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SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY - DE Student Name: Registration Number: Subject Name: Communication Skills Course: BBA (Semester 1) LC Code:

Subject Code: BBA101

Q1. Communication is the lifeblood of a business organisation. Explain the role of Communication in Business. What are the various barriers to Communication? Communication is a process whereby the meaning is defined and shared between living and organisms. Role of Communication in Business Importance of communication for manager and employee relations: Effective communication of information and decision is an essential component for management-employee relations. The manager cannot get the work done from employees unless they are communicated effectively of what he wants to be done. He should also be sure of some basic facts such as how to communicate and what results can be expected from that communication. Most of management problems arise because of lack of effective communication. Chances of misunderstanding and mis-representation can be minimized with proper communication system. For motivation and employee morale: Communication is also a basic tool for motivation, which can improve the morale of the employees in an organization. Inappropriate or faulty communication among employees or between manager and his subordinates is the major cause of conflict and low morale at work. Manager should clarify to employees about what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what could be done for better performance, to improve their motivation. He can prepare a written statement, clearly outlining the relationship between company objectives and personal objectives, and integrating the interest of the two. For increased productivity: With effective communication, you can maintain a good human relation in the organization and by encouraging ideas or suggestions from employees or workers and implementing them whenever possible, you can also increase production at low cost. For employees: It is through the communication that employees submit their work reports, comments, grievances and suggestions to their seniors or management. Organization should have effective and speedy communication policy and procedures to avoid delays, misunderstandings, confusion or distortions of facts and to establish harmony among all the concerned people and departments. Barrier to Communication 1. Language barrier Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represent national or regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation, but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and inexpert assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion. 2. Cultural barriers Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier. 3. Individual barrier It may be a result of an individual's perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical, which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier. 4. Organizational barrier It includes poor organization's culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas, the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lighting, staff shortage, outdated equipment and background noise are physical organizational barriers. 5. Interpersonal barrier Barriers from employers are lack of trust in employees, lack of knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact, different experiences, shortage of time for employees, no consideration for employee needs, wish to capture authority, fear of losing power of control, bypassing and informational overloading, while barriers from employees include, lack of motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer. 6. Attitudinal barrier It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organization. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier, which affect the attitude and opinion. 7. Channel barrier If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up. It can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver, lack of interest to communicate, information sharing or access problems, which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness. Q2. Writing effectively is a skill, which can be learnt and perfected. Explain the general principles of Effective writing. What are the various techniques to improve your writing skills? 1. Economy and efficiency In the first place, written communication is economical. A letter can do a better job at a less cost. A long distance trunk call has got to be brief because as the minutes tick away, the charges grow; and it is not always made unless urgent and unavoidable. A telegram is telegram where every word costs. The message is cut down to size to minimize the cost, perhaps even at the expense of clarity! A letter can be written at the convenience of the writer and read at the convenience of the receiver. Not so a telephone call, which comes at any time of the day and annoys the receiver by interrupting him when he is busy, or disturbing him when he is relaxing or enjoying his luncheon! For thanking the customer of his order or informing of the delay or conveying any matter, which is not urgent, a simple post card or a letter is considered an efficient means of communication. 2. Accuracy In business, all messages are not brief. A long and intricate message cannot be given over the telephone. It is quite likely a word or phrase may be misheard, a figure may be transposed, and a date or address may be incorrectly received at the other end. For these reasons you cannot reply upon telephone conversation. But a carefully written letter ensures accuracy.

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3. Record-keeping Any information in a written form has another distinct advantage over an oral communication. Human memory is short and oral information cannot always be remembered in all its details. But when the information is down in black and white and is signed, it becomes official and serves as a permanent record and is filled for future references. 4. Goodwill and image building Invitations, seasonal greetings, thank you letters, congratulatory messages and condolences cannot just be conveyed over the telephone. A personalized message in writing goes a long way in building good human relationship, which is very essential in day-to-day life and it is more so in business. Goodwill letters are written to promote customer relationship. In business, there are many occasions that can be turned into an opportunity to create an impression and build goodwill. For example, when a customer is ill, when a customer has a birthday, a son or daughter gets married, when someone has done a favor or when a person has been promoted - all these situations are personal in nature, and men in business write letters to suit the occasion and to promote a feeling of friendship on the part of the readers. Such letters act as a business promotion device in an indirect manner. Besides communicating information and building goodwill, letters also help to create a favorable image of the company that sends them. Every letter that goes out of a company goes as goodwill ambassador and speaks for its quality. Written communication is proved to be more effective than verbal communication and its effectiveness depends upon how it is written. Q3. Explain the importance of Business Letters. Differentiate between Personal and Business Letters. Importance of Business Letters Every business requires that the communication sent and received is clear, simple, concise and correct. The importance of writing a business letter is given below: It is a formal way of communication between two individuals, between an individual and organization, or between two organizations. It follows certain set of rules and guidelines to communicate both within the organization and outside the organization. The best business letter should have a conversational tone, and read as if you are talking to the reader. Your reader will respond quickly and correctly only if he/she is able to understand the letter crystal clear. It prevails within the business entity only. It serves as a document for any type of correspondence, for future course of action. The language used should be simple enough to express the main idea, without being lengthy or leave the reader in a state of ambiguity. It should be courteous and contain all the required information the recipient would need in order to effectively understand it. Difference between Personal and Business Letters In this age where communication has been made to travel faster through e-mails, mobile phones, ipods and pagers, writing a letter may seem to be an ancient ritual that is practiced only by those of earlier generations or those who do not have any access to the technological advancements. However, there are many rewards in sitting down and expressing yourself on paper. Whether you are sending a quick note to a friend to say hello or composing a business letter to an authority figure, writing a letter shows effort, respect and care for others. A letter, which is written to a friend, to a relative or to the parents is termed as informal letter or personal letter. Here, an individual expresses his feelings, emotions and his requirements in a very informal way. In contrast, a business letter is more of a formal way of communication, where the sender expresses his requirements in short, concise and simple form. Personal letter 1. It is informal 2. It is unstructured 3. It chooses a personal style or pattern 4. It depends on the mood, feelings and emotions of the writer 5. It is written without any purpose 6. It is generally lengthy 7. It can be handwritten or typed in any font style and size 8. It does not require to maintain a proper grammatical structure 9. It can be written in any language 1. It is formal 2. It is structured 3. It chooses a prescribed style or pattern 4. It depends on the conversation or on the requirement of the writer 5. It is written with a purpose 6. It is short and specific to the point 7. It is always typed with approved font style and size Business letter

8. It requires a good sense of grammar and tense 9. It is written only in English or in any other language that is approved by the organization 10. The vocabulary used and style followed are of high standards.

10. The vocabulary used is simple and user friendly

Q4. A good structured report helps the management to take vital decisions in an organised manner. Describe the structure and the steps involved in writing a good report Structure of Report While report writing, we need to know how the structure of a formal report would look like. You should remember that a good formal report should be well planned and the content of the report be organized in such a way that the reader can understand the message clearly. As information needs to be accurate and up-dated, data collected must be properly organized for further

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analysis and action. Ultimately, a good report must be an aid to problem solving rather than delaying the decision making process. Structure of a formal report: 1. Title Page / Cover Page 2. Preface 3. Acknowledgement 4. Table of Contents 5. List of Illustrations 6. Abstract / Summary 7. Introduction 8. Description / Discussion 9. Conclusion 10. Recommendation 11. Appendices 12. References and bibliography 13. Glossary 14. Index Title / Cover Page: The cover page is the first page of the report. It specifies the type of report, the title of the report, the author of the report, for whom the report was compiled and the date the report was written. Preface: It introduces the report by mentioning the salient features and the scope of the report. It basically tries to establish a rapport with the reader and helps the reader to know some important points regarding the reader and helps the reader to know some important points regarding the contents and the purpose of the report. It lists the authorization under which the work was performed. Acknowledgement: Acknowledgements are written to individuals who helped to compile the report. Acknowledgements can be made to an individual or to a group of individuals. It must follow a very formal style. It is just a thanks giving note to an individual for the help he has rendered. Table of Contents: As reports may be long and continue for some pages, it is necessary to have a table of contents. Its function is to give the reader an over-view of the report, and help him in locating a particular topic or sub-topic. List of Illustration: It gives systematic information about the tables, graphs, figures and charts used in the report. This part is optional because if the number of figures exceeds eight, then you can include them. Abstract / Summary: It is known as the synopsis of the report. It summarizes the method of analysis, significant findings, observations, results, conclusion and recommendations. It should be self-sufficient and self-explanatory. Introduction: This section familiarizes the reader with the subject of the report. It basically outlines the information, the aims and objectives, the scope and the imitations of the report. Information given needs to be validated with which the report is going to discuss in its later part. Discussion / Description: This is the main part of the report because it presents the data in an organized form, discuss about the problem and its significance, and provide analysis of the situation and finally the result. It is usually divided into sections and sub-sections, which are well structured. Conclusion: This section refers to the inferences from where the decisions are made based on the analysis of the data presented in the report. It presents a summary of discussion and findings, results and conclusion. Recommendations: It refers to the suggestions, which are made by the author for future course of action. These are dependent on the conclusion and the results derived from the survey and feed back given under the description heading. It tries to find out the reason for the loopholes and ways to improve the present course of action in the concerned area. Appendices: It contains material, which is necessary to support the main body of the report. It should be such that if the proof is required by the reader, then documents providing evidence can be referred. It must be noted that every appendix should be referred to in the text, but if the number is more it can be referred to as Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C and so on. It generally contains data and other supporting documents. References & bibliography: the name suggests, it contain the names of the books, journals, magazines, government documents and other sources used in preparation of the report. It may also consist of a list of materials, which can be used for further reference. Glossary: A glossary consists of words (technical or non-technical) with their meaning because it helps the reader to acclimatize with the word used in the report. Index: It is a guide to the reader in relation to the report prepared by the author. If he wants any help by looking for a word or a topic, he can easily locate it. It is written in an alphabetical order and cross references are also provided. Against each topic, page numbers are mentioned. Steps in Report Writing Before we start to write a report, we should always try to adopt effective writing strategies. It discusses problems, situations or conditions and stimulates our thinking into actions with a proper plan. To achieve this above mentioned facts, we need to follow certain steps, which are enumerated below: Define the problem and its objective: The problem should be defined first to find out exactly what you need to do and its purpose. It will help us to answer two questions: a) What do you want to discuss in the report? b) Why do you want to present it? If you have the answer to these questions, it will help you to know about the problem and determine why you are writing the report. Therefore, it is always said that you should write down the problem in points, and draw inference as to why it is necessary concluding your purpose. This will help you to write the report in a more systematic manner and be focused on the problem. This would also help the reader to identify the required actions he may take after reading the report. The writer s main objective would be matched with the readers needs, knowledge, expectation and interest. Gather the necessary information: Once the problem has been identified and the purpose is known, the next step is to gather information or data accordingly. The most possible ways you can gather information is through questionnaire, interviews, surveys, observations or discussions with the respective people. As previously mentioned, information gathering was said to be a tedious task, which cost both time and labour; but with the advent of internet, journals, magazines, weekly reports and newspapers, it has become an easy one to do. You should always keep in mind that the information gathered must not be biased, irrelevant, old and incorrect.

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Analyze the information: Once your information gathering is over, the next step is to critically examine it. Analyzing the information involves examining the information objective, benchmarking the facts and figures gathered, any new references, which can be drawn and its relevance to the report. Data analysis and sorting is can be drawn and its relevance to the report. Data analysis and sorting is probably the most difficult because it requires considerable mental effort to decide what you want to tell your readers. The beginning of this stage overlaps the data-gathering stage, for data analysis should begin as the data are collected. But the bulk of data analysis must be done near completion of the report. At this time, reexamine the significant data and review your earlier opinions with respect to subsequent results. Organize the information: Outlining is a necessary preliminary step to report writing. It involves the planning needed to prepare a clear report that is logically organized, concise, and easy to read. Without an outline, most inexperienced authors write reports that are confusing and difficult to follow. The outlining stage is a natural progression from the analysis or sorting stage. Often the preliminary outline prepared at the beginning of the report can be used as a starting point for the report outline. But, it should be revised and expanded to emphasize the conclusions drawn in the analysis and sorting stage. The revised outline should contain descriptive headings of each significant part of the report. This expanded outline should show the complete scope of the report, the relation of the various parts of the work discussed, the amount of space to be given to each part, the order of treatment, the places for inclusion of illustrations, and the conclusions. Write the report: Write the first draft of the report before the final one, because you should see whether the problem has been identified, the purpose is met, the data properly collected and the language appropriately used. After this, you should review the report so that you can rectify any mistakes, which have occurred, before the final draft is composed. It should always be kept in mind that a report prepared should be concise, simple, understandable and readable. Proper use of English language, sentences, checks on spelling and grammar and graphical representations should be taken care of and reviewed. Relevant points should be high-lighted and emphasized.

Q5. Different purposes of reading require different methods of reading. Describe the various ways of reading. What are the techniques that you can use to improve your reading? Types of Reading Reading entails active mental involvement of the reader with the written work. While reading, you are constantly and automatically relating the meaning of the written work with what you already know. Your mind subconsciously looks for similarities, parallels, applications, comparisons and contrasts with your existing knowledge and memory bank. This helps you to assimilate and retain the new information you have gathered from your reading. The types or ways of reading can be broadly classified into the following five categories: 1. Scanning: It is the fastest type of reading. We use this method when we wish to find some specific information about something in a hurry. We quickly glance through the text, move our eyes quickly over the pages to look for relevant words or phrases that would give us the required information or lead us to it. This method is usually used for reading particular lists, sentences, paragraphs, passages, or chapters to locate specific information or facts related to your query on a particular topic or subject. While scanning, you do not actually read the material very carefully. You just move your eyes rapidly back and forth, or up and down the matter till you find the information you are seeking; e.g., if you wish to find out your result from the score sheet displayed on the notice board, your eyes will travel over the whole sheet till you find your name and roll number. You will definitely not read all the names on the sheet. Scanning is also used when you want to determine whether a particular written material will help you in finding the information you want. When you become an expert in scanning, you will see and observe nothing apart from what is relevant to the information you are seeking. 2. Skimming or previewing: In this type of reading, your eyes will go through the whole material stopping at select portions, but you will not read everything in detail. This type of reading is done to get the main idea of a written work, or to quickly revise what one has already read. Students often skim through their course work on the day of the examination. Busy people usually use this method to go through newspapers, magazines or office reports etc. They read the main point and headlines, make a quick survey of the text to get the main idea, skip the detail and infer the whole from the little that they read. Skimming or previewing before detailed reading is like the trailer or promo of a movie. It gives you a fair idea of what to expect i.e., you can make a prediction about what sort of text it is likely to be. If you wish to buy a book you will skim through it to get a preview. You will observe the textual organizers, go through the introduction and preface, read a few random passages, and then decide whether you wish to buy it or not. 3. Extensive or supplementary reading: This type of reading is usually done for pleasure and enjoyment, or when one is not under pressure to learn or retain the textual content. It is also known as light reading. There is no time constraint. You can read at your own leisurely pace. This method is used for reading novels, poetry or stories etc. It does not generally require detailed or word to word study of the text. You are also not under compulsion to concentrate. However, you are likely to be quite focused because your interest level is likely to be very high. 4. Intensive or detailed reading: This is the slowest and the most focused because your interest level is likely to be very high. focused type of reading. The purpose usually is to read, comprehend and retain as much as you can. This type of reading is done for academic or professional learning, analysis, problem solving and research etc. Editing, proof reading and correction of text are also done by using this method. Every word is read carefully with the aim of observing language and deriving thorough interpretation and retention from it. 5. Vocalized or sub vocalized reading: Most of our reading is done silently. It is the natural way of reading and is ideal for comprehension. Reading aloud can decrease reading speed and comprehension because while doing so, our concentration is divided between reading and speaking. This makes reading difficult and may cause problems in understanding the matter. Loud reading should be avoided unless absolutely necessary. The following table will serve as a guideline for doing so. Purpose of Reading Type of Reading To acquire specific information Scanning To get an overview or preview Skimming To learn and for research Intensive reading For pleasure Extensive Reading Techniques for Effective Reading Reading is a passive skill, but the act of reading is active and dynamic. Reading is passive in the sense that the reader is not actively using the elements of language to create meaningful communication. When you read something you act as the receiver of language created by someone else. Even when you read something you wrote yourself, you are a passive recipient.

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But, when you are consciously engaged with the text to interpret its meaning and nuances, or try to relate it to something stored in your knowledge and memory, you are involved in an active cognitive act. 1. Read actively: Active reading means to be thoroughly involved in what you are reading. Many times we read through a whole page and then suddenly realize we have no idea about what we have read. This happens when we are not mentally engaged with what we are reading. For effective reading, you have to ensure that you keep your interest, focus and concentration alive throughout the reading spell. The following tips will help you to read actively: i. Underline and highlight the important parts of the text. This keeps your focus intact because you are consciously looking for words, phrases or sentences that are relevant to your purpose of reading. ii. Make notes of the key points as you read. You can do so in the margins of the text itself (if it is your own book) or on a separate sheet. Jot down any idea that springs to your mind by way of association to what you are reading. These notes should be short and crisp, not detailed sentences. iii. Take note of the punctuation: Punctuation is an extremely important part of the structure of the written work. It divides the text into comprehensible units. Therefore, you must not ignore how the various punctuation marks impact the meaning of the written words. iv. Be inquisitive. Do not let your curiosity and the desire to know what the text can tell you die down. Ask questions about what you want to know, what the author wants to convey, what the deeper meaning of the words is, and how it helps you to fulfill your purpose. 2. Take in more words with each fixation: When you read, your eyes move across the written page, but they do not focus on every letter or word. The eyes move across each line in jerky movements and come to rest on words at intervals. This process is called fixation. The nearby words are perceived as part of this fixation. You should practice taking in more words with each fixation. This will help you increase your speed and comprehension. 3. Select an appropriate reading type: Adapt your reading style to your purpose, the type of text and the time frame available. If you have to research for a thesis, you will have to read intensively, but if you are reading a magazine, you can just skim through it. Choose your reading type for optimum effect. i) Use scanning when you are in a hurry to get some specific information. While scanning, you should quickly move your eyes across or down the pages seeking specific words and phrases. Do not read everything. Fixate only on relevant words or key phrases that would give you the required information. Ignore the rest. Once you have scanned the document, you might realize that it has a lot more to offer you. You may then move to the next technique, i.e., skimming to ascertain whether it will really be useful or not. ii) Skim through the text when you wish to get the general drift and main ideas of a text. This technique is useful when you are not looking for a specific item or information, but are trying to get a preview or 'overview' of the text to know what information it is likely to provide. While skimming, you take in more of the textual details than while scanning. The best way to skim a text is to let your eyes rest on the prominent parts of the text and ignore the details. Doing so will give you a fairly good preview of the text. For effective skimming of a text, we need to know which parts of the book to observe and read, and which to ignore. All written works are organized into specific structures. Paying attention to textual structure and organization improves skimming. The following textual elements need to take into account for effective skimming: a) Textual organizers or verbal signposts: Some textual elements are deliberately given prominence in the layout of the text. They catch your eye and act as indicators or signposts to steer you through the text. These indicators such as the title and the sub title, the section and the subsection headings, or photo captions and tables etc., can give you a lot of information about the content of the whole work. b) Formatting tools: Some words, phrases or sentences are formatted in such a way that they stand out and catch your attention when you skim through the text. Words written in bold type or italics, different font size, style, or color etc., also serve as signposts and indicators and help you focus on key words, terms, points etc. c) Non-verbal indicators: Many texts contain non-verbal elements like diagrams, graphs, and charts etc., to supplement the verbal content. Taking note of these also helps in previewing a text. All these verbal, nonverbal and formatting indicators are there for a purpose. They will navigate you through the structural features of the text and give you a fairly good overview of its content. With practice, you will be able to master this very useful technique of reading. 4. Concentrate on content and speed: The speed at which you read plays a very important role in making your reading effective and efficient. There is a close relationship between the speed of reading and the understanding of the written matter. Beginners need to read slowly in order to comprehend the text, but as you become proficient in this skill, you must learn to read fast without compromising comprehension. Seasoned and fluent readers understand more when they read fast. Laborious word-by-word reading can be tedious and boring, and result in poor grasp of the meaning of the text. However, there is no hard and fast rule about this. The ideal speed of reading may differ from person to person, text to text, and purpose to purpose. The nature and level of difficulty of the text also influence the rate of reading. Try to find your own ideal speed, but work at increasing it without decreasing your comprehension. Forced acceleration without actual comprehension will not serve any purpose. Aiming at acquiring a speed that will help us to read as fast as we can without losing track of the meaning of what we are reading. 5. Build up your vocabulary: Language is expressed in words strung together in structured, meaningful sentences. Words are the primary tools of linguistic communication. Therefore, it is necessary that you know an adequate number of words and their meanings, so that you can use them for effective communication. The number of words that you know and use are said to be your vocabulary. One of the most important ways of mastering language is to increase your vocabulary. The efficiency of your reading skill depends on the size and depth of your vocabulary and your understanding of how words are structured into sentences. That means you should not only know a large number of words, but also their meanings, correct usage and various connotations in various contexts. A persons vocabulary is of two types: passive and active. i. Passive vocabulary: There are many words that you understand when you hear or read them, but you never use them in your own speech or writing. All these words are part of your passive vocabulary. ii. Active vocabulary: Your active vocabulary consists of the words that you confidently and regularly use in your own speech or writing. Your vocabulary is your word power. When you use your reading skill, you use both parts of your word power, i.e., your active as well as passive vocabulary for comprehending the text. Therefore, the more words you have at your command, the better will be your comprehension. You can improve all your language skills by increasing your vocabulary. Your effort should be to increase your passive vocabulary as well as to move words from the passive to the active level by using them consciously, repeatedly and correctly in your speech and writing.

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6. Read extensively: There is a reciprocal relationship between reading and vocabulary. If you read a lot, you automatically and subconsciously keep on adding words to your vocabulary; and if you have a well developed vocabulary, your reading skill keeps on improving. Therefore, you should make reading a habit. Read various types of books, magazines and journals. Do not limit yourself to textbooks only. Keep a pencil handy. Underline words you do not know and later look them up in a dictionary to know their exact meanings and usages. Extensive reading will help you increase your passive vocabulary, which acts as the resource for your active vocabulary. Remember, the more words you have at your command, the better will be your communication skills. 7. Use SQ3R method. Experts recommend this technique for reading to learn, retain and recall. It helps you to get an in depth understanding of the textual material. The method involves five simple steps; Survey, Question, Read, Recall and Review. Survey: Skim through the text to gain an overview of the key points. Question: Devise questions you hope the text will answer. Read: Read slowly and carefully with full concentration and focus. Recall: Recall from memory the read material; write down the main points of the text. Review: Go back to your questions. Review whether you can recall what you have read. Supplement and reinforce what you have learnt by further reading and note-taking if required. 8. Refer to the glossary for technical words and unfamiliar terminology. Do not try to guess the meaning. Knowing the exact meaning of new words will help your comprehension. 9. Assess your comprehension and retention: After reading, try to recall what you have read. Ask yourself questions about the content of the text. This will tell you how successful you have been in your reading 10. Avoid reading pitfalls: Some factors have an adverse effect on the process of reading. You should try to avoid these. i) Do not read word by word. Remember, you are not reading a dictionary where you have to know the meaning of words individually. Written material is less meaningful if read word by word, so you should try to take in groups of words or phrases that signify units of thought or meaning. ii) Avoid faulty eye movement. Develop a wider eye-span. Try to increase the number of words you take in with each fixation. This will help you read more than one word at a glance, and to read by phrases or thought units. iii) Do not vocalize or read aloud. Get over the habit of pronouncing words or sounding or whispering them in your throat as you read. You will be able to read much faster when you read silently. iv) Do not try to remember everything. Be selective in what you try to retain. Cluttering your mind with unnecessary details will slow down your reading and comprehension. v) Avoid regression. Regression means rereading words, phrases or paragraphs. This will result in jerky and faulty reading. It will also break your concentration and the natural flow of your reading. With practice, you can learn to shun this habit. vi) Avoid reading in a non-conducive environment. A comfortable, properly lit and noise free environment will help you read without distraction and will enhance your comprehension. Become an effective and efficient reader: 1. Be an active reader. Focus and concentrate. Keep your interest alive. 2. Adjust your reading type to your purpose of reading. 3. Learn to take in more words with each fixation. 4. Increase your speed of reading without compromising comprehension. 5. Read extensively. Build up your word power. 6. Practice SQ3R. 7. Avoid reading pitfalls. Q6. A candidate is required to maintain certain characteristics to ensure that he gets the job he has applied. State the characteristics. Identify the techniques which should be used by the interviewee to get a good job. Characteristics of Job Interview Originally the word interview is derived from intrevue, which means sight between two people. It can be defined as a planned conversation between two individuals with a predetermined purpose involving question answer session. Let us discuss the aspects, which revolve around job interview: Planning: A job interview requires planning in order to achieve an effective result. Several factors such as time, venue, experts, papers and materials required and many others are decided before the interview starts. Here, the interviewer sets specific questions to ask the candidate in order to get the best out of him and see that it is perfectly suitable to the job he has applied for. However, you have to note that an interview is not a mechanical process because every interview is not the same nor every organization adopts the same sequence of interview. Purpose: The purpose of a job interview is to achieve certain objectives. The organization may first perform certain tests to find out the capabilities of the candidate, go through the technical round to see if the candidate is technically competent enough to handle the job, behavioral round to find out how he responds to certain situations and finally the HR round to test the personality traits and negotiate on the compensation for which the candidate will agree to join the organization. Conversation: As two people communicate between themselves, interview is a formal conversation between the job applicant and the recruiter or member of the selection committee. It enables the applicant to attend the question answer session and tell the recruiter about his skill, experience and knowledge he has gained throughout the years and how much he can actually contribute to the organization. The conversation is short, specific, well articulated with appropriate pronunciation. It also requires certain degree of flexibility in the usage of tenses though it is not so important. Two-way communication process: Interview can be on one to one interaction or a panel interview where you have more than one interviewer. In order to ensure that the interview does not become biased, the questions are structured and the candidates are asked the same question so that no discrimination takes place in the selection process. In a panel interview, which consists of five to six members, every interviewer asks specific questions to evaluate the candidate to ensure an effective decision making process. It helps the candidate to judge his own strength and weakness as well as the interviewer to view the candidates capabilities from a different angle for the job. Informality: Though the process is formal, it mainly revolves around a friendly and amicable atmosphere. The process is not to make the candidate tensed or unpleasant, rather make it more open to him so that he is able to express his potential and his views clearly on the subject. A good relationship is a must to be made between the interviewer and the interviewee. Job Interview Techniques The rules are as follows:

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1. Systematic 2. Impressive 3. Analytical thoughts 4. Job analysis 5. Organization information 6. Planned preparation. A job interview needs a planned and systematic preparation for the candidate. It will help him in a number of ways, such as: 1. develop confidence level 2. deal with interview anxiety effectively 3. sensitive to the needs and expectations of the interviewers 4. know about his strengths and weakness 5. know about the organization and the job 6. adapt himself to the working culture and environment 7. know about his skills and how he can effectively use them in times of crisis Different techniques. 1. Self-analysis: Sometimes it is seen that simple questions like Tell me something about you unnerves many candidates during job interviews. But if proper self-analysis is done, we may not be lost or unnerved in front of the interviewer. Self analysis involves identifying your background, career goals, accomplishments, achievements, special interests and hobbies. It should not be a repetition of what you have already written in your resume because the interviewer wants to hear something new from your side. There are certain factors to do a self analysis, which is enumerated below: a. Analyze your background: A candidate should do a critical examination about his professional background and educational qualification. It has been seen that a candidate is very good in his educational qualification, but he may not have the right background to do the job. For example, an electrical engineer who has applied for a job in sales and marketing of its product should try to highlight his prospective abilities that he is an efficient, hardworking, intelligent and competent sales executive though he comes from a different background. He should be able to answer certain questions like, What makes him fit for the sales position? to ensure that he is fit to handle his responsibility irrespective of his background. b. Identify your accomplishments: An accomplishment should be expressed articulately in order to let the employer know how important was the role you had played during your stay in school / college/ university or the last organization. It generally reflects your personality and your capability to identify the problem and take effective steps to solve it. c. Identify your achievements: It is not very different from the above paragraph but it involves more of academic and professional success. It may be like winning a scholarship, best employee award or any prize for a debate or sports you have represented your school / college or organization in the past. d. Identify your special interest or hobbies: In this section, the candidate should list all the activities and justify them, which he has done previously. This is seen in order to find out whether the candidate was dynamic, an active participant and energetic in his interest. It is also seen if he had the passion in taking up his hobbies or take part in the extra-curricular activities to accept the challenges in his job, in future. e. Analyze your career goal: The career objectives, goals and his foresightedness ten years hence are actually analyzed. It is to be seen that the objective should commensurate with the candidate s job profile,otherwise the candidature would be cancelled. For example, if a candidate is being interviewed for the position of marketing executive, but he answers that after ten years he wants to become a competent lawyer, his candidature may be cancelled. 2. Analyze your skills: Every job requires certain skills to perform it. A candidate should assess his skills and match the skills required for the job. It is a process of analyzing your skills according to the requirements. If a candidate does not have the required skills, he should try to find out techniques for adapting these skills to fit the job as desired. Employers sometimes ask certain questions to evaluate the competency level of the candidate such as: How do you rate yourself according to the job in a scale of 1 to 10? Why should we hire you? What is the greatest strength and weakness? What would be your contribution to the industry? There are certain skills, which the candidate already possesses, and there are some which he needs to acquire through training. The one acquired through training is termed as learned skills and the one which he already possesses is termed as intuitive skills. Some examples of both are given below: Learned Skills Intuitive Skills Coordinating Patience Public speaking Analytical Negotiating Foresight Interpersonal Leadership Time management Sincerity Computer programming Adaptability Planning Motivating Supervising Team building The candidate is required to know about his USP (unique selling point) so that he can be the best choice for the employer. 3. Research the organization: A candidate should do a thorough research of the organization where he is going to be interviewed. This is because he should be aware about what business it is into, recent expansion to be taken, new projects to be ventured, company rating in national or global level, work culture, financial turnover, and introduction of new products, organization structure and his interest in the company. Unless a thorough research is done, a candidate would not be able to answer the questions. To overcome this, the candidate should go through the company website, business magazines, company directories and company reports. 4. Job analysis: It is to provide the total information about the job. The applicant should have a clear idea about the job of what it is, what responsibilities to be handled, whom to report, challenges to be faced, professional knowledge required, areas of expertise and career prospective in future. 5. Revise your subject knowledge: It is always suggested that an applicant should always have a good knowledge, confidence and clarity about his own subject. A candidate should do a preparation of the subject he has studied, look into the latest developments, and get an idea of the general knowledge regarding political, social, economic or an environmental issues.

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This can be developed by reading newspaper, watching television programmes related to news or business or visiting any informative websites. 6. Develop the interview file: A proper interview demands a professional approach. A proper interview file should contain reference papers, merit certificates, covering letter, educational credentials, experience certificates and resume. The main idea behind this is to keep everything in order so that it will help the candidate in placing them when required, in a more organized way. Manners and etiquettes maintained during an interview and in workplace The most important part of the interview is how you project yourself the moment you walk inside the interview room. Certain etiquettes and manners need to be maintained, but why? It is because it is important for the career, building relationship, projecting exceptional professionalism and attracting business. Without etiquettes, the candidate limits his potential, risks his image and jeopardizes his relationship. Actually, the word etiquette is derived from a French word, which means ticket or label. It was used formally in court where people were requi red to behave properly and follow certain code of conduct. Hence, today et iquette came to be known as a code for social behavior. In simple terms, it is the manners and behaviour we follow or maintain in our social work life. For the purpose of interview, we greet a person with Good Morning or Good Afternoon or Good Night. When we meet any person, we say Hello Sir or when we take leave from a person, we say Goodbye. Words or phrases used to respect the persons dignity are called manners or etiquette. Apart from the interview, workplace etiquettes need to be maintained due to certain reasons such as: i) It is a common space for all; so, we should not talk at low pitch voice. ii) Some people are very busy in their work; so, we should not get them disturbed. iii) Using the common resource such as photo copy machine, telephone, fax, light, and fan. iv) Aesthetic environment should be kept calm and quiet. It is to be noted that a candidate not only has to know about the manners and etiquettes practiced at work place, but should also be well groomed and maintain personal hygiene. It is to make ones appearance tidy and pleasant and make himself attractive. It is generally perceived that your appearance influences others opinion of you and brings out professionalism, intelligence and trust within yourself. General grooming maintained to meet the above standards consists of clean and trimmed hair, shaving regularly and keeping short, clean nails. If you have a teeth problem or bad breath, brush your teeth twice daily or go to the dentist once a while or carry a mouth freshener, if required. Even the dress you wear should be sober in colour. Wear shoes and socks, which are clean and of the same colour. Prefer to wear black or dark brown shoes with laces. Last but not the least, neat, clean and well ironed dress is acceptable and appreciated by all and it talks a lot about our sensibilities. While you are appearing for the interview, be polite and courteous while answering; otherwise, the interviewer might think that you are unfriendly or snobbish or rude in your approach. Flexibility to work in a team, tactful in using words, which do not lead to unnecessary controversies or arguing with an interviewer should be practiced. It is always advisable for the candidate that if the interviewer is saying something wrong or is not according to the standard definition, he should either ignore it or may politely answer to the discussion they were into. At times, it has been noticed that the candidate sometimes feels nervous before and during the course of interview and certain negative thoughts, which in turn hinders his chance to get the job. Instead, he should always talk positively and think optimistically in order to increase his confidence and say to himself, I am going to make i t, or I am going to succeed. If he has not got through the interview, he should not make himself disheartened rather take it positively and do better the next time.