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bq2000

www.ti.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009

Programmable Multi-Chemistry Fast-Charge Management IC
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FEATURES
Safe Management of Fast Charge for NiCd, NiMH, or Li-Ion Battery Packs High-Frequency Switching Controller for Efficient and Simple Charger Design Pre-Charge Qualification for Detecting Shorted, Damaged, or Overheated Cells Fast-Charge Termination by Peak Voltage (PVD) for Nickel chemistries, Minimum Current for Li-Ion chemistries, Maximum Temperature, and Maximum Charge Time Selectable Top-Off Mode for Achieving Maximum Capacity in NiMH Batteries Programmable Trickle-Charge Mode for Reviving Deeply Discharged Batteries and for Postcharge Maintenance Built-in Battery Removal and Insertion Detection Sleep Mode for Low Power Consumption

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GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The bq2000 is a programmable, monolithic IC for fast-charge management of nickel cadmium (NiCd), nickel metal-hydride (NiMH), or lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries in single- or multi-chemistry applications. The bq2000 chooses the proper battery chemistry (either nickel or lithium) and proceeds with the optimal charging and termination algorithms. This process eliminates undesirable, undercharged, or overcharged conditions, and allows accurate and safe termination of fast charge Depending on the chemistry, the bq2000 provides a number of charge termination criteria: • Peak voltage, PVD (for NiCd and NiMH) • Minimum charge current (for Li-Ion) • Maximum temperature • Maximum charge time For safety, the bq2000 inhibits fast charge until the battery voltage and temperature are within user-defined limits. If the battery voltage is below the low-voltage threshold, the bq2000 uses trickle-charge to condition the battery. For NiMH batteries, the bq2000 provides an optional top-off charge to maximize the battery capacity. The integrated high-speed comparator allows the bq2000 to be the basis for a complete, high-efficiency battery charger circuit for both nickel-based and lithium-based chemistries.

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APPLICATIONS
• • • Multi-Chemistry Charger Nickel Charger High-Power, Multi-Cell Charger

8-Pin DIP or Narrow SOIC or TSSOP
SNS VSS LED BAT
1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5

spacer between para and illustration Pin Names SNS Current-sense input System ground Charge-status output Battery-voltage input Temperature-sense input Timer-program input Supply-voltage input Modulation-control output VSS LED BAT TS RC VCC MOD

MOD VCC RC TS

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Please be aware that an important notice concerning availability, standard warranty, and use in critical applications of Texas Instruments semiconductor products and disclaimers thereto appears at the end of this data sheet.
PRODUCTION DATA information is current as of publication date. Products conform to specifications per the terms of the Texas Instruments standard warranty. Production processing does not necessarily include testing of all parameters.

Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

bq2000
SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.ti.com

These devices have limited built-in ESD protection. The leads should be shorted together or the device placed in conductive foam during storage or handling to prevent electrostatic damage to the MOS gates.

PIN DESCRIPTIONS
SNS Current-sense input Enables the bq2000 to sense the battery current via the voltage developed on this pin by an external sense-resistor connected in series with the battery pack VSS LED System Ground Connect to the battery’s negative terminal Charge-status output Open-drain output that indicates the charging status by turning on, turning off, or flashing an external LED, driven through a resistor. BAT Battery-voltage input Battery-voltage sense input. A simple resistive divider, across the battery terminals, generates this input. TS Temperature-sense input Input for an external battery-temperature monitoring circuit. An external resistive divider network with a negative temperature-coefficient thermistor sets the lower and upper temperature thresholds. RC Timer-program input Used to program the maximum fast charge-time, maximum top-off charge-time, hold-off period, trickle charge rate, and to disable or enable top-off charge. A capcitor from VCC and a resistor to ground connect to this pin. VCC MOD Supply-voltage input Recommended bypassing is 10µF + 0.1µF to 0.22µF of decoupling capacitance near the pin. Modulation-control output Push-pull output that controls the charging current to the battery. MOD switches high to enable charging current to flow and low to inhibit charging-current flow.

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Copyright © 2008–2009, Texas Instruments Incorporated

ti. multi-chemistry battery charge control device. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 3 .com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION The bq2000 is a versatile. TS Voltage Reference Voltage Comparators 3x BAT ADC PVD ALU OSC Clock Phase Generator Timer Charge Control LED RC Internal OSC Voltage Comparators MOD SNS VCC VSS Figure 1.bq2000 www. Functional Block Diagram Copyright © 2008–2009. See Figure 1 for a functional block diagram and Figure 2 for a state diagram.

ti. Figure 2. or Time = 2 x MTO or VTS < VTCO VTS > VHTF Top-Off VBAT ≥ VMCV Done VTS < VHTF VTS < VHTF VBAT ≥ VMCV Charge Suspended (See Note) VTS > VHTF and Time < MTO VCC Reset or Battery Replacement or Capacity Depletion (Li-lon) NOTE: If VTS < VTCO at any time. or VTS < VTCO or Time = MTO Time < MTO and VBAT reaches VMCV Trickle Maintenance Charge VTS > VLTF VTS < VLTF and Time < MTO Time = MTO NO Top-Off Selected? YES VTS > VLTF Voltage Regulation Current Taper (IBAT < Imin). PVD checked at rate of MTO/128.) VMCV < VBAT < VSLP Charge Qualification State VTS < VHTF VBAT < VLBAT or VTS > VLTF VTS > VLTF VLBAT < VBAT < VMCV and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Fast Charge State Battery Conditioning VLBAT < VBAT and VHTF < VTS < VLTF Current Regulation PVD (after hold-off period).bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. State Diagram 4 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. may only return to Trickle Maintenance Charge state and not to Top-Off. Texas Instruments Incorporated .0 V < VCC < 6.com VCC Reset or Battery Replacement at any time 4.0 V Charge Initialization VBAT < VSLP Sleep Mode VSLP < VBAT < VCC VBAT < VMCV VTS > VHTF Charge Suspended VTS < VHTF Battery Temperature (Temperature at TS pin checked continuously) Battery Voltage (Voltage at BAT pin checked continuously.

IOH = 10 mA MOD.) –0.5 V prohibited MOD.5 MAX 6 1 5 VCC UNIT V mA µA V V V µA mA kΩ µF IMPEDANCE PARAMETER RBAT RTS RSNS Battery input impedance TS input impedance SNS input impedance MIN 10 10 10 TYP MAX UNIT MΩ MΩ MΩ TIMING TA = TOPR.00 950 3. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 5 .225 × VCC 0.25 × VCC 0.1 Hz UNIT Copyright © 2008–2009.ti.3 to 7 –0. LED.8 50 –50 VCC–1 VMCV–0. RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS over operating free-air temperature range (unless otherwise noted) TEST CONDITIONS VCC ICC ICCS VTS VOH VOL IOZ Isnk RMTO CMTO Supply voltage Supply current Sleep current Thermistor input Output high input Output low input High-impedance leakage current Sink current Charge timer resistor Charge timer capacitor Exclusive of external loads VBAT = VSLPM VTS < 0.2 5 20 250 1 MIN 4 TYP 5 0.9 1 TYP MAX 5% 1.1 TOLERANCE ±5% ±5% ±5% ±0. IOL = 10 mA LED MOD.5 VCC–0.5 ±0. VCC = 5V ±20% (unless otherwise specified) PARAMETER VTCO VHTF VLTF VMCV VLBAT PVD VSNSHI VSNSLO VSLP VRCH Temperature cutoff High-temperature fault Low-temperature fault Maximum cell voltage Minimum cell voltage BAT input change for PVD detection High threshold at SNS Low threshold at SNS Sleep-mode input threshold Recharge threshold TEST CONDITIONS Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the TS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the SNS pin Voltage at the BAT pin Voltage at the BAT pin TYPICAL 0. VCC = 5 V ±20% (unless otherwise noted) PARAMETER dMTO fTRKL MTO time-base variation Pulse-trickle frequency MIN –5% 0.001 0.4 0.5 × VCC 2.3 to VCC –20 to 70 –40 to 125 260 UNIT V V °C °C °C Permanent device damage may occur if Absolute Maximum Ratings are exceeded.02 UNIT V V V V mV mV mV mV V V (1) All voltages are relative to VSS except as noted. DC THRESHOLDS (1) TA = TOPR.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS (1) VALUE VCC VT TOPR TSTG TSOLDER (1) VCC relative to VSS DC voltage applied on any pin.75% ±5% ±20% ±10 ±10 ±0. Functional operation should be limited to the Recommended DC Operating Conditions detailed in this data sheet. Exposure to conditions beyond the operational limits for extended periods of time may affect device reliability. relative to VSS Operating ambient temperature Storage temperature Soldering temperature (10 s max.bq2000 www. LED 2 0.

This monitoring is further explained in later sections. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. if the battery temperature is within the VLTF to VHTF range. different scaling is required. In a mixed-chemistry design. the bq2000 enters the battery conditioning state. While in the fast charge state. This condition indicates the possibility of a defective or shorted battery pack. temperature. 6 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. Battery Voltage Divider and Filter Once the chemistry is determined. indicating the pending status of the charger. the battery is topped off. In an attempt to revive a fully depleted pack. Texas Instruments Incorporated . As explained in the section "Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge. the IC assumes a Li-Ion battery. BAT+ 2 VSS bq2000 4 BAT RB2 RB1 Figure 3. During the fast-charge period. and voltage for adherence to the termination criteria." the trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistance connected between the RC pin and VSS. the LED pin is pulled low (the LED is on). The bq2000 charge qualification is based on battery voltage and temperature. the bq2000 assumes a NiCd/NiMH chemistry. the bq2000 enables the MOD pin to trickle-charge at a rate of once every 1. No timer is implemented during battery conditioning.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. Battery Chemistry The bq2000 detects the battery chemistry by monitoring the battery-voltage profile during the initial stage of the fast charge. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage. NiCd and NiMH Batteries Following charge qualification (which includes trickle charge. it monitors charge time. Otherwise. If the voltage on the BAT pin is less than the internal threshold. the IC enters a charge-qualification mode.ti. The charging cycle ends with a trickle maintenance-charge that continues as long as the voltage on the BAT pin remains below VMCV.com Initiation and Charge Qualification The bq2000 initiates a charge cycle when it detects • Application of power to VCC • Battery replacement • Exit from sleep mode • Capacity depletion (Li-Ion only) Immediately following initiation. the IC enters fast charge. as discussed in later sections. If the voltage on the BAT pin rises to the internal VMCV reference. Following fast charge. the LED pin blinks at a 1Hz rate. A low-pass filter then smooths out this voltage to present a clean signal to the BAT pin. The user can customize the algorithm by programming the device using an external resistor and a capacitor connected to the RC pin. As shown in Figure 3. Otherwise.0s. the bq2000 fast-charges NiCd or NiMH batteries using a current-limited algorithm. if top-off is selected. During charge qualification. Once battery conditioning (trickle charge) has raised the voltage on the BAT pin above VLBAT. if required ). the bq2000 completes the fast charge with the appropriate charge algorithm (Table 1). VLBAT. The BQ2000 will stay in the battery conditioning state indefinitely and will not progress to fast charge until the voltage on the BAT pin is above VLBAT and the temperature is within the VLTF and VHTF range.

in addition to the charge time and temperature. Charge qualification 2. Charge termination (peak voltage. Lithium-Ion Charge Algorithm During the current-regulation phase. and changes the termination method from PVD to minimum current. Fast charge (constant current) 4. The bq2000 then moves to phase two. Trickle charge. Top-off (optional) 6. In phase one. the bq2000 monitors charge time. Trickle charge. During this period. During the final constant-voltage stage. and battery voltage for adherence to the termination criteria. Fast charge (constant current) 4. regulates the battery with constant voltage of VMCV. Charge qualification 2.ti. Trickle charge 1.bq2000 www. the device identifies the cell as a Li-ion. There is no post-charge maintenance mode for Li-Ion batteries. This period is fixed at the programmed value of the maximum charge time (MTO) divided by 32. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 7 . the bq2000 regulates constant current until VBAT rises to VMCV. VMCV Charge Qualification IMAX Voltage Current Fast Phase 1 Charge Phase 2 VLBAT Trickle Current IMIN Voltage Time Figure 4. maximum charge time = 2 MTO) CHARGE ALGORITHM FAST CHARGE TERMINATION Initial Hold-OFF Period The bq2000 incorporates a user programmable hold-off period to avoid premature fast charge termination that can occur with brand new cells at the very beginning of fast charge. and terminates when the charging current falls below the IMIN threshold or the timer expires (whichever happens first). maximum charge time = 1 MTO) 5. if required NiCd or NiMH (VBAT < VMCV always) 3. A new charge cycle is started if the cell voltage falls below the VRCH threshold. Table 1. Copyright © 2008–2009. Once VBAT = VMCV. Table 1 summarizes the charging process for both Nickel and Li-Ion batteries. battery temperature. it monitors the charge current as a termination criterion. if required Li-Ion (VBAT ≤ VMCV ) 3. The values of the external resistor and capacitor connected to the RC pin set the initial hold-off period. the bq2000 avoids early termination due to an initial peak in the battery voltage by disabling the peak voltage-detection (PVD) feature. Charge Algorithm BATTERY CHEMISTRY 1. Charge termination (minimum current. Fast charge (constant voltage) 5.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Lithium-Ion Batteries The bq2000 uses a two-phase fast-charge algorithm for Li-Ion batteries (Figure 4).

when the battery reaches the constant-voltage phase of fast charge. RMTO in ohms. if top-off is enabled. during fast charge. may be used as a temperature-sensing device. Thus. If the timer expires while still in constant-current charging. If. See Table 4 and Table 5 for details. Typical Connection for the RC Input The following equation shows the relationship between the RMTO and CMTO values and the maximum charge time (MTO) for the bq2000: MTO = RMTO ´ CMTO ´ 35.ti. the pack could spend longer than 1 MTO in constant-voltage fast charge. referenced to VSS and placed in thermal contact with the battery. Texas Instruments Incorporated . and CMTO in farads. For Li-Ion cells. the bq2000 assumes a Nickel chemistry and proceeds to top-off charge (if top-off is enabled) or trickle maintenance charge. fast charge restarts and the timer resumes from where it left off with no change in total fast charge time. VTS > VLTF. This feature provides the additional charge time required for Li-Ion cells. Li-Ion) A negative-coefficient thermistor. Maximum Temperature (NiCd. NiMH.988 (2) MTO is measured in minutes. the LED flashes at the 1 Hz rate. Figure 6 shows a typical temperature-sensing circuit. but is always limited to 1 MTO in constant-current fast charge. Once VTS<VLTF. various time-out values may be achieved.com hold-off period = MTO 32 (1) Maximum Charge Time (NiCD. (Note: RMTO and CMTO values also determine other features of the device. For Nickel cells. and Li-Ion) The bq2000 sets the maximum charge-time through the RC pin. Since the IC is in the battery conditioning state. then the timer is paused and the IC enters battery conditioning charge until VTS < VLTF. 2 7 VSS bq2000 VCC CMTO RC 6 RMTO Figure 5. Figure 5 shows a typical connection. the bq2000 adds an additional MTO of time to whatever time was left over from the constant current fast charge timer. the timer is reset on the completion of fast charge before beginning top-off charge. With the proper selection of external resistor and capacitor values. 8 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. NiMH.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.

As shown in Figure 3. Typical VCELL for a nickle pack is between 1.bq2000 www. See Figure 7 for an example. In a mixed-chemistry design. Copyright © 2008–2009. when the voltage on the TS pin is higher than VLTF. If the cell voltage reaches VMCV. the VHTF fault comparator is disabled. the charger enters the battery conditioning state. and turns off the LED.7V and 2V. For Li-Ion battery packs. different scaling is required. the voltage on the BAT pin and triggers the peak detection feature if this value falls below the maximum sampled value by as much as 3. In preparation for sampling the BAT pin voltage. thus allowing proper termination by PVD.ti. at a rate of MTO/128. When the voltage at the TS pin is lower than VTCO. a common voltage-divider is used as long as the maximum charge voltage of the nickel-based pack is below that of the Li-Ion pack. During fast charge only. the bq2000 will resume charging in the trickle maintenance charge state. It is critical that VCELL be set high enough that the nickle pack not reach voltage regulation. the bq2000 compares the battery temperature to an internal high-temperature cutoff threshold. as described in the previous section. VLTF. it also samples. moves to the charge suspended state. This sets the per cell regulation voltage (VCELL) equal to VMCV. Fast charge is resumed when VTS is less than VLTF. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 9 . A NiCd or NiMH battery pack consisting of N series cells may benefit by the selection of the RB1 value to be N–1 times larger than the RB2 value. the resistor values RB1 and RB2 are calculated by the following equation: RB1 RB2 æ ö V = ç N ´ CELL ÷ . Temperature Monitoring Configuration During fast charge. While the monitoring of the BAT pin voltage is continuous.8mV (PVD). In addition. a resistor voltage-divider between the battery pack's positive terminal and VSS scales the battery voltage measured at the BAT pin. and a low-temperature threshold. When VTS rises above VHTF. VTCO. the bq2000 terminates fast charge. In fast charge (either constant current or constant voltage fast charge).com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 VCC 2 VSS bq2000 VCC 7 RT1 TS 5 RT2 N Battery T Pack C Figure 6. Otherwise. noise-free measurement. The bq2000 continuously monitors the voltage on the BAT pin. representing the battery voltage. Peak Voltage (NiCd. NiMH) The bq2000 uses a peak-voltage detection (PVD) scheme to terminate fast charge for NiCd and NiMH batteries. the sampling of the BAT pin voltage with the internal ADC only occurs during the constant current regulation phase of fast charge. the pack is assumed to be Li-Ion and the BAT pin voltage sampling is disabled. RB1 + RB2 should be at least 200kΩ and no more than 1MΩ. per Figure 2.1 VMCV ø è (3) where N is the number of cells in series and VCELL is the manufacturer-specified charging voltage. the bq2000 briefly turns off most circuits (the MOD and RC pins will both go low) in order to get the cleanest possible. to ensure that it never exceeds VMCV (maximum cell voltage). as PVD is not a termination criterion for Lithium cells.

the capacitance value should be less than 0. L1: 3L Global P/N PKSMD-1005-470K-1A R3 0.1 bq2000 R8 6.1 MOD VCC RC TS 100 KW 8 7 6 5 R5 20 KW R9 THERM C1 0.7 PF C4 0.1K DCNOTES: 1. The LED is always off during top-off and trickle maintenance charge. The tolerance of the capacitor needs to be taken into account in component selection.13µF.ti. For Li-Ion. Single-Cell Li-Ion. current is delivered to the battery in pulses that occur each second. 10 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. To enable this option. the CHEMISTRY is tied to BAT2. Fast charge is terminated when the current is tapered off to 14% of the maximum charging current. The fixed pulse width allows an average current of 1/16 of the fast charge current to be delivered to the battery every second. the capacitance value of CMTO connected between the RC pin and VCC (Figure 5) should be greater than 0.05 W Figure 7. For NiCd/NiMH. the timer is reset and top-off proceeds until the timer expires. DC input voltage: 9–16V 3. 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger Minimum Current (Li-Ion Only) The bq2000 monitors the charging current during the voltage-regulation phase of Li-Ion batteries. Once top-off is started. or there is a temperature fault. To disable top-off.81 KW CHEMISTRY 221 KW BATR7 200 KW R13 1.33 mF D1 RED U1 1 SNS 2 VSS 3 LED 4 BAT C2 0. Once constant-current fast charge has ended. Texas Instruments Incorporated . Top-off may be desirable on batteries that have a tendency to terminate charge before reaching full capacity.com D4 DC+ D3 MMSD914LT S1A C6 47 mF Q1 FMMT718 Q2 MMBT3904LT1 L1 47 mH D2 ZHCS1000 BAT+ D5 MMSD914LT C9 R10 1 KW VCC 1000 PF R12 120 OHMS Q3 MMBT3904LT1 R11 220 W R6 210 KW C5 10 mF D6 BZT52-C5V1 R2 2 KW C3 10 mF C7 4.4K C8 0.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. the CHEMISTRY is left floating. VMCV is reached.07µF.0022 mF R1 R4 12. the bq2000 either measures the value of the CMTO capacitor (in the case of Nickel batteries) and then proceeds to either top-off or trickle maintenance charge or simply completes the constant-voltage stage of fast charge (in the case of a Li-Ion cell). During top-off. and the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ. Charge current: 1A 4. Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge An optional top-off charge is available for NiCd or NiMH batteries.

With RMTO values near 150 kΩ. If VTS > VLTF. Table 2 summarizes the different states of the RC pin. The best way to tell if the bq2000 is in top-off or trickle charge is to look at the RC pin when the temperature is between the LTF and HTF. If the RC pin is a sawtooth waveform (similar to Figure 15). This will sometimes make the usual sawtooth waveform look like a triangle waveform on an oscilloscope (the rise time is lengthened). connected between the RC pin and VSS. Figure 8 shows the relationship between the trickle pulse-width and the value of RMTO.kW 150 200 250 Figure 8. When VTS > VHTF. if there is still time remaining on the timer. Relationship Between Trickle Pulse-Width and Value of RMTO Note that with an RMTO value around 150 kΩ. If VTS < VHTF. Following top-off. the IC is in sleep mode. all charging stops. (If the RC pin is low for brief instants during fast charge. If the RC pin is low (around VSS potential). Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 11 . all charging stops.5 ms (1/16 of a second). The typical tolerance of the pulsewidth below 150kΩ is ±10%. but the timer keeps counting. and trickle charge is started.” Lastly. or the RC signal could have the appearance of being clipped (flat top or bottom). then the IC has paused the timer or the timer is inactive. since it always operates in one of three modes. The timer will be unreliable under these conditions and the bq2000 should not be operated in this manner. The trickle pulse-width is user-selectable and is set by the value of the resistor RMTO. In top-off. top-off is resumed. If the RC pin is at some DC value (usually around 1-2V).ti. it can be difficult to tell which state the IC is in (top-off or trickle charge). top-off is resumed. the RC pin will be counting and will have a sawtooth waveform on it. there is no timer and the RC pin will be at a DC value. RC Pin Status bq2000 CHARGE STATE Battery absent Sleep mode Charge qualification (including battery conditioning (trickle charge) and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) TS PIN STATE N/A N/A N/A VTS < VLTF VTS > VLTF (in battery conditioning state) RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level Ground (Vss) 1-2V DC level Active 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Copyright © 2008–2009. the bq2000 trickle-charges the battery by enabling the MOD pin to charge at a rate of once every 1.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 During top-off. then the timer is running and the RC pin is considered “active.0 second. the timer is paused. If VTS < VTCO. Table 2. top-off is suspended. In trickle charge. the RC pin can be loaded by too large of a C or too small of an R. The RC pin contains valuable information in determining what state the bq2000 is in. the trickle charge pulse width is nearly identical to the top-off pulse width of 62. the bq2000 is sampling the BAT pin for PVD). there are three different temperature faults that can occur. trickle maintenance charge is entered. Only trickle maintenance charge may resume after VTS > VHTF.bq2000 www. 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 10 Pulsewidth .ms Shows Tolerance 50 100 RMTO . If there is not time left. When VTS falls below VLTF.

the bq2000 switches the MOD output high to pass charge current to the battery. CHYS Hysteresis (V) = VCC ´ (C HYS + Cf ) (5) Being a hysteretic controller.ti. the switching frequency of the bq2000 is determined by the values of several of the external circuit components. In general. RSNS. as they do not affect anything else in the circuit (besides. RSNS value. the bq2000 switches the MOD output low to shut off charging current to the battery. See Figure 9 for a typical current-sensing circuit. charging is suspended if VTS < VHTF. inductor value. and the value of the filter on the current sense signal (Rf and Cf values). A hysteresis capacitor (CHYS) is required between the CMOD pin and the SNS pin to add a healthy amount of hysteresis to the current sense signal.05 IMAX = RSNS (4) If the voltage at the SNS pin is greater than VSNSLO or less than VSNSHI. Current-Sensing Circuit RSNS is sized to provide the desired fast-charge current (IMAX). Texas Instruments Incorporated . The components that affect the switching frequency are: input voltage. 0. During trickle maintenance charge. Typical hysteresis values are between 5 and 25 mV. The bq2000 monitors charge current at the SNS input by sensing the voltage drop across a sense-resistor. When the SNS voltage is less than VSNSLO or greater than VSNSHI. RC Pin Status (continued) bq2000 CHARGE STATE TS PIN STATE VTS > VLTF (in trickle maintenance charge state) Top-off charge VLTF > VTS > VHTF VHTF > VTS > VTCO Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete N/A N/A RC PIN BEHAVIOR 1-2V DC level (timer is paused and will resume when VTS < VLTF) Active Active (timer is still counting. hysteresis capacitor value (CHYS). A second. The amount of hysteresis can be calculated by examining the capacitive divider formed by CHYS and Cf. the cleanliness and quality of the current sense signal being fed to the bq2000). Charge Current Control The bq2000 implements a hysteretic control loop that regulates the current being delivered to the battery pack to a user programmable value that is set by the value of the RSNS resistor. increasing the input 12 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. in series with the battery pack. of course. The bq2000 is designed to remain in trickle maintenance charge forever (excluding the two faults just mentioned) in order to keep a Nickel pack full. Rf and Cf have the most impact on the switching frequency and are also the components that are easiest to change to adjust the frequency. outer control loop reduces the average current delivered to the pack in order to clamp the voltage at the BAT pin to a maximum of VMCV.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. It resumes when VTS > VHTF. Rf 1 SNS Cf 2 RSNS BAT- VSS bq2000 Power Supply ground bq2000 ground and BAT- Figure 9. The bq2000 modulates the MOD pin to regulate the current and voltage of the pack. even though charging is suspended) 1-2V DC level Active Both top-off and trickle maintenance charge are terminated and the pack never receives any more charge (until a charge initialization occurs) if the voltage on the BAT pin reaches VMCV.com Table 2.

and CHYS value of 4. Typical switching frequencies for the bq2000 are between 100 and 200 kHz. inductor value of 220 µH.Switching Frequency . 180 160 Rf = 748W fs . This data was taken with an input voltage of 12V.bq2000 www. Switching Frequency vs Resistance Copyright © 2008–2009.W Figure 11. Figure 10 and Figure 11 show empirical data on the variation in switching frequency based on adjusting Rf and Cf.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 voltage and/or inductor value or decreasing CHYS and/or the Rf × Cf filter corner frequency will increase the switching frequency.kHz 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 220 720 1220 1720 2220 2720 3220 3720 4220 Cf . RSNS value of 50 mΩ.kHz Cf = 1000pF 170 150 130 110 90 70 50 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Rf .Switching Frequency . Switching Frequency vs Capacitance 210 190 fs . Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 13 . though it is possible to achieve switching frequencies in excess of 300kHz.pF Figure 10.7 pF.ti.

5 × VCC RMTO × CMTO × 35. Summary of NiCd or NiMH Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Top-off charging current (optional) Top-off period (optional) Trickle-charge frequency Trickle-charge pulse-width (1) 14 See the DC Thresholds Specification for details. Texas Instruments Incorporated VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0. If VTS > VLTF. pauses timer. These thresholds are the following: • High-temperature cutoff voltage: VTCO = 0. The bq2000 terminates charging if the voltage on the TS pin falls below VTCO. no effect During fast charge. stops charging VTS > VLTF Cold battery – checked at all times Table 4. • Low-temperature fault voltage: VLTF = 0. turns off LED During top-off. stops charging During charge qualification. terminates fast charge and stops charging. • High-temperature fault voltage: VHTF = 0. HTF faults are disabled to allow for a normal increase in pack temperature. the charger will always be in trickle charge. During fast charge. suspends fast charge and moves into charge qualification.com TEMPERATURE MONITORING The bq2000 measures the temperature by the voltage at the TS pin. If the voltage on the TS pin rises above VLTF. terminates top-off and stops charging During trickle maintenance charge. Table 3.25 × VCC. Table 3 summarizes these various conditions.bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www.ti.225 × VCC 0. This voltage corresponds to the maximum temperature (TCO) at which any charging is allowed. and flashes LED During top-off. The bq2000 compares this voltage against its internal threshold voltages to determine if charging is safe. This voltage is typically generated by a negative-temperature-coefficient thermistor. Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. the bq2000 suspends either fast charge or top-off and begins a trickle charge. fast charge or top-off resumes from the point where suspended. stops charging VTS < VHTF Hot battery – checked at all times. When the voltage falls back below VLTF. This voltage corresponds to the minimum temperature (LTF) at which fast charging or top-off is allowed. no effect During top-off. no effect VHTF < VTS < VLTF Optimal charging range Allows all stages of charging During charge qualification.25 × VCC 0.988 0.5 × VCC. stops charging During trickle maintenance charge. Temperature-Monitoring Conditions and Actions TEMPERATURE CONDITION ACTION During charge qualification. suspends top-off and moves into trickle maintenance charge and pauses timer During trickle maintenance charge. stops charging VTS < VTCO Battery exceeding maximum allowable temperature – checked at all times During fast charge.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/16 MTO 1Hz See Figure 8 . This voltage corresponds to a maximum allowed pack temperature (HTF) in all states except for fast charge. except during fast charge During fast charge.225 × VCC.

25 × VCC 0.988 (See Maximum Charge Time section for full explanation) 0. the bq2000 shuts down all unnecessary internal circuits. VBAT would be greater than VSLP. Normally. Charge Status Display bq2000 CHARGE STATE Charge qualification (including battery conditioning and charge suspended) Fast charge (current and voltage regulation) Top-off charge Trickle maintenance charge (after fast charge) Charge complete Battery absent Sleep mode High impedance 1 Hz flash Low LED STATUS Sleep Mode The bq2000 features a sleep mode for low power consumption. During sleep mode. VSLP. Summary of Li-Ion Charging Characteristics PARAMETER Maximum cell voltage (VMCV) Minimum pre-charge qualification voltage (VLBAT) High-temperature cutoff voltage (VTCO) High-temperature fault voltage (VHTF) Low-temperature fault voltage (VLTF) bq2000 fast-charge maximum time out (MTO) Fast-charge charging current (IMAX) Hold-off period Minimum current (for fast-charge termination) Trickle-charge frequency (before fast charge only) Trickle-charge pulse-width (before fast charge only) (1) See the DC Thresholds Specification for details. In addition.bq2000 www. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 15 . drives the LED output to high-impedance state. A temperature fault or timer expiring changes the charge state immediately (according to Figure 2) and will thus change the LED status immediately and accordingly. During sleep mode. and drives the MOD pin low. Copyright © 2008–2009.05/RSNS MTO/32 IMAX/7 1Hz See Figure 8 Charge Status Display The charge status is indicated by open-drain output LED. VALUE (1) 2V 950 mV 0. the output will rise to near VIN at which point the bq2000 re-enters sleep mode. the output voltage will decay to VMCV at which point the bq2000 turns on and pulses the MOD pin several times. In sleep mode. A typical sleep mode waveform is shown in Figure 18. This mode is enabled when the voltage at the BAT pin is above the low-power-mode threshold. the bq2000 only enters sleep mode when there is no battery connected on the output and the charger is idling with nothing to charge.225 × VCC 0. the RC pin will be at VSS potential. Table 6 summarizes the display output of the bq2000.ti. VIN needs to be high enough such that when VIN is present on the output. Table 6. With no battery connected. Restoring BAT below the VMCV threshold initiates the IC and starts a fast-charge cycle.5 × VCC 2 × RMTO × CMTO × 35.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 Table 5.

V CH2 = BAT pin. bq2000 Start-up on Vin CH1 = VO. 5V/div CH4 = LED pin. 5V/div Voltage . 5V/div 3 4 CH4 = LED pin.2s/div Figure 12. 5V/div 3 4 Time . 2V/div 1 2 CH2 = MOD pin.0.5ms/div Figure 14. bq2000 in Fast Charge 16 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009. 5V/div CH3 = VO.5s/div Time .2s/div Time .0. Battery Removal During Fast Charge Figure 15. 1V/div 4 Time .bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www. 1V/div CH1 = VO. 5V/div 2 3 2 CH3 = MOD pin.com TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS CH1 = RC pin.V CH3 = VI.0. 5V/div 1 2 CH1 = RC pin. 2V/div CH2 = MOD pin.V CH3 = MOD pin.V Voltage .0. bq2000 Start-up on Battery Insertion Figure 13. 5V/div CH2 = RC pin. 1V/div Voltage . Texas Instruments Incorporated . 5V/div 1 1 Voltage .ti. 5V/div 3 CH4 = LED pin.

bq2000 in Sleep Mode Copyright © 2008–2009. 2V/div 2 3 4 CH4 = MOD pin. 5V/div CH4 = LED pin. bq2000 in Fast Charge Figure 17.V CH2 = BAT pin. Texas Instruments Incorporated Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 17 . 20mV/div Voltage .ti.V CH3 = MOD pin. bq2000 Fast Charge SNS and MOD Waveforms CH1 = VO.bq2000 www. 10V/div 1 Voltage .10ms/div Time . 1V/div CH3 = RC pin. 1V/div 4 2 Time .V CH2 = MOD pin.1s/div Figure 18. 5V/div Time .2ms/div Figure 16. 5V/div CH2 = RC pin.com SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) CH1 = VO. 5V/div 2 3 Voltage . 1V/div 1 1 CH1 = SNS pin.

..................................................................... In revision D.............................................................. the data sheet was converted to the TI format... 4 Changed Figure 2 State Diagram ............. VHTF... 1 18 Submit Documentation Feedback Product Folder Link(s): bq2000 Copyright © 2008–2009......................................976 ....... 5 Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions...................................... 10 Changes from Revision 3 (May 1999) to Revision 4 • • • Page Changed Rec DC Operating Conditions............................................................................RMTO...........................................................Single-Cell Li-Ion........... and a re-write of the data sheet was implemented .. 5 Changed Figure 7 .........................................................................................From: IOH = 20mA To: IOH = 10mA ................................................................................... VLTF Tolerance ..............VTCO..................................................................................................................Battery Voltage Divider and Filter .............: (checked 1......................................................... 11 Changes from Revision 4 (February 2000) to Revision 5 • • Page Changed Figure 2 State Diagram ........................................... 1 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS ................ 15 Page Changes from Revision 2 (March 1999) to Revision 3 • • • • • Added the TSSOP Package option ..................................................... 11 Changes from Revision 1 (January 1999) to Revision 2 • • Page Changed Table 4 .........................................bq2000 SLUS138D – JANUARY 2008 – REVISED DECEMBER 2009 www............................. VHTF......... 10 Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ............................................ 8 Added Figure 8 ....... PVD checked at rate of MTO/64................................................................ ..4 at IOH = 10mA . VOH ..................................................com REVISION HISTORY Changes from Revision September 1998 (*) to Revision 1 • • • • • • Page Changed the device status From: Preliminary To: Final ............................................Updated tolerance on the curve ... 4 Changed the DC THRESHOLDS ..........................VTCO................................. 5 Changed Figure 8 ................Updated requirement for enabling top-off ....2 at IOH = 20mA To: MIN = VCC .......... 5 Changed the RECOMMENDED DC OPERATING CONDITIONS ........................................0................ Texas Instruments Incorporated ................................................. CMTO Values ................................................................................................VBLAT value .....................................................................................................................0.......................Battery voltage detail From: (checked at all times) To: Voltage regulation checked constantly.................................... 6 Changed MTO equation From: MTO = R x C x 71....... The data sheet was originally from Benchmark Products............................. VOH .......... 4 Changes from Revision 5 (February 2001) to Revision 6 • Page Changed the Top-Off and Pulse-Trickle Maintenance Charge section ................................ 14 Changed Table 5 .......................................... 1 Added Figure 2 State Diagram .................First paragraph From: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 15kΩ To: the value of the resistor connected to this pin should be less than 250kΩ ............................................................................... 10 Changes from Revision 6 (January 2008) to Revision D • Page Changed the data sheet format...........................................................................................................................................From: MIN = VCC ...........750 times per second) ................VBLAT value ..................... 3-Cell NiCd/NiMH 1A Charger .................................... 5 Added Figure 3 ................................................................................ti....Battery temperature detail From: (checked at all times) To........ VLTF Tolerance ....................................................................

(2) Eco Plan . Samples may or may not be available. TBD: The Pb-Free/Green conversion plan has not been defined. Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt).The planned eco-friendly classification: Pb-Free (RoHS). Pb-Free (RoHS Exempt): This component has a RoHS exemption for either 1) lead-based flip-chip solder bumps used between the die and package.please check http://www. OBSOLETE: TI has discontinued the production of the device. PREVIEW: Device has been announced but is not in production. but TI does not recommend using this part in a new design.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www.ti. Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br): TI defines "Green" to mean Pb-Free (RoHS compatible). or 2) lead-based die adhesive used between the die and leadframe. and free of Bromine (Br) and Antimony (Sb) based flame retardants (Br or Sb do not exceed 0. or Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) . including the requirement that lead not exceed 0. Where designed to be soldered at high temperatures. Pb-Free (RoHS): TI's terms "Lead-Free" or "Pb-Free" mean semiconductor products that are compatible with the current RoHS requirements for all 6 substances.ti. TI Pb-Free products are suitable for use in specified lead-free processes. NRND: Not recommended for new designs.com/productcontent for the latest availability information and additional product content details.com 11-Apr-2013 PACKAGING INFORMATION Orderable Device BQ2000PN-B5 BQ2000PW BQ2000PWG4 BQ2000PWR BQ2000PWRG4 BQ2000SN-B5 BQ2000SN-B5G4 BQ2000SN-B5TR BQ2000SN-B5TRG4 Status (1) Package Type Package Pins Package Drawing Qty PDIP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP TSSOP SOIC SOIC SOIC SOIC P PW PW PW PW D D D D 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 50 150 150 2000 2000 75 75 2500 2500 Eco Plan (2) Lead/Ball Finish CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU CU NIPDAU MSL Peak Temp (3) Op Temp (°C) -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 -20 to 70 Top-Side Markings (4) Samples ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE ACTIVE Pb-Free (RoHS) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) Green (RoHS & no Sb/Br) N / A for Pkg Type Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-2-260C-1 YEAR Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM Level-1-260C-UNLIM 2000PN-B5 BQ200 BQ200 BQ200 BQ200 2000 2000 2000 2000 (1) The marketing status values are defined as follows: ACTIVE: Product device recommended for new designs. Device is in production to support existing customers. The component is otherwise considered Pb-Free (RoHS compatible) as defined above.1% by weight in homogeneous material) Addendum-Page 1 . and a lifetime-buy period is in effect. LIFEBUY: TI has announced that the device will be discontinued.1% by weight in homogeneous materials.

(4) Multiple Top-Side Markings will be inside parentheses.ti. Addendum-Page 2 . If a line is indented then it is a continuation of the previous line and the two combined represent the entire Top-Side Marking for that device. and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of such information.PACKAGE OPTION ADDENDUM www. TI has taken and continues to take reasonable steps to provide representative and accurate information but may not have conducted destructive testing or chemical analysis on incoming materials and chemicals.The Moisture Sensitivity Level rating according to the JEDEC industry standard classifications.com 11-Apr-2013 (3) MSL. and thus CAS numbers and other limited information may not be available for release. -. Peak Temp. and peak solder temperature. In no event shall TI's liability arising out of such information exceed the total purchase price of the TI part(s) at issue in this document sold by TI to Customer on an annual basis. Important Information and Disclaimer:The information provided on this page represents TI's knowledge and belief as of the date that it is provided. TI bases its knowledge and belief on information provided by third parties. TI and TI suppliers consider certain information to be proprietary. Only one Top-Side Marking contained in parentheses and separated by a "~" will appear on a device. Efforts are underway to better integrate information from third parties.

4 7.ti.0 Q1 BQ2000PWR 2000 Pack Materials-Page 1 .0 B0 (mm) 3.0 W Pin1 (mm) Quadrant 12.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.6 K0 (mm) 1.6 P1 (mm) 8.0 12.com 11-Jun-2013 TAPE AND REEL INFORMATION *All dimensions are nominal Device Package Package Pins Type Drawing TSSOP PW 8 SPQ Reel Reel A0 Diameter Width (mm) (mm) W1 (mm) 330.

ti.com 11-Jun-2013 *All dimensions are nominal Device BQ2000PWR Package Type TSSOP Package Drawing PW Pins 8 SPQ 2000 Length (mm) 367.0 Width (mm) 367.PACKAGE MATERIALS INFORMATION www.0 Height (mm) 35.0 Pack Materials-Page 2 .

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