bq2000

www.ti.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009

Programmable Multi-Chemistry Fast-Charge Management IC
Check for Samples: bq2000
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FEATURES
Safe Management of Fast Charge for NiCd, NiMH, or Li-Ion Battery Packs High-Frequency Switching Controller for Efficient and Simple Charger Design Pre-Charge Qualification for Detecting Shorted, Damaged, or Overheated Cells Fast-Charge Termination by Peak Voltage (PVD) for Nickel chemistries, Minimum Current for Li-Ion chemistries, Maximum Temperature, and Maximum Charge Time Selectable Top-Off Mode for Achieving Maximum Capacity in NiMH Batteries Programmable Trickle-Charge Mode for Reviving Deeply Discharged Batteries and for Postcharge Maintenance Built-in Battery Removal and Insertion Detection Sleep Mode for Low Power Consumption

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The bq2000 is a programmable, monolithic IC for fast-charge management of nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), or lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries in single- or multi-chemistry applications. The bq2000 chooses the proper battery chemistry (either nickel or lithium) and proceeds with the optimal charging and termination algorithms. This process eliminates undesirable, undercharged, or overcharged conditions, and allows accurate and safe termination of fast charge Depending on the chemistry, the bq2000 provides a number of charge termination criteria: • Peak voltage, PVD (for NiCd and NiMH) • Minimum charge current (for Li-Ion) • Maximum temperature • Maximum charge time For safety, the bq2000 inhibits fast charge until the battery voltage and temperature are within user-defined limits. If the battery voltage is below the low-voltage threshold, the bq2000 uses trickle-charge to condition the battery. For NiMH batteries, the bq2000 provides an optional top-off charge to maximize the battery capacity. The integrated high-speed comparator allows the bq2000 to be the basis for a complete, high-efficiency battery charger circuit for both nickel-based and lithium-based chemistries.

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APPLICATIONS
• • • Multi-Chemistry Charger Nickel Charger High-Power, Multi-Cell Charger

8-Pin DIP or Narrow SOIC or TSSOP
SNS VSS LED BAT
1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5

spacer between para and illustration Pin Names SNS Current-sense input System ground Charge-status output Battery-voltage input Temperature-sense input Timer-program input Supply-voltage input Modulation-control output VSS LED BAT TS RC VCC MOD

MOD VCC RC TS

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Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.

Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

bq2000
SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.ti.com

These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.

PIN DESCRIPTIONS
SNS Current-sense input Enables the bq2000 to sense the battery current via the voltage developed on this pin by an external sense-resistor connected in series with the battery pack VSS LED System Ground Connect to the battery’s negative terminal Charge-status output Open-drain output that indicates the charging status by turning on, turning off, or flashing an external LED, driven through a resistor. BAT Battery-voltage input Battery-voltage sense input. A simple resistive divider, across the battery terminals, generates this input. TS Temperature-sense input Input for an external battery-temperature monitoring circuit. An external resistive divider network with a negative temperature-coefficient thermistor sets the lower and upper temperature thresholds. RC Timer-program input Used to program the maximum fast charge-time, maximum top-off charge-time, hold-off period, trickle charge rate, and to disable or enable top-off charge. A capcitor from VCC and a resistor to ground connect to this pin. VCC MOD Supply-voltage input Recommended bypassing is 10µF + 0.1µF to 0.22µF of decoupling capacitance near the pin. Modulation-control output Push-pull output that controls the charging current to the battery. MOD switches high to enable charging current to flow and low to inhibit charging-current flow.

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Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000

Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

multi-chemistry battery charge control device.ti. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 3 . Functional Block Diagram Copyright © 2008–2009.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The bq2000 is a versatile. See Figure 1 for a functional block diagram and Figure 2 for a state diagram.bq2000 www. TS Voltage Reference Voltage Comparators 3x BAT ADC PVD ALU OSC Clock Phase Generator Timer Charge Control LED RC Internal OSC Voltage Comparators MOD SNS VCC VSS Figure 1.

or VTS < VTCO or Time = MTO Time < MTO and VBAT reaches VMCV Trickle Maintenance Charge VTS > VLTF VTS < VLTF and Time < MTO Time = MTO NO Top-Off Selected? YES VTS > VLTF Voltage Regulation Current Taper (IBAT < Imin). or Time = 2 x MTO or VTS < VTCO VTS > VHTF Top-Off VBAT ≥ VMCV Done VTS < VHTF VTS < VHTF VBAT ≥ VMCV Charge Suspended (See Note) VTS > VHTF and Time < MTO VCC Reset or Battery Replacement or Capacity Depletion (Li-lon) NOTE: If VTS < VTCO at any time. State Diagram 4 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. may only return to Trickle Maintenance Charge state and not to Top-Off.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.0 V < VCC < 6.) VMCV < VBAT < VSLP Charge Qualification State VTS < VHTF VBAT < VLBAT or VTS > VLTF VTS > VLTF VLBAT < VBAT < VMCV and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Fast Charge State Battery Conditioning VLBAT < VBAT and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Current Regulation PVD (after hold-off period).0 V Charge Initialization VBAT < VSLP Sleep Mode VSLP < VBAT < VCC VBAT < VMCV VTS > VHTF Charge Suspended VTS < VHTF Battery Temperature (Temperature at TS pin checked continuously) Battery Voltage (Voltage at BAT pin checked continuously. Figure 2. PVD checked at rate of MTO/128.ti. Texas Instruments Incorporated .com VCC Reset or Battery Replacement at any time 4.

relative to VSS Operating ambient temperature Storage temperature Soldering temperature (10 s max.75% ±5% ±20% ±10 ±10 ±0. LED.3 to VCC –20 to 70 –40 to 125 260 UNIT V V °C °C °C Permanent device damage may occur if Absolute Maximum Ratings are exceeded.2 5 20 250 1 MIN 4 TYP 5 0. Exposure to conditions beyond the operational limits for extended periods of time may affect device reliability.) –0.00 950 3. LED 2 0.5 ±0.5 VCC–0.1 TOLERANCE ±5% ±5% ±5% ±0.bq2000 www.3 to 7 –0.4 0.25 × VCC 0.8 50 –50 VCC–1 VMCV–0. DC THRESHOLDS (1) TA = TOPR.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (1) VALUE VCC VT TOPR TSTG TSOLDER (1) VCC relative to VSS DC voltage applied on any pin.1 Hz UNIT Copyright © 2008–2009. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 5 . Functional operation should be limited to the Recommended DC Operating Conditions detailed in this data sheet.ti. RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) TEST CONDITIONS VCC ICC ICCS VTS VOH VOL IOZ Isnk RMTO CMTO Supply voltage Supply current Sleep current Thermistor input Output high input Output low input High-impedance leakage current Sink current Charge timer resistor Charge timer capacitor Exclusive of external loads VBAT = VSLPM VTS < 0.5 MAX 6 1 5 VCC UNIT V mA µA V V V µA mA kΩ µF IMPEDANCE PARAMETER RBAT RTS RSNS Battery input impedance TS input impedance SNS input impedance MIN 10 10 10 TYP MAX UNIT MΩ MΩ MΩ TIMING TA = TOPR. IOL = 10 mA LED MOD.02 UNIT V V V V mV mV mV mV V V (1) All voltages are relative to VSS except as noted.5 × VCC 2.5 V prohibited MOD. IOH = 10 mA MOD. VCC = 5 V ±20% (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER dMTO fTRKL MTO time-base variation Pulse-trickle frequency MIN –5% 0.225 × VCC 0.001 0. VCC = 5V ±20% (unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER VTCO VHTF VLTF VMCV VLBAT PVD VSNSHI VSNSLO VSLP VRCH Temperature cutoff High-temperature fault Low-temperature fault Maximum cell voltage Minimum cell voltage BAT input change for PVD detection High threshold at SNS Low threshold at SNS Sleep-mode input threshold Recharge threshold TEST CONDITIONS Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin TYPICAL 0.9 1 TYP MAX 5% 1.

No timer is implemented during battery conditioning. the IC assumes a Li-Ion battery. BAT+ 2 VSS bq2000 4 BAT RB2 RB1 Figure 3. During the fast-charge period. and voltage for adherence to the termination criteria. If the voltage on the BAT pin is less than the internal threshold. as discussed in later sections.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. While in the fast charge state. indicating the pending status of the charger. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. the bq2000 enters the battery conditioning state. This condition indicates the possibility of a defective or shorted battery pack. Battery Voltage Divider and Filter Once the chemistry is determined. the battery is topped off. if required ). the IC enters fast charge. A low-pass filter then smooths out this voltage to present a clean signal to the BAT pin. the IC enters a charge-qualification mode. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage. In an attempt to revive a fully depleted pack. the bq2000 fast-charges NiCd or NiMH batteries using a current-limited algorithm. if the battery temperature is within the VLTF to VHTF range. different scaling is required.ti. the LED pin blinks at a 1Hz rate. Otherwise.com Initiation and Charge Qualification The bq2000 initiates a charge cycle when it detects • Application of power to VCC • Battery replacement • Exit from sleep mode • Capacity depletion (Li-Ion only) Immediately following initiation. VLBAT." the trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistance connected between the RC pin and VSS. 6 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. The bq2000 charge qualification is based on battery voltage and temperature. The BQ2000 will stay in the battery conditioning state indefinitely and will not progress to fast charge until the voltage on the BAT pin is above VLBAT and the temperature is within the VLTF and VHTF range. If the voltage on the BAT pin rises to the internal VMCV reference. As explained in the section "Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge. the bq2000 completes the fast charge with the appropriate charge algorithm (Table 1). This monitoring is further explained in later sections. NiCd and NiMH Batteries Following charge qualification (which includes trickle charge. Following fast charge. the LED pin is pulled low (the LED is on). During charge qualification. Texas Instruments Incorporated . the bq2000 assumes a NiCd/NiMH chemistry.0s. Otherwise. it monitors charge time. Battery Chemistry The bq2000 detects the battery chemistry by monitoring the battery-voltage profile during the initial stage of the fast charge. temperature. The charging cycle ends with a trickle maintenance-charge that continues as long as the voltage on the BAT pin remains below VMCV. As shown in Figure 3. The user can customize the algorithm by programming the device using an external resistor and a capacitor connected to the RC pin. if top-off is selected. the bq2000 enables the MOD pin to trickle-charge at a rate of once every 1. In a mixed-chemistry design. Once battery conditioning (trickle charge) has raised the voltage on the BAT pin above VLBAT.

During the final constant-voltage stage. Charge qualification 2. Charge termination (minimum current. Trickle charge.ti.bq2000 www. Trickle charge. The bq2000 then moves to phase two. Charge termination (peak voltage. There is no post-charge maintenance mode for Li-Ion batteries. and terminates when the charging current falls below the IMIN threshold or the timer expires (whichever happens first). This period is fixed at the programmed value of the maximum charge time (MTO) divided by 32. battery temperature. it monitors the charge current as a termination criterion. the bq2000 regulates constant current until VBAT rises to VMCV. Fast charge (constant voltage) 5. Top-off (optional) 6. Copyright © 2008–2009. Lithium-Ion Charge Algorithm During the current-regulation phase. in addition to the charge time and temperature. Charge qualification 2. Trickle charge 1. the bq2000 monitors charge time. Once VBAT = VMCV. the device identifies the cell as a Li-ion.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Lithium-Ion Batteries The bq2000 uses a two-phase fast-charge algorithm for Li-Ion batteries (Figure 4). In phase one. During this period. if required NiCd or NiMH (VBAT < VMCV always) 3. and battery voltage for adherence to the termination criteria. Fast charge (constant current) 4. maximum charge time = 2 MTO) CHARGE ALGORITHM FAST CHARGE TERMINATION Initial Hold-OFF Period The bq2000 incorporates a user programmable hold-off period to avoid premature fast charge termination that can occur with brand new cells at the very beginning of fast charge. maximum charge time = 1 MTO) 5. regulates the battery with constant voltage of VMCV. the bq2000 avoids early termination due to an initial peak in the battery voltage by disabling the peak voltage-detection (PVD) feature. The values of the external resistor and capacitor connected to the RC pin set the initial hold-off period. and changes the termination method from PVD to minimum current. Charge Algorithm BATTERY CHEMISTRY 1. if required Li-Ion (VBAT ≤ VMCV ) 3. Table 1. Table 1 summarizes the charging process for both Nickel and Li-Ion batteries. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 7 . Fast charge (constant current) 4. A new charge cycle is started if the cell voltage falls below the VRCH threshold. VMCV Charge Qualification IMAX Voltage Current Fast Phase 1 Charge Phase 2 VLBAT Trickle Current IMIN Voltage Time Figure 4.

Texas Instruments Incorporated . Li-Ion) A negative-coefficient thermistor. the bq2000 adds an additional MTO of time to whatever time was left over from the constant current fast charge timer.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. VTS > VLTF. and CMTO in farads. if top-off is enabled. 2 7 VSS bq2000 VCC CMTO RC 6 RMTO Figure 5. then the timer is paused and the IC enters battery conditioning charge until VTS < VLTF. 8 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. If. the LED flashes at the 1 Hz rate. Figure 5 shows a typical connection. during fast charge. may be used as a temperature-sensing device. Since the IC is in the battery conditioning state. Maximum Temperature (NiCd. the timer is reset on the completion of fast charge before beginning top-off charge. and Li-Ion) The bq2000 sets the maximum charge-time through the RC pin. Thus.ti. Once VTS<VLTF. various time-out values may be achieved. the pack could spend longer than 1 MTO in constant-voltage fast charge. but is always limited to 1 MTO in constant-current fast charge. This feature provides the additional charge time required for Li-Ion cells. NiMH. the bq2000 assumes a Nickel chemistry and proceeds to top-off charge (if top-off is enabled) or trickle maintenance charge. See Table 4 and Table 5 for details.988 (2) MTO is measured in minutes. With the proper selection of external resistor and capacitor values. Typical Connection for the RC Input The following equation shows the relationship between the RMTO and CMTO values and the maximum charge time (MTO) for the bq2000: MTO = RMTO ´ CMTO ´ 35. RMTO in ohms. For Nickel cells. If the timer expires while still in constant-current charging. For Li-Ion cells. fast charge restarts and the timer resumes from where it left off with no change in total fast charge time. Figure 6 shows a typical temperature-sensing circuit.com hold-off period = MTO 32 (1) Maximum Charge Time (NiCD. (Note: RMTO and CMTO values also determine other features of the device. when the battery reaches the constant-voltage phase of fast charge. NiMH. referenced to VSS and placed in thermal contact with the battery.

thus allowing proper termination by PVD. the sampling of the BAT pin voltage with the internal ADC only occurs during the constant current regulation phase of fast charge. RB1 + RB2 should be at least 200kΩ and no more than 1MΩ. As shown in Figure 3. Typical VCELL for a nickle pack is between 1. Otherwise. In addition. the bq2000 terminates fast charge. the resistor values RB1 and RB2 are calculated by the following equation: RB1 RB2 æ ö V = ç N ´ CELL ÷ . and turns off the LED.bq2000 www. See Figure 7 for an example.8mV (PVD).1 VMCV ø è (3) where N is the number of cells in series and VCELL is the manufacturer-specified charging voltage. A NiCd or NiMH battery pack consisting of N series cells may benefit by the selection of the RB1 value to be N–1 times larger than the RB2 value. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 9 . VTCO. moves to the charge suspended state. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. representing the battery voltage. per Figure 2. The bq2000 continuously monitors the voltage on the BAT pin. the pack is assumed to be Li-Ion and the BAT pin voltage sampling is disabled. Fast charge is resumed when VTS is less than VLTF. as PVD is not a termination criterion for Lithium cells. In fast charge (either constant current or constant voltage fast charge). when the voltage on the TS pin is higher than VLTF. NiMH) The bq2000 uses a peak-voltage detection (PVD) scheme to terminate fast charge for NiCd and NiMH batteries. the charger enters the battery conditioning state.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 VCC 2 VSS bq2000 VCC 7 RT1 TS 5 RT2 N Battery T Pack C Figure 6. the voltage on the BAT pin and triggers the peak detection feature if this value falls below the maximum sampled value by as much as 3. Peak Voltage (NiCd. the VHTF fault comparator is disabled. It is critical that VCELL be set high enough that the nickle pack not reach voltage regulation. For Li-Ion battery packs. If the cell voltage reaches VMCV. noise-free measurement. Copyright © 2008–2009. VLTF. This sets the per cell regulation voltage (VCELL) equal to VMCV. to ensure that it never exceeds VMCV (maximum cell voltage). During fast charge only.ti. at a rate of MTO/128. When the voltage at the TS pin is lower than VTCO. the bq2000 briefly turns off most circuits (the MOD and RC pins will both go low) in order to get the cleanest possible.7V and 2V. different scaling is required. In a mixed-chemistry design. the bq2000 will resume charging in the trickle maintenance charge state. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage measured at the BAT pin. the bq2000 compares the battery temperature to an internal high-temperature cutoff threshold. it also samples. and a low-temperature threshold. as described in the previous section. While the monitoring of the BAT pin voltage is continuous. In preparation for sampling the BAT pin voltage. When VTS rises above VHTF. Temperature Monitoring Configuration During fast charge.

Once top-off is started. current is delivered to the battery in pulses that occur each second.33 mF D1 RED U1 1 SNS 2 VSS 3 LED 4 BAT C2 0.07µF. and the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ. To disable top-off.4K C8 0.05 W Figure 7. VMCV is reached.1 bq2000 R8 6. the timer is reset and top-off proceeds until the timer expires.com D4 DC+ D3 MMSD914LT S1A C6 47 mF Q1 FMMT718 Q2 MMBT3904LT1 L1 47 mH D2 ZHCS1000 BAT+ D5 MMSD914LT C9 R10 1 KW VCC 1000 PF R12 120 OHMS Q3 MMBT3904LT1 R11 220 W R6 210 KW C5 10 mF D6 BZT52-C5V1 R2 2 KW C3 10 mF C7 4.13µF. The tolerance of the capacitor needs to be taken into account in component selection. For NiCd/NiMH. the CHEMISTRY is tied to BAT2.1 MOD VCC RC TS 100 KW 8 7 6 5 R5 20 KW R9 THERM C1 0. 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger Minimum Current (Li-Ion Only) The bq2000 monitors the charging current during the voltage-regulation phase of Li-Ion batteries.ti. Texas Instruments Incorporated . 10 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. Single-Cell Li-Ion. Top-off may be desirable on batteries that have a tendency to terminate charge before reaching full capacity. the CHEMISTRY is left floating.1K DCNOTES: 1. or there is a temperature fault. DC input voltage: 9–16V 3. the capacitance value of CMTO connected between the RC pin and VCC (Figure 5) should be greater than 0. L1: 3L Global P/N PKSMD-1005-470K-1A R3 0.0022 mF R1 R4 12.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.81 KW CHEMISTRY 221 KW BATR7 200 KW R13 1. During top-off. Once constant-current fast charge has ended.7 PF C4 0. To enable this option. The LED is always off during top-off and trickle maintenance charge. the capacitance value should be less than 0. Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge An optional top-off charge is available for NiCd or NiMH batteries. Fast charge is terminated when the current is tapered off to 14% of the maximum charging current. The fixed pulse width allows an average current of 1/16 of the fast charge current to be delivered to the battery every second. For Li-Ion. the bq2000 either measures the value of the CMTO capacitor (in the case of Nickel batteries) and then proceeds to either top-off or trickle maintenance charge or simply completes the constant-voltage stage of fast charge (in the case of a Li-Ion cell). Charge current: 1A 4.

If the RC pin is at some DC value (usually around 1-2V). the bq2000 trickle-charges the battery by enabling the MOD pin to charge at a rate of once every 1. The typical tolerance of the pulsewidth below 150kΩ is ±10%. (If the RC pin is low for brief instants during fast charge. all charging stops. if there is still time remaining on the timer.kW 150 200 250 Figure 8.ti. but the timer keeps counting. If the RC pin is a sawtooth waveform (similar to Figure 15). or the RC signal could have the appearance of being clipped (flat top or bottom). If there is not time left. Table 2. then the timer is running and the RC pin is considered “active. there is no timer and the RC pin will be at a DC value. the IC is in sleep mode. the bq2000 is sampling the BAT pin for PVD). top-off is suspended. If VTS > VLTF.bq2000 www.” Lastly. the RC pin can be loaded by too large of a C or too small of an R. When VTS > VHTF. top-off is resumed. In top-off. trickle maintenance charge is entered. the RC pin will be counting and will have a sawtooth waveform on it. then the IC has paused the timer or the timer is inactive.0 second. Relationship Between Trickle Pulse-Width and Value of RMTO Note that with an RMTO value around 150 kΩ. Figure 8 shows the relationship between the trickle pulse-width and the value of RMTO. This will sometimes make the usual sawtooth waveform look like a triangle waveform on an oscilloscope (the rise time is lengthened). When VTS falls below VLTF. The timer will be unreliable under these conditions and the bq2000 should not be operated in this manner. If VTS < VTCO. the trickle charge pulse width is nearly identical to the top-off pulse width of 62. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 11 . With RMTO values near 150 kΩ. top-off is resumed. In trickle charge. If the RC pin is low (around VSS potential). since it always operates in one of three modes. The RC pin contains valuable information in determining what state the bq2000 is in. Only trickle maintenance charge may resume after VTS > VHTF.5 ms (1/16 of a second). Following top-off. 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 10 Pulsewidth . If VTS < VHTF. The trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistor RMTO. the timer is paused.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 During top-off.ms Shows Tolerance 50 100 RMTO . The best way to tell if the bq2000 is in top-off or trickle charge is to look at the RC pin when the temperature is between the LTF and HTF. it can be difficult to tell which state the IC is in (top-off or trickle charge). all charging stops. Table 2 summarizes the different states of the RC pin. there are three different temperature faults that can occur. RC Pin Status bq2000 CHARGE STATE Battery absent Sleep mode Charge qualification (including battery conditioning (trickle charge) and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) TS PIN STATE N/A N/A N/A VTS < VLTF VTS > VLTF (in battery conditioning state) RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level Ground (Vss) 1-2V DC level Active 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Copyright © 2008–2009. connected between the RC pin and VSS. and trickle charge is started.

Current-Sensing Circuit RSNS is sized to provide the desired fast-charge current (IMAX).com Table 2. The components that affect the switching frequency are: input voltage. Rf and Cf have the most impact on the switching frequency and are also the components that are easiest to change to adjust the frequency. A hysteresis capacitor (CHYS) is required between the CMOD pin and the SNS pin to add a healthy amount of hysteresis to the current sense signal. The bq2000 modulates the MOD pin to regulate the current and voltage of the pack. RC Pin Status (continued) bq2000 CHARGE STATE TS PIN STATE VTS > VLTF (in trickle maintenance charge state) Top-off charge VLTF > VTS > VHTF VHTF > VTS > VTCO Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete N/A N/A RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Active Active (timer is still counting. the bq2000 switches the MOD output low to shut off charging current to the battery. the cleanliness and quality of the current sense signal being fed to the bq2000). When the SNS voltage is less than VSNSLO or greater than VSNSHI. RSNS. Texas Instruments Incorporated .bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. RSNS value. in series with the battery pack. During trickle maintenance charge. increasing the input 12 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009.ti. inductor value. Charge Current Control The bq2000 implements a hysteretic control loop that regulates the current being delivered to the battery pack to a user programmable value that is set by the value of the RSNS resistor. In general. The bq2000 is designed to remain in trickle maintenance charge forever (excluding the two faults just mentioned) in order to keep a Nickel pack full. The amount of hysteresis can be calculated by examining the capacitive divider formed by CHYS and Cf. even though charging is suspended) 1-2V DC level Active Both top-off and trickle maintenance charge are terminated and the pack never receives any more charge (until a charge initialization occurs) if the voltage on the BAT pin reaches VMCV. and the value of the filter on the current sense signal (Rf and Cf values). the switching frequency of the bq2000 is determined by the values of several of the external circuit components. The bq2000 monitors charge current at the SNS input by sensing the voltage drop across a sense-resistor.05 IMAX = RSNS (4) If the voltage at the SNS pin is greater than VSNSLO or less than VSNSHI. Rf 1 SNS Cf 2 RSNS BAT- VSS bq2000 Power Supply ground bq2000 ground and BAT- Figure 9. as they do not affect anything else in the circuit (besides. A second. 0. See Figure 9 for a typical current-sensing circuit. charging is suspended if VTS < VHTF. hysteresis capacitor value (CHYS). Typical hysteresis values are between 5 and 25 mV. the bq2000 switches the MOD output high to pass charge current to the battery. outer control loop reduces the average current delivered to the pack in order to clamp the voltage at the BAT pin to a maximum of VMCV. It resumes when VTS > VHTF. CHYS Hysteresis (V) = VCC ´ (C HYS + Cf ) (5) Being a hysteretic controller. of course.

RSNS value of 50 mΩ.ti. inductor value of 220 µH. and CHYS value of 4. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 13 . Typical switching frequencies for the bq2000 are between 100 and 200 kHz.kHz Cf = 1000pF 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Rf .7 pF. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show empirical data on the variation in switching frequency based on adjusting Rf and Cf. Switching Frequency vs Capacitance 210 190 fs . though it is possible to achieve switching frequencies in excess of 300kHz. Switching Frequency vs Resistance Copyright © 2008–2009.kHz 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 220 720 1220 1720 2220 2720 3220 3720 4220 Cf .Switching Frequency .bq2000 www.pF Figure 10.Switching Frequency .com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 voltage and/or inductor value or decreasing CHYS and/or the Rf × Cf filter corner frequency will increase the switching frequency. This data was taken with an input voltage of 12V.W Figure 11. 180 160 Rf = 748W fs .

terminates top-off and stops charging During trickle maintenance charge. Table 3 summarizes these various conditions. HTF faults are disabled to allow for a normal increase in pack temperature. terminates fast charge and stops charging. and flashes LED During top-off. stops charging VTS < VHTF Hot battery – checked at all times. Table 3. • Low-temperature fault voltage: VLTF = 0. Texas Instruments Incorporated VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0.225 × VCC. When the voltage falls back below VLTF. This voltage is typically generated by a negative-temperature-coefficient thermistor. During fast charge. no effect VHTF < VTS < VLTF Optimal charging range Allows all stages of charging During charge qualification. If the voltage on the TS pin rises above VLTF. The bq2000 compares this voltage against its internal threshold voltages to determine if charging is safe. Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. These thresholds are the following: • High-temperature cutoff voltage: VTCO = 0.988 0. • High-temperature fault voltage: VHTF = 0. no effect During fast charge. the charger will always be in trickle charge. Summary of NiCd or NiMH Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Top-off charging current (optional) Top-off period (optional) Trickle-charge frequency Trickle-charge pulse-width (1) 14 See the DC Thresholds Specification for details. This voltage corresponds to the maximum temperature (TCO) at which any charging is allowed.5 × VCC RMTO × CMTO × 35. pauses timer. stops charging VTS < VTCO Battery exceeding maximum allowable temperature – checked at all times During fast charge. This voltage corresponds to the minimum temperature (LTF) at which fast charging or top-off is allowed. except during fast charge During fast charge. The bq2000 terminates charging if the voltage on the TS pin falls below VTCO. This voltage corresponds to a maximum allowed pack temperature (HTF) in all states except for fast charge.25 × VCC 0. stops charging VTS > VLTF Cold battery – checked at all times Table 4. stops charging During charge qualification. suspends fast charge and moves into charge qualification.ti.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/16 MTO 1Hz See Figure 8 . turns off LED During top-off. fast charge or top-off resumes from the point where suspended.5 × VCC.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. suspends top-off and moves into trickle maintenance charge and pauses timer During trickle maintenance charge.com TEMPERATURE MONITORING The bq2000 measures the temperature by the voltage at the TS pin. If VTS > VLTF.25 × VCC. no effect During top-off. the bq2000 suspends either fast charge or top-off and begins a trickle charge. Temperature-Monitoring Conditions and Actions TEMPERATURE CONDITION ACTION During charge qualification.225 × VCC 0. stops charging During trickle maintenance charge.

In sleep mode. VSLP. the output voltage will decay to VMCV at which point the bq2000 turns on and pulses the MOD pin several times.5 × VCC 2 × RMTO × CMTO × 35. This mode is enabled when the voltage at the BAT pin is above the low-power-mode threshold. VIN needs to be high enough such that when VIN is present on the output. Charge Status Display bq2000 CHARGE STATE Charge qualification (including battery conditioning and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) Top-off charge Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete Battery absent Sleep mode High impedance 1 Hz flash Low LED STATUS Sleep Mode The bq2000 features a sleep mode for low power consumption. A typical sleep mode waveform is shown in Figure 18. and drives the MOD pin low.988 (See Maximum Charge Time section for full explanation) 0. the bq2000 shuts down all unnecessary internal circuits. In addition. VBAT would be greater than VSLP.225 × VCC 0. the RC pin will be at VSS potential.bq2000 www. Normally. During sleep mode.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Table 5. During sleep mode. drives the LED output to high-impedance state.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/7 1Hz See Figure 8 Charge Status Display The charge status is indicated by open-drain output LED. A temperature fault or timer expiring changes the charge state immediately (according to Figure 2) and will thus change the LED status immediately and accordingly. the output will rise to near VIN at which point the bq2000 re-enters sleep mode. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 15 . Copyright © 2008–2009. Table 6.25 × VCC 0. Restoring BAT below the VMCV threshold initiates the IC and starts a fast-charge cycle. the bq2000 only enters sleep mode when there is no battery connected on the output and the charger is idling with nothing to charge. Summary of Li-Ion Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Minimum current (for fast-charge termination) Trickle-charge frequency (before fast charge only) Trickle-charge pulse-width (before fast charge only) (1) See the DC Thresholds Specification for details. With no battery connected.ti. VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0. Table 6 summarizes the display output of the bq2000.

Battery Removal During Fast Charge Figure 15.ti.0. 1V/div 4 Time .com TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CH1 = RC pin. bq2000 Start-up on Battery Insertion Figure 13. 5V/div CH2 = RC pin.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.5ms/div Figure 14.V CH3 = MOD pin.2s/div Figure 12. 5V/div CH4 = LED pin. 5V/div 1 1 Voltage . 2V/div CH2 = MOD pin. 1V/div Voltage .V CH2 = BAT pin. 5V/div 1 2 CH1 = RC pin.0. 5V/div 3 4 Time .V CH3 = VI.5s/div Time .2s/div Time .0.0. Texas Instruments Incorporated . 5V/div 2 3 2 CH3 = MOD pin. 2V/div 1 2 CH2 = MOD pin. 5V/div 3 4 CH4 = LED pin. bq2000 in Fast Charge 16 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. 5V/div 3 CH4 = LED pin. 1V/div CH1 = VO. 5V/div Voltage .V Voltage . bq2000 Start-up on Vin CH1 = VO. 5V/div CH3 = VO.

V CH3 = MOD pin. 5V/div 2 3 Voltage .1s/div Figure 18. 1V/div CH3 = RC pin. 5V/div CH2 = RC pin. 1V/div 4 2 Time .2ms/div Figure 16. 10V/div 1 Voltage .com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) CH1 = VO. bq2000 in Sleep Mode Copyright © 2008–2009.V CH2 = MOD pin. 5V/div CH4 = LED pin.10ms/div Time . 5V/div Time . bq2000 in Fast Charge Figure 17.V CH2 = BAT pin.bq2000 www.ti. bq2000 Fast Charge SNS and MOD Waveforms CH1 = VO. 20mV/div Voltage . 2V/div 2 3 4 CH4 = MOD pin. 1V/div 1 1 CH1 = SNS pin. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 17 .

................... VLTF Tolerance ...RMTO..........................bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www........................................................................................VTCO.......................... 11 Changes from Revision 4 (February 2000) to Revision 5 • • Page Changed Figure 2 State Diagram .......... VLTF Tolerance .................... 11 Changes from Revision 1 (January 1999) to Revision 2 • • Page Changed Table 4 .......................... Texas Instruments Incorporated .................................................................................................. The data sheet was originally from Benchmark Products...............................................................976 ...................................................................................... 6 Changed MTO equation From: MTO = R x C x 71. 1 Added Figure 2 State Diagram ..............................................................................0..........................................................................................First paragraph From: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 15kΩ To: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ ..............: (checked 1................................ 5 Changed Figure 8 .... 1 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS .....Battery Voltage Divider and Filter ........................................................................................0........ VOH ........ 10 Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ..................... 14 Changed Table 5 ........................................................................................................From: MIN = VCC ............................com REVISION HISTORY Changes from Revision September 1998 (*) to Revision 1 • • • • • • Page Changed the device status From: Preliminary To: Final ....................VBLAT value ....................................VTCO....................... 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger ..... .............................................................Updated tolerance on the curve ... the data sheet was converted to the TI format..........................................From: IOH = 20mA To: IOH = 10mA .. 4 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS ........... 5 Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions.............................................................. 8 Added Figure 8 ....................Battery voltage detail From: (checked at all times) To: Voltage regulation checked constantly.... PVD checked at rate of MTO/64....................Updated requirement for enabling top-off .................................................................. 5 Changed the RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS .................................. VHTF...... In revision D........................................................................................ CMTO Values ..... 1 18 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009.............................. 4 Changed Figure 2 State Diagram ............................................................................................. 15 Page Changes from Revision 2 (March 1999) to Revision 3 • • • • • Added the TSSOP Package option .. VOH .................................................4 at IOH = 10mA ........................................................ 5 Added Figure 3 ....................................... 5 Changed Figure 7 ....... 10 Changes from Revision 6 (January 2008) to Revision D • Page Changed the data sheet format........VBLAT value ........ and a re-write of the data sheet was implemented .............................................................Single-Cell Li-Ion........................................Battery temperature detail From: (checked at all times) To....................................................................................................................................................................................750 times per second) ............................................................ti........................................................................................... 4 Changes from Revision 5 (February 2001) to Revision 6 • Page Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ............ 10 Changes from Revision 3 (May 1999) to Revision 4 • • • Page Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions........2 at IOH = 20mA To: MIN = VCC ................... VHTF.....

com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details. NRND: Not recommended for new designs. (2) Eco Plan . OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. Device is in production to support existing customers. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances. Samples may or may not be available. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.1% by weight in homogeneous material) Addendum-Page 1 . Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt). and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible). and a lifetime-buy period is in effect.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) . including the requirement that lead not exceed 0. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production.ti. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures. TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe.The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS).1% by weight in homogeneous materials.please check http://www.com 11-Apr-2013 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device BQ2000PN-B5 BQ2000PW BQ2000PWG4 BQ2000PWR BQ2000PWRG4 BQ2000SN-B5 BQ2000SN-B5G4 BQ2000SN-B5TR BQ2000SN-B5TRG4 Status (1) Package Type Package Pins Package Drawing Qty PDIP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP SOIC SOIC SOIC SOIC P PW PW PW PW D D D D 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 50 150 150 2000 2000 75 75 2500 2500 Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 Top-Side Markings (4) Samples ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE Pb-Free (RoHS) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) N / A for Pkg Type Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM 2000PN-B5 BQ200 BQ200 BQ200 BQ200 2000 2000 2000 2000 (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.ti.

In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis. Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. Peak Temp. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties.com 11-Apr-2013 (3) MSL.ti. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary. and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release. Addendum-Page 2 . and peak solder temperature.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www. If a line is indented then it is a continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Top-Side Marking for that device. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties. TI has taken and continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals. Only one Top-Side Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device.The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications. (4) Multiple Top-Side Markings will be inside parentheses. -. and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information.

0 B0 (mm) 3.0 W Pin1 (mm) Quadrant 12.ti.com 11-Jun-2013 TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Package Pins Type Drawing TSSOP PW 8 SPQ Reel Reel A0 Diameter Width (mm) (mm) W1 (mm) 330.0 12.0 Q1 BQ2000PWR 2000 Pack Materials-Page 1 .6 K0 (mm) 1.4 7.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.6 P1 (mm) 8.

0 Pack Materials-Page 2 .0 Height (mm) 35.com 11-Jun-2013 *All dimensions are nominal Device BQ2000PWR Package Type TSSOP Package Drawing PW Pins 8 SPQ 2000 Length (mm) 367.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.0 Width (mm) 367.ti.

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