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INTRODUCTION 3-phase a.c. system is being exclusively used for generation, transmission and distribution of power. The machine which produces 3-phase power from mechanical power is called an Alternator or Synchronous Generator or AC Generator. Alternators are the primary source of all the electrical energy we consume. They convert mechanical energy into a.c. energy. In this chapter, we shall discuss the construction and characteristics of alternators. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION An alternator operates on the principle of electromagnetic induction i.e., when the flux linking a conductor changes, an e.m.f. is induced in the conductor. Alternator has a stationary armature winding (AC) called as Stator and a rotating field winding connected to DC supply, called as Rotor. The stator consists of a cast iron frame with slots on its inner periphery to place conductors. The rotor has north and south poles fixed on its outer rim. The magnetic poles are excited(or magnetized) by the DC source mounted on the shaft of the synchronous generator. When the rotor is rotated in anti-clockwise direction by a prime mover, the stator or armature conductors are cut by the magnetic flux of rotor poles. Hence, e.m.f. is induced in the armature conductors due to electromagnetic induction. The induced e.m.f. is alternating since N and S poles of rotor alternately pass the armature conductors. This is normally a 3 phase voltage and hence taken out through 3 leads as shown in Fig ADVANTAGES OF STATIONARY ARMATURE The field winding of an alternator is placed on the rotor and is connected to d.c. supply. The 3-phase armature winding is placed on the stator. This arrangement has the following advantages: (i) It is easier to insulate stationary winding for high voltages for which the alternators are usually designed. It is because they are not subjected to centrifugal forces and also extra space is available due to the stationary arrangement of the armature. (ii) The stationary 3-phase armature can be directly connected to load without going
(Field) (Armature) Field windings Slot

through large, unreliable slip rings and brushes. (iii) (iv) Only two slip rings are required for d.c. supply to the field winding on the rotor. Since Due to simple and robust construction of the rotor, higher speed of rotating d.c. field the exciting current is small, the slip rings and brush gear required are of light construction. is possible. This increases the output obtainable from a machine of given dimensions. Note: All alternators above 5 kVA employ a stationary armature (or stator) and a revolving d.c. field. CONSTRUCTION OF ALTERNATOR An alternator has 3,-phase winding on the stator and a d.c. field winding on the rotor. 1. STATOR It is the stationary part of the machine and is built up of sheet-steel laminations with slots on its inner periphery. A 3-phase winding is placed in these slots and works as the armature winding of the alternator. The armature winding is connected in star and the neutral is connected to ground. 2. ROTOR

The rotor carries a field winding which is supplied with direct current through two slip rings by a separate d.c. source. This d.c. source (called exciter) is generally a small d.c. shunt or compound generator mounted on the shaft of the alternator. Rotor construction is of two types, namely; (i) Salient (or projecting) pole type (ii) Non-salient (or cylindrical) pole type (i) Salient pole type In this type, salient or projecting poles are mounted on a large circular steel frame which is fixed to the shaft of the alternator as shown in Fig. (2). The field windings are connected in such a way that when it is energized by the d.c. supply, adjacent poles have opposite polarities N & S. Salient-pole type rotors have large diameters and short axial lengths. The poles and poles hoes are laminated to minimize the heating due to eddy currents. Salient pole type rotors are used in hydraulic turbines or diesel engines(120-400 RPM) due to the following reasons:

(a) The salient field poles would cause an excessive windage loss if driven at high speed and would tend to produce noise. (b) Salient-pole construction cannot be made strong enough to withstand the mechanical stresses to which they may be subjected at higher speeds. (ii) Non-salient pole type In this type, the rotor is made of smooth solid forged-steel radial cylinder having a number of slots along the outer periphery. The field windings are embedded in these slots and are connected in series to the slip rings through which they are energized by the d.c. exciter. The regions forming the poles are usually left unslotted as shown in Fig. (3). It is clear that the poles formed are non-salient i.e., they do not project out from the rotor surface.

Fig 2 type rotors due to the following reasons:

Fig 3

High-speed alternators (1500 or 3000 r.p.m.)are driven by steam turbines and use non-salient (a) This type of construction has mechanical robustness and gives noiseless operation at high speeds. (b) The flux distribution around the periphery is nearly a sine wave and hence a better e.m.f. waveform is obtained than in the case of salient-pole type.

Difference between salient and cylindrical type of rotor : Salient pole type Smooth cylindrical type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Poles are projecting out from the surface. Air gap is non uniform. Diameter is high and axial length is small. Mechanically weak. Preferred for low speed alternators. Prime mover used is water turbines, I.C. engines. This is used for the smaller rating machine Separate damper winding is provided Poles are non projecting. Air gap is uniform due to smooth cylindrical periphery. Small diameter and large axial length Mechanically robust. Preffered for high speed alternators Prime mover used are steam turbines, electric motors. This is used for the higher rating machine Separate damper winding is not necessary.

FREQUENCY OF INDUCED VOLTAGE The frequency of induced e.m.f. in the armature conductors depends upon speed and the number of poles. Let N = rotor speed in r.p.m. P = number of rotor poles f = frequency of e.m.f. in Hz Consider a stator conductor which is cut by the N and S poles of the rotor. If a positive voltage is induced when a N-pole passes the conductor, a similar negative voltage is induced when a S-pole passes by. This means that one complete cycle of e.m.f. is generated in the conductor as a pair of poles passes it i.e., one N-pole and the adjacent following S-pole.. No. of cycles/revolution = No. of pairs of poles = P/2 If speed of the rotor is N rpm i.e N revolutions per 60 seconds, No. of revolutions/second = N/60 Multiplying (1) & (2) No. of cycles/second = No. of cycles/revolution X No. of revolutions/sec = (P/2)(N/60) = N P/120 But number of cycles of e.m.f. per second is nothing but Frequency. f = NP / 120 or N =120f / P N is the synchronous speed and it is represented by Ns. As the no of rotor poles is fixed, the alternator must run at synchronous speed to give an output of desired frequency. Hence, alternator is called as synchronous generator. (2) (1)

Winding Factors The armature winding of an alternator is distributed over the entire armature. A distributed winding has two advantages: 1. A distributed winding generates a voltage wave that is nearly a sine curve. 2. copper windings are evenly distributed on the armature cooling becomes easy. A coil with a span of 180 electrical is called a full-pitch coil. But, the coils of armature winding are not full-pitched i.e., the two sides of a coil are not at corresponding points under adjacent poles. For eg: a coil with a span of 150 electrical would be called as 150/180 = 5/6 pitch coil. Although e.m.f. induced in a fractional-pitch coil is less than that of a full-pitch coil, fractional-pitch coils are frequently for two main reasons. 1. Less copper is required per coil 2. The waveform of the generated voltage is improved. The distribution and short pitching of the coils reduce the EMF induced in the coils. It gives raise to: (i) Distribution factor (Kd), also called breadth factor (ii) Pitch factor (Kp), also known as chord factor (i) Distribution factor (Kd)

The distribution factor Kd is defined as:

Where n = no. of slots / pole / phase ; (ii) Pitch factor (Kp) Pitch factor Kp. is defined as: Kp= cos / 2

= slot angle= 180 / no. of slots per pole =

that is always an integer multiple of the slot angle .

E.M.F. Equation of an Alternator Let Z = No. of conductors or coil sides in series per phase = Flux per pole in webers P = Number of rotor poles N = Rotor speed in r.p.m. In one revolution (i.e., 60/N second), each stator conductor is cut by P webers i.e., d = P; stator conductor dt = 60/N According to Electro Magnetic induction Principle Average e.m.f. induced in one

Since there are Z conductors in series per phase, Average e.m.f./phase

R.M.S. value of e.m.f./phase = Average value/phase x form factor = 2f Z X 1.11 = 2.22 f Z volts Er.m.s. / phase = 2.22f Z volts (i) If Kp and Kd are the pitch factor and distribution factor of the armature winding, Er.m.s. / phase= 2.22KpKd f Z volts Turns (T) per phase = (Conductors per phase)/2 Hence, eq. (ii) becomes: Er.m.s. / phase= 4.44KpKd fT phvolts (iii) (ii)

The line voltage will depend upon whether the winding is star or delta connected.

1. 2. 3. 4. Explain working principle of an alternator. (Dec /jan 2011) Difference between salient and cylindrical type of rotor (jun /july 2011 Explain voltage regulation of an alternator and its significance. (june /july 2011) A 3 phase, 6 pole, star connected alternator has 48 slots and 12 conductors per slot on the armature. If the rotor at 1200RPM and the flux per pole is 0.3 Wb, Calculate the e.m.f. induced in the armature. The coils are full pitched and the winding factor is 0.95. (Dec /jan 2010) 5. A 3 phase, 6 pole, star connected alternator has 48 slots and 12 conductors per slot on the armature. If the rotor at 1200RPM and the flux per pole is 0.3 Wb, calculate the e.m.f. induced in the armature. The coils are full pitched and the winding factor is 0.95. (Dec /jan 2009) 6. Explain voltage regulation of an alternator and its significance. (Dec /jan 2008) 7. Explain the principle of operation of an alternator. Discuss the different types of rotor construction of alternator mentioning their typical advantages and applications. [8] (june 06) 8. What do you mean by pitch factor? 9. What do you mean by distribution factor? 10. Explain salient and non salient types of rotors? 11. Advantage of rotating field type of alternator? 12. Expression for an induced emf per phase in a 3 phase alternator? 13. Explain the various types of windings used in 3 phase alternator?

PROBLEMS: 1. The stator of a three phase, 8 pole, 750 rpm alternator has 72 slots, each of which having 10 conductors. Calculate the RMS value of the emf per phase if the flux per pole is 0.1 wb and the winding factor is 0.96. Also find the line Emf if the windings are connected in (i) Star, and (ii) Delta. 2. A three phase star connected alternator driven at 900 rpm is required to generate a line voltage of 460 volts at 60 Hz on open circuit. The stator has 2 slots per pole per phase and 4 conductors per slot. Calculate (i) the number of poles, (ii) the useful flux per pole. 3. A 4 pole, three phase, 50 Hz, star connected a.c. generator has 24 stator slots. Find the number of conductors per slot if the flux per pole is 62 mwb and the terminal voltage is 1100 volt. Assume full pitch coils. 4. A 16 pole star connected alternator has 144 slots and 10 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 30 mwb and the speed is 375 rpm. Find the frequency, the phase and line emfs. 5. Find the number of armature conductors in series per phase required for the armature of a three phase 50 Hz 10 pole alternator with 90 slots. The winding is star connected to give a line emf of 11 Kv. The flux is 0.16 wb. Also find the voltage regulation if the terminal voltage on full load is 11.2 kv. 6. A three phase 10 pole star connected alternator runs at 600 rpm. It has 120 stator slots with 8 conductors per slot. Determine the phase and line emfs if the flux per pole is 56 mwb. 7. Calculate the phase emf induced in a 4 pole, three phase, 50 Hz star connected alternator with 36 slots and 30 conductors per slot. The flux per pole is 0.05 wb. Given the winding factor as 0.95