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# Chapter 13

## 13.1 Up-sampler Let and be the inputs to a factor-of-L up-sampler with

corresponding outputs given by and , respectively:
and
] [
1
n x ] [
2
n x
] [
1
n y ] [
2
n y

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
1
1
K L L n L n x
n y

=
=
otherwise. , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
2
2
K L L n L n x
n y
Let be the input to the up-sampler. Then, the corresponding
output is given by

Hence, the up-sampler is a linear system.
] [ ] [ ] [
2 1 3
n x n x n x + =
] [
3
n y

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
3
3
K L L n L n x
n y

= +
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [ ] / [
2 1
K L L n L n x L n x

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
1
K L L n L n x

=
+
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
2
K L L n L n x
]. [ ] [
2 1
n y n y + =

Down-sampler - Let and be the inputs to a factor-of-M down-sampler with
corresponding outputs given by and , respectively:
] [
1
n x ] [
2
n x
] [
1
n y ] [
2
n y
and ] [ ] [
1 1
Mn x n y = ]. [ ] [
2 2
Mn x n y = Let ] [ ] [ ] [
2 1 3
n x n x n x + = be the input to the
up-sampler. Then, the corresponding output is given by

] [
3
n y ] [ ] [
3 3
Mn x n y =
] [ ] [
2 1
Mn x Mn x + = ]. [ ] [
2 1
n y n y + = Hence, the down-sampler is a linear system.

13.2 Up-Sampler For inputs and the outputs of the factor-of-L up-sampler
are, respectively given by
] [
1
n x ], [
2
n x
and .

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
1
1
K L L n L n x
n x
u

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
2
2
K L L n L n x
n x
u
Let where is an integer. Then, Hence,
But,

], [ ] [
1 2 o
n n x n x =
o
n ]. ) / [( ] / [
1 2 o
n L n x L n x =

=
=
otherwise. , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / ) [(
] [
1
2
K L L n L n n x
n x
o
u

=
=
otherwise. , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / ) [(
] [
1
1
K L L n n L n n x
n x
o o
u
Since the up-sampler is a time-varying system. ], [ ] [
1 2
o u u
n n x n x

Down-Sampler For inputs and the outputs of the factor-of-M down-
sampler are, respectively given by
] [
1
n x ], [
2
n x
] [ ] [
1 1
Mn x n y = and ]. [ ] [
2 2
Mn x n y = Let
where is an integer. Then, ], [ ] [
1 2 o
n n x n x =
o
n ]. [ ] [ ] [
1 2 2 o
n Mn x Mn x n y = =
However, ]. [ )] ( [ ] [
1 1 1 o o o
Mn Mn x n n M x n n y = =
Since the down-sampler is a time-varying system. ], [ ] [
1 2 o
n n y n y

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13.3
z
_
1
2 2
2 2
z
_
1
X(z)
Y(z)
V(z)
W(z)
V (z)
u
W (z)
u

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (
2 / 1
2
1
2 / 1
2
1
z X z X z V + =
), ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) (
2
1
2
1
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
2
2 / 1 2 / 1
z X z X z V z X z X z W
u
z z
+ = =

). ( ) ( ) (
2 2
1 1
z X z X z W
z z
u
=

Hence, ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
z X z z W z V z z Y
u u

= + = or in other
words ]. 1 [ ] [ = n x n y

13.4 .
1
1
1 1
] [
1
0

= =

=
n
M
nM
M
M
k
kn
M
W
W
M
W
M
n c Hence, if . 0
1
1 1 1
] [ , =

=
n
M
W
M
n c rM n On
the other hand, if , rM n = then . 1 1
1 1 1
] [
1
0
1
0
1
0
= = = = =

=

=
M
M
M
W
M
W
M
n c
M
k
M
k
krM
M
M
k
kn
M

13.5 (a) For and 6 = M , 5 = L
} , , , , , { } { } {
5
6
4
6
3
6
2
6
1
6
0
6 6

= = W W W W W W W W
k k
M
, and
} , , , , , { } { } {
25
6
20
6
15
6
10
6
5
6
0
6
5
6

= = W W W W W W W W
k Lk
M
}. { } , , , , , {
6
1
6
2
6
3
6
4
6
5
6
0
6
k
W W W W W W W

= =

(b) For to have same set of values for } {
k
M
W

, 1 0 M k as , each should
have unique values for each k. Therefore
} {
kL
M
W

nL
M
kL
M
W W

for all or
for any positive integer r, which implies that L and M should be
relatively prime.
], 1 , 0 [ , M n k
rM L n k ) (

13.6
M M H(z) H(z )
M
X(z) X(z)
V (z)
1
Y (z)
1
V (z)
2
Y (z)
2

For the figure on the left-hand side we have ), (
1
) (
1
0
/ 1
1

=
=
M
k
k
M
M
W z X
M
z V and
). ( ) (
1
) (
1
0
/ 1
1

=
=
M
k
k
M
M
W z X z H
M
z Y For the figure on the right-hand side we have
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) ( ) (
1
) ( ), ( ) ( ) (
/ 1
1
0
2 2
k
M
M
M
k
kM
M
M
W z X zW H
M
z Y z X z H z V

=
= = ). ( ) (
1
/ 1
1
0
k
M
M
M
k
W z X z H
M

=
=
Hence, ). ( ) (
2 1
z Y z Y =

L L H(z) H(z )
L
X(z) X(z)
V (z)
1
Y (z)
1
V (z)
2
Y (z)
2

For the figure on the left-hand side we have For the ). ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) (
1 1
L L L
z X z H z Y z X z V = =
figure on the right-hand side we have Hence,

). ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( ) (
2 2
L L
z X z H z Y z X z H z V = =
). ( ) (
2 1
z Y z Y =

13.7 (a) The system of Figure P13.1 with internal variables labeled is shown below:

L L G(z) X(z)
V(z)
Y(z)
U(z)

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) ( z V z G z U z X z V
L
= = and ). (
1
) (
1
0
/ 1

=

=
L
k
k
L
L
W z U
L
z Y
Substituting the first equation in the second equation we get
Substituting this equation in the expression for in the above we get
). ( ) ( ) (
L
z X z G z U =
) (z Y
), ( ) (
1
) ( ) (
1
) (
1
0
/ 1
1
0
/ 1
z X W z G
L
W z X W z G
L
z Y
L
k
k
L
L kL
L
L
k
k
L
L

=

=

= = since . 1 =
kL
L
W
Therefore, ). (
1
) (
) (
) (
1
0
/ 1

=

= =
L
k
k
L
L
W z G
L z X
z Y
z H Hence, Figure P13.1 is a LTI system.
(b) It follows from the last equation given above, if , 1 ) (
1
1
0
/ 1
=

=

L
k
k
L
L
W z G
L
then
i.e., or , 1 ) ( = z H ), ( ) ( z X z Y = ]. [ ] [ n x n y = Or, in other words, the system of Figure
P13.1 is an identity system for . 1 ) (
1
1
0
/ 1
=

=

L
k
k
L
L
W z G
L

13.8 Consider the multirate structure shown below. Analysis yields

L L G(z)
u[n]
x[n] H(z)
y[n]

and ), ( ) ( ) (
L
z X z H z U = ). ( ) ( ) (
/ / k
L
L
L
k
k
L
L
W z U W z G
L
z Y
1
1
0
1
1

=
= Substituting the first
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equation into the second we get ). ( ) ( ) ( ) (
/ /
z X W z H W z G
L
z Y
k
L
L
L
k
k
L
L

=
1
1
0
1
1
Hence,
if , ) ( ) (
/ /
1
1
1
1
0
1
=

=
k
L
L
L
k
k
L
L
W z H W z G
L
we have ), ( ) ( z X z Y = or in other words, the
above multirate structure is an identity system. We break the system as shown below
into two parts with the transfer functions and satisfying the relation

L L G(z) u[n] x[n] H(z)
x[n]
u[n]

. ) ( ) (
/ /
1
1
1
1
0
1
=

=
k
L
L
L
k
k
L
L
W z H W z G
L
If we now place the second system in front of the
first we arrive at the system shown in Figure P13.2 which is an identity system
provided . ) ( ) (
/ /
1
1
1
1
0
1
=

=
k
L
L
L
k
k
L
L
W z H W z G
L

13.9 Making use of the multirate identities we simplify the structure of Figure P13.3 as
indicated below:
5
3
x[n]
y[n]
15

5
3
x[n]
y[n]
5 3

5 x[n]
y[n]
5
v[n]

Analysis of the last structure yields, ], 5 [ ] [ n x n v = and
or,

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 10 , 5 , 0 ], 5 / [
] [
K n n v
n y

=
=
otherwise. , 0
, , 10 , 5 , 0 ], [
] [
K n n x
n y

13.10
L
L
x[n]
y[n]
v[n]

Analysis yields ], [ ] [ Ln x n v = and or,

=
=
otherwise, , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], / [
] [
K L L n L n v
n y

=
=
otherwise. , 0
, , 2 , , 0 ], [
] [
K L L n n x
n y

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13.11 Since 3 and 4 are relatively prime, we can interchange the positions of the factor-of-3
down-sampler and the factor-of-4 up-sampler as indicated below:

x[n]
y[n]
z
_
6
3 4 2

which simplifies to the structure shown below:

x[n]
y[n]
z
_
6
4 6

Using the Noble identity of Figure 13.14(a) we redraw the above structure as indicated
below:
x[n]
y[n]
4 6 z
_
1
u[n] v[n]

Analysis yields ], 1 6 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ], 6 [ ] [ = = = n x n u n v n x n u and

=
=

=
=
otherwise. otherwise, , 0
, , 8 , 4 , 0 ], 1 ) 2 / 3 [(
, 0
, , 8 , 4 , 0 ], 4 / [
] [
K K n n x n n v
n y

13.12 As outlined in Section 8.2, the transpose of a digital filter structure is obtained by
reversing all paths, replacing the pick-off node with an adder and vice-versa, and
interchanging the input and the output nodes. Moreover, in a multirate structure, the
transpose of a factor-of-M down-sampler is a factor-of-M up-sampler and vice-versa.
Applying these operations to the factor-of-M decimator shown below on the left-hand
side, we arrive at a factor-of-M up-sampler shown below on the right-hand side.

x[n]
y[n]
H(z) M
x[n]
y[n]
H(z) M

13.13 (a) To prove Eq. (13.20), consider the fractional-rate sampling rate converter of
Figure 13.16(b) with internal variables labeled as shown below:

L M
x[n] y[n]
H(z)
v[n]
x [n]
u

Analysis yields K , 2 , 1 , 0 ], [ ] [ = = n n x Ln x
u
and ]. [ ] [ ] [ l l
l

=
=
u
x n h n v
Substituting the first equation in the second we get Finally,

]. [ ] [ ] [ m x Lm n h n v
m

=
=

=
= =
m
m x Lm Mn h Mn v n y ]. [ ] [ ] [ ] [
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(b) Next, to prove Eq. (13.21), we make use of the z-domain relations of the down-
sampler and the up-sampler. From Eq. (13.17) we have
). ( ) (
1
) (
/ 1
1
0
/ 1 k
M
M
u
k
M
M
k
M
W z X W z H
M
z Y

= But Hence, ). ( ) (
L
u
z X z X =
). ( ) (
1
) (
/
1
0
/ 1 Lk
M
M L k
M
M
k
M
W z X W z H
M
z Y

=

13.14
2
2
3 E (z)
00
E (z)
01
E (z)
02
E (z)
10
E (z)
11
E (z)
12
z
_
1
z
_
1
3
3
3
3
3
+
z
_
1
+
z
_
1
+
z
_
1
+
z
_
1
+
x[n]
y[n]

13.15
x[n] y[n]
H(z)
400 Hz
8 15
3200 Hz 3200 Hz 213.3333 Hz
v[n]
x
u
n [ ]

(a) 400 =
T
F Hz, L = 8, M = 15. Now, the sampling rate of and is
kHz. Hence, the sampling rate of is
Hz.
] [n x
u
] [n v
2 . 3 8 400 400 = = L ] [n y 15 / 3200 / 3200 = M
33 . 213 =

(b) The normalized stopband edge angular frequency of (for no aliasing) ) (z H
.
15
, min

= =

=
M M L
s
Hence, the stopband edge frequency is
30
1
=
s
F Hz.

13.16
x[n] y[n]
H(z) 8 15
v[n]
x
u
n [ ]
650 Hz 3.25 kHz 3.25 kHz 361.1 Hz

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(a) 650 =
T
F Hz, L = 5, M = 9. Now, the sampling rate of and is ] [n x
u
] [n v
kHz. Hence, the sampling rate of is
Hz.
25 . 3 5 650 650 = = L ] [n y 9 / 3250 / 3250 = M
1 . 361 =
(b) The normalized stopband edge angular frequency of (for no aliasing) ) (z H
.
9
, min

= =

=
M M L
s
Hence, the stopband edge frequency is Hz.

13.17 Applying the transpose operation to the M-channel analysis filter bank shown below
on the left-hand side, we arrive at the M-channel synthesis filter bank shown below on
the right-hand side.

x[n] v [n]
0
v [n]
1
v [n]
M 1
_
M
M
M
H (z)
0
H (z)
1
H (z)
M 1
_
y[n] v [n]
0
v [n]
1
v [n]
M 1
_
M
M
M
H (z)
0
H (z)
1
H (z)
M 1
_
+
+
y[n] v [n]
0
v [n]
1
v [n]
M 1
_
M H (z)
0
H (z)
1
H (z)
M 1
_
+
+
M
M

13.18 Specifications for H(z) are: 180 =
p
F Hz, 200 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =
s p

H(z)
30
12 kHz 12 kHz 400 Hz

) ( ) ( ) (
5
z F z I z H =
30 I(z) F(z )
5
I(z) F(z )
5
5 6
I(z) 5 6 F(z)
12 kHz 12 kHz 2.4 kHz 2.4 kHz 400 Hz

Specifications for F(z) are: 900 =
p
F Hz, 1000 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p

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Here .
12000
100
= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of F(z) given by
387 3 . 386
12000
100
6 . 14
13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
= =

=
F F
N N
Specifications for I(z) are: 180 =
p
F Hz, 2200 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p

Here .
12000
2020
= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of I(z) given by
207 12 . 19
12000
2020
6 . 14
13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
= =

=
F I
N N
Hence, 200 , 155
6
2400
) 1 387 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps, 400 , 50
5
12000
) 1 20 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
The above realization requires a total of 205,600 mps. As a result, the computational
complexity is slightly higher than in Example 13.10.

13.19 Specifications for H(z) are: 180 =
p
F Hz, 200 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =
s p

) ( ) ( ) (
3
z F z I z H =
30 I(z) F(z )
3
I(z) F(z )
3
3 10
I(z) 3 10 F(z)
12 kHz 12 kHz 4 kHz 4 kHz 400 Hz

Specifications for F(z) are: 540 =
p
F Hz, 600 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p

Here .
12000
60
= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of F(z) given by
644 8 . 643
12000
60
6 . 14
13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
= =

=
F F
N N
Specifications for I(z) are: 180 =
p
F Hz, 3800 =
s
F Hz, . 001 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p

Here .
12000
3260
= f Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of I(z) given by
12 85 . 11
12000
3260
6 . 14
13 001 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
= =

=
F I
N N
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Hence, 000 , 262
10
4000
) 1 644 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps, 000 , 52
3
12000
) 1 12 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
The above realization requires a total of 314,000 mps. As a result, the computational
complexity is higher than in Example 13.10 and that in Problem 13.18.

13.20 (a) The desired down-sampling factor is . 20
000 , 2
40000
= = M The general structure of
the desired decimator is thus as shown below:

20
H(z)
40 kHz 40 kHz 2 kHz

Now, the normalized stopband edge angular frequency of a factor-of-20 decimator is
.
20

=
s
Hence, the desired stopband edge frequency in this case is
1000
20
20000
= =
s
F Hz. The specifications of the decimation filter H(z) is thus as
follows: Hz, 800 =
p
F 1000 =
s
F Hz, . 002 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =
s p
Here .
40000
200
= f
Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of H(z) given by
. 562 4 . 561
40000
200
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 002 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
H
N Therefore, the computational
complexity is given by 000 , 1126
20
40000
) 1 562 (
,
= + =
H M
R mps.
(b) For a two-stage realization of the decimator, there are 4 possible realizations of the
decimation filter:
Realization #1 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H
2
=
2 I(z) F(z )
2
10
40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz
2 I(z)
10
40 kHz 20 kHz 2 kHz
F(z)
20 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I
1600 : ) ( =
p
F z F Hz, Hz, 2000 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
400
= f
800 : ) ( =
p
F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 19 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
18200
= f
Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I
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302 29 . 301
40000
400
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
F
N
7 62 . 6
40000
18200
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
I
N
Computational complexities of the two sections are:
000 , 606
10
20000
) 1 302 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps and 000 , 160
2
40000
) 1 7 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is
mps. 000 , 766
, ,
= + =
I M F M M
R R R

Realization #2 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H
4
=

4 I(z) F(z )
4
5
40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz
4 I(z)
5
40 kHz 10 kHz 2 kHz
F(z)
10 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I
3200 : ) ( =
p
F z F Hz, 4000 =
s
F Hz, , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
800
= f
800 : ) ( =
p
F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 9 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
8200
= f
Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I
151 65 . 150
40000
8000
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
F
N
15 69 . 14
40000
8200
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
I
N
Computational complexities of the two sections are:
000 , 304
5
10000
) 1 151 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps and 000 , 160
4
40000
) 1 15 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is
mps. 000 , 464
, ,
= + =
I M F M M
R R R

Realization #3 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H
5
=
Not for sale 508

5 I(z) F(z )
5
4
40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz
5 I(z)
4
40 kHz 8 kHz 2 kHz
F(z)
8 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I
4000 : ) ( =
p
F z F Hz, 5000 =
s
F Hz, , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus,
.
40000
1000
= f
800 : ) ( =
p
F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 7 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
6200
= f
Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I
121 52 . 120
40000
1000
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
F
N
20 44 . 19
40000
6200
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
I
N
Computational complexities of the two sections are:
000 , 244
4
8000
) 1 121 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps and 000 , 168
5
40000
) 1 20 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is
mps. 000 , 412
, ,
= + =
I M F M M
R R R

Realization #4 ) ( ) ( ) ( z I z F z H
10
=
10 I(z) F(z )
10
2
40 kHz 40 kHz 40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz
10 I(z)
2
40 kHz 4 kHz 2 kHz
F(z)
4 kHz 40 kHz

Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I
8000 : ) ( =
p
F z F Hz, Hz, 000 , 10 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
2000
= f
800 : ) ( =
p
F z I Hz, Hz, 000 , 3 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
40000
2200
= f
Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I
Not for sale 509
61 26 . 60
40000
2000
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
F
N
55 78 . 54
40000
2200
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
I
N
Computational complexities of the two sections are:
000 , 124
2
4000
) 1 61 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps and 000 , 224
10
40000
) 1 55 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is
mps. 000 , 348
, ,
= + =
I M F M M
R R R

Hence, the optimum two-stage design with the lowest computational complexity is the
Realization #4.

13.21 (a) The desired up-sampling factor is . 50
480
24000
= = L The general structure of the
desired interpolator is thus as shown below:

H(z) 50
480 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz

Now, the normalized stopband edge angular frequency of a factor-of-50 interpolator is
.
50

=
s
Hence, the desired stopband edge frequency in this case is
240
50
12000
= =
s
F Hz. The specifications of the decimation filter H(z) is thus as
follows: Hz, 190 =
p
F 240 =
s
F Hz, . 002 . 0 , 002 . 0 = =
s p
Here .
24000
50
= f
Using Eq. (10.3) we arrive at the order of H(z) given by
. 1348 27 . 1347
24000
50
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 002 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
H
N
Computational complexity is thus 520 , 647
50
24000
) 1 1348 (
,
= + =
H M
R mps.
(b) ). ( ) ( ) (
10
z I z F z H =
Specifications for and are as follows: ) (z F ) (z I
1900 : ) ( =
p
F z F Hz, Hz, 2400 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
24000
500
= f

Not for sale 510
10
I(z)
50 F(z )
10
I(z)
5 F(z)
480 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz 24 kHz
480 Hz 2400 Hz 2400 Hz 24 kHz 24 kHz

190 : ) ( =
p
F z I Hz, Hz, 2160 =
s
F , 002 . 0 , 001 . 0 = =
s p
and thus, .
24000
1970
= f
Orders of and are given by ) (z F ) (z I
145 62 . 144
24000
500
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
F
N
37 71 . 36
24000
1970
6 . 14
13 002 . 0 001 . 0 log 20
10
=

=
I
N
Computational complexities of the two sections are:
080 , 70
5
2400
) 1 145 (
,
= + =
F M
R mps and 200 , 91
10
24000
) 1 37 (
,
= + =
I M
R mps.
Hence, the total computational complexity of the two-stage realization is
mps. 280 , 161
, ,
= + =
I M F M M
R R R

Therefore, the complexity in a two-stage design with is
approximately 25% of that of the single-stage design.
). ( ) ( ) (
10
z I z F z H =

13.22 A computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-3 interpolator as shown below

3
H(z)

is obtained from the 3-band polyphase decomposition of H(z) given by
). ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
2
2 3
1
1 3
0
z E z z E z z E z H

+ + = The general form of the polyphase
representation of the interpolator is as shown below:

E (z)
3
0
E (z)
3
1
E (z)
3
2
1
_
z
+
+
1
_
z

Not for sale 511
Since H(z) is a length-15 linear-phase transfer function,
1
] 1 [ ] 0 [ ) (

+ = z h h z H
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 7 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 4 [ ] 3 [ ] 2 [

+ + + + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h
, ] 0 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [
14 13 12 11 10
+ + + + + z h z h z h z h z h the transfer functions of the
sub-filters are as follows:
, ] 2 [ ] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 3 [ ] 0 [ ) (
4 3 2 1
0

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E
, ] 1 [ ] 4 [ ] 7 [ ] 4 [ ] 1 [ ) (
4 3 2 1
1

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E
. ] 0 [ ] 3 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 2 [ ) (
4 3 2 1
2

+ + + + = z h z h z h z h h z E
A computationally efficient realization of the factor-of-3 interpolator is obtained by
sharing common multipliers as shown below:

1
_
z
+
+
1
_
z
3
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
3
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
3
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
1
_
z +
h[0]
h[3]
h[6]
h[5]
h[2]
h[4]
h[1]
h[7]
x[n]
y[n]

13.23 A computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-4 decimator as shown below

4 H(z)

is obtained from the 4-band polyphase decomposition of H(z) given by
). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
3 3
2
2 3
1
1 3
0
z E z z E z z E z z E z H

+ + + = The general form of the
polyphase representation of the interpolator is as shown below:

Not for sale 512
4
E (z)
0
+
4
E (z)
1
+
z
_
1
4
E (z)
2
+
z
_
1
4
E (z)
3
z
_
1

Since H(z) is a length-16 linear-phase transfer function,
1
] 1 [ ] 0 [ ) (

+ = z h h z H
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
] 6 [ ] 7 [ ] 7 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 4 [ ] 3 [ ] 2 [

+ + + + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h
, ] 0 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] 3 [ ] 4 [ ] 5 [
15 14 13 12 11 10
+ + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h the transfer
functions of the sub-filters are as follows:
, ] 3 [ ] 7 [ ] 4 [ ] 0 [ ) (
3 2 1
0

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E
, ] 2 [ ] 6 [ ] 5 [ ] 1 [ ) (
3 2 1
1

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E
. ] 1 [ ] 5 [ ] 6 [ ] 2 [ ) (
3 2 1
2

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E
. ] 0 [ ] 4 [ ] 7 [ ] 3 [ ) (
3 2 1
3

+ + + = z h z h z h h z E
A computationally efficient realization of the factor-of-4 decimator is obtained by
sharing common multipliers as shown below
z
_
1
4
4
+
+
+
+
4
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
+
+
+
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
4
+
+
+
+
h[0]
h[1]
h[2]
h[3]
h[4]
h[5]
+
+
+
h[7]
h[6]

13.24 ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 2 ( 3 2 1
1
0

=

+ + + + + + = =

N N
N
i
i
z z z z z z z H L
Not for sale 513
), ( ) 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 (
2 1 ) 2 ( 2 2 1
z G z z z z z
N
+ = + + + + + = L where
Using a similar technique we can show that Therefore we
can write where
Continuing this decomposition process further we arrive at
where
. ) (
1 ) 2 / (
0

=

=
N
i
i
z z G
. ) 1 ( ) (
1 ) 4 / (
0
2 1

+ =

=

N
i
i
z z z G
), ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) (
4 2 1
1 ) 4 / (
0
4 2 1
z F z z z z z z H
N
i
i

=

+ + =

+ + =

. ) (
1 ) 4 / (
0

=

=
N
i
i
z z F
), 1 ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) (
1
2 2 1

+ + + =
K
z z z z H L . 2
K
N =
The transfer function of a box-car decimation filter of length-16 can be expressed as:
.
1
1
) (
1
16
15
0

= =

z
z
z z H
i
i

As a result, a computationally efficient realization of a factor-of-16 decimator using a
length-16 boxcar decimation filter is as shown below:

z
1
_
+
+
z
1
_
16

13.25 Let denote the output of the factor-of-L interpolator. Then ] [n u
,
] [
]) 1 [ ] [ (
2
2

=

=
n
n
n u
n u n u
E (13-1)
and
.
] [
] 1 [ ] [
2
n u
n u n u
C
n
n

=

= (13-2)
Substituting Eq. (13-2) in Eq. (13-1) we get ). 1 ( 2 C = E Hence, as i.e., as the
signal becomes highly correlated,
, 1 C
] [n u . 0 E

Now, by Parsevalsrelation, , ) ( * ) (
2
1
] [ ] [

d e V e U n v n u
j j
n

=
= where ) (
j
e U
Not for sale 514
and are the DTFTs of and , respectively. If we let ) (
j
e V ] [n u ] [n v ] 1 [ ] [ = n u n v in
the numerator of Eq. (13-1), and ] [ ] [ n u n v = in the denominator of Eq. (13-1), then we
can write
,
) (
) cos( ) (
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
0
2
0
2
2
2

= =

d e U
d e U
d e U
d e e U
E
j
j
j
j j

assuming to be a real sequence. If ] [n u ] [n x is assumed to be a broadband signal with
a flat magnitude spectrum, i.e., 1 ) ( =
j
e X for , 0 then the magnitude
spectrum of is bandlimited to the range , / 0 L i.e.,

<
=
otherwise. , 0
, / 0 , 1
) (
L
e U
j

Therefore, .
) / (
) / sin(
) cos(
/
0
/
0
L
L
d
d
C
L
L

= =

Hence, as
. 1 , C L

13.26
z
L
H(z) M M

X(e )
j
W(e )
j
R(e )
j
Y(e )
j
S(e )
j

Analysis of the above structure yields

), ( ) (
M j j
e X e W

=
), ( ) ( ) (
M j j j
e X e H e R

= ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
M j j L j j L j j
e X e H e e R e e S

= =
. ) ( ) (
/ /

=

=
1
0
1
M
k
M j M k j j
e e S
M
e Y If the filter is assumed to be close to
an ideal lowpass filter with a cutoff at
) (
j
e H
, / M we can assume that all images of
are suppressed leaving only the term in the expression for Hence, we
can write
) (
j
e X ). (
j
e Y
). ( ) ( ) ( ) (
/ / /
= =
j M L j M j M j j
e X e e H
M
e S
M
e Y
1 1
Since is a
Type 1 FIR filter with exact linear phase and a delay of
) (z H
KM N = 2 1 / ) ( samples and a
magnitude response equal to M in the passband, we have
Thus, the structure of Figure P13.7 Is
approximately an allpass filter with a fixed delay of K samples and a variable
noninteger delay of L/M samples.
). ( ) (
/
=
j M L j K j j
e X e e e Y

13.27 An ideal M-th band lowpass filter is characterized by a frequency response ) (z H
Not for sale 515

otherwise. ,
, / / ,
) (
0
1 M M
e H
j
The transfer function can be expressed in
an M-branch polyphase form as From the above we observe
Therefore,
) (z H
). ( ) (
M
k
M
k
k
z H z z H

=
1
0
). ( ) (
M
M
r
r
M
z H M zW H
0
1
0
=

=
. ) ( ) (
/ (
M
e H
M
e H
M
r
M r j M j
1 1
1
0
2
0
= =

=

Or in other words, is an allpass function. ) (
M
z H
0

13.28 An equivalent realization of the structure of Figure P13.38 obtained by realizing the
filter in a Type 1 polyphase form is shown below on the left. By moving the down-
sampler through the system and invoking the cascade equivalence #1 of Figure 13.14 we
arrive at the structure shown below on the right.

z
_
1
+
+
+
z
_
1
z
_
1
0
E (z )
L
1
E (z )
L
2
E (z )
L
L 1
_ E (z )
L
L
L
z
_
1
+
+
+
z
_
1
z
_
1
0
E (z)
1
E (z)
2
E (z)
L 1
_ E (z)
L
L
L
L
L

The structure on the right hand side reduces to the one shown below on the left from
which we arrive at the simplified equivalent structure shown below on the right.

L L
E (z)
0
E (z)
0

13.29 (a) Let and
Then

(b)
. ] [ ) (
1
0

=

=
N
n
n
z n h z H

=

+ + =
1 ) 2 / (
0
2
0
]) 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ( ) (
N
i
i
z i h i h z H
. ]) 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ( ) (
1 ) 2 / (
0
2
1

=

+ =
N
i
i
z i h i h z H
). ( 1 ] 1 2 [ ] 2 [ ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
1 ) 2 / (
0
2
1 ) 2 / (
0
2 2
1
1 2
0
1
z H z i h z i h z H z z H z
N
i
i
N
i
i
= + + + = + +

=

=

) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
1
z H z z H z z H

+ + =
Not for sale 516
( ) ( ) ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
2
1
2
0
1 2
1
2
0
z E z z E z H z H z z H z H

+ = + + = Therefore,
and ) ( ) ( ) (
1 0 0
z H z H z E + = ). ( ) ( ) (
1 0 1
z H z H z E =

(c) Now, [ ] [ ]

+
=

=

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
1
) (
) (
1 1
1 1
1 ) (
2
1
2
0
2
1
2
0 1
2
1
2
0 1
z H z H
z H z H
z
z H
z H
z z H
( ) ( ) ). ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1
2
0
1 2
1
2
0
z H z z H z z H z H z z H z H

+ + = + + =

(d) If i.e., then we can express , 2 = L , 2
2
= N
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
4
01
2 4
00
2 2
0
z H z z H z z H

+ + = and
). ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
4
11
2 4
10
2 2
1
z H z z H z z H

+ + = Substituting these expressions in
) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
1
1 2
0
1
z H z z H z z H

+ + = we get
[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
4
01
2 4
00
2 1
z H z z H z z z H

+ + + =
[ ] ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
4
11
2 4
10
2 1
z H z z H z z

+ + +
) ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) ( ) 1 )( 1 (
4
01
2 1 4
00
2 1
z H z z z H z z

+ + + + =
) ( ) 1 )( 1 ( ) ( ) 1 )( 1 (
4
11
2 1 4
10
2 1
z H z z z H z z

+ + +
[ ] [ ] .
) (

) (

) (

) (

1
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1
4
3
4
2
4
1
4
0
4
3 2 1
4
11
4
10
4
01
4
00
3 2 1

=

z H
z H
z H
z H
z z z
z H
z H
z H
z H
z z z R
Continuing this process it is easy to establish that for we have
[ ]

) (

) (

) (

1 ) (
1
1
0
) 1 ( 1
L
L
L
L
L
L
z H
z H
z H
z z z H
M
L R .

13.30 Now
Therefore,
[ ] [ ] .
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
) (

) (

) (

) (

1 ) (
4
3
4
2
4
1
4
0
3 2 1
4
3
4
2
4
1
4
0
4
3 2 1

=

z E
z E
z E
z E
z z z
z H
z H
z H
z H
z z z z H R
.
) (
) (
) (
) (
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
4
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (

) (

) (

) (

3
2
1
0
3
2
1
0
4
3
2
1
0
1
4
3
2
1
0

z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z E
z H
z H
z H
z H
R R
A length-16 Type 1 linear-phase FIR transfer function is of the form

9
6
8
7
7
7
6
6
5
5
4
4
3
3
2
2
1
1 0
) (

+ + + + + + + + + = z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h z h h z H
Not for sale 517
.
15
0
14
1
13
2
12
3
11
4
10
5

+ + + + + + z h z h z h z h z h z h
Hence, , ) ( , ) (
3
2
2
6
1
5 1 1
3
3
2
7
1
4 0 0

+ + + = + + + = z h z h z h h z E z h z h z h h z E
. ) ( , ) (
3
0
2
4
1
7 3 3
3
1
2
5
1
6 2 2

+ + + = + + + = z h z h z h h z E z h z h z h h z E Thus,
, ) (

, ) (
3
2
2
3
1
3 2 1
3
0
2
1
1
1 0 0

+ = + + + = z g z g z g g z H z g z g z g g z H
, ) (

, ) (
3
6
2
7
1
7 6 3
3
4
2
5
1
5 4 2

+ + + = + = z g z g z g g z H z g z g z g g z H where
), (
4
1
), (
4
1
), (
4
1
3 2 1 0 2 7 6 5 4 1 3 2 1 0 0
h h h h g h h h h g h h h h g + = + + + = + + + =
), (
4
1
), (
4
1
), (
4
1
7 6 5 4 5 3 2 1 0 4 7 6 5 4 3
h h h h g h h h h g h h h h g + = + = + =
). (
4
1
), (
4
1
7 6 5 4 7 3 2 1 0 6
h h h h g h h h h g + = + = Note that and
are Type 1 linear-phase FIR transfer functions, whereas, and are Type 2
linear-phase FIR transfer functions. A computationally efficient realization of a factor-
of-4 decimator using a four-band structural subband decomposition of the decimation
filter is shown below:
) (

0
z H ) (

3
z H
) (

1
z H ) (

2
z H
) (z H

z
_
1
z
_
1
z
_
1
+
+
+
M
M
M
M
R
4
0
H (z)
^
1
H (z)
^
2
H (z)
^
H (z)
3
^

Because of the symmetry or anti-symmetry in the impulse responses of the subband
filters, each subband filter can be realized using only 2 multipliers. Hence, the final
realization uses only 8 multipliers. Note also that by delay-sharing, the total number of
delays in implementing the four subband filters can be reduced to 3.

13.31 ] 2 [ ) ( ] 1 [ ) ( ] [ ) ( ] 1 [ ) ( ] 2 [ ) ( ] [
2 1 0 1 2
+ + + + + + =

n x P n x P n x P n x P n x P n y
where ), 2 2 (
) 2 2 )( 1 2 )( 2 )( 1 2 (
) 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 (
) (
2 3 4
24
1
2

+ =
+
+
=

P
), 4 4 (
) 2 1 )( 1 1 )( 1 )( 2 1 (
) 2 )( 1 ( ) 2 (
) (
2 3 4
6
1
1

+ =
+
+
=

P
), 4 5 (
) 2 0 )( 1 0 )( 1 0 )( 2 0 (
) 2 )( 1 )( 1 )( 2 (
) (
2 4
4
1
0
+ =
+ +
+ +
=

P
Not for sale 518
), 4 4 (
) 2 1 )( 0 1 )( 1 1 )( 2 1 (
) 2 ( ) 1 )( 2 (
) (
2 3 4
6
1
1

+ =
+ +
+ +
= P
). 2 2 (
) 1 2 )( 0 2 )( 1 2 )( 2 2 (
) 1 ( ) 1 )( 2 (
) (
2 3 4
24
1
2

+ =
+ +
+ +
= P

We consider the computation of ] 3 [ ], 2 [ ], 1 [ ], [ + + + n y n y n y n y using 5 input samples:
through ] 2 [ n x ]. 2 [ + n x
For , 0 ) ( , 1 ) ( , 0 ) ( , 0 ) ( , 0
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0
= = = = =

P P P P and For . 0 ) (
0 2
= P
, 3428 . 0 ) ( , 127 . 0 ) ( , 022 . 0 ) ( , 4 / 5
1 0 1 1 1 2 1
= = = =

P P P
and
, 1426 . 1 ) (
1 1
= P
. 0952 . 0 ) (
1 2
= P
For , 9531 . 2 ) ( , 4062 . 1 ) ( , 2734 . 0 ) ( , 4 / 10
2 0 2 1 2 2 2
= = = =

P P P
and , 2812 . 3 ) (
2 1
= P . 4609 . 2 ) (
2 2
= P
For , 86 . 32 ) ( , 2949 . 17 ) ( , 5718 . 3 ) ( , 4 / 15
3 0 3 1 3 2 3
= = = =

P P P
and , 873 . 29 ) (
3 1
= P . 7358 . 11 ) (
3 2
= P

The block filter implementation is thus given by
Another
implementation is given by
.
] 2 [
] 1 [
] [
] 1 [
] 2 [
7358 . 11 873 . 29 86 . 32 2949 . 17 5718 . 3
4609 . 2 2812 . 3 9531 . 2 4062 . 1 2734 . 0
0952 . 0 1426 . 1 3428 . 0 127 . 0 022 . 0
0 0 1 0 0
] 3 [
] 2 [
] 1 [
] [

+
+

+
+
+
n x
n x
n x
n x
n x
n y
n y
n y
n y

+ + + + = ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [ ] [
24
1
6
1
4
1
6
1
24
1
4
n x n x n x n x n x n y

+ + + + + ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [
12
1
6
1
6
1
12
1
3
n x n x n x n x

+ + + + + ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [
24
1
6
4
4
5
6
4
24
1
2
n x n x n x n x n x
]. [ ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] 1 [ ] 2 [
12
1
6
4
6
4
12
1
n x n x n x n x n x +

+ + + +
The Farrow structure implementation of the interpolator is shown below:

y[n]
x[n]
H
3
(z)
H
1
(z) H
2
(z)

H
0
(z)

where , ) ( , ) (
2
24
1
6
1
1
6
1
2
12
1
1
2
24
1
6
1
4
1
1
6
1
2
24
1
0
z z z z z H z z z z z H + + = + + =

Not for sale 519
, ) (
2
24
1
6
4
4
5
1
6
4
2
24
1
2
z z z z z H + = +

and . ) (
2
12
1
6
4
1
6
4
2
12
1
3
z z z z z H + =

13.32 From Eq. (13.75), we have .
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
3
3
3
2
3
1
3
0
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
0
3 2 1 0
3
3
3
2
3
1
3
4
2
3
2
2
2
1
2
4
3 2 1 4
4 0
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t
t t t t
a a = Both the numerator and the
denominator are determinants of Vandermonde matrices and have a nonzero value if
From the solution of Problem 6.28, we get . , j i t t
j i

) )( )( )( )( )( (
) )( )( )( )( )( (
2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1
2 3 1 3 1 2 4 3 4 2 4 1
4 0
t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t t t t t
a a

= ,
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
0 3 0 2 0 1
4 3 4 2 4 1
4
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
a

= or
.
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
3 0 2 0 1 0
3 4 2 4 1 4
4 0
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
a a

=

13.33 From Eq. (13.74) we get
) )( )( )( )( )( (
) )( )( )( )( )( (
2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1
2 3 4 3 4 2 0 3 0 2 0 4
4 1
t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t t t t t
a a

=
.
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
1 3 1 2 0 1
4 3 4 2 0 4
4
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in
the above we arrive at
4
a
.
) )( )( )( (
4 1 3 1 2 1 0 1
1
1
t t t t t t t t
a

= Likewise, from Eq. (13.74)
we get
) )( )( )( )( )( (
) )( )( )( )( )( (
2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1
4 3 1 3 1 4 0 3 0 4 0 1
4 2
t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t t t t t
a a

=
.
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
2 3 1 2 0 2
4 3 1 4 0 4
4
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in the
above we arrive at
4
a
.
) )( )( )( (
4 2 3 2 1 2 0 2
0
1
t t t t t t t t
a

= Finally, from Eq. (13.74) we
get
) )( )( )( )( )( (
) )( )( )( )( )( (
2 3 1 3 1 2 0 3 0 2 0 1
2 4 1 4 1 2 0 4 0 2 0 1
4 3
t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t t t t t
a a

=
.
) )( )( (
) )( )( (
2 3 1 3 0 3
2 4 1 4 0 4
4
t t t t t t
t t t t t t
a

= Substituting the value of given by Eq. (13.77) in the
above we arrive at
4
a
.
) )( )( )( (
4 3 2 3 1 3 0 3
3
1
t t t t t t t t
a

=

13.34 . , 4 + = m i m i t
i

Not for sale 520
,
) )( )( )( ( 24
1
4 3 2 1
1
=

=
m m m m m m m m
a
m

,
) )( )( )( ( 6
1
4 1 3 1 2 1 1
1
1
=
+ + + +
=
+
m m m m m m m m
a
m

,
) )( )( )( ( 4
1
4 2 3 2 1 2 2
1
2
=
+ + + +
=
+
m m m m m m m m
a
m

,
) )( )( )( ( 6
1
4 3 2 3 1 3 3
1
3
=
+ + + +
=
+
m m m m m m m m
a
m

.
) )( )( )( ( 24
1
3 4 2 4 1 4 4
1
4
=
+ + + +
=
+
m m m m m m m m
a
m

From Eq. (13.69), we have the expressions for given by ) (
) (
t B
m
3

+
+ < + +
+ < + +
+ < +
+ <
<
=
. ,
, , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
, , ) ( ) ( ) (
, , ) ( ) (
, , ) (
, ,
) (
) (
4 0
4 3 3 2 1
3 2 2 1
2 1 1
1
0
3
6
1
3
4
1
3
6
1
3
24
1
3
4
1
3
6
1
3
24
1
3
6
1
3
24
1
3
24
1
3
m t
m t m m t m t m t m t
m t m m t m t m t
m t m m t m t
m t m m t
m t
t B
m

The normalized 3
rd
order B-spline is then given by ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
t B m m t
m m
3 3
4 + =

+
+ < + +
+ < + +
+ < +
+ <
<
= =
. ,
, , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
, , ) ( ) ( ) (
, , ) ( ) (
, , ) (
, ,
) (
) (
4 0
4 3 3 2 1
3 2 2 1
2 1 1
1
0
4
3
3
2
3 3
3
2
3
6
1
3 3
3
2
3
6
1
3
3
2
3
6
1
3
6
1
3
m t
m t m m t m t m t m t
m t m m t m t m t
m t m m t m t
m t m m t
m t
t B
m
Substituting and evaluating for + =1 t ) (
) (
t
m
3
, , , 2 1 0 1 = m we have
, ) (
) (
6
1
2 2 6
2 3
3
1
+

, ) (
) (
3
2
2
2
3
3
0
+ +

=
, ) (
) (
6
1
2 2 2
2 3
3
1
+

= . ) (
) (
6
3
3
2

=
Substituting back in Eq. (13.91), we have ] [ ) ( ] [
) (
k n x n y
k
k
+ =

=
2
1
3
Not for sale 521
] [ ] [ ] [ 1
6
1
2 2 2 3
2
2
1
6
1
2 2 6
2 3
2
3 2 3
+

+ +

= n x n x n x
] [ 2
6
3
+

+ n x

+ + +

+ + = ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ 1
2
1
1
2
1
6
1
3
2
1
6
1
n x n x n x n x n x
. ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [
3 2
2
6
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
6
1
1
2
1
1
2
1

+ + + + +

+ + + n x n x n x n x n x n x n x
In the z-domain, the input-output relation is thus given by
where , ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
0
2
1 2 3
+ + + = z H z H z H z H z Y
, ) (
2 1
0
6
1
2
1
2
1
6
1
z z z z H + + =

, ) ( z z z H
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
+ =

, ) ( z z z H
2
1
2
1
1
2
+ =

. ) ( z z z H
6
1
3
2
6
1
1
3
+ + =

The corresponding Farrow structure is shown on top of the
next page:
y[n]
x[n]
H
3
(z)
H
1
(z) H
2
(z)

H
0
(z)

13.35 For the factor-of-4/3 interpolator design, if we use cubic B-spline with uniformly
spaced knots at the problem reduces exactly to the design given in the solution of
Problem 13.34.

13.36 From Eq. (13.94) with 0 = k we have Substituting the
expression for on the left-hand side Eq. (13.97) we get INCOMPLETE
). ( ) (
1
1
L
L
i
i
i
z E z z H

=

+ =

13.37 For a half-band zero-phase lowpass filter, the transfer function is of the form
where , ] 2 [ ] 0 [ ) (
0
2 1

=

+ =
n
n
n
z n h z h z H .
2
1
] 0 [ = h If the half-band filter has a zero at
then or , 1 = z , 0 ] 2 [ ] 0 [ ) 1 (
0
= =

=
n
n
n h h H . ] 2 [ ] 0 [
0

=
=
n
n
n h h

13.38 From Eq. (13.99), a zero-phase half-band filter satisfies the condition
a constant.
) (z H
= + ) ( ) ( z H z H

Not for sale 522
(a) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by . 2 ) (
1
1

+ + = z z z H Hence,
. 4 2 2 ) ( ) (
1 1
1 1
= + + + = +

z z z z z H z H A plot of the scaled magnitude
response of is given below: ) (
1
z H
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
/
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
H
1
(z)

(b) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by . 9 16 9 ) (
3 1 3
2

+ + + = z z z z z H
Hence,
. 32 9 16 9 9 16 9 ) ( ) (
3 1 3 3 1 3
2 2
= + + + + + + = +

z z z z z z z z z H z H
A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given below: ) (
2
z H
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
/
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
H
2
(z)

(c) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by
. 3 19 326 19 3 ) (
3 1 3
3

+ + + = z z z z z H Hence,
. 64 3 19 32 19 3 3 19 32 19 3 ) ( ) (
3 1 3 3 1 3
3 3
= + + + + + + = +

z z z z z z z z z H z H
A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given below: ) (
3
z H
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
/
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
H
3
(z)

Not for sale 523
(d) The zero-phase equivalent here is given by
. 3 25 150 256 150 25 3 ) (
5 3 1 3 5
4

+ + + + = z z z z z z z H Hence, ) ( ) (
4 4
z H z H +
1 3 5 5 3 1 3 5
150 256 150 25 3 3 25 150 256 150 25 3

+ + + + + + = z z z z z z z z z z
. 512 3 25
5 3
= +

z z A plot of the scaled magnitude response of is given
below:
) (
4
z H
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
/
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
H
4
(z)

13.39 (a) A function of has p-th order zero at a frequency ) ( F
i
= if
.
) (
0 =

=
i
p
p
d
F d
The function has p zeros at ) (
j
e H 1 = cos , i.e., at = .
Hence, .
) (
0 =

p
j p
d
e H d
Moreover, the order of the highest power of
is As a result, 2 1 / ) cos ( . 1 p .
) (
0
0
1
1
=

p
j p
d
e H d

(b) Now,
2
2
1
2
1

+
=
+

j
j
e
e
cos
and .
cos
2
2
1
2
1

j
j
e
e
Substituting these expressions in Eq. (13.120) we arrive at
. ) ( ) (
l
l
l
l
l

+
=

2
1 1
2
1
1
0
j
p
j
p
j
jp j
e
e
p e
e e H Replacing with
in z the above we get the expression for the zero-phase transfer function as
j
e
. ) ( ) (
l
l
l
l
l
l

+
=

2
1 1
2
1
1
1
1
z
z
p z
z z H
p
p

13.40 (a)
Not for sale 524
+
2
2
2
2
2
2
_
1
z
_
1
z
1 z
_
_
1
_
1
1 + z
0
H (z)
1
H (z)
1
H (z)
0
H (z) +
z z
_
_
2
_
1
X(z)
Y(z)
V (z)
1
V (z)
0
V (z)
2
W (z)
0
W (z)
1
W (z)
2
U (z)
0
U (z)
1
U (z)
2
R (z)
0
R (z)
1
R (z)
2

Analysis of the above structure yields

), (
1
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
1
1
2
1
0
z X z
z
z V
z V
z V
z

+ =

V
), (
1
1 ) (
1
1
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1
2 / 1 2 / 1
2 / 1
2
1
0

+ =

= z X z
z
z X z
z
z W
z W
z W
z W
( ) ( ) ), (
) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 / 1
1
1 0
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
2 / 1
1
1 0
2 / 1
0
2 / 1
2
1
0
z X
z H
z H z H z
z H z
z X
z H
z H z H z
z H z
z U
z U
z U
z

+

+

+ + =

U
( ) ( ) ). (
) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) 1 (
) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2
1
2
1
2
0
1
0
1
2
1
2
1
2
0
1
2
0
1
2
1
0
z X
z H
z H z H z
z H z
z X
z H
z H z H z
z H z
z R
z R
z R
z

+

+

+ + =

R
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
1 2
1
1
0
1
z R z z z R z z R z z Y

+ + =
( ) [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
2
1
1 2 2
1
2
0
1 1 2
0
1 1
z X z H z z z H z H z z z H z z

+ + + + =
( ) [ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 ( ) ( ) 1 (
2
1
1 2 2
1
2
0
1 1 2
0
1 1
z X z H z z z H z H z z z H z z + + + +

[ ] ). ( ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 2 ] [
2
1
1 2
0
1 2
1
2 2
0
1
z X z H z z H z z X z H z z H z

+ = + = Hence,
]. [ ) ( ) ( 2 ) (
2
1
1 2
0
1
z H z z H z z T

+ =
(b) ). ( 2 ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
) (
2
1
2 ) (
1 1
z H z z H z H z H z H z z T

=

+ + =
(c) Length of and length of K z H = ) (
0
. ) (
1
K z H =
(d) The total computational complexity of the above structure is
2
3
T
F
K
multiplications per second, where is the sampling frequency in Hz. On the other hand,
a direct implementation of requires ) (z H
T
KF 2 multiplications per second.

13.41
Not for sale 525
+
2
2
2
2
_
1
z
_
1
z
R(z)
X (z)
1
X (z)
2
Y (z)
1
Y (z)
2

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2
1
1
z X z X z z R + =

) ( ) ( ) (
2 / 1 2 / 1
1
z R z R z Y + =
), ( 2 )] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [
2 2 1
2 / 1
2 1
2 / 1
z X z X z X z z X z X z = + + + =

) ( ) ( ) (
2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2
z R z z R z z Y =

). ( 2 )] ( ) ( [ )] ( ) ( [
1
1
2
2 / 1
1
1
2
2 / 1
1
1
z X z z X z z X z z X z z X z

= + + = Thus, the output
is a scaled replica of the input while the output is a scaled replica of
the delayed input
] [
1
n y ] [
2
n x ] [
2
n y
]. 1 [
1
n x

13.42

2 2 H(z
2
)
2 2
z
1
z
1
X (z)
1
X (z)
2
Y (z)
2
Y (z)
1
W(z) V(z)

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) (
2
2
1 2
1
z X z z X z W

+ =
), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
2 1 2
1
2
z X z H z z X z H z V

+ =
( ) ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
1
2 / 1 2 / 1
1
z X z H z V z V z Y = + =
( ) ). ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1 2 / 1
2
z X z H z z V z z V z z Y

= =
Therefore, ), (
) (
) (
1
1
z H
z X
z Y
= and ). (
) (
) (
1
2
2
z H z
z X
z Y

## = Hence, the system is time-invariant.

13.43

2 2
H(z
2
)
2
2
z
1
z
1
1
X (z)
2
X (z)
2
Y (z)
1
Y (z)

From the solution of Problem 13.42, ), (
) (
) (
1
1
z H
z X
z Y
= and ). (
) (
) (
1
2
2
z H z
z X
z Y

= Here now,
and hence, ), ( ) (
1 2
z Y z X = ). ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
2 1
1
1
2
1
2
z X z H z z Y z H z z X z H z z Y

= = =
Thus, ). (
) (
) (
2 1
1
2
z H z
z X
z Y

## = Hence, the system is time-invariant.

13.44
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3 3 H(z
3
)
3
3 3
3
2
3
z
1
z
1
z
1
z
1
z
(C 1) +
1
X (z)
2
X (z)
3
X (z)
W(z) V(z)
Y(z)
Y (z)
1
2
Y (z)
Y (z)
3

Analysis yields ), ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
2 3
1
1 3
1
z X z z Y z z X z W

+ + =
), ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
3
3 2 3
2
3 1 3
1
3 3
z X z H z z X z H z z X z H z W z H z V

+ + = =
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
) (
3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 1
1
j j
e z V e z V z V z Y

+ + =
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
4
1
4 2
1
2
1
j j j j
e z X e z H e z X e z H z X z H

+ + =
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
4
2
4 3 / 4 3 / 1 2
2
2 3 / 2 3 / 1
2
3 / 1 j j j j j j
e z X e z H e z e z X e z H e z z X z H z

+ + +
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
8
3
8 3 / 8 3 / 2 4
3
4 3 / 4 3 / 2
3
3 / 2 j j j j j j
e z X e z H e z e z X e z H e z z X z H z

+ + +
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
1 1 1
z X z H z X z H z X z H + + =
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
2
3 / 4 3 / 1
2
3 / 2 3 / 1
2
3 / 1
z X z H e z z X z H e z z X z H z
j j
+ + +
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
3
3 / 8 3 / 2
3
3 / 4 3 / 2
3
3 / 2
z X z H e z z X z H e z z X z H z
j j
+ + +
), ( ) (
1
z X z H =
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
) (
3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
2
j j j j
e z V e z e z V e z z V z z Y

+ + =
), ( ) (
3
1
z X z H z

=
[ ] ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
) (
3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 8 3 / 1 3 / 2 3 / 1 3 / 4 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1
3
j j j j
e z V e z e z V e z z V z z Y

+ + =
). ( ) (
2
2
z X z H z

=
Now, and ) ( ) (
3 3
z Y z X = ). ( ) (
1 2
z Y z X = Hence,
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
1
3
1
2
z Y z H z z X z H z z Y

= = ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
2 2
2
1 1
] [ z Y z H z z X z H z z H z

= =
Therefore, ). ( ) (
1
3 2
z X z H z

= ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) (
3
) 1 (
2
z Y z z Y z Y
C+
+ =
) ( ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( ) ( 2
1
3 2 2
1
2 1 ) 1 (
1
3 2
] [ z X z H z H z z X z H z z z X z H z
C
= + =
+
for
Thus, the transfer function of the system of Figure P13.12 is

. 0 = C
. ) ( 2 ) ( 3 ) ( ] [
3 2 2
z H z H z z G =

M13.1 (a) (i)
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-2
-1
0
1
2
Input Sequence
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A
m
p
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0 20 40 60 80 100
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
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(ii)

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M13.2 (a) (i)

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0 10 20 30 40 50
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(ii)
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0 2 4 6 8 10
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M13.3 (a)

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(b)

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M13.4 (a)

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(b)

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M13.5 (a)

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(b)

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M13.6 (a)
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-2
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0
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Input sequence
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M13.7 (a)
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Input sequence
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0 50 100 150
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M13.8 (a)

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Input sequence
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0 5 10 15 20 25
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M13.9 Using Program 13_9.m we arrive at the transfer function of the desired elliptic half-
band lowpass filter: [ ], ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1 2
0 0
z z z z H A A

+ = where
6 4 2
6 4 2
2
0
0192 . 0 3903 . 0 2456 . 1 1
2456 . 1 3903 . 0 0192 . 0
) (

+ + +
+ + +
=
z z z
z z z
z A and
.
1206 . 0 8884 . 0 7442 . 1 1
7442 . 1 8884 . 0 1206 . 0
) (
6 4 2
6 4 2
2
1

+ + +
+ + +
=
z z z
z z z
z A The power-complentary half-
band highpass transfer function is given by [ ]. ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
2
1
1 2
0 0
z z z z H A A

= A plot
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of the magnitude responses of the above half-band lowpass and highpass filters is
shown below:
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
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H
0
(z) H
1
(z)

M13.10 (a) A digital lowpass half-band filter can be designed by applying a bilinear
transformation to an analog lowpass Butterworth transfer function with a 3-dB cutoff
frequency at 1 rad/sec. The 3-dB cutoff frequency of the digital lowpass Butterworth
half-band filter is therefore at . 5 . 0 / ) 1 ( tan 2
1
= =

c

To design a 3
rd
-order digital lowpass Butterworth half-band filter we use the MATLAB
statement [num,den] = butter(3,0.5); which yields
.
3333 . 0 1
) 1 ( 1667 . 0
) (
2
3 1

+
+
=
z
z
z H As can be seen from the pole-zero plot of given below all
poles are on the imaginary axis:
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
3
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t

Using the MATLAB statement
[d1,d2] = tf2ca([1 3 3 1]/6, [1 0 1/3 0]);
we arrive at the parallel allpass decomposition of as ) (z H
)], ( ) ( [ ) (
2
1
1 2
0
2
1
z A z z A z H

+ = where
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
0
1
) (

+
+
=
z
z
z A and Hence,
the power-complementary highpass transfer function is given by
. 1 ) (
2
1
= z A
.
3333 . 0 1
) 3 3 1 ( 1667 . 0
)] ( ) ( [ ) (
2
3 2 1
2
1
1 2
0
2
1

+
+
= =
z
z z z
z A z z A z G
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H(z) G(z)

(b) To design a 5th-order digital lowpass Butterworth half-band filter we use the
MATLAB statement [num,den] = butter(5,0.5); which yields
.
0557 . 0 6334 . 0 1
) 1 ( 0528 . 0
) (
4 2
5 1

+ +
+
=
z z
z
z H As can be seen from the pole-zero plot of given
below all poles are on the imaginary axis:
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Real Part
I
m
a
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a
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y

P
a
r
t

Using the MATLAB statement
[d1,d2] =
tf2ca(0.0528*[1 5 10 10 5 1], [1 0 0.6334 0 0.0557]);
we arrive at the parallel allpass decomposition of as ) (z H
)], ( ) ( [ ) (
2
1
1 2
0
2
1
z A z z A z H

+ = where
2
2
2
0
1056 . 0 1
1056 . 0
) (

+
+
=
z
z
z A and
.
5279 . 0 1
5279 . 0
) (
2
2
2
1

+
+
=
z
z
z A Hence, the power-complementary highpass transfer function
is given by .
0557 . 0 6334 . 0 1
) 1 ( 0528 . 0
)] ( ) ( [ ) (
4 2
5 1
2
1
1 2
0
2
1

+ +

= =
z z
z
z A z z A z G

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H
(
z) G
(
z)

M13.11

M13.12
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
/
G
a
i
n
,

d
B
L-th band Nyquist Filter, L = 5

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