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DSP soltuions

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DSP soltuions

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corresponding outputs given by and , respectively:

and

] [

1

n x ] [

2

n x

] [

1

n y ] [

2

n y

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

1

1

K L L n L n x

n y

=

=

otherwise. , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

2

2

K L L n L n x

n y

Let be the input to the up-sampler. Then, the corresponding

output is given by

Hence, the up-sampler is a linear system.

] [ ] [ ] [

2 1 3

n x n x n x + =

] [

3

n y

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

3

3

K L L n L n x

n y

= +

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [ ] / [

2 1

K L L n L n x L n x

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

1

K L L n L n x

=

+

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

2

K L L n L n x

]. [ ] [

2 1

n y n y + =

Down-sampler - Let and be the inputs to a factor-of-M down-sampler with

corresponding outputs given by and , respectively:

] [

1

n x ] [

2

n x

] [

1

n y ] [

2

n y

and ] [ ] [

1 1

Mn x n y = ]. [ ] [

2 2

Mn x n y = Let ] [ ] [ ] [

2 1 3

n x n x n x + = be the input to the

up-sampler. Then, the corresponding output is given by

] [

3

n y ] [ ] [

3 3

Mn x n y =

] [ ] [

2 1

Mn x Mn x + = ]. [ ] [

2 1

n y n y + = Hence, the down-sampler is a linear system.

13.2 Up-Sampler For inputs and the outputs of the factor-of-L up-sampler

are, respectively given by

] [

1

n x ], [

2

n x

and .

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

1

1

K L L n L n x

n x

u

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

2

2

K L L n L n x

n x

u

Let where is an integer. Then, Hence,

But,

], [ ] [

1 2 o

n n x n x =

o

n ]. ) / [( ] / [

1 2 o

n L n x L n x =

=

=

otherwise. , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / ) [(

] [

1

2

K L L n L n n x

n x

o

u

=

=

otherwise. , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / ) [(

] [

1

1

K L L n n L n n x

n x

o o

u

Since the up-sampler is a time-varying system. ], [ ] [

1 2

o u u

n n x n x

Down-Sampler For inputs and the outputs of the factor-of-M down-

sampler are, respectively given by

] [

1

n x ], [

2

n x

] [ ] [

1 1

Mn x n y = and ]. [ ] [

2 2

Mn x n y = Let

where is an integer. Then, ], [ ] [

1 2 o

n n x n x =

o

n ]. [ ] [ ] [

1 2 2 o

n Mn x Mn x n y = =

However, ]. [ )] ( [ ] [

1 1 1 o o o

Mn Mn x n n M x n n y = =

Since the down-sampler is a time-varying system. ], [ ] [

1 2 o

n n y n y

Not for sale 499

13.3

z

_

1

2 2

2 2

z

_

1

X(z)

Y(z)

V(z)

W(z)

V (z)

u

W (z)

u

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (

2 / 1

2

1

2 / 1

2

1

z X z X z V + =

), ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) (

2

1

2

1

2 / 1

2

2 / 1

2

2 / 1 2 / 1

z X z X z V z X z X z W

u

z z

+ = =

). ( ) ( ) (

2 2

1 1

z X z X z W

z z

u

=

Hence, ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1 1

z X z z W z V z z Y

u u

= + = or in other

words ]. 1 [ ] [ = n x n y

13.4 .

1

1

1 1

] [

1

0

= =

=

n

M

nM

M

M

k

kn

M

W

W

M

W

M

n c Hence, if . 0

1

1 1 1

] [ , =

=

n

M

W

M

n c rM n On

the other hand, if , rM n = then . 1 1

1 1 1

] [

1

0

1

0

1

0

= = = = =

=

=

M

M

M

W

M

W

M

n c

M

k

M

k

krM

M

M

k

kn

M

13.5 (a) For and 6 = M , 5 = L

} , , , , , { } { } {

5

6

4

6

3

6

2

6

1

6

0

6 6

= = W W W W W W W W

k k

M

, and

} , , , , , { } { } {

25

6

20

6

15

6

10

6

5

6

0

6

5

6

= = W W W W W W W W

k Lk

M

}. { } , , , , , {

6

1

6

2

6

3

6

4

6

5

6

0

6

k

W W W W W W W

= =

(b) For to have same set of values for } {

k

M

W

, 1 0 M k as , each should

have unique values for each k. Therefore

} {

kL

M

W

nL

M

kL

M

W W

for all or

for any positive integer r, which implies that L and M should be

relatively prime.

], 1 , 0 [ , M n k

rM L n k ) (

13.6

M M H(z) H(z )

M

X(z) X(z)

V (z)

1

Y (z)

1

V (z)

2

Y (z)

2

For the figure on the left-hand side we have ), (

1

) (

1

0

/ 1

1

=

=

M

k

k

M

M

W z X

M

z V and

). ( ) (

1

) (

1

0

/ 1

1

=

=

M

k

k

M

M

W z X z H

M

z Y For the figure on the right-hand side we have

Not for sale 500

) ( ) (

1

) ( ), ( ) ( ) (

/ 1

1

0

2 2

k

M

M

M

k

kM

M

M

W z X zW H

M

z Y z X z H z V

=

= = ). ( ) (

1

/ 1

1

0

k

M

M

M

k

W z X z H

M

=

=

Hence, ). ( ) (

2 1

z Y z Y =

L L H(z) H(z )

L

X(z) X(z)

V (z)

1

Y (z)

1

V (z)

2

Y (z)

2

For the figure on the left-hand side we have For the ). ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) (

1 1

L L L

z X z H z Y z X z V = =

figure on the right-hand side we have Hence,

). ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) (

2 2

L L

z X z H z Y z X z H z V = =

). ( ) (

2 1

z Y z Y =

13.7 (a) The system of Figure P13.1 with internal variables labeled is shown below:

L L G(z) X(z)

V(z)

Y(z)

U(z)

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( z V z G z U z X z V

L

= = and ). (

1

) (

1

0

/ 1

=

=

L

k

k

L

L

W z U

L

z Y

Substituting the first equation in the second equation we get

Substituting this equation in the expression for in the above we get

). ( ) ( ) (

L

z X z G z U =

) (z Y

), ( ) (

1

) ( ) (

1

) (

1

0

/ 1

1

0

/ 1

z X W z G

L

W z X W z G

L

z Y

L

k

k

L

L kL

L

L

k

k

L

L

=

=

= = since . 1 =

kL

L

W

Therefore, ). (

1

) (

) (

) (

1

0

/ 1

=

= =

L

k

k

L

L

W z G

L z X

z Y

z H Hence, Figure P13.1 is a LTI system.

(b) It follows from the last equation given above, if , 1 ) (

1

1

0

/ 1

=

=

L

k

k

L

L

W z G

L

then

i.e., or , 1 ) ( = z H ), ( ) ( z X z Y = ]. [ ] [ n x n y = Or, in other words, the system of Figure

P13.1 is an identity system for . 1 ) (

1

1

0

/ 1

=

=

L

k

k

L

L

W z G

L

13.8 Consider the multirate structure shown below. Analysis yields

L L G(z)

u[n]

x[n] H(z)

y[n]

and ), ( ) ( ) (

L

z X z H z U = ). ( ) ( ) (

/ / k

L

L

L

k

k

L

L

W z U W z G

L

z Y

1

1

0

1

1

=

= Substituting the first

Not for sale 501

equation into the second we get ). ( ) ( ) ( ) (

/ /

z X W z H W z G

L

z Y

k

L

L

L

k

k

L

L

=

1

1

0

1

1

Hence,

if , ) ( ) (

/ /

1

1

1

1

0

1

=

=

k

L

L

L

k

k

L

L

W z H W z G

L

we have ), ( ) ( z X z Y = or in other words, the

above multirate structure is an identity system. We break the system as shown below

into two parts with the transfer functions and satisfying the relation

L L G(z) u[n] x[n] H(z)

x[n]

u[n]

. ) ( ) (

/ /

1

1

1

1

0

1

=

=

k

L

L

L

k

k

L

L

W z H W z G

L

If we now place the second system in front of the

first we arrive at the system shown in Figure P13.2 which is an identity system

provided . ) ( ) (

/ /

1

1

1

1

0

1

=

=

k

L

L

L

k

k

L

L

W z H W z G

L

13.9 Making use of the multirate identities we simplify the structure of Figure P13.3 as

indicated below:

5

3

x[n]

y[n]

15

5

3

x[n]

y[n]

5 3

5 x[n]

y[n]

5

v[n]

Analysis of the last structure yields, ], 5 [ ] [ n x n v = and

or,

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 10 , 5 , 0 ], 5 / [

] [

K n n v

n y

=

=

otherwise. , 0

, , 10 , 5 , 0 ], [

] [

K n n x

n y

13.10

L

L

x[n]

y[n]

v[n]

Analysis yields ], [ ] [ Ln x n v = and or,

=

=

otherwise, , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], / [

] [

K L L n L n v

n y

=

=

otherwise. , 0

, , 2 , , 0 ], [

] [

K L L n n x

n y

Not for sale 502

13.11 Since 3 and 4 are relatively prime, we can interchange the positions of the factor-of-3

down-sampler and the factor-of-4 up-sampler as indicated below:

x[n]

y[n]

z

_

6

3 4 2

which simplifies to the structure shown below:

x[n]

y[n]

z

_

6

4 6

Using the Noble identity of Figure 13.14(a) we redraw the above structure as indicated

below:

x[n]

y[n]

4 6 z

_

1

u[n] v[n]

Analysis yields ], 1 6 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ], 6 [ ] [ = = = n x n u n v n x n u and

=

=

=

=

otherwise. otherwise, , 0

, , 8 , 4 , 0 ], 1 ) 2 / 3 [(

, 0

, , 8 , 4 , 0 ], 4 / [

] [

K K n n x n n v

n y

13.12 As outlined in Section 8.2, the transpose of a digital filter structure is obtained by

reversing all paths, replacing the pick-off node with an adder and vice-versa, and

interchanging the input and the output nodes. Moreover, in a multirate structure, the

transpose of a factor-of-M down-sampler is a factor-of-M up-sampler and vice-versa.

Applying these operations to the factor-of-M decimator shown below on the left-hand

side, we arrive at a factor-of-M up-sampler shown below on the right-hand side.

x[n]

y[n]

H(z) M

x[n]

y[n]

H(z) M

13.13 (a) To prove Eq. (13.20), consider the fractional-rate sampling rate converter of

Figure 13.16(b) with internal variables labeled as shown below:

L M

x[n] y[n]

H(z)

v[n]

x [n]

u

Analysis yields K , 2 , 1 , 0 ], [ ] [ = = n n x Ln x

u

and ]. [ ] [ ] [ l l

l

=

=

u

x n h n v

Substituting the first equation in the second we get Finally,

]. [ ] [ ] [ m x Lm n h n v

m

=

=

=

= =

m

m x Lm Mn h Mn v n y ]. [ ] [ ] [ ] [

Not for sale 503

(b) Next, to prove Eq. (13.21), we make use of the z-domain relations of the down-

sampler and the up-sampler. From Eq. (13.17) we have

). ( ) (

1

) (

/ 1

1

0

/ 1 k

M

M

u

k

M

M

k

M

W z X W z H

M

z Y

= But Hence, ). ( ) (

L

u

z X z X =

). ( ) (

1

) (

/

1

0

/ 1 Lk

M

M L k

M

M

k

M

W z X W z H

M

z Y

=

13.14

2

2

3 E (z)

00

E (z)

01

E (z)

02

E (z)

10

E (z)

11

E (z)

12

z

_

1

z

_

1

3

3

3

3

3

+

z

_

1

+

z

_

1

+

z

_

1

+

z

_

1

+

x[n]

y[n]

13.15

x[n] y[n]

H(z)

400 Hz

8 15

3200 Hz 3200 Hz 213.3333 Hz

v[n]

x

u

n [ ]

(a) 400 =

T

F Hz, L = 8, M = 15. Now, the sampling rate of and is

kHz. Hence, the sampling rate of is

Hz.

] [n x

u

] [n v

2 . 3 8 400 400 = = L ] [n y 15 / 3200 / 3200 = M

33 . 213 =

(b) The normalized stopband edge angular frequency of (for no aliasing) ) (z H

.

15

, min

= =

=

M M L

s

Hence, the stopband edge frequency is

30

1

=

s

F Hz.

13.16

x[n] y[n]

H(z) 8 15

v[n]

x

u

n [ ]

650 Hz 3.25 kHz 3.25 kHz 361.1 Hz

Not for sale 504

(a) 650 =

T

F Hz, L = 5, M = 9. Now, the sampling rate of and is ] [n x

u

] [n v

kHz. Hence, the sampling rate of is

Hz.

25 . 3 5 650 650 = = L ] [n y 9 / 3250 / 3250 = M

1 . 361 =

(b) The normalized stopband edge angular frequency of (for no aliasing) ) (z H

.

9

, min

= =

=

M M L

s

Hence, the stopband edge frequency is Hz.

13.17 Applying the transpose operation to the M-channel analysis filter bank shown below

on the left-hand side, we arrive at the M-channel synthesis filter bank shown below on

the right-hand side.

x[n] v [n]

0

v [n]

1

v [n]

M 1

_

M

M

M

H (z)

0

H (z)

1

H (z)

M 1

_

y[n] v [n]

0

v [n]

1

v [n]

M 1

_

M

M

M

H (z)

0

H (z)

1

H (z)

M 1

_

+

+

y[n] v [n]

0

v [n]

1

v [n]

M 1

_

M H (z)

0

H (z)

1

H (z)

M 1

_

+

+

M

M

13.18 Specifications for H(z) are: 180 =

p

F Hz, 200 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =

s p

H(z)

30

12 kHz 12 kHz 400 Hz

) ( ) ( ) (

5

z F z I z H =

30 I(z) F(z )

5

I(z) F(z )

5

5 6

I(z) 5 6 F(z)

12 kHz 12 kHz 2.4 kHz 2.4 kHz 400 Hz

Specifications for F(z) are: 900 =

p

F Hz, 1000 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

Not for sale 505

Here .

12000

100

= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of F(z) given by

387 3 . 386

12000

100

6 . 14

13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

= =

=

F F

N N

Specifications for I(z) are: 180 =

p

F Hz, 2200 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

Here .

12000

2020

= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of I(z) given by

207 12 . 19

12000

2020

6 . 14

13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

= =

=

F I

N N

Hence, 200 , 155

6

2400

) 1 387 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps, 400 , 50

5

12000

) 1 20 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

The above realization requires a total of 205,600 mps. As a result, the computational

complexity is slightly higher than in Example 13.10.

13.19 Specifications for H(z) are: 180 =

p

F Hz, 200 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =

s p

) ( ) ( ) (

3

z F z I z H =

30 I(z) F(z )

3

I(z) F(z )

3

3 10

I(z) 3 10 F(z)

12 kHz 12 kHz 4 kHz 4 kHz 400 Hz

Specifications for F(z) are: 540 =

p

F Hz, 600 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

Here .

12000

60

= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of F(z) given by

644 8 . 643

12000

60

6 . 14

13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

= =

=

F F

N N

Specifications for I(z) are: 180 =

p

F Hz, 3800 =

s

F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

Here .

12000

3260

= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of I(z) given by

12 85 . 11

12000

3260

6 . 14

13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

= =

=

F I

N N

Not for sale 506

Hence, 000 , 262

10

4000

) 1 644 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps, 000 , 52

3

12000

) 1 12 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

The above realization requires a total of 314,000 mps. As a result, the computational

complexity is higher than in Example 13.10 and that in Problem 13.18.

13.20 (a) The desired down-sampling factor is . 20

000 , 2

40000

= = M The general structure of

the desired decimator is thus as shown below:

20

H(z)

40 kHz 40 kHz 2 kHz

Now, the normalized stopband edge angular frequency of a factor-of-20 decimator is

.

20

=

s

Hence, the desired stopband edge frequency in this case is

1000

20

20000

= =

s

F Hz. The specifications of the decimation filter H(z) is thus as

follows: Hz, 800 =

p

F 1000 =

s

F Hz, . 002 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =

s p

Here .

40000

200

= f

Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of H(z) given by

. 562 4 . 561

40000

200

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 002 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

H

N Therefore, the computational

complexity is given by 000 , 1126

20

40000

) 1 562 (

,

= + =

H M

R mps.

(b) For a two-stage realization of the decimator, there are 4 possible realizations of the

decimation filter:

Realization #1 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H

2

=

2 I(z) F(z )

2

10

40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz

2 I(z)

10

40 kHz 20 kHz 2 kHz

F(z)

20 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I

1600 : ) ( =

p

F z F Hz, Hz, 2000 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

400

= f

800 : ) ( =

p

F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 19 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

18200

= f

Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I

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302 29 . 301

40000

400

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

F

N

7 62 . 6

40000

18200

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

I

N

Computational complexities of the two sections are:

000 , 606

10

20000

) 1 302 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps and 000 , 160

2

40000

) 1 7 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is

mps. 000 , 766

, ,

= + =

I M F M M

R R R

Realization #2 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H

4

=

4 I(z) F(z )

4

5

40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz

4 I(z)

5

40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz

F(z)

10 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I

3200 : ) ( =

p

F z F Hz, 4000 =

s

F Hz, , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

800

= f

800 : ) ( =

p

F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 9 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

8200

= f

Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I

151 65 . 150

40000

8000

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

F

N

15 69 . 14

40000

8200

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

I

N

Computational complexities of the two sections are:

000 , 304

5

10000

) 1 151 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps and 000 , 160

4

40000

) 1 15 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is

mps. 000 , 464

, ,

= + =

I M F M M

R R R

Realization #3 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H

5

=

Not for sale 508

5 I(z) F(z )

5

4

40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz

5 I(z)

4

40 kHz 8 kHz 2 kHz

F(z)

8 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I

4000 : ) ( =

p

F z F Hz, 5000 =

s

F Hz, , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus,

.

40000

1000

= f

800 : ) ( =

p

F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 7 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

6200

= f

Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I

121 52 . 120

40000

1000

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

F

N

20 44 . 19

40000

6200

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

I

N

Computational complexities of the two sections are:

000 , 244

4

8000

) 1 121 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps and 000 , 168

5

40000

) 1 20 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is

mps. 000 , 412

, ,

= + =

I M F M M

R R R

Realization #4 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H

10

=

10 I(z) F(z )

10

2

40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz

10 I(z)

2

40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz

F(z)

4 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I

8000 : ) ( =

p

F z F Hz, Hz, 000 , 10 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

2000

= f

800 : ) ( =

p

F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 3 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

40000

2200

= f

Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I

Not for sale 509

61 26 . 60

40000

2000

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

F

N

55 78 . 54

40000

2200

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

I

N

Computational complexities of the two sections are:

000 , 124

2

4000

) 1 61 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps and 000 , 224

10

40000

) 1 55 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is

mps. 000 , 348

, ,

= + =

I M F M M

R R R

Hence, the optimum two-stage design with the lowest computational complexity is the

Realization #4.

13.21 (a) The desired up-sampling factor is . 50

480

24000

= = L The general structure of the

desired interpolator is thus as shown below:

H(z) 50

480 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz

Now, the normalized stopband edge angular frequency of a factor-of-50 interpolator is

.

50

=

s

Hence, the desired stopband edge frequency in this case is

240

50

12000

= =

s

F Hz. The specifications of the decimation filter H(z) is thus as

follows: Hz, 190 =

p

F 240 =

s

F Hz, . 002 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =

s p

Here .

24000

50

= f

Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of H(z) given by

. 1348 27 . 1347

24000

50

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 002 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

H

N

Computational complexity is thus 520 , 647

50

24000

) 1 1348 (

,

= + =

H M

R mps.

(b) ). ( ) ( ) (

10

z I z F z H =

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I

1900 : ) ( =

p

F z F Hz, Hz, 2400 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

24000

500

= f

Not for sale 510

10

I(z)

50 F(z )

10

I(z)

5 F(z)

480 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz 24 kHz

480 Hz 2400 Hz 2400 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz

190 : ) ( =

p

F z I Hz, Hz, 2160 =

s

F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =

s p

and thus, .

24000

1970

= f

Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I

145 62 . 144

24000

500

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

F

N

37 71 . 36

24000

1970

6 . 14

13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20

10

=

=

I

N

Computational complexities of the two sections are:

080 , 70

5

2400

) 1 145 (

,

= + =

F M

R mps and 200 , 91

10

24000

) 1 37 (

,

= + =

I M

R mps.

Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is

mps. 280 , 161

, ,

= + =

I M F M M

R R R

Therefore, the complexity in a two-stage design with is

approximately 25% of that of the single-stage design.

). ( ) ( ) (

10

z I z F z H =

13.22 A computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-3 interpolator as shown below

3

H(z)

is obtained from the 3-band polyphase decomposition of H(z) given by

). ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

2

2 3

1

1 3

0

z E z z E z z E z H

+ + = The general form of the polyphase

representation of the interpolator is as shown below:

E (z)

3

0

E (z)

3

1

E (z)

3

2

1

_

z

+

+

1

_

z

Not for sale 511

Since H(z) is a length-15 linear-phase transfer function,

1

] 1 [ ] 0 [ ) (

+ = z h h z H

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 7 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 4 [ ] 3 [ ] 2 [

+ + + + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h

, ] 0 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [

14 13 12 11 10

+ + + + + z h z h z h z h z h the transfer functions of the

sub-filters are as follows:

, ] 2 [ ] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 3 [ ] 0 [ ) (

4 3 2 1

0

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E

, ] 1 [ ] 4 [ ] 7 [ ] 4 [ ] 1 [ ) (

4 3 2 1

1

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E

. ] 0 [ ] 3 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 2 [ ) (

4 3 2 1

2

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E

A computationally efficient realization of the factor-of-3 interpolator is obtained by

sharing common multipliers as shown below:

1

_

z

+

+

1

_

z

3

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

3

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

3

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

1

_

z +

h[0]

h[3]

h[6]

h[5]

h[2]

h[4]

h[1]

h[7]

x[n]

y[n]

13.23 A computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-4 decimator as shown below

4 H(z)

is obtained from the 4-band polyphase decomposition of H(z) given by

). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

3

3 3

2

2 3

1

1 3

0

z E z z E z z E z z E z H

+ + + = The general form of the

polyphase representation of the interpolator is as shown below:

Not for sale 512

4

E (z)

0

+

4

E (z)

1

+

z

_

1

4

E (z)

2

+

z

_

1

4

E (z)

3

z

_

1

Since H(z) is a length-16 linear-phase transfer function,

1

] 1 [ ] 0 [ ) (

+ = z h h z H

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

] 6 [ ] 7 [ ] 7 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 4 [ ] 3 [ ] 2 [

+ + + + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h

, ] 0 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 5 [

15 14 13 12 11 10

+ + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h the transfer

functions of the sub-filters are as follows:

, ] 3 [ ] 7 [ ] 4 [ ] 0 [ ) (

3 2 1

0

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E

, ] 2 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 1 [ ) (

3 2 1

1

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E

. ] 1 [ ] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 2 [ ) (

3 2 1

2

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E

. ] 0 [ ] 4 [ ] 7 [ ] 3 [ ) (

3 2 1

3

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E

A computationally efficient realization of the factor-of-4 decimator is obtained by

sharing common multipliers as shown below

z

_

1

4

4

+

+

+

+

4

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

+

+

+

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

4

+

+

+

+

h[0]

h[1]

h[2]

h[3]

h[4]

h[5]

+

+

+

h[7]

h[6]

13.24 ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

) 1 ( ) 2 ( 3 2 1

1

0

=

+ + + + + + = =

N N

N

i

i

z z z z z z z H L

Not for sale 513

), ( ) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (

2 1 ) 2 ( 2 2 1

z G z z z z z

N

+ = + + + + + = L where

Using a similar technique we can show that Therefore we

can write where

Continuing this decomposition process further we arrive at

where

. ) (

1 ) 2 / (

0

=

=

N

i

i

z z G

. ) 1 ( ) (

1 ) 4 / (

0

2 1

+ =

=

N

i

i

z z z G

), ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) (

4 2 1

1 ) 4 / (

0

4 2 1

z F z z z z z z H

N

i

i

=

+ + =

+ + =

. ) (

1 ) 4 / (

0

=

=

N

i

i

z z F

), 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) (

1

2 2 1

+ + + =

K

z z z z H L . 2

K

N =

The transfer function of a box-car decimation filter of length-16 can be expressed as:

.

1

1

) (

1

16

15

0

= =

z

z

z z H

i

i

As a result, a computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-16 decimator using a

length-16 boxcar decimation filter is as shown below:

z

1

_

+

+

z

1

_

16

13.25 Let denote the output of the factor-of-L interpolator. Then ] [n u

,

] [

]) 1 [ ] [ (

2

2

=

=

n

n

n u

n u n u

E (13-1)

and

.

] [

] 1 [ ] [

2

n u

n u n u

C

n

n

=

= (13-2)

Substituting Eq. (13-2) in Eq. (13-1) we get ). 1 ( 2 C = E Hence, as i.e., as the

signal becomes highly correlated,

, 1 C

] [n u . 0 E

Now, by Parsevalsrelation, , ) ( * ) (

2

1

] [ ] [

d e V e U n v n u

j j

n

=

= where ) (

j

e U

Not for sale 514

and are the DTFTs of and , respectively. If we let ) (

j

e V ] [n u ] [n v ] 1 [ ] [ = n u n v in

the numerator of Eq. (13-1), and ] [ ] [ n u n v = in the denominator of Eq. (13-1), then we

can write

,

) (

) cos( ) (

) (

2

1

) (

2

1

0

2

0

2

2

2

= =

d e U

d e U

d e U

d e e U

E

j

j

j

j j

assuming to be a real sequence. If ] [n u ] [n x is assumed to be a broadband signal with

a flat magnitude spectrum, i.e., 1 ) ( =

j

e X for , 0 then the magnitude

spectrum of is bandlimited to the range , / 0 L i.e.,

<

=

otherwise. , 0

, / 0 , 1

) (

L

e U

j

Therefore, .

) / (

) / sin(

) cos(

/

0

/

0

L

L

d

d

C

L

L

= =

Hence, as

. 1 , C L

13.26

z

L

H(z) M M

X(e )

j

W(e )

j

R(e )

j

Y(e )

j

S(e )

j

Analysis of the above structure yields

), ( ) (

M j j

e X e W

=

), ( ) ( ) (

M j j j

e X e H e R

= ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (

M j j L j j L j j

e X e H e e R e e S

= =

. ) ( ) (

/ /

=

=

1

0

1

M

k

M j M k j j

e e S

M

e Y If the filter is assumed to be close to

an ideal lowpass filter with a cutoff at

) (

j

e H

, / M we can assume that all images of

are suppressed leaving only the term in the expression for Hence, we

can write

) (

j

e X ). (

j

e Y

). ( ) ( ) ( ) (

/ / /

= =

j M L j M j M j j

e X e e H

M

e S

M

e Y

1 1

Since is a

Type 1 FIR filter with exact linear phase and a delay of

) (z H

KM N = 2 1 / ) ( samples and a

magnitude response equal to M in the passband, we have

Thus, the structure of Figure P13.7 Is

approximately an allpass filter with a fixed delay of K samples and a variable

noninteger delay of L/M samples.

). ( ) (

/

=

j M L j K j j

e X e e e Y

13.27 An ideal M-th band lowpass filter is characterized by a frequency response ) (z H

Not for sale 515

otherwise. ,

, / / ,

) (

0

1 M M

e H

j

The transfer function can be expressed in

an M-branch polyphase form as From the above we observe

Therefore,

) (z H

). ( ) (

M

k

M

k

k

z H z z H

=

1

0

). ( ) (

M

M

r

r

M

z H M zW H

0

1

0

=

=

. ) ( ) (

/ (

M

e H

M

e H

M

r

M r j M j

1 1

1

0

2

0

= =

=

Or in other words, is an allpass function. ) (

M

z H

0

13.28 An equivalent realization of the structure of Figure P13.38 obtained by realizing the

filter in a Type 1 polyphase form is shown below on the left. By moving the down-

sampler through the system and invoking the cascade equivalence #1 of Figure 13.14 we

arrive at the structure shown below on the right.

z

_

1

+

+

+

z

_

1

z

_

1

0

E (z )

L

1

E (z )

L

2

E (z )

L

L 1

_ E (z )

L

L

L

z

_

1

+

+

+

z

_

1

z

_

1

0

E (z)

1

E (z)

2

E (z)

L 1

_ E (z)

L

L

L

L

L

The structure on the right hand side reduces to the one shown below on the left from

which we arrive at the simplified equivalent structure shown below on the right.

L L

E (z)

0

E (z)

0

13.29 (a) Let and

Then

(b)

. ] [ ) (

1

0

=

=

N

n

n

z n h z H

=

+ + =

1 ) 2 / (

0

2

0

]) 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ( ) (

N

i

i

z i h i h z H

. ]) 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ( ) (

1 ) 2 / (

0

2

1

=

+ =

N

i

i

z i h i h z H

). ( 1 ] 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (

1 ) 2 / (

0

2

1 ) 2 / (

0

2 2

1

1 2

0

1

z H z i h z i h z H z z H z

N

i

i

N

i

i

= + + + = + +

=

=

) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

2

1

1 2

0

1

z H z z H z z H

+ + =

Not for sale 516

( ) ( ) ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

1 2

0

2

1

2

0

1 2

1

2

0

z E z z E z H z H z z H z H

+ = + + = Therefore,

and ) ( ) ( ) (

1 0 0

z H z H z E + = ). ( ) ( ) (

1 0 1

z H z H z E =

(c) Now, [ ] [ ]

+

=

=

) ( ) (

) ( ) (

1

) (

) (

1 1

1 1

1 ) (

2

1

2

0

2

1

2

0 1

2

1

2

0 1

z H z H

z H z H

z

z H

z H

z z H

( ) ( ) ). ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

1 2

0

1 2

1

2

0

1 2

1

2

0

z H z z H z z H z H z z H z H

+ + = + + =

(d) If i.e., then we can express , 2 = L , 2

2

= N

) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

4

01

2 4

00

2 2

0

z H z z H z z H

+ + = and

). ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

4

11

2 4

10

2 2

1

z H z z H z z H

+ + = Substituting these expressions in

) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

2

1

1 2

0

1

z H z z H z z H

+ + = we get

[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (

4

01

2 4

00

2 1

z H z z H z z z H

+ + + =

[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (

4

11

2 4

10

2 1

z H z z H z z

+ + +

) ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) ( ) 1 )( 1 (

4

01

2 1 4

00

2 1

z H z z z H z z

+ + + + =

) ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) ( ) 1 )( 1 (

4

11

2 1 4

10

2 1

z H z z z H z z

+ + +

[ ] [ ] .

) (

) (

) (

) (

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1

4

3

4

2

4

1

4

0

4

3 2 1

4

11

4

10

4

01

4

00

3 2 1

=

z H

z H

z H

z H

z z z

z H

z H

z H

z H

z z z R

Continuing this process it is easy to establish that for we have

[ ]

) (

) (

) (

1 ) (

1

1

0

) 1 ( 1

L

L

L

L

L

L

z H

z H

z H

z z z H

M

L R .

13.30 Now

Therefore,

[ ] [ ] .

) (

) (

) (

) (

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

1 ) (

4

3

4

2

4

1

4

0

3 2 1

4

3

4

2

4

1

4

0

4

3 2 1

=

z E

z E

z E

z E

z z z

z H

z H

z H

z H

z z z z H R

.

) (

) (

) (

) (

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

4

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

4

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

3

2

1

0

3

2

1

0

4

3

2

1

0

1

4

3

2

1

0

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z E

z H

z H

z H

z H

R R

A length-16 Type 1 linear-phase FIR transfer function is of the form

9

6

8

7

7

7

6

6

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

1

1 0

) (

+ + + + + + + + + = z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h h z H

Not for sale 517

.

15

0

14

1

13

2

12

3

11

4

10

5

+ + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h

Hence, , ) ( , ) (

3

2

2

6

1

5 1 1

3

3

2

7

1

4 0 0

+ + + = + + + = z h z h z h h z E z h z h z h h z E

. ) ( , ) (

3

0

2

4

1

7 3 3

3

1

2

5

1

6 2 2

+ + + = + + + = z h z h z h h z E z h z h z h h z E Thus,

, ) (

, ) (

3

2

2

3

1

3 2 1

3

0

2

1

1

1 0 0

+ = + + + = z g z g z g g z H z g z g z g g z H

, ) (

, ) (

3

6

2

7

1

7 6 3

3

4

2

5

1

5 4 2

+ + + = + = z g z g z g g z H z g z g z g g z H where

), (

4

1

), (

4

1

), (

4

1

3 2 1 0 2 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 1 0 0

h h h h g h h h h g h h h h g + = + + + = + + + =

), (

4

1

), (

4

1

), (

4

1

7 6 5 4 5 3 2 1 0 4 7 6 5 4 3

h h h h g h h h h g h h h h g + = + = + =

). (

4

1

), (

4

1

7 6 5 4 7 3 2 1 0 6

h h h h g h h h h g + = + = Note that and

are Type 1 linear-phase FIR transfer functions, whereas, and are Type 2

linear-phase FIR transfer functions. A computationally efficient realization of a factor-

of-4 decimator using a four-band structural subband decomposition of the decimation

filter is shown below:

) (

0

z H ) (

3

z H

) (

1

z H ) (

2

z H

) (z H

z

_

1

z

_

1

z

_

1

+

+

+

M

M

M

M

R

4

0

H (z)

^

1

H (z)

^

2

H (z)

^

H (z)

3

^

Because of the symmetry or anti-symmetry in the impulse responses of the subband

filters, each subband filter can be realized using only 2 multipliers. Hence, the final

realization uses only 8 multipliers. Note also that by delay-sharing, the total number of

delays in implementing the four subband filters can be reduced to 3.

13.31 ] 2 [ ) ( ] 1 [ ) ( ] [ ) ( ] 1 [ ) ( ] 2 [ ) ( ] [

2 1 0 1 2

+ + + + + + =

n x P n x P n x P n x P n x P n y

where ), 2 2 (

) 2 2 )( 1 2 )( 2 )( 1 2 (

) 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 (

) (

2 3 4

24

1

2

+ =

+

+

=

P

), 4 4 (

) 2 1 )( 1 1 )( 1 )( 2 1 (

) 2 )( 1 ( ) 2 (

) (

2 3 4

6

1

1

+ =

+

+

=

P

), 4 5 (

) 2 0 )( 1 0 )( 1 0 )( 2 0 (

) 2 )( 1 )( 1 )( 2 (

) (

2 4

4

1

0

+ =

+ +

+ +

=

P

Not for sale 518

), 4 4 (

) 2 1 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 )( 2 1 (

) 2 ( ) 1 )( 2 (

) (

2 3 4

6

1

1

+ =

+ +

+ +

= P

). 2 2 (

) 1 2 )( 0 2 )( 1 2 )( 2 2 (

) 1 ( ) 1 )( 2 (

) (

2 3 4

24

1

2

+ =

+ +

+ +

= P

We consider the computation of ] 3 [ ], 2 [ ], 1 [ ], [ + + + n y n y n y n y using 5 input samples:

through ] 2 [ n x ]. 2 [ + n x

For , 0 ) ( , 1 ) ( , 0 ) ( , 0 ) ( , 0

0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0

= = = = =

P P P P and For . 0 ) (

0 2

= P

, 3428 . 0 ) ( , 127 . 0 ) ( , 022 . 0 ) ( , 4 / 5

1 0 1 1 1 2 1

= = = =

P P P

and

, 1426 . 1 ) (

1 1

= P

. 0952 . 0 ) (

1 2

= P

For , 9531 . 2 ) ( , 4062 . 1 ) ( , 2734 . 0 ) ( , 4 / 10

2 0 2 1 2 2 2

= = = =

P P P

and , 2812 . 3 ) (

2 1

= P . 4609 . 2 ) (

2 2

= P

For , 86 . 32 ) ( , 2949 . 17 ) ( , 5718 . 3 ) ( , 4 / 15

3 0 3 1 3 2 3

= = = =

P P P

and , 873 . 29 ) (

3 1

= P . 7358 . 11 ) (

3 2

= P

The block filter implementation is thus given by

Another

implementation is given by

.

] 2 [

] 1 [

] [

] 1 [

] 2 [

7358 . 11 873 . 29 86 . 32 2949 . 17 5718 . 3

4609 . 2 2812 . 3 9531 . 2 4062 . 1 2734 . 0

0952 . 0 1426 . 1 3428 . 0 127 . 0 022 . 0

0 0 1 0 0

] 3 [

] 2 [

] 1 [

] [

+

+

+

+

+

n x

n x

n x

n x

n x

n y

n y

n y

n y

+ + + + = ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] [

24

1

6

1

4

1

6

1

24

1

4

n x n x n x n x n x n y

+ + + + + ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [

12

1

6

1

6

1

12

1

3

n x n x n x n x

+ + + + + ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [

24

1

6

4

4

5

6

4

24

1

2

n x n x n x n x n x

]. [ ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [

12

1

6

4

6

4

12

1

n x n x n x n x n x +

+ + + +

The Farrow structure implementation of the interpolator is shown below:

y[n]

x[n]

H

3

(z)

H

1

(z) H

2

(z)

H

0

(z)

where , ) ( , ) (

2

24

1

6

1

1

6

1

2

12

1

1

2

24

1

6

1

4

1

1

6

1

2

24

1

0

z z z z z H z z z z z H + + = + + =

Not for sale 519

, ) (

2

24

1

6

4

4

5

1

6

4

2

24

1

2

z z z z z H + = +

and . ) (

2

12

1

6

4

1

6

4

2

12

1

3

z z z z z H + =

13.32 From Eq. (13.75), we have .

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

3

3

3

2

3

1

3

0

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

0

3 2 1 0

3

3

3

2

3

1

3

4

2

3

2

2

2

1

2

4

3 2 1 4

4 0

t t t t

t t t t

t t t t

t t t t

t t t t

t t t t

a a = Both the numerator and the

denominator are determinants of Vandermonde matrices and have a nonzero value if

From the solution of Problem 6.28, we get . , j i t t

j i

) )( )( )( )( )( (

) )( )( )( )( )( (

2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1

2 3 1 3 1 2 4 3 4 2 4 1

4 0

t t t t t t t t t t t t

t t t t t t t t t t t t

a a

= ,

) )( )( (

) )( )( (

0 3 0 2 0 1

4 3 4 2 4 1

4

t t t t t t

t t t t t t

a

= or

.

) )( )( (

) )( )( (

3 0 2 0 1 0

3 4 2 4 1 4

4 0

t t t t t t

t t t t t t

a a

=

13.33 From Eq. (13.74) we get

) )( )( )( )( )( (

) )( )( )( )( )( (

2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1

2 3 4 3 4 2 0 3 0 2 0 4

4 1

t t t t t t t t t t t t

t t t t t t t t t t t t

a a

=

.

) )( )( (

) )( )( (

1 3 1 2 0 1

4 3 4 2 0 4

4

t t t t t t

t t t t t t

a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in

the above we arrive at

4

a

.

) )( )( )( (

4 1 3 1 2 1 0 1

1

1

t t t t t t t t

a

= Likewise, from Eq. (13.74)

we get

) )( )( )( )( )( (

) )( )( )( )( )( (

2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1

4 3 1 3 1 4 0 3 0 4 0 1

4 2

t t t t t t t t t t t t

t t t t t t t t t t t t

a a

=

.

) )( )( (

) )( )( (

2 3 1 2 0 2

4 3 1 4 0 4

4

t t t t t t

t t t t t t

a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in the

above we arrive at

4

a

.

) )( )( )( (

4 2 3 2 1 2 0 2

0

1

t t t t t t t t

a

= Finally, from Eq. (13.74) we

get

) )( )( )( )( )( (

) )( )( )( )( )( (

2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1

2 4 1 4 1 2 0 4 0 2 0 1

4 3

t t t t t t t t t t t t

t t t t t t t t t t t t

a a

=

.

) )( )( (

) )( )( (

2 3 1 3 0 3

2 4 1 4 0 4

4

t t t t t t

t t t t t t

a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in the

above we arrive at

4

a

.

) )( )( )( (

4 3 2 3 1 3 0 3

3

1

t t t t t t t t

a

=

13.34 . , 4 + = m i m i t

i

Not for sale 520

,

) )( )( )( ( 24

1

4 3 2 1

1

=

=

m m m m m m m m

a

m

,

) )( )( )( ( 6

1

4 1 3 1 2 1 1

1

1

=

+ + + +

=

+

m m m m m m m m

a

m

,

) )( )( )( ( 4

1

4 2 3 2 1 2 2

1

2

=

+ + + +

=

+

m m m m m m m m

a

m

,

) )( )( )( ( 6

1

4 3 2 3 1 3 3

1

3

=

+ + + +

=

+

m m m m m m m m

a

m

.

) )( )( )( ( 24

1

3 4 2 4 1 4 4

1

4

=

+ + + +

=

+

m m m m m m m m

a

m

From Eq. (13.69), we have the expressions for given by ) (

) (

t B

m

3

+

+ < + +

+ < + +

+ < +

+ <

<

=

. ,

, , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

, , ) ( ) ( ) (

, , ) ( ) (

, , ) (

, ,

) (

) (

4 0

4 3 3 2 1

3 2 2 1

2 1 1

1

0

3

6

1

3

4

1

3

6

1

3

24

1

3

4

1

3

6

1

3

24

1

3

6

1

3

24

1

3

24

1

3

m t

m t m m t m t m t m t

m t m m t m t m t

m t m m t m t

m t m m t

m t

t B

m

The normalized 3

rd

order B-spline is then given by ) ( ) ( ) (

) ( ) (

t B m m t

m m

3 3

4 + =

+

+ < + +

+ < + +

+ < +

+ <

<

= =

. ,

, , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

, , ) ( ) ( ) (

, , ) ( ) (

, , ) (

, ,

) (

) (

4 0

4 3 3 2 1

3 2 2 1

2 1 1

1

0

4

3

3

2

3 3

3

2

3

6

1

3 3

3

2

3

6

1

3

3

2

3

6

1

3

6

1

3

m t

m t m m t m t m t m t

m t m m t m t m t

m t m m t m t

m t m m t

m t

t B

m

Substituting and evaluating for + =1 t ) (

) (

t

m

3

, , , 2 1 0 1 = m we have

, ) (

) (

6

1

2 2 6

2 3

3

1

+

, ) (

) (

3

2

2

2

3

3

0

+ +

=

, ) (

) (

6

1

2 2 2

2 3

3

1

+

= . ) (

) (

6

3

3

2

=

Substituting back in Eq. (13.91), we have ] [ ) ( ] [

) (

k n x n y

k

k

+ =

=

2

1

3

Not for sale 521

] [ ] [ ] [ 1

6

1

2 2 2 3

2

2

1

6

1

2 2 6

2 3

2

3 2 3

+

+ +

= n x n x n x

] [ 2

6

3

+

+ n x

+ + +

+ + = ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 1

2

1

1

2

1

6

1

3

2

1

6

1

n x n x n x n x n x

. ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [

3 2

2

6

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

6

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

+ + + + +

+ + + n x n x n x n x n x n x n x

In the z-domain, the input-output relation is thus given by

where , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

0

2

1 2 3

+ + + = z H z H z H z H z Y

, ) (

2 1

0

6

1

2

1

2

1

6

1

z z z z H + + =

, ) ( z z z H

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

+ =

, ) ( z z z H

2

1

2

1

1

2

+ =

. ) ( z z z H

6

1

3

2

6

1

1

3

+ + =

The corresponding Farrow structure is shown on top of the

next page:

y[n]

x[n]

H

3

(z)

H

1

(z) H

2

(z)

H

0

(z)

13.35 For the factor-of-4/3 interpolator design, if we use cubic B-spline with uniformly

spaced knots at the problem reduces exactly to the design given in the solution of

Problem 13.34.

13.36 From Eq. (13.94) with 0 = k we have Substituting the

expression for on the left-hand side Eq. (13.97) we get INCOMPLETE

). ( ) (

1

1

L

L

i

i

i

z E z z H

=

+ =

13.37 For a half-band zero-phase lowpass filter, the transfer function is of the form

where , ] 2 [ ] 0 [ ) (

0

2 1

=

+ =

n

n

n

z n h z h z H .

2

1

] 0 [ = h If the half-band filter has a zero at

then or , 1 = z , 0 ] 2 [ ] 0 [ ) 1 (

0

= =

=

n

n

n h h H . ] 2 [ ] 0 [

0

=

=

n

n

n h h

13.38 From Eq. (13.99), a zero-phase half-band filter satisfies the condition

a constant.

) (z H

= + ) ( ) ( z H z H

Not for sale 522

(a) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by . 2 ) (

1

1

+ + = z z z H Hence,

. 4 2 2 ) ( ) (

1 1

1 1

= + + + = +

z z z z z H z H A plot of the scaled magnitude

response of is given below: ) (

1

z H

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

1

(z)

(b) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by . 9 16 9 ) (

3 1 3

2

+ + + = z z z z z H

Hence,

. 32 9 16 9 9 16 9 ) ( ) (

3 1 3 3 1 3

2 2

= + + + + + + = +

z z z z z z z z z H z H

A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given below: ) (

2

z H

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

2

(z)

(c) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by

. 3 19 326 19 3 ) (

3 1 3

3

+ + + = z z z z z H Hence,

. 64 3 19 32 19 3 3 19 32 19 3 ) ( ) (

3 1 3 3 1 3

3 3

= + + + + + + = +

z z z z z z z z z H z H

A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given below: ) (

3

z H

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

3

(z)

Not for sale 523

(d) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by

. 3 25 150 256 150 25 3 ) (

5 3 1 3 5

4

+ + + + = z z z z z z z H Hence, ) ( ) (

4 4

z H z H +

1 3 5 5 3 1 3 5

150 256 150 25 3 3 25 150 256 150 25 3

+ + + + + + = z z z z z z z z z z

. 512 3 25

5 3

= +

z z A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given

below:

) (

4

z H

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

4

(z)

13.39 (a) A function of has p-th order zero at a frequency ) ( F

i

= if

.

) (

0 =

=

i

p

p

d

F d

The function has p zeros at ) (

j

e H 1 = cos , i.e., at = .

Hence, .

) (

0 =

p

j p

d

e H d

Moreover, the order of the highest power of

is As a result, 2 1 / ) cos ( . 1 p .

) (

0

0

1

1

=

p

j p

d

e H d

(b) Now,

2

2

1

2

1

+

=

+

j

j

e

e

cos

and .

cos

2

2

1

2

1

j

j

e

e

Substituting these expressions in Eq. (13.120) we arrive at

. ) ( ) (

l

l

l

l

l

+

=

2

1 1

2

1

1

0

j

p

j

p

j

jp j

e

e

p e

e e H Replacing with

in z the above we get the expression for the zero-phase transfer function as

j

e

. ) ( ) (

l

l

l

l

l

l

+

=

2

1 1

2

1

1

1

1

z

z

p z

z z H

p

p

13.40 (a)

Not for sale 524

+

2

2

2

2

2

2

_

1

z

_

1

z

1 z

_

_

1

_

1

1 + z

0

H (z)

1

H (z)

1

H (z)

0

H (z) +

z z

_

_

2

_

1

X(z)

Y(z)

V (z)

1

V (z)

0

V (z)

2

W (z)

0

W (z)

1

W (z)

2

U (z)

0

U (z)

1

U (z)

2

R (z)

0

R (z)

1

R (z)

2

Analysis of the above structure yields

), (

1

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

1

1

2

1

0

z X z

z

z V

z V

z V

z

+ =

V

), (

1

1 ) (

1

1

) (

) (

) (

) (

2 / 1 2 / 1

2 / 1

2 / 1 2 / 1

2 / 1

2

1

0

+ =

= z X z

z

z X z

z

z W

z W

z W

z W

( ) ( ) ), (

) (

) ( ) ( ) 1 (

) (

) (

) (

) ( ) ( ) 1 (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

2 / 1

1

1 0

2 / 1

0

2 / 1

2 / 1

1

1 0

2 / 1

0

2 / 1

2

1

0

z X

z H

z H z H z

z H z

z X

z H

z H z H z

z H z

z U

z U

z U

z

+

+

+ + =

U

( ) ( ) ). (

) (

) ( ) ( ) 1 (

) (

) (

) (

) ( ) ( ) 1 (

) (

) (

) (

) (

) (

2

1

2

1

2

0

1

0

1

2

1

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

1

0

z X

z H

z H z H z

z H z

z X

z H

z H z H z

z H z

z R

z R

z R

z

+

+

+ + =

R

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (

2

1 2

1

1

0

1

z R z z z R z z R z z Y

+ + =

( ) [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (

2

1

1 2 2

1

2

0

1 1 2

0

1 1

z X z H z z z H z H z z z H z z

+ + + + =

( ) [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (

2

1

1 2 2

1

2

0

1 1 2

0

1 1

z X z H z z z H z H z z z H z z + + + +

[ ] ). ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ] [

2

1

1 2

0

1 2

1

2 2

0

1

z X z H z z H z z X z H z z H z

+ = + = Hence,

]. [ ) ( ) ( 2 ) (

2

1

1 2

0

1

z H z z H z z T

+ =

(b) ). ( 2 ) (

2

1

) (

2

1

) (

2

1

) (

2

1

2 ) (

1 1

z H z z H z H z H z H z z T

=

+ + =

(c) Length of and length of K z H = ) (

0

. ) (

1

K z H =

(d) The total computational complexity of the above structure is

2

3

T

F

K

multiplications per second, where is the sampling frequency in Hz. On the other hand,

a direct implementation of requires ) (z H

T

KF 2 multiplications per second.

13.41

Not for sale 525

+

2

2

2

2

_

1

z

_

1

z

R(z)

X (z)

1

X (z)

2

Y (z)

1

Y (z)

2

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (

2

2

2

1

1

z X z X z z R + =

) ( ) ( ) (

2 / 1 2 / 1

1

z R z R z Y + =

), ( 2 )] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [

2 2 1

2 / 1

2 1

2 / 1

z X z X z X z z X z X z = + + + =

) ( ) ( ) (

2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1

2

z R z z R z z Y =

). ( 2 )] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [

1

1

2

2 / 1

1

1

2

2 / 1

1

1

z X z z X z z X z z X z z X z

= + + = Thus, the output

is a scaled replica of the input while the output is a scaled replica of

the delayed input

] [

1

n y ] [

2

n x ] [

2

n y

]. 1 [

1

n x

13.42

2 2 H(z

2

)

2 2

z

1

z

1

X (z)

1

X (z)

2

Y (z)

2

Y (z)

1

W(z) V(z)

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (

2

2

1 2

1

z X z z X z W

+ =

), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2

2

2 1 2

1

2

z X z H z z X z H z V

+ =

( ) ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

) (

1

2 / 1 2 / 1

1

z X z H z V z V z Y = + =

( ) ). ( ) ( ) ( ) (

2

1

) (

2

1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1

2

z X z H z z V z z V z z Y

= =

Therefore, ), (

) (

) (

1

1

z H

z X

z Y

= and ). (

) (

) (

1

2

2

z H z

z X

z Y

13.43

2 2

H(z

2

)

2

2

z

1

z

1

1

X (z)

2

X (z)

2

Y (z)

1

Y (z)

From the solution of Problem 13.42, ), (

) (

) (

1

1

z H

z X

z Y

= and ). (

) (

) (

1

2

2

z H z

z X

z Y

= Here now,

and hence, ), ( ) (

1 2

z Y z X = ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1

2 1

1

1

2

1

2

z X z H z z Y z H z z X z H z z Y

= = =

Thus, ). (

) (

) (

2 1

1

2

z H z

z X

z Y

13.44

Not for sale 526

3 3 H(z

3

)

3

3 3

3

2

3

z

1

z

1

z

1

z

1

z

(C 1) +

1

X (z)

2

X (z)

3

X (z)

W(z) V(z)

Y(z)

Y (z)

1

2

Y (z)

Y (z)

3

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

3

2 3

1

1 3

1

z X z z Y z z X z W

+ + =

), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

3

3 2 3

2

3 1 3

1

3 3

z X z H z z X z H z z X z H z W z H z V

+ + = =

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

) (

3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 1

1

j j

e z V e z V z V z Y

+ + =

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

4

1

4 2

1

2

1

j j j j

e z X e z H e z X e z H z X z H

+ + =

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

4

2

4 3 / 4 3 / 1 2

2

2 3 / 2 3 / 1

2

3 / 1 j j j j j j

e z X e z H e z e z X e z H e z z X z H z

+ + +

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

8

3

8 3 / 8 3 / 2 4

3

4 3 / 4 3 / 2

3

3 / 2 j j j j j j

e z X e z H e z e z X e z H e z z X z H z

+ + +

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

1 1 1

z X z H z X z H z X z H + + =

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

2

3 / 4 3 / 1

2

3 / 2 3 / 1

2

3 / 1

z X z H e z z X z H e z z X z H z

j j

+ + +

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

3

3 / 8 3 / 2

3

3 / 4 3 / 2

3

3 / 2

z X z H e z z X z H e z z X z H z

j j

+ + +

), ( ) (

1

z X z H =

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

) (

3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1

2

j j j j

e z V e z e z V e z z V z z Y

+ + =

), ( ) (

3

1

z X z H z

=

[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

) (

3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 8 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1

3

j j j j

e z V e z e z V e z z V z z Y

+ + =

). ( ) (

2

2

z X z H z

=

Now, and ) ( ) (

3 3

z Y z X = ). ( ) (

1 2

z Y z X = Hence,

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3

1

3

1

2

z Y z H z z X z H z z Y

= = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

1

2 2

2

1 1

] [ z Y z H z z X z H z z H z

= =

Therefore, ). ( ) (

1

3 2

z X z H z

= ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) (

3

) 1 (

2

z Y z z Y z Y

C+

+ =

) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 2

1

3 2 2

1

2 1 ) 1 (

1

3 2

] [ z X z H z H z z X z H z z z X z H z

C

= + =

+

for

Thus, the transfer function of the system of Figure P13.12 is

. 0 = C

. ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( ] [

3 2 2

z H z H z z G =

M13.1 (a) (i)

Not for sale 527

0 20 40 60 80 100

-2

-1

0

1

2

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 20 40 60 80 100

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

Output sequence up-sampled by5

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(ii)

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Output sequence up-sampled by5

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

M13.2 (a) (i)

0 10 20 30 40 50

-2

-1

0

1

2

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 10 20 30 40 50

-2

-1

0

1

2

Output sequence down-sampled by 5

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

(ii)

Not for sale 528

0 10 20 30 40 50

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Input Sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 2 4 6 8 10

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

Output sequence down-sampled by 5

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

M13.3 (a)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

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u

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

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Output spectrum

(b)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

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u

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

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Output spectrum

M13.4 (a)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

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u

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

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Output spectrum

Not for sale 529

(b)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

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t

u

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

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Output spectrum

M13.5 (a)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

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Output spectrum

(b)

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

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Input spectrum

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0.04

0.06

0.08

0.1

0.12

0.14

/

M

a

g

n

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Output spectrum

M13.6 (a)

Not for sale 530

0 20 40 60 80 100 120

-2

-1

0

1

2

Input sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 10 20 30 40

-2

-1

0

1

2

Output sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

M13.7 (a)

0 10 20 30 40 50

-2

-1

0

1

2

Input sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 50 100 150

-2

-1

0

1

2

Output sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

M13.8 (a)

0 10 20 30 40

-2

-1

0

1

2

Input sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

0 5 10 15 20 25

-2

-1

0

1

2

Output sequence

Time index n

A

m

p

l

i

t

u

d

e

M13.9 Using Program 13_9.m we arrive at the transfer function of the desired elliptic half-

band lowpass filter: [ ], ) ( ) (

2

1

) (

2

1

1 2

0 0

z z z z H A A

+ = where

6 4 2

6 4 2

2

0

0192 . 0 3903 . 0 2456 . 1 1

2456 . 1 3903 . 0 0192 . 0

) (

+ + +

+ + +

=

z z z

z z z

z A and

.

1206 . 0 8884 . 0 7442 . 1 1

7442 . 1 8884 . 0 1206 . 0

) (

6 4 2

6 4 2

2

1

+ + +

+ + +

=

z z z

z z z

z A The power-complentary half-

band highpass transfer function is given by [ ]. ) ( ) (

2

1

) (

2

1

1 2

0 0

z z z z H A A

= A plot

Not for sale 531

of the magnitude responses of the above half-band lowpass and highpass filters is

shown below:

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

0

(z) H

1

(z)

M13.10 (a) A digital lowpass half-band filter can be designed by applying a bilinear

transformation to an analog lowpass Butterworth transfer function with a 3-dB cutoff

frequency at 1 rad/sec. The 3-dB cutoff frequency of the digital lowpass Butterworth

half-band filter is therefore at . 5 . 0 / ) 1 ( tan 2

1

= =

c

To design a 3

rd

-order digital lowpass Butterworth half-band filter we use the MATLAB

statement [num,den] = butter(3,0.5); which yields

.

3333 . 0 1

) 1 ( 1667 . 0

) (

2

3 1

+

+

=

z

z

z H As can be seen from the pole-zero plot of given below all

poles are on the imaginary axis:

-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

3

Real Part

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

P

a

r

t

Using the MATLAB statement

[d1,d2] = tf2ca([1 3 3 1]/6, [1 0 1/3 0]);

we arrive at the parallel allpass decomposition of as ) (z H

)], ( ) ( [ ) (

2

1

1 2

0

2

1

z A z z A z H

+ = where

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

0

1

) (

+

+

=

z

z

z A and Hence,

the power-complementary highpass transfer function is given by

. 1 ) (

2

1

= z A

.

3333 . 0 1

) 3 3 1 ( 1667 . 0

)] ( ) ( [ ) (

2

3 2 1

2

1

1 2

0

2

1

+

+

= =

z

z z z

z A z z A z G

Not for sale 532

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H(z) G(z)

(b) To design a 5th-order digital lowpass Butterworth half-band filter we use the

MATLAB statement [num,den] = butter(5,0.5); which yields

.

0557 . 0 6334 . 0 1

) 1 ( 0528 . 0

) (

4 2

5 1

+ +

+

=

z z

z

z H As can be seen from the pole-zero plot of given

below all poles are on the imaginary axis:

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

Real Part

I

m

a

g

i

n

a

r

y

P

a

r

t

Using the MATLAB statement

[d1,d2] =

tf2ca(0.0528*[1 5 10 10 5 1], [1 0 0.6334 0 0.0557]);

we arrive at the parallel allpass decomposition of as ) (z H

)], ( ) ( [ ) (

2

1

1 2

0

2

1

z A z z A z H

+ = where

2

2

2

0

1056 . 0 1

1056 . 0

) (

+

+

=

z

z

z A and

.

5279 . 0 1

5279 . 0

) (

2

2

2

1

+

+

=

z

z

z A Hence, the power-complementary highpass transfer function

is given by .

0557 . 0 6334 . 0 1

) 1 ( 0528 . 0

)] ( ) ( [ ) (

4 2

5 1

2

1

1 2

0

2

1

+ +

= =

z z

z

z A z z A z G

Not for sale 533

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

/

M

a

g

n

i

t

u

d

e

H

(

z) G

(

z)

M13.11

M13.12

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

/

G

a

i

n

,

d

B

L-th band Nyquist Filter, L = 5

Not for sale 534

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