characterised by a patch of red white horizontal stripes on the top left. as shown in FIG(2)

4.BTPN BOGIE TANK PETROL NON TRANSITIONAL COUPLING TYPE RAILWAY WAGON BTPN is the most common bogies tanker wagon seen today used primarily for liquid petroleum product like petrol, kerosene, diesel etc. And also for vegetable oil etc. Now enhanced version the BTFLN has been developed recently. The pay load to tare ratio for this tanker is shown in FIG(3)

FIG.(3) 5. BOST-HS


BOGIE OPEN BOST is a open bogie wagon for carrying finished steel products but also used for coal,stone etc. Bost hs is a high speed railway shown in FIG (4)


The whole process of fabrication of a wagon mean fabrication of different parts, assemble them together also with important parts, finishing, painting, and lettering. BCNA wagon is made of one under frame, which is the spinal cord. Of the whole, two side Bodies, and covering of the whole i.e. the roof, and bogies and wheels. Different parts of the wagon are fabricated in different places and after that they are assembled together in assembly shop. Some of the component like bogies, wheels, axle, etc. are bought from outside. The assemblies are also an assembled from other sub-assemblies. The main components of wagon are: 1. Under frame (1 no.) 2. Side body (2 no.) 3. End Body (2 no.) 4. Bolster (4 no.) 5. Cross bar (8 no.) 6. Sole bar (2 no.)


It is the main frame or main structural and functional element of wagon. It consists of several subs - assemblies. The process will follow: 1). Sub - assemblies (canter sill, sole bar, bolster, cross bar, stiffener box ,etc.) are manufactured. (Discussed later) 2). Assembled together on fixture, welded by upside down on bottom side. 3). Trunion Welded. 4). Floor plates are tack welded at bottom side, then stitch welded (thinner (3mm) plates may distort or there may be a problem of undercut or penetration during continuous welding) at bottom. 5). Brake system assembled. 6). Striker casting, back stop, couple, centre pivot on the retainer ring etc. are welded or riveted where necessary. 7). After completion of the under frame fabrication it is send for boxing.


Center sill, sole bar and bolster are the main load carrying components of an under frame. Cross bar, carrier brackets, string channels and headstock are load distributing components that provides rigidity to the structure. The two gusset plate provides rigidity to the joints ( between cross bar-centre sill & bolster) & prevents bending at the joints. Coupler acts as the linkage between the two wagons,& receives tensile stress, compressive stress & testing. These stresses are transported to the draft gear (consists of a rubber compressed at high pressure) by yoke that absorbs the stress & twisting. Yoke connect coupler path. Retaining ring acts as a support to the centre pivot pin that connect the body of the wagon with the bogies attached to the wheels. Auxiliary reservoir supporting bracket acts as a support to the auxiliary air cylinder that provides air during its insufficient supply for proper functioning of brake system.


It is a part os wagon in one wagon two coupler is used. A coupler is a mechanisim for connecting rolling stork in the train. The design of the coupler is standard and it play a vital role it is basically use to join and pulling another wagon. Component of Coupler 1. Striker casting 2. Draft gear 3. Follower 4. York 5. York pin 6. York supporting plate 7. Knuckle


The compressed air is used for obtaining brake application. The brake pipe and feed pipe run throughout the length of the coach. Brake pipe and feed pipe on consecutive coaches in the train are coupled to one another by means of respective hose couplings to form a continuous air passage from the locomotive to the rear end of the train. The compressed air is supplied to the brake pipe and feed pipe from the locomotive. The magnitude of braking force increases in steps with the corresponding reduction in brake pipe pressure and vice-versa.

BRAKE COMPONENTS 1.BMBS (Bogie Mounted Brake System) 2.A.P.M.(Automatic Pressure Machine) 3.Brake Cylinder 4.Brakes Block 5.Vent(Locking) 6.Vent Less 7. Air Brake Pipe 8.Auxiliary Air Reservoir 9.Dirt Collector


UNDERFRAME: It is a part of wagon. In boxn-hl it is used. It play a vital role in wagon and it may also called back bone of the wagon. It carry the entire load of the wagon. To making the under frame there are various part are attached such as, center sill, sole bar, head stock, bolster, cross bar, stringer channel, gussets, coupler, brake assembly shown in fig(5)

SIDE BODY: It is a part of boxn-hl. In boxn-hl two side body is use. It locate in side part of the wagon. In side body stanchion channel and door are shown in fig (6) END BODY: It is a part of boxn-hl. In boxn-hl two end body is used. It locate in end part of the wagon. In end body stanchion channel are shown in fig(7)




BOGIE WITH WHEEL: It is a part of wagon. In BOXN-HL CTRB Bearing are use (cartridge Taper Roller Bearing) are mounted on wheels and onto bearing adapters are placed. Now one Bogie (casnub 22 nlb) is placed on two sets of wheel and axle ( one set consists of two wheels and their connecting axel weighs about 1480 kg). Before mounting the bogie, the electrometric pads should be placed at the proper places. After bogie wheeling is done the boxed wagon is placed on it. As shown in fig(8)

fig.(8) BOLSTER:



It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl four bolster is used. It locate in between of center sill and sole bar. In Bolster four plate is use one is in top, and bottom and two is in middle. To making the under frame various part are attached with bolster are center sill, sole bar and sanction channel. as shown in fig(9).

CENTER SILL It is a part of boxn-hl. In boxn-hl one center sill is used. It locate in the center of the under frame. In center sell stiffer box and rib are fatted. To making the under frame there are various part are attached to center sill and they are cross bar, sole bar, bolster, head stock and stanchion channel. as shown in fig(10).

SOLE BAR: It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl two sole bar is used. It locate in side portion of under frame where the side body get fitted. To making the under frame: head stock, stanchion channel, bolster, cross bar, is attached to sole bar. as shown in fig(11).

CROSS BAR: It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl eight cross bar is use. It lacate in between to center sill and sole bar. In cross bar three plate are fitted one is in top and bottom, and middle. To making the under frame various part are attached with cross bar are stanchion channel, sole bar and center sill. as shown in fig(12). HEAD STOCK: It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl four head stock is use. It locate at the end of boxn-hl. To making the under frame head stock is attached with sole bar, center sill, and stanchion channel. as shown in fig(13).



It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl stringer channel fitted across the head stock & bolster &cross bar or between the two cross bar is known as stringer channel. In boxn-hl sixteen channel is used

CARRIED BRACKETS: It is a part of BOXN-HL. In boxn-hl carried bracket are use it is similar to cross bar it also consist of supporting plate which provides support to the brake pipes.

FLAP DOOR: The door hinged the underframe. The door is fitted to the side body by hinge which is flap is at

riverted to it by rimming machine. There are four flap doors in the wagon. a


UNDERFRAME: It is a part of wagon. In BRN22.9 it is used. It play a vital role in wagon and it may also called back bone of the wagon. It carry the entire load of the wagon. To making the underframe there are various part are attached such

as,center sill, sole bar, head stock, bolester, center gidder web, inner cross bar, cross bar web, stringer channel, gussets plate, coupler, brake assembly sown in fig(a)



SIDE BODY: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 ten stanchion post are fitted in stanchion bracket which is attached with side shown in fig(b)

END BODY: It is a part of boxn-hl. In boxn-hl two end body is used. It locate in end part of the wagon. In end body stanchion channel are shown in fig.(c)

BOLSTER: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two bolster is used. It locate in between of center sill and center girder web. In Bolster four plate is use one is in top, and bottom and two is in middle. To making the under frame various part are attached with bolster are center sill, sole bar, sanction channel, and center girder web.

CENTER SILL: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two center sill is used. It locate in the both end of the under frame. To making the under frame there are various part are attached to center sill and they are , bolster, head stock, and stanchion channel. as shown in fig(c).

SOLE BAR: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two sole bar is used. It locate in side portion of under frame where the side rail get fitted. To making the under frame: head stock, stanchion channel, cross bar web, is attached to sole bar. as shown in fig(d).

fig.(c) CROSS BAR WEB:



It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 eight cross bar is use. It locate in between , sole bar and center girder web. In cross bar web three plate are fitted one is in top and bottom, and middle. To making the under frame various part are attached with cross bar web are stanchion channel, sole bar, and center girder web. as shown in fig(e).

HEAD STOCK: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 four head stock is use. It locate at the end of brn22.9. To making the under frame head stock is attached with sole bar, center sill, and stanchion channel. as shown in fig(f).

SIDE RAIL: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two side rail is use. It locate at side part of the wagon. In side rail ten stanchion post are fitted. as shown in fig.(g)




CENTER GIRDER WEB: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two center girder web is use. It locate at the center of under frame. To making the under frame center girder web is attached with sole bar, bolster, cross bar web, inner cross bar andfig.(j) channel. As shown in fig.(h) stanchion

INNER CROSS BAR: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 five inner cross bar is use. It locate in between to center girder web. In inner cross bar three plate are fitted one is in top and bottom, and middle. To making the under frame various part are attached with inner cross bar are center girder web. as shown in fig.(i)

GUSSET PLATE: It is a part of BRN22.9. In brn22.9 two gusset plate is use. It locate at the top of bolster. To making the under frame various part attached with gusset plate are: center sill, bolster, and center girder web. as shown in fig.(j)

WELDING welding sculptural materials, metals or is a fabrication that or joins usually thermoplastics, by


causing coalescence. This is often done by

melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them, without melting the work pieces. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, riction, nd ultrasound. While different space. are often an industrial process, welding air, may under be performed water and and in in many outer

environments, Welding to is a

including potentially burns,


hazardous shock,

undertaking vision

precautions inhalation of





poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation.

TYPES OF WELDING: Manual Metal arc welding(MMAW): One of the most common types of arc welding is shielded metal arc welding (MMAW);it is also known as manual metal arc welding (MMA) or stick welding. Electric current is used to strike an arc between the base material and consumable electrode rod, which is made of filler material (typically steel) and is covered with a flux that protects the weld area from oxidation and contamination by producing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas during the welding process. The electrode core itself acts as filler material, making separate filler unnecessary. Shielded metal arc welding. The process is versatile and can be performed with relatively inexpensive equipment, making it well suited to shop jobs and field work. An operator can become reasonably proficient with a modest amount of training and can achieve mastery with experience. Weld times are rather slow, since the consumable electrodes must be frequently replaced and because slag, the residue from the flux, must be chipped away after welding. Furthermore, the process is generally limited to welding ferrous materials, though special electrodes have made possible the welding of cast iron, nickel, aluminum, copper, and other metals. as shown in fig.(a)




MIG WELDING: MIG welding was developed in the 1940s and 60 years later the general principal is still very much the same. MIG welding uses an arc of electricity to create a short circuit between a continuously fed anode and a cathode. The heat produced by the short circuit, along with a non-reactive gas locally melts the metal and allows them to mix together. Once the heat is removed, the metal beings to cool and solidify, and forms a new piece of fuses metal. MIG welding is useful because you can use it to weld many different types of metals: carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel, silicon, bronze and other alloys. As shown in fig.(b)

SUBMERGED ARC WELDING: SAW is a commend arc welding process. Originally developed by the linde-union carbide company. It requires a non-continuously fed consumable solid or tubular electrode. The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination by being submerged under a blanket of granular fusible flux consisting of lime, silica, manganese oxide, calcium fluoride, and other compounds. When molten, the flux because conductive, and provides a current path between the electrode and the work. This thick layer of flux completely covers the molten metal thus preventing spatter and sparks as well as suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and fumes that are a part of the shielded metal arc welding(SMAW) process. As shown in fig.(c)


A machine is a tool that consists of one or more parts, and uses energy to achieve a particular goal. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are frequently motorized. Historically, a powered tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine; however, the advent of electronics technology has led to the development of powered tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include shearing machine, rolling machine, drilling machine, cutting machine, bending machine, etc. A machine tool is a machine for shaping or machining metal or other rigid materials, usually by cutting, boring, grinding, shearing or other forms of deformation. Machine tools employ some sort of tool that does the cutting or shaping. All machine tools have some means of constraining the work piece and provide a guided movement of the parts of the machine. Thus the relative movement between the work piece and the cutting tool (which is called the tool path) is controlled or constrained by the machine to at least some extent, rather than being entirely "offhand" or "freehand".

TYPES OF MACHINE Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machines: This fully Hydraulic Guillotine Shearing Machines is very versatile, reliable and efficient, designed and built to high standard to meet the requirement of precision sheet and plate working applications. Fast and accurate motorized back gauge with front digital readout is a standard with all models of this machine. The back gauge travels on precision lead shown in fig.(b)



Gas cutting machine :

Gas Cutting Machine helps a Fabricator in cutting production costs and increases efficiency. It is designed for heavy duty jobs and also for precision jobs. It works on single phase supply and is operated by 1/12 H.P. single phase motor. Machine is designed to operate on magnetic effect in the roller shaft of gear box. Movement of gas cutting nozzle is directly linked with magnetic roller shaft which results in fine cutting of metal.

WELDING & CUTTING MACHINE: which are available in different dimensions and specifications. Used in applications like automatic or manual cutting & flame cutting of small vehicles, our range is portable and have cutting capacity of range 1200 mm. Further, our products find application in steel plate making in industries such as car, ship building, engineering machinery, petroleum and chemical industry shown in fig.(c)

PLASMA CUTTING MACHINE: Plasma cutting is a process that is used to cut steel and other metal of different thickness(or sometime other material) using a plasma torch. In this process, an inert gas (in some units, compressed air) is blow at high speed out of a nozzle; at the same time an electrical arc is formed through that gas from the nozzle to the surface being cut, turning some of that gas to plasma. The plasma is sufficiently hot to metal being cut and moves sufficiently fast to blow molten metal away from the cut as shown in fig.(d)

ROLLING MACHINE : It is used to roll or bend a plate by help of three rollers one on top and two below the plate. The plate is straightened and depends upon the vertical distance between axis of top roller and bottom two rollers and the bending upon top roller vertical movement. More the vertical movement more will be the bending effect. as shown in fig.(e)




Bending is a manufacturing process that produces a V-shape, U-shape, or channel shape along a straight axis in ductile materials, most commonly sheet metal. Commonly used equipment include box and pan brakes, brake presses, and other specialized machine presses. Typical products that are made like this are boxes such as electrical enclosures and rectangular

STRAIGHTNER MACHINE: This machine is use to straighten the metal plate which bend due to various defect. Here the floor plate are straighten before placing it on the floor of the wagon.

Pneumatic Compressor Machine: It is a type of machines which creates air pressure and is used in various machine for various process. Altogether there eight pressure pump in the Braithwaite which supply pneumatic pressure for various equipment for running. as shown in fig.(f)


SHOT BLASTING MACHINE: It is a type of machine which is requires giving finish touch to the product that is wagon. It is designed in such manner that all the part and body are shaped properly.

RIVETTING MACHINE: Riveting machines are used to automatically set (squeeze) rivets in order to join materials together. The riveting machine offers greater consistency, productivity, and lower cost when compared to manual riveting. It is a heavy machine which contain a piston inside which presses the die to give the required shape to the metal piece which is heated near it melting point .so that it is easier to give a desire shape.

GRINDING MACHINE: A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is a machine tool used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via shear deformation.

CNC MACHINE CNC Machine is a process used in the manufacturing sector that involves the use of computer to control machine tools. Tools that can be controlled in this manner include lathes, mills, routers and grinders. The CNC in cnc machine stands for Computer Numerical Control. On the surface, it may look like a normal PC controls the machines, but the computers unique software and control console are what really sets the system apart for use in CNC machine. Under CNC Machining, machine tools function through numerical control. A computer program is customized for an object and the machine are programmed with CNC machining language that essentially controls all features like feed rate, coordination, location and speeds. With CNC machine, the computer can control exact position ng and velocity. CNC machining is used in manufacturing both metal and plastic parts. There are many advantages to using CNC Machining. The process is more precise than manual machining, and can be repeated in exactly the same manner over and over again. Because of the precision possible with cnc machining, this process can produce complex shapes that would be almost impossible to achieve with manual machining. CNC Machining is used in the production of many complex three-dimensional shapes. It is because of these qualities that CNC Machine is used in jobs that need a high level of precision or very repetitive tasks.


Hydraulic Compressor Machine: A hydraulic compressor machine is used to run various machine for compressing the job or for creating sheers on the blade to cut the material Its silent features are 1.More Economical & Easy To operate high Performance 2.Durability 3.Sale Service Support 4.Require Low Maintenance 5.Cost Effective 6.Faster Than Single Pump 7.Long Life of High Pressure Pump 8.Continuous Process(Less labour Required)


This was an inspiration for later gas operated, semi-automatic or selective fire firearms (such as the M1, M14, M16, the L85A1/A2 and the AK-47/74) in which the bolt, upon contact with the breech, rotates and locks into place, being held in place by lugs attached to the breech or barrel extension. Upon closing, the bolt passes through the slots cut in the front of the barrel extension, and then rotates; at this point it is

locked in place. The bolt remains locked until the action is cycled, either manually by the operator, or mechanically by the gas created by discharging the rifle pushing on the operating rod or bolt carrier, which then rotates the bolt and unlocks it from the breech so that it can be withdrawn in order to extract and eject the spent casing, and chamber a new round.

RIMMERING MACHINE: It is a type of machine used to make the size of the drilling much accurate and slag free so that lock bolting or riveting can be easily done without any problem.

CUTTING AND CHIPPING MACHINE: In Braithwaite various mechanical , hydraulic and pneumatic shear machine are present which basically run manually and use to cut and make small chip for further production of the components by giving shear.

DRILLING MACHINE: A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for drilling holes in various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the target material. This may be slicing off thin shavings (twist drills or auger bits), grinding off small particles (oil drilling), crushing and removing pieces of the work piece (SDS masonry drill), countersinking, counter boring, or other operations.



In metalworking and woodworking, a jig is a type of custom-made tool used to control the location and/or motion of another tool. A jig's primary purpose is to provide repeatability, accuracy, and interchange ability in the manufacturing of products.[1] A jig is often confused with a fixture; a fixture holds the work in a fixed location. A device that does both functions (holding the work and guiding a tool) is called a jig. as shown in fig(h)

DRILL JIGS A drill jig is a type of jig that expedites repetitive hole centre location on multiple interchangeable parts by acting as a template to guide the twist drill or other boring device into the precise location of each intended hole centre. In metalworking practice, typically a hardened drill bushing lines each hole on the jig plate to keep the tool from damaging the jig. Drill jigs started falling into disuse with the invention of the jig borer.

TYPES OF DRILL JIGS 1.Plate jigs or channel jig. 2.Angle plate jig. 3.Box jig. 4.leaf or latch jig. 5.Sandwich jig. 6.Trunnion jig. 7.Jig for multi spindle machines. 8. Template jig 9 Universal Jig

FIXTURE A fixture is a work-holding or support device used in the manufacturing industry.[1][2] Fixtures are used to securely locate (position in a specific location or orientation) and support the work, ensuring that all parts produced using the fixture will maintain conformity and inter changeability. Using a fixture improves the economy of production by allowing smooth operation and quick transition from part to part, reducing the requirement for skilled labour by simplifying how work pieces are mounted, and increasing conformity across a production run.


A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion between moving parts to only the desired motion. The design of the bearing may, for example, provide for free linear movement of the moving part or for free rotation around a fixed axis; or, it may prevent a motion by controlling the vectors of normal forces that bear on the moving parts. Bearings are classified broadly according to the type of operation, the motions allowed, or to the directions of the loads (forces) applied to the parts. CTRB is a special type of bearing used in bogie wheel of wagon. It is a very costly bearing imported from America by the manufacturer name Benco. Altogether for a boxn-hl 16 bearing is mounted on the two side of the wheel.


CRANE: Crane is a materials handling equipment for lifting or lowering a load by a hook and moving in horizontally, in which the hoisting mechanism is an integral part of the equipment. A crane may be driven manually or by power and may be fixed or mobile.

EOT CRANE: EOT CRANE essentially consists of one or more hoisting devices mounted on a bridge consisting of one or two horizontal girders, which are supported at each end by trucks riding on elevated runways installed at right angles to the bridge. Runways are installed on building columns, overhead stresses or frames, much above floor level. The hoisting device moves along the bridge while the bridge moves along the runway.


Finishing & Painting: After manufacturing of BOXN-HL wagon complete testing & inspection is done. If there is no objection, then it is go for finishing. The metallic surface may have been damaged by several fabrication processes and rust. So one or more subsequent polishing may be needed to get better surface. Shot blasting gives the necessary surface finish to provide good adhesive property to paints. Within 30 to 60 minutes after shot blasting painting is done. Painting gives the surface, corrosion resistant against all natural hazards. There are three coats to protect the surfaces of the bodies (end-bodies, side-bodies & under-frame) as these are manufactured with the thin steel sheet. Following paints are used for brazing at finishing shop.

Lettering: This is the process of providing information about the wagon. The outer surface of the wagon is inscribed with the letters which gives the relevant information such as no. of the wag on, name of railways, its tare weight, carrying capacity, and other railway related information regarding the wagon.


After manufacturing of BOXN-HL and BRN22.9 wagon, before dispatch an inspection work is done by the company. A wagon is tested to check Brake Test: A brake is mechanized device which offers an artificial Frictional resistance onto a moving body, in order to slowdown (retard) or, stop it completely. The brake used in railway wagon is mainly air brake. So the testing done by irbrake Testing Rig. During the testing, hose pipe transfers the air from the Airbrake Testing Rig to the dirt collector where air became clean (as dirt causes chocking of valves, piping & other internal equipments) and go to control chamber; it allows air to go to distribution valve and distribute the air to brake cylinder (generally 5 kg/cm2) and the excess air to auxiliary reservoir. Auxiliary reservoir will supply air to break cylinder if the air pressure falls below 5 kg/cm2, within the distributor valve. During testing, brake cylinder is connected to a pressure gauge which records the pressure inside the cylinder and also the movement of the piston during locking & unlocking of the brake-shoe with the wheel.

QUALITY ASSURANCE: After manufacturing of BOXN-HL,BRN22.9 & before despatch an inspection is done by the RDSO inspection, Ministry of Railway Board. The inspection form contains: Running gear, bogie made & bogie no., air brake made, SAB (Slack adjustment barrel) made, date of air brake testing units calibration, data of air brake testing, coupler made, tare weight, date of water tightness testing,RAD availed, date of short blasting, DM issusing date, IXR fit memo issue date. The last official formality of quality assurance is, the above inspection from should be signed by works inspectors & RDSO inspection jointly.

Maintenance, repair, and operations (MRO) or maintenance, repair, and overhaul[2] involves fixing any sort of mechanical, plumbing or electrical device should it become out of order or broken (known as repair, unscheduled or casualty maintenance). It also includes performing routine actions which keep the device in working order (known as scheduled maintenance) or prevent trouble from arising (preventive maintenance). MRO may be defined as, "All actions which have the objective of retaining or restoring an item in or to a state in which it can perform its required function. The actions include the combination of all technical and corresponding administrative, managerial, and supervision actions." MRO operations can be categorised by whether the product remains the property of the customer, i.e. a service is being offered, or whether the product is bought by the reprocessing organisation and sold to any customer wishing to make the purchase. (Gazette, 2002) The former of these represents a closed loop supply chain and usually has the scope of maintenance, repair or overhaul of the product. The latter of the categorisations is an open loop supply chain and is typified by refurbishment and remanufacture. The main characteristic of the closed loop system is that the demand for a product is matched with the supply of a used product. Neglecting asset write-offs and exceptional activities the total population of the product between the customer and the service provider remains constant.

Engineering Workshop Safety Manual Custodian: (a) Never adopt a casual attitude in the workshop and always be conscious of the potential hazards. (b) Ensure that personal clothing is suitable to the workshop conditions, e.g. Safety footwear with steel capping. Thongs or open footwear should not be worn in the workshop area. Singles, tank tops or similar clothing are not suitable for wearing in the workshop. (c) Always wear eye protection when using power operated hand or machine tools, or while performing physical tests that could lead to eye damage. (d) Use protective clothing and devices appropriate to the type of operation being carried out, giving due consideration to the work being carried out in the vicinity. (e) Never run in the workshop or any laboratory. (f) Never indulge in reckless behaviour in the workshop (g) Always exercise care when opening and closing doors and entering or leaving the Workshop. (h) Do not carry out any work in isolation in the workshop; ensure that at least a second person is within call. (i) Before any work is carried out in the workshop, permission must be obtained from the Workshop Supervisor. Never undertake any work unless the potential hazards of the operation are known as precisely as possible, and the appropriate safety precautions are adopted. Any flame producing activity is not to commence until the immediate area has been cleared of dusts. Many materials, which are non-flammable in a lump state, become quite volatile when in powdered or dust cloud form. (j) Take additional care when carrying or moving any potentially hazardous material or substance. Warning signs and barriers followed carefully.



I am highly obliged to the H.R Dept. of BRAITHWAITE & CO. LTD. who allowed me to pursue my summer training in such a big reputed organisation. BRAITHWAITE & CO. LTD. is one of the leading manufacturer in wagon industry where production is in bulk along with safety of environment and employee. During the training I came to know the various application of the mechanical equipment which I have gone through in my studies. Mechanical equipment like gear box, shaft motor, bearing, shearing machine, welding and its type, different types of machine, etc.. working are best understood in practical knowledge rather than book knowledge. Engineering students found industrial visit highly helpful to understand the working of the different huge machine which is impossible to make understood by the faculty in an organisation.

In BRAITHWAITE & CO. LTD. I have learned the working environment of company in different department. All department follow safety norms and rules for the safety of each other. Here I have understood that how important is summer education in the career of engineering student. We have to join industry after our studies and summer training provide me to establish our self conveniently in the industry.