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EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A FAST

ACTING

CIRCUIT

BREAKER

MECHAKISM ELECTRICAL

ASPECTS

Raymond J. Rajotte Michel G. Drouet Direction Sciences de base Institut de Recherche de 1'Hydro-Quebec Varennes, QuEbec. Canada.

ABSTRACT

An experimental analysis of a fast electromagnetic circuit breaker driving mechanism has been performed. The device utilizes the repulsion force produced on a metal disc subjected to a transient magnetic field The spatial distribution, in the disc, of the driving field was determined using magnetic probes located at the surface of the disc or imbedded within. The acceleration of the disc was also measured using a piezoelectric aceelerometer. A pulsed power supply circuit with or without crow-bar energizes the magnet coil. The experimental results are found to agree very well witha more refined theoretical analysis presented in this paper. Some recommendations are made with regard to the optimization of both the geometry of the driving mechanism and the characteristics of the power supply used to energize this driving mechanism.

tava5 have presented a theoretical analysis of certain electrical, thermal and mechanical aspects of a fast acting circuit breaker mechanism of the type illustrated on Fig.1.

INTRODUCTION The interest for high speed switching mechanism for DC or synchronous AC interruption of electrical circuit is evidenced by the many progress reports puFig. 1. The electromagnetic driving mechanism. blished in recent years (e.g. 1,2,3,4). In most cases, fast opening of the contacts is achieved using a a device has been fast acting electromechanical device which utilizes the An experimental analysis of such undertaken here. Measurements of the spatial distriburepulsion force produced on a metal disc subjected to a transient magnetic field. The working principle of such tions, in the disc, of the transient magnetic field, a mechanism is illustrated on Fig.1. The disc shaped induced voltage and current have been performed as a magnet coil is energized by discharging the capacitor function of(a) the amplitude and frequency of the current in the driving coil and (b) the distance between bank in the coil. A transient magnetic field is thus produced which induces eddy currents in the disc loca-the disc and the coil. The measurements were made using ted close to the magnet coil. There occurs an electro- wire loops located on the surface of the disc or imbeddedwithin.Especiallyatlowerfrequencies,large magnetic interaction, between the induced current and discrepancies were found between our measurements and the source magnetic field,which results in a repulsion of the disc carrying the induced current. The disc is the theoretical values according to Basu and Srivastava5. In order to resolve these discrepancies a theoreaccelerated, in the axial direction, with the moving tical analysis of the problem was undertaken which led contact and, in this way,the separation of the contacts to a more refined model of interaction.Furthermore, the is achieved. very good agreement was obtained between the theoretical and the measured distributions of the current and In the past, the design and development of this of the magnetic and electric fields in the disc. type of high speed driving mechanism has been based mainly on approximate electrical and mechanical theories and the data derived from laboratory models and THEORY prototypes. However, in a recent paper,Basu and, Srivas-

In general, boundary value problems in which currents are present are treated by means of the magnetic vector potential.The various electromagnetic quantities of interest can be derived once we know the expressions giving the magnetic vector potential. The solution to the boundary value problem of a spiral coil parallel to the surface of a disc can be simplified greatly if we Paper T 74 408-1, recommended and approvedby the IEEE Switchgear make the following assumptions which are well justified society p r e s e n t a t i o n at the IEEE fcT our experimental model. Committee of the IEEE Power Engineering for PES Summer Meeting & Energy Resources C o d . , Anaheim,Cal., July 14-19, r i n t i n g A p r i l 1) The current in the coil flows in the azimuthal di1974. Manuscript submitted February 1, 1974; made available for p 29,1974. rection only and therefore the vector potential and
a9

t h e eddy c u r r e n t s h a v e c y l i n d r i c a l
2)

symmetry.

The r a d i a ld i s t r i b u t i o n of t h ec u r r e n ti nt h ef l a t s p i r a l c o i l i s uniform in amplitude and i n phase.

3)

The diameter of the disc i s much l a r g e r than the e x t e r n ad liameter of t h e coil; we c a t nh e r e f o r e assume, when we c a l c u l a t et h ev a l u e of t h ev e c t o r p o t e n t i a l ,t h a tt h ed i s c has a ni n f i n i t ed i a m e t e r real electromagneand t h ae t dge ffecti sn the tic device can be neglected. The v a r i o u s media are tropic, The d i s c is maae
01

sured experimentally by means of a f i n ew i r el o o p at t h es u r f a c e of t h ed i s co r imbedded i n i t as w i l l be in the next section of t h e described i n more d e t a i l e w i l l b ea b l et o compare d i r e c t l yt h ee x p e r i text. W mental value of themagnitudeandthephase of t h e i n ducev d o l t a gw e itt hht eh e o r e t i c av l a l uc ea l c u l a t e d (4) and (A.25) withoutanyfurther mausingequations nipulation. Another physical quantity of i n t e r e s t i s t h e magneB. Using Maxwell's equations we f i n d t i cf l u xd e n s i t y that, f o r t h e c a s e o f a x i a l symmetry, t h e m a g q e t i c f l u x These quantities d e n s i t y has only r and z components. are obtained from the vector potential by t h e r e l a t i o n ships:
Br

4)

l i n e a r , homogeneous and iso-

5)

nomnagnetic materlal.

With theseassumptions, we a r e now a b l e t o c a l c u latethevalueofthevectorpotentialinside andoutAs shod in the appendix, if s i d e of t h e . m e t a 1 disc. is p e r i o d i cw i t h angut h ec u r r e n tf l o w i n gi nt h ec o i l pol a r frequency w, t h eo n l y component of t h ev e c t o r the cylindrical coordinate system is in t e n t i a l A in t h e 8 d i r e c t i o n as i s t h ec u r r e n ti nt h ec o i l and i t must s a t i s f y t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l e q u a t i o n :
n
n

- -aA az

and

EXPERIMENT
A.

Experimental arrangement

where u is the permeability and u is t h e electrical c o n d u c t i v i t y of t h e medium. The s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i f f e (1) i s o u t l i n e d in the appendix for rential equation twb d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . W e f i r s t look a t t h e c a s e of a f i l a p e n tc u r r e n tl o o pp a r a l l e lt ot h es u r f a c eo f a the l a r g em e t a lp l a t e of t h i c k n e s s t . Then, we extend a f l a ts p i r a lc o i l above a solution to the case of l a r g em e t a lp l a t e . This c a s e i s of more p r a c t i c a li n terest in our investigation. Equation (A.25) i n t h e a p p e p d i x g i v e s t h e v a l u e o f the vector potential A3(r,z) at any point inside and at t h e s u r f a c e of t h e m e t a l d i s c as a f u n c t i o n of t h e various parameters of t h e e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c s y s t e m ( c u r r e n t , f r e q u e n c y ,d i s t a n c ef r o mt h ed i s ct ot h ec o i l ,t h i c k ness of t h e discc , onductivity of t h e disc material, dimensions and number o f turns of the coil). W e w i l l now show how t h e v a r i o u s e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c q u a n t i t i e s of i n t e L e s tc a nb ed e r i v e df r o mt h ev e c t o rp o t e n t i a l A3 (r,z). The absolute value and the phase of t h ec u r r e n t density J in the disc can be readily obtained using Ohm's law:

A schematic diagram of the experimental arrangeh o w n on Fig. 2 . The ment used i nt h ep r e s e n t work i s s s p i r a l magnet c o i l and t h ec y l i n d r i c a l metal d i s c are mounted c o a x i a l l y . The 8 turnspiralcoil i s 70 mm and d i a m e t e rr , espectively. It 178 m, i n s i d e and o u t s i d e i s made of copper e r e of square cross section(AWG7);It is supportedand bound, using epoxy r e s i n , t o a 50 mm t h i c k p h e n o l i c p l a t e as shorn on Fig. 1.

I n most of t h e measurements described below the a s energized using an oscillator and power amcoil w p l i f i e ri n s t e a do f a c a p a c i t o r bank. Only i n t h i s way was it p o s s i b lt eo inaintain both t ha em p l i t u d e and t h ef r e q u e n c yo ft h ec u r r e n ti nt h ec o i lw h i l ev a r y i n g e i t h e rt h ed i s t a n c e ,b ,b e t w e e nt h ec o i la n dt h ed i s c , t h et h i c k n e s s of t h ed i s c , t , or the frequency of t h e i t made p o s s i b l et h e meac u r r e n ti t s e l f .F u r t h e r m o r e , surement o f ' t h er e l a t i v ep h a s eo ft h ei n d u c e dv o l t a g e with respect to the current sine wave i n t h e c o i l .

J =

UE

aA3 ( r ,z)
- U
E

-j

u A3(r,z)

(2)

at where E i s t h ee l e c t r i cf i e l d . The v o l t a g e V along a c e r t a i n p a t h s is g e n e r a l l y g i v e n by: induced

(3)
0

For a c i r c u l a rp a t h of r a d i u s r which i s c o a x i a l w i t ht h es p i r a lc o i la n dp a r a l l e lt o i t , equation (3) becomes


V

j w 27 r A(r,z)

(4)

The induced voltage V is a p h y s i c a l quantity of i t canbeeasily meag r e a tp r a c t i c a li n t e r e s tb e c a u s e

Fig. 2 .

Experimental arrangement.

90

The copper or aluminum discs used were 280 m in diameter, large enough compared to the outside diameter of the coil (178 n u n ) to ensure that the measurements could be compared with the predictions of the theoretical analysis where the assumption of an infinite disci8 made. In order to determine the influence of the disc thickness, several discs of different thicknesses were used and in addition they could be stacked one on top of the other; the behavior of a stack of was discs not different from that of a single disc of thickness equal to that of the stack. Each measurement was performed with the disc held stationnary by brackets fixed on the coil plate support.
B.

/-

Measuring probes
ul .X

f = 60Hz I = IOOA. rms -120'


Disc.= Cu.

I
1

i t s"
-Moo

l2 magnetic field is produced which induces an electric field in the disc which in turn results in the production of eddy currents. The problem of measurement of the electromagnetic quantities in the disc i s made simpler by the cylindrical symmetry of the system. To perform this measurement we have used nine coaxial loops, circular in shape (20,60,90,120,150,165~180,205 and 230 m m in diameter), located in grooves made on the surface of the disc. The single turn loops are not in electrical contact with the disc and are made of copper wire 0.25 mm in diameter. They are connected to both an A . C . voltmeter and a phase meter which allow the measurements of the amplitude and of the phase of the voltage induced in each loop. The current in the coil, measured by a current transformer as shown on Fig.2 , is used as a reference for the phase measurement. Fig. 3 . Radial dependence of the induced voltage. PaThe voltage measured is induced in a loop by the rameter: the distance coil-disc. variation of the magnetic flux through the surface limited by the loop. As coaxial loopsof increasing and known areas are used it is easy to determine the distribution in amplitude and phase of the electric and magnetic fields from the measurements of the voltage in.&. duced in the loops. Furthermore, as shown earlier 2 ) , it is also possible to calculate the distribution 4 4 of the current in the disc knowing the value of the electric field in the disc and the conductivity of the material of the disc. -1 50' The induced voltage w a s measured either at the surface or inside the disc in a plane parallel to its surface. This was done to determine the amplitude and the phaseof the electromagnetic waves propagating inside and outside of the disc. The characteristics of the wave propagating in the metal were determined by inserting discs of various thicknesses between the ma120 gnet coil and the disc bearing the measuring loops. Disc: AI. 1 0 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS t =53mm
A s the current in the coil varies, a transient

t=28mm

1 .

A.

Radial dependence of the induced voltage

Nil
mV 5

The radial dependence of the induced voltage was determined for different values'of either the distance between the magnet coil and the disc or the frequency of the oscillating current in the coil; typical results 3 and 4 . Over the range of frequency are shown in Fig. and distance studied, we observe a very good agreement between the theoretical curves and the experimental maximum points. The amplitude of the induced voltage is at a radius equal to a value between that of the inside I I t decreases rapidly for and outside radii of the coil. a radius larger than the outside radius of the coil especially at high frequencies. Furthermore, as could be expected, the coupling between the disc and the Fig. coil4 . decreases as the distance between the two, b,increases.

M M

- u

1 Radial dependence of the induced voltage. Parameter: the frequency of the exciting current.

91

tion of the disc, depends on the value, t, of the dis The relative phase $i between the excitation current and the induced voltageVi is, however, independent of thickness. Measurements were made in order to demonst that same distance b . in the region of the disc correste the influence of t;.the results are presented on Fig. 6 . One measuring loop is located on each side of the ponding to the inside and outside radii of the coil 5 to from where its value is about 1270 (Fig. 3 ) . As predicted by disc, the thickness of which, t,may be varied 20 The diameter of both wire loops is the same, Eq. 4,the induced voltage is found experimentally (Fig. 4 ) to increase with frequency; a small dependence on 120 m. The induced voltage Vi is related to the var frequency of the phase 91 is also noted. The sharpness tion in the magnetic flux entering the disc. The volof the dependence of both +i and (Vi1 on radius obser-tage Vt corresponds to the variation in the magnetic flux leaving the disc on the other side. Once again ved in Fig. 4, as compared to the results of Fig. 3, is due to the fact that those results correspond mito a the agreement between the theoretical curves and the nimum value,1 mm, for b. experimental points is very good. It is interesting to note that Vt.and, correspondingly, the amplitude of the magnetic flux transmitted through the disc and thereB. Voltage induced inside the disc fore not contributing to any acceleration of the disc, decreases rapidly with t when the skin6 depth is greaThe experimental configuration of the coil-disc ter than t. This observation will be of importance in system used for this particular investigation is illus- the design of the electromagnetic driving mechanism. 120 trated on Fig. 5. The measuring loop, of diameter m yis in a plane parallel to the disc surface and at a distance z from it. The phase, with respect to the current wave in the coil, and the amplitude of the induced voltage Vi are plotted on Fig. 5 as a function of that distance z . Very good agreement between the theoretical curves and the experimental points is also obtained.The phase l a g $1 of the electromagnetic wave increases liz in the metal and its amplinearly with the distance tude decreases exponentially with z indicating that,for our particular coil-disc geometry, the electromagnetic wave inside of the metal disc behaves like a plane wave 8.

m m .

C.

Wave propagating through the disc

The dimensions of the disc have an influence on the coupling between the coil and the disc itself. In particular, the amount of energy transmitted through the disc, which does not contribute to the accelera-

Fig. 6 .

Variation of the voltage induced on both sides of the disc with disc thickness.

b=4mm I = 4 0 0 A rms

92

D.

Measurements of the acceleration of the disc

-5-

Measurements of the acceleration of the disc were also performed. Such measurements are m s t important for the optimization of the energy transfer from the parer supply to the disc. In this particular study the disc* was free to move although its motion was guided by a shaft as shown on Fig. 7 The acceleration of the disc was measured by means of a piezoelectric acceler meter fixed on top of the disc. The signal from the accelerometer, a, was amplified and presented on the V, induced in a loop (120 mu oscilloscope. The voltage,

o o l L L 5" L 1 " '10mm l l L z - 1


Fig. 5.

* Aluminum, outside diameter 280 m m , thickness 38 ran, Voltageinducedinsidethedisc.totalweight,withshaft, 6 kg.

Probe

Tek.556

where d r is anelementalvolume of t n e d i s c and Re [ ] i n d i c a t e s that w e musttakethe real p a r t of t h e complex instantaneous current and magnetic flux densities. Je a n d t h e r a d i a l magneThe a z i m u t h a l c u r r e n t d e n s i t y t i c f l u x d e n s i t y Br are givenby Eqs. (2) and (5) resp e c t i v e l y . The n e g a t i v ea c c e l e r a t i o nr e c o r d e do nF i g . 8 t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t s from the phase difference between the c u r r e n t d e n s i t y and t h e m a g n e t i c i n d u c t i o n i n t h e d i s c .

I in the coil The relative b e h a v i o r o f t h e c u r r e n t V i a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e d i s c ( F i g . and induced voltage 8) c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d i n terms o ft h ep h a s ed i f f e r e n c e of 127O between I and V i measured (see Fig. 3) i n t h e case of a c o n t i n u o u s s i n e wave. E. Operation of the system with
Fig. 7. Experimental arrangement used for the measuresupply. mentsof t h e a c c e l e r a t i o n of t h e d i s c . acrow-baron t h e power

a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e d i s c a n d t h e indiameter)located were monitoredsimultaneously. c u r r e n t , I, i n t h e c o i l The o s c i l l a t o r and power a m p l i f i e r , u s e d p r e v i o u s l y t o were replaced by the capacitore n e r g i ztehc eo i l , on Fig. 7. The c i r c u i t w a s i g n i t r o nc i r c u i tp r e s e n t e d s e t up so that only a h a l f wave o f c u r r e n t w a s deliveas shown on F i g . 8. The c u r r e n t i n t h e redtothecoil that a l l the enerc o i l was limited on purpose in order gy b e d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e d i s c h a d time t o move apprem ) . The frequency of t h e c i r c u i t w a s adjusc i a b l y ( = 1m tedtominimizetheexcitationofthe many n a t u r a l mechanical resonance frequencies of t h e d i s c .

W e have n o t e d ,i nt h ep r e v i o u ss e c t i o n ,t h a tt h e is hampered by t h ef a c tt h a t efficiencyofthesystem is negative towardsthe t h ea c c e l e r a t i o no ft h ed i s c coil duringthesecondstageofthecurrentinjection To improve the system we have connected an ignitron a c r o stsh c e o itle r m i n a l s . The i g n i t r o n i s used t o s h o r t - c i r c u i tt h ec o i l when t h e c o i l c u r r e n t is a t its p e a k ;t h i sc r o r b a rp r e v e n t st h ec u r r e n t from swinging 6). The use of a crow-bar backthroughzero(e.g.Ref. electromagnetic device has been i nt h ec i r c u i t of an suggested in t h e p a s t 7 , however, i n t h a t p a p e r , no measurementwith a crow-bar was r e p o r t e d .

Fig. 8. Experimental measurement of the acceleration ofthedisc.

The r e s u l t sp r e s e n t e d on theoscillogram(Fig. 8) show that t h e acceleration of t h e disc is p o s i t i v e (away from t h ec o i l )d u r i n g most of t h ec u r r e n th a l f wave. However, the acceleration goes through zero and becomes s l i g h t l yn e g a t i v et o w a r d st h ee n d of t h e curr e n th a l f wave. Computer c a l c u l a t i o n so ft h ei n s t a n t a neous value of t h e f o r c e a c t i n g on t h e d i s c , i n t h e c a s e wave, have shown t h a tt h e r e is a of a c o n t i n u o u ss i n e s m a l l n e g a t i v ef o r c ea c t i n g on t h e d i s c toward t h e end of e a c h c u r r e n t h a l f wave i n t h e p r i m a r y c o i l . The i n s on t h e t a n t a n e o u sv a l u eo ft h et o t a lf o r c e ,F ,a c t i n g disc can be computed by numerical integration of the of t h ef o r c ep e ru n i t volume over instantaneou vs alue the whole volumeof t h e d i s c as follows:
Fig. 9.
J e eJwt] x R e [Br e J w td ]r [,

(7)

disc
93

Time v a r i a t i o n s of t h e c u r r e n t I i nt h ec o i l inducedvoltage a t t h e s u r f a c e of t h e d i s c V i a n da c c e l e r a t i o n of t h ed i s c a with crow-bar (loweroscil1ogram)andwithout crow-bar(upper oscillogram).

To f a c i l i t a t e comparison, w e have reproduced in F i g9 . 'the oscillograms of two successive experiments The curves on performedwithandwithoutthe crow-bar. Fig.9a,which are very similar i n s h a p et ot h er e c o r were obtained without crow-bar. The dings of Fig. 8, i n f l u e n c e of t h e c r o w b a r . is well demonstrated on Hg. e o b s e r v et h a tt h e crow-bar p r e v e n t st h ec u r r e n t 9b. W in the coil,I,from decreasing too fast and consequently from inducing a r e v e r s e v o l t a g e V and a r e v e r s e c u r r e n t in the disc. However, t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g aspect of t h e crow-bar i s that ( a ) i t p r e v e n t st h ea c c e l e r a t i o n , a, from becoming negative (as i s the case without crowi t c o n t r i b u t e st ot h eg e n e r a t i o n of a pobar)and(b) a c e r t a i nt i m e . Comparing t h e s i t i v ea c c e l e r a t i o nf o r a1 anda2 w e n o t e that, by using area under the curves a crow-bar in t h e c i r c u i t , w e have obtained more than a in t h ee n e r g yt r a n s f e r e dt ot h e mof i v ef o l di n c r e a s e ving disc. CONCLUSION

r e n t from gwinging through zero, thus maintaining a high valuo eifn t e r a c t i o n between thc e o ia lnd the m a l l . disc, while the distance between them i s s t i l l s

The

a u t h o re s x p r e st sh e itrh a n k t so

Mr.

Michel

Gagn6 f o r h i s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e .

APPENDIX

From Maxwell's equations curl E

w e know t h a t :
(A. 1 )

aB -at

An e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s of a f a s t acting e l e c t r o m a g n e t i c i r c u ib t reaker mechanism has been presented. The s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e d r i v i n g f i e l di nt h ed i s ch a sb e e n measured. The experimental r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d are i n good agreement with the theoret i c a la n a l y s i s ;t h e y are of a g r e a ti m p o r t a n c et ot h e e n g i n e e rf o rt h eo p t i m i z a t i o n of boththegeometryof t h e d r i v i n g mechanismand t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e power supply used to energize this driving mechanism.
a )R e l a t i v ed i a m e t e r so ft h ed i s ca n dt h ec o i l . The measurementspresented on Fig. 3 i n d i c a t e t h a t a radius the field in the disc remains important for largerthanthatofthecoil,thereforethediameter of that o f t h e c o i l . Howet h ed i s cs h o u l db el a r g e rt h a n v e r as shown on Fig. 4, t h e recommended r e l a t i v e v a l u e s of t h e d i a m e t e r s s h o u l d a l s o depend on the frequency of A s t h ef r e q u e n c y is i n c r e a s e d ,t h e t h ec u r r e n tp u l s e . recommended diameter of the disc should tend towards that of t h e c o i l ; t h i s i s a directconsequenceofthe decrease of the skin depth with the frequency. b) Thickness of t h ed i s c .

where E i s t h e e l e c t r i c f i e l d , J is t h e c u r r e n t d e n s i t y , B is t h e m a g n e t i c f l u x d e n s i t y a n d p is t h e p e r m e a h l i t y o ft h e medium. By d e f i n i t i o n :

where a i s t h e e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y . and (A.3) w e obtain:

Combining (A.2)

J and A I ft h ec u r r e n tf l o w si nc o a x i a lc i r c l e s , haveonlyazfmuthalcomponents. W e can expand t h e l e f t hand s i d eo fe q u a t i o n (A.5) i nt h ec y l i n d r i c a lc o o r d i nate system and obtain the following differential equation:

It might appear that only mechanical strength considerations should be relevant here. Roweversthe thickness of the disc is a l s o o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e opA s shown on Fig.6, t i m i z a t i o n of t h ee n e r g yt r a n s f e r . themagneticfluxpropagatingthroughthedisc may be important; this possible loss of energy,demonstrated by ourmeasurements,canseriouslyreducetheeffenciency of the system. The v a l u eo ft h ef i e l d decreases w i t h as shown on Fig. 5; t h e s k i n d e p t h distance in the disc The v a l u e of t h es k i n c h a r a c t e r i z e st h i sa t t e n u a t i o n . depth, as a f u n c t i o n of frequency, i s well known f o r d i f f e r e n t m e t a l s ; it should be taken into consideration when deciding on t h e t h i c k n e s s o f t h e d i s c .

From Maxwell's f i e l d e q u a t i o n s , i t is e a s y t o
E

show t h a t :

aA -at
w,

I ft h ef i e l d s thenequation

are periodic with angular frequency (A.5) reducesto

c )C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s

of t h e power supply.

W e haveobserved(Fig. 3) t h a t t h e c o u p l i n g of energy to the disc d e c r e a s ew s ith increasing distance rafrom t h e c o i l . Energy s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e d e l i v e r e d pidly to the coil, before the disc has time t o move appreciablyfromthecoil. This implies that the frequenc yo ft h ec a p a c i t o r - c o i lc i r c u i ts h o u l db eh i g h enough are d e s i r e d . especially if high terminal velocities
W e h a v ea l s on o t e dt h ei n f l u e n c e of a crow-bar in t h e power supply on t h ee f f i c i e n c yo ft h ee n e r g yt r a n s f e r ; in o u r c a s e a f i v e f o l d i n c r e a s e was measured. The use of a crow-bar is a l s o recommended i nt h ec a s e of i t prevents the curh i g ht e r m i n a lv e l o c i t i e sb e c a u s e

Applying t h e methodof separation of the variables be ~ h o w n that ~ , ~ the to solve quation (A.8) i t can m a g n e t i cv e c t o rp o t e n t i a lf o r a f i l a m e n tc u r r e n tl o o p hasthegeneral form:

94

Flr9;ons rf4

A ' and B ' grallo

r e q u i r e st h eu s e

of t h eF o u r i e r - B e s s e li n t e -

f(k')

[ [
k dk
m

f ( k )J l ( k r )J l ( k ' r )

r dr

(A.14)

n.4
Using t h e continuity equations (A.12) and (A.13) and t hF eo u r i e r - B e s s e il ntegral (A.14) atth e three A ' and s u r f a c e s , we c a n evaluate the coefficients f o r each region and the resulting expressions for the vector potential in the four regions are given by:

Fig. 10. C i r c u l a r l o o p p a r a l l e l t o t h e f a c e

of t h e d i s c .

B'

where A, B, C and D a r e complex f u n c t i o n s of k, J1 ( k r ) and N1 ( k r ) a r e f i r s t - o r d e r Bessel functionand Neumann f u n c t i o nr e s p e c t i v e l y and where k l is a complex funct i o n ofk defined as follows: kl

(k2

+j

w p 0)

(A. 10)

2 (k -kl (k+k,)'

)exp k t 1 exp klt

2 (k -kl

2
2

)exp(-klt) exp(-kb)]dk exp(-klt) (A.15)

(k-kl)

Since N1 ( k r ) g o e s t o i n f i n i t y when r goestozero, D must be set equal t o zero in equation (A.9). This equation i s a p a r t i c u l a rs o l u t i o n of t h ed i f f e r e n t i a l most g e n e r a ls o l u equation that w e want t o s o l v e ; t h e t i o nc a n be obtained by i n t e g r a t i o n of t h ep a r t i c u l a r a l l values of from k zero to infinity solution over which gives : A(r,z) =

A2(r,z)

=0

J l ( k aJ )l(kr)

exp(-kb) [exp kz

I
m

2 2 (k -kl )exp klt

2 2 (k -kl )exp(-klt)
2

[A' exp

klz

B ' exp(-klz)lJl(kr)dk

(A.11)

(k+kl) exp

exp (-kz) ] dk

(A. 1 6 )

k l t -(k-kl) exp(-klt)

0
m
I-

where A ' and B ' a r e e q u a l t o vely.

A x C and B x C r e s p e c t i -

A3(r,z) = LI I a

of a W e will now apply equation (A.11) t o t h e c a s e f i l a m e n tc u r r e n tl o o p of r a d i u s "a" (Fig.10)carrying a c u r r e n t I and l o c a t e d a t a d i s t a n c e b above a l a r g e met a l p l a t e of thickness t andof e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y u , After having considered the case of t h e filament current loop,we will look a t t h e more p r a c t i c a l c a s e of a t h i n s p i r a l c o i l above a m e t a l p l a t e o f f i n i t e t h i c k ness. Let us divide the space around the filament curi s homoger e n tl o o pi n t of o u rr e g i o n s ,e a c h of which n e o u sl,i n e a r and i s o t r o p i c . The v e c t o p r o t e n t i ai ln (A.11) each region has the general form of equation withappropriatecoefficients. The e l e c t r i c a l c o n d u c t i v i t y is zero in all regions except region 3 which is occupied by t h em e t a lp l a t e .T h e r e f o r ek l i s e q u a lt o k i n r e g i o n 1, 2 and 4 . S i n c et h ev e c t o rp o t e n t i a lA ( r , z ) must have a f i A ' must v a n i s hi nr e g i o n 1 n i t ev a l u ei na l lr e g i o n s , because z g o e s to plus infinity and B' must be made 4 s i n c e z goes t o minus i n f i n i equaltozeroinregion The complex f u n c t i o n s A ' and B ' may t yi nt h a tr e g i o n . now bedetermined by the use of the boundary conditions Ae must s a t i s f y a t t h a tt h em a g n e t i cv e c t o rp o t e n t i a l t h e i n t e r f a c e between the different regions. Ae(i)

J,

k J l ( k aJ )l(kr)

exp(-kb)

(k+kl) exp
[

kl(z+t)

(k-kl) exp (k-k

- kl(z+t)
]dk exp(-klt)
(A.17)

(k+k1)2 exp k t 1

2
1

A4(r,z)

IJ

Ik a

J l ( k aJ )l(kr)

exp(-kb)

2 kl exp k(z+t)
[

(k+k,)2 exp

klt

I dk
(k-k,)2 exp(-klt)

(A. 18)

These are t h e q u a t i o n s of t h e vector potential produced by a f i l a m e nc t u r r e nlto o p a r a l l etlo the f a c e ofa l a r g e m e t a l p l a t e o f f i n i t e t h i c k n e s s . W e will now u s et h e s er e s u l t st oe v a l u a t et h ev e c t o rp o t e n t i a l due t o a t h i n s p i r a l c o i l i n f r o n t of a m e t a l p l a t e of finitethickness.

= Ae(i

1)

(A.12)

Regions n04

a a z A e ( i ) - a A ( i + 1) = . az e

l.~ I 6(r-a) 6(z-b) (A.13)

The s u r f a c ec u r r e n t of t h es o u r c e i s c o n f i n e dt o I 6(r-a) 6(z-b) in the plane ot fh e f i l a m e nc t urrent loop and i t i n t r o d u c e s a d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n a A e / a z a t z = b . Furthermore, the determination of t h e coefficients 95

Fig. 1 1 .

S p i r a lc o i lp a r a l l e l

t o t h ef a c e

of t h ed i s c .

Applying t h e p r i n c i p l e o f l i n e a r s u p e r p o s i t i o n , t h e magnetic vector potential of a c o i l of f i n i t e dimens i o n s is obtained by i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c v e c t o r potential of a number of filament current loops over a t h i ns p i r a lc o i l t h ec r o s ss e c t i o no ft h ec o i l .F o r extendingfrom a 1 t o a 2 i n t h e r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n ( F i g u r e l l ) , we have:

A3(r,Z)

= uJc

'E
m

J l ( k r ) exp(-kb)

(k+kl)exp kl(z+t) 2
[

(k-k 1 )exp (k-kl)

- kl(z+t)
1dk
(A. 25)

2 (k+kl) exp

klt

exp(-klt)

(A. 1 9 )
r

al

W e w i l l o n l yc o n s i d e rt h ec a s ew h e r et h ec u r r e n t i s uniformthroughd e n s i t y and t h e p h a s e o f t h e c u r r e n t o u tt h ec r o s ss e c t i o no ft h ec o i l . The l i n e a rc u r r e n t d e n s i t y Jc i n a n - t u r ns p i r a lc o i l ,e a c ht u r nc a r r y i n g a c u r r e n t I, i s givenby:


Jc

2 kl expk(z+t) [ 2 (k+kl) exp klt

nI a2

(A. 20)

(k-k1l2

exp(-klt)

ldk

(A.26)

al

I no r d e rt oo b t a i nt h ev e c t o rp o t e n t i a l produced by t h e s p i r a l c o i l i n t h e d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s o f i n t e r e s t , we must replace I by Jc i ne q u a t i o n s (A.15) t o (A.18) and i n t e g r a t et h e s ee q u a t i o n s from t h ei n n e rr a d i u s of t h e c o i l a 1 t o i t s o u t e r r a d i u s a2. The magnetic vector p o t e n t i a l i n r e g i o n 1 becomes: a? A1(r,z)

'

a Jl(ka)Jl(kr)exp(-kz)[exp 2

kb

REFERENCES
J. Beehler and L.D. McConnell, "A new synchronous c i r c ub it reake fo rr machine protection", IEEE Trans. PAS, Vol. 92, pp. 668-672, Mar./Apr. 1973.
W. Knauer, R.C. Knechtiand K.T. Lian, "A f a s t acIEEE ConferencePaper C t i n g DC c i r c u i tb r e a k e r " ,

2 2 (k -kl )expklt (k+kl)2exp klt

(k -kl (k-k,)2

)exp

(-kit)
-xp (-kb) ] da .dk (A. 21)

exp(-klt)

is a function The i n t e g r a l i n t h e r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n of k only,S(k),which i s d e f i n e da sf o l l o w s :


2 i ' a J1(ka)
al

72 442-2 Summer Power Meeting, San F r a n c i s c o , J u l y 9-14, 1972.

da

(A. 22)

Y. N i t t a and N. Kiyokuni, "Synchronous a i rb l a s t 1 cycle i n t e r r u p t i o n "F , uji c i r c u ib t r e a k ef ro r E l e c t r i c Co. Ltd. Review (Japan) 11, pp. 95-103, 1965.
A.T. Freeman,"Fault c u r r e n t s l i m i t e d by u l t r a h i g h speedd.c.breaker",ElectricalTimes,157,pp. 5760,16April, 1970.
S. Basu and K.D. Srivastava, "qnalysis of a fast a c t i n g c i r c u i t b r e a k e r mechanism", IEEE Trans. PAS, V o l . 91, pp. 1197-1203, May/June 1972.

Combining (A.21) and (A.22)

we o b t a i n :

Jl(kr)exp(-kz)[exp 2

kb

2 2 (k -kl )expklt (k+k,)2


t exp k 1

(k -kl

)exp(-klt) exp(-kb)]dk (A.23)

C.B. Wheeler and A.E. Dangor,"Multiplycrowbarred J. .Phys. E, 6, pp. solenoidsforplasmaresearch", 332-338, 1973. H.R. Whittle,"Electromagnetically P.J. Rogers and a c t u a t e df ,ast-closing switch using polythene as t h e main d i e l e c t r i c "P , roceedings IEE, 116, pp. 173-179, Jan. 1969. K.H. Panofsky and M. P h i l l i p s ,C l a s s i c a lE l e c t r i c i t y and Magnetism. London: Addison-Wesley, 1962, pp. 153-156. P. Hannnond, "The c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e m a g n e t i c f i e l d I E E , 109'2, pp. of rotating machines", Proceedings 508-515, A p r i l 1962.

2 (k-kl)exp(-klt)

S i m i l a r l y we can write f o r t h e o t h e r r e g i o n s :

Jl(kr) 2

exp(-kb) [exp kz

(k 2 -k12)exp klt (k+k1)2 exp klt

(k 2-kl 2 )exp(-klt) (k-kl) 2 exp (-kz) ] dk exp(-klt) 96 (A. 24)

P.M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods ofTheoretical p. 766. Physics. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1953,