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III - Part 1 GL 2004

Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

Chapter 1 Page 181

Section 18 Anchoring and Mooring Equipment


A. General 4. Naval ships built under survey of GL and which are to have the mark stated in their Certificate and in the Register Book, must be equipped with anchors and chain cables complying with the GL Rules, II Materials and Welding, Part 1 Metallic Materials, Chapter 4 Equipment. For non-magnetizable materials the GL Rules, II Materials and Welding, Part 1 Metallic Materials, Chapter 6 Special Materials for Naval Ships apply. Anchors and chain cables have to be tested on approved machines in the presence of a GL Surveyor. 5. For naval ships having three or more propellers, a reduction of the weight of the bower anchors and the chain cables may be considered.

1. The equipment of anchors, chain cables, wires and ropes is to be determined from Table 18.1 in accordance with the equipment numeral EN. Note Anchoring equipment required by this Section is intended of temporary mooring of a naval ship within a harbour or sheltered area when the ship is awaiting berth, tide, etc. The equipment is, therefore, not designed to hold a naval ship off fully exposed coasts in rough weather or to stop a ship which is moving or drifting. In this condition the loads on the anchoring equipment increase to such a degree that its components may be damaged or lost owing to the high energy forces generated, particularly in very large naval ships. Anchoring equipment required by this Section is designed to hold a naval ship in good holding ground in conditions such as to avoid dragging of the anchor. In poor holding ground the holding power of the anchors will be significantly reduced. The equipment numeral formula for anchoring equipment required under this Section is based on an assumed current speed of 2,5 m/s, wind speed of 25 m/s and a scope of chain cable between 6 and 10, the scope being the ratio between length of chain paid out and water depth. It is assumed that under normal circumstances a naval ship will use only one bow anchor and chain cable at a time. 2. Every naval ship is to be equipped with at least one anchor windlass. For bigger naval ships two anchor windlasses are recommended and shall be agreed with the naval authority. Windlasses and chain stoppers, if fitted, are to comply with Chapter 4 Ship Operation Installations and Auxiliary Systems, Section 5. For the substructures of windlasses and chain stoppers, see Section 14, B.4. 3. For naval ships operating not more than 50 nautical miles from a port of refuge equipment may be determined as for one numeral range lower than required in accordance with equipment numeral EN.

B. 1.

Equipment Numeral Monohull ships

For monohull naval ships the equipment numeral is to be calculated as follows:

EN = 2 3 + 2 ( a B + bi h i sin i ) + 0,1 A

= the moulded displacement [t] at the design waterline in sea water having a density of 1,025 t/m3 = distance [m], from design waterline, amidships, to the upper deck at side = actual breadth of deckhouses with a breadth greater B/4 = height [m] on the centreline of each tier of superstructures and deckhouses corresponding to bi (deck sheer, if any, is to be ignored) For the lowest tier "h" is to be measured at centreline from the upper deck or from a notional deck where there is local discontinuity in the upper deck.

a bi hi

= angle of inclination of each front bulkhead, as shown in Fig. 18.1 = area [m2], in profile view of the hull, superstructures and deck houses, having a breadth greater than B/4, above the design waterline within the length L and up to the height a + hi

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Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

III - Part 1 GL 2004

Where a deckhouse having a breadth greater than B/4 is located above a deckhouse having a breadth of B/4 or less, the wider house is to be included and the narrower house ignored. Screens of bulwarks 1,5 m or more in height above the deck at side are to be regarded as parts of houses when determining h and A, e.g. the areas specially marked in Fig. 18.1 are to be included in A. 2. Multihull ships

3.2 For approval as a "High Holding Power Anchor", satisfactory tests are to be made on various types of bottom and the anchor is to have a holding power at least twice that of a patent anchor ("Admiralty Standard Stockless") of the same mass. The tests have to be approved by GL. 3.3 Dimensioning of the chain cable and of the windlass is to be based on the undiminished anchor mass according to Table 18.1. 4. Very high holding power anchors

For multihull naval ships the equipment numeral has to be defined in analogous way, details are given in the GL Rules I Ship Technology, Part 3 Special Craft, Chapter 1 High Speed Craft, Section 6.

Where special anchors are approved by GL as "Very High Holding Power Anchors" (VHHP), the anchor mass may be not less than 2/3 of the mass required for the HHP anchor it replaces. 5. Stern anchors

C. 1.

Anchors Arrangement 5.1 Where stern anchors are fitted as stream anchors, such equipment is to comply in all respects with the rules for anchor equipment. The mass of each stern anchor shall be at least 35 per cent of that of the bower anchors. The diameter of chain cables and the chain length is to be determined from Table 18.1 in accordance with anchor mass. Where a stern anchor windlass is fitted, the requirements of Chapter 4 Ship Operation Installations and Auxiliary Systems, Section 5 are to be observed. 5.2 Where a steel wire rope is to be used for the stern anchor instead of a chain cable the following has to be observed: 5.2.1 The steel wire rope must at least be as long as the required chain cable. The strength of the steel wire rope must at least be of the value for the required chain of grade K 1. 5.2.2 Between anchor and steel wire rope a shot of 12,5 m in length or of the distance between stowed anchor and windlass must be provided. The smaller length has to be taken. 5.2.3 A cable wich must be provided according to the requirements for windlasses in Chapter 4 Ship Operation Installations and Auxiliary Systems, Section 5. 6. Special stern anchors

The two rule bower anchors are to be connected to their chain cables and positioned on board ready for use. It is to be ensured that each anchor can be stowed in the hawse and hawse pipe in such a way that it remains firmly secured in seagoing conditions. Details have to be coordinated with the naval authority. 2. Anchor design

2.1 Anchors must be of approved design. The mass of the heads of patent (ordinary stockless) anchors, including pins and fittings, is not to be less than 60 per cent of the total mass of the anchor. 2.2 For stock anchors, the total mass of the anchor, including stock, shall comply with the values in Table 18.1. The mass of the stock shall be 20 per cent of this total mass. 2.3 The mass of each individual bower anchor may vary by up to 7 per cent above or below the required individual mass provided that the total mass of all the bower anchors is not less than the sum of the required individual masses. 3. High holding power anchors

3.1 Where special anchors are approved by GL as "High Holding Power Anchors" (HHP), the anchor mass may be 75 per cent of the anchor mass as per Table 18.1. "High Holding Power Anchors" are anchors which are suitable for the naval ship's use at any time and which do not require prior adjustment or special placement on sea bed.

Special stern anchors of considerable size may be used to tow back a landing ship, which is touching the beach with its forward bottom, to deeper water after the troops are embarked or landed.

III - Part 1 GL 2004

Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

Chapter 1 Page 183

1,5 m

Qi

Bulwark

DWL

L/2

L/2

Fig. 18.1

Profile view of hull, superstructure and deckhouses relevant for the equipment numeral

At least for medium sized and large landing ships it is recommended to provide two anchors in a symmetric arrangement, to be able to tow the ship back more or less along its longitudinal axis. The size of anchors and the arrangement of towing winches in relation to ship displacement, draught/ water depth assumed, landing procedure, etc., has to be defined according to the specification of the Naval Authority.

and Welding, Part 1 Metallic Materials, Chapter 6 Special Materials for Naval Ships, Sections 8 and 9. 3. Chain cables without stud links may be used for naval ships of limited size. The correlation to the values of Table 18.1 has to be approved by GL. 4. The total length of chain given in Table 18.1 is to be divided in approximately equal parts between the two bower anchors. 5. For connection of the anchor with the chain cable approved Kenter-type anchor shackles may be chosen in lieu of the common Dee-shackles. A forerunner with swivel is to be fitted between anchor and chain cable. In lieu of a forerunner with swivel an approved swivel shackle may be used. However, swivel shackles are not to be connected to anchor shank unless specially approved. 6. Upon request and agreement with GL steel wire and synthetic wire ropes may be used as an alternative to the chain cables defined in Table 18.1 for naval ships of limited size. 7. The attachment of the inboard ends of chain cables to the ship's structure is to be provided with means suitable to permit, in case of emergency, an easy slipping of chain cables to sea operable from an accessible position outside the chain locker. The inboard ends of the chain cables are to be secured to the structures by a fastening device able to withstand a force not less than 15 % but not more than 30 % of the rated breaking load of the chain cable.

D.

Chain Cables

1. Chain cable diameters given in Table 18.1 apply to chain cables made of chain cable materials specified in the requirements of the GL Rules II Materials and Welding, Part 1 Metallic Materials, Chapter 4 Equipment for the following grades: Grade K 1 (ordinary quality) Grade K 2 (special quality) Grade K 3 (extra special quality)

For HHP anchors at least chain cables of grade K 2, for VHHP anchors chain cables of grade K 3 shall be provided. Grade K 2 and K 3 chain cables must be purchased from and post production quenched and tempered by recognized manufacturers only. 2. If the magnetic signature of naval ships has to be kept low, the use of non-magnetizable austenitic steel as defined in Section 3 is preferable for anchors and chain cables, see also the GL Rules II Materials

1,5 m

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Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

III - Part 1 GL 2004

Table 18.1
Equipmen t numeral EN

Anchors, chain cables and ropes


2 stockless bower anchors Stud link chain cables
Chain cables

Recommended ropes

Bower anchors Mass per anchor Total length d1 [kg] 1 - 50 50-70 70-90 90-110 110-130 130-150 150-175 175-205 205-240 240-280 280-320 320-360 360-400 400-450 450-500 500-550 550-600 600-660 660-720 720-780 780-840 840-910 910-980 980-1060 1060-1140 1140-1220 1220-1300 1300-1390 1390-1480 1480-1570 1570-1670 1670-1790 1790-1930 1930-2080 2080-2230 2230-2380 2380-2530 2530-2700 2700-2870 2870-3040 3040-3210 3210-3400 3400-3600 3600-3800 3800-4000
1

Towline Length Breaking load 2 Number

Mooring ropes Length Breaking load 2

Diameter 1

d2 [mm] 5 12,5 12,5 14 16 17,5 17,5 19 20,5 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 84 87 90 92 95

d3 [mm] 6 12,5 12,5 14 16 17,5 17,5 19 20,5 20,5 22 24 24 26 28 30 30 32 34 36 36 38 40 42 44 46 46 48 50 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 76 78 78 81 84

d4 [mm] 7 12,5 14 16 18 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 48 50 [m] 8 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 220 220 220 220 220 240 240 240 260 260 260 280 280 280 300 300 300 [kN] 9 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 110 130 150 175 200 225 250 275 305 340 370 405 440 480 520 560 600 645 690 740 785 835 890 940 1025 1110 1170 1260 1355 1455 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 10 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 [m] 11 80 80 100 110 110 120 120 120 120 120 140 140 140 140 140 160 160 160 160 170 170 170 170 180 180 180 180 180 180 190 190 190 190 190 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 [kN] 12 35 35 40 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 80 85 95 100 110 120 130 145 160 170 185 200 215 230 250 270 285 305 325 325 335 350 375 400 425 450 480 480 490 500 520 555 590 620 650

[m] 3 165 220 220 247,5 247,5 275 275 302,5 302,5 330 357,5 357,5 385 385 412,5 412,5 440 440 440 467,5 467,5 467,5 495 495 495 522,5 522,5 522,5 550 550 550 577,5 577,5 577,5 605 605 605 632,5 632,5 632,5 660 660 660 687,5 687,5

[mm] 4 12,5 14 16 17,5 19 20,5 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 73 76 78 81 84 87 90 92 95 97 100 102 105 107

2 120 180 240 300 360 420 480 570 660 780 900 1020 1140 1290 1440 1590 1740 1920 2100 2280 2460 2640 2850 3060 3300 3540 3780 4050 4320 4590 4890 5250 5610 6000 6450 6900 7350 7800 8300 8700 9300 9900 10500 11100 11700

d1 = Chain diameter Grade K 1 (Ordinary quality) d2 = Chain diameter Grade K 2 (Special quality) d3 = Chain diameter Grade K 3 (Extra special quality) d4 = Chain diameter for non-magnetizable austenitic steel (WN 1.3964) see F.1.2

III - Part 1 GL 2004

Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

Chapter 1 Page 185

E.

Chain Locker

F. 1.

Mooring Equipment Ropes

1. The chain locker is to be of capacity and depth adequate to provide an easy direct lead of the cables through the chain pipes and self-stowing of the cables. The minimum required stowage capacity without mud box for the two bow anchor chains is as follows:

1.1 The tow lines and mooring ropes specified in Table 18.1and the content of 1.2 and 1.3 are recommendations only, compliance with these items is not a condition of Class. 1.2 Breaking load

S = 1,1 d 100 000


2

m3

d

= chain diameter [mm] according to Table 18.1 = total length of stud link chain cable according to Table 18.1

For tow lines and mooring lines, steel wire ropes as well as fibre ropes made of natural or synthetic fibres or wire ropes consisting of steel wire and fibre cores may be used. Nominal breaking loads specified in Table 18.1 are valid for wire ropes only. Where ropes of synthetic fibre are used, the breaking load is to be increased above the table values. The extent of increase depends on the material quality. The required diameters of synthetic fibre ropes used in lieu of steel wire ropes may be taken from Table 18.2. Regardless of the breaking load recommended in Table 18.1, the diameter of fibre ropes should not be less than 20 mm.
1.3 Type of wire ropes

The total stowage capacity is to be distributed on two chain lockers of equal size for the port and starboard chain cables. The shape of the base areas shall as far as possible be quadratic with a maximum edge length of 33 d. As an alternative, circular base areas may be selected, the diameter of which shall not exceed 30 35 d. Above the stowage of each chain locker in addition a free depth of

Wire ropes shall be of the following type: 144 wires (6 24) with 7 fibre cores for breaking loads of up to 500 kN type: Standard 216 wires (6 36) with 1 fibre core for breaking loads of more than 500 kN type: Standard

h = 1 500

[ mm]

is to be provided, where practicable.


2. The chain locker boundaries and their access openings are to be watertight to prevent flooding of adjacent spaces, where essential installations or equipment are arranged, in order to not affect the proper operation of the ship after accidental flooding of the chain locker. 3. Adequate drainage facilities of the chain locker are to be provided. 4. Where the chain locker boundaries are also tank boundaries their scantlings of stiffeners and plating are to be determined as for tanks in accordance with Section 10, B.

Where wire ropes are stored on mooring winch drums, steel cored wire ropes may be used e.g.: 6 19 with 1 steel core type: Seale 6 36 with 1 steel core type: Warrington-Seale
1.4 Length

The length of the individual mooring ropes may be up to 7 per cent less than that given in Table 18.1, provided that the total length of all the wires and ropes is not less than the sum of the required individual lengths.
1.5 Alternatives

Where this is not the case, plate thickness and section modulus are to be determined according to Section 10, B. for the test pressure pT2 according to Section 10, D. 4. The distance from the load centre to the top of chain locker pipe is to be taken for calculating the load. A corrosion addition of 2,0 mm has to be applied. The minimum thickness of plating is 5,0 mm.

For individual mooring lines with a breaking load above 500 kN the following alternatives may be applied: The breaking load of the individual mooring lines specified in Table 18.1 may be reduced with corresponding increase of the number of mooring lines, provided that the total breaking

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Section 18

Anchoring and Mooring Equipment

III - Part 1 GL 2004

load of all lines aboard ship is not less than the rule value as per Table 18.1. No mooring line, however, should have a breaking load of less than 500 kN. The number of mooring lines may be reduced with corresponding increase of the breaking load of the individual mooring lines, provided that the total breaking load of all lines aboard ship is not less than the rule value specified in Table 18.1; however, the number of lines should not be less than 6.
Mooring winches, capstans, bollards, hawses

Substructures are to be dimensioned according to Section 14, B.4.


2.2 Hawses, bollards and cleats shall be so designed as to protect the ropes against excessive wear. They are to be of proved construction and shall comply with relevant standards.
Note Attention is drawn to relevant National Standards.

2.

Mooring winches and capstans are to be de2.1 signed taking into account the actual mooring lines and 80 % of their nominal breaking loads.
Table 18.2

2.3 Hawses, bollards, cleats and their substructures are to be strengthened, if they are intended to be belayed by multiple lines. In this case 80 % of the nominal breaking load of the individual lines has to be used as pulling force.

Equivalent diameters of synthetic wire and fibre ropes


Synthetic wire ropes Polyamide 2 Polyamide Diameter [mm] 30 32 36 40 44 48 48 52 60 64 72 80 88 Fibre ropes Polyester Diameter [mm] 30 32 36 40 44 48 48 52 60 64 72 80 88 Polypropylene Diameter [mm] 30 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 64 72 80 88 96

Steel wire ropes 1

Diameter [mm] 12 13 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 32 36 40
1 2

Diameter [mm] 30 30 32 32 36 40 44 48 56 60 68 72 72

according to DIN 3068 or similar regular laid ropes of refined polyamide monofilaments and filament fibres