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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

Bill of Rights I. THE DUE PROCESS, EQUAL PROTECTION AND CONTRACT CLAUSES AS LIMITATIONS ON POLICE POWER, EMINENT DOMAIN AND TAXATION Art. III, S !. ". No # rso$ sh%ll & ' #ri( ' of lif , li& rt), or #ro# rt) *itho+t '+ #ro! ss of l%*, $or sh%ll %$) # rso$ & ' $i ' th ,+%l #rot !tio$ of th l%*s. Art. III, S !. "-. No l%* i.#%iri$g th o&lig%tio$ of !o$tr%!ts sh%ll & #%ss '. LIMITATIONS OF SOVEREIGNTY Inherent in sovereignty, and therefore not even required to be conferred by the Constitution, are the police, eminent domain, and taxation powers. The Bill of Rights, notably the due process, equal protection and non impairment clauses, is a means of limiting the exercise of these powers by imposing on the !tate the obligation to protect individual rights. The Bill of Rights is addressed to the !tate, notably the government, telling it what it cannot do to the individual. A. Due process - Procedural and Subs an !"e Ci(il Pro! '+r%l D+ Pro! ss In c!"!l cases# $e S% la!d do&n ! s ele'en s !n $e case o( )anco Espanol F!l!p!no ". Palanca* a. %our &! $ +ur!sd!c !on o"er $e sub+ec 'a er. b. %our &! $ +ur!sd!c !on o"er $e par ,-de(endan c. -ud.e'en rendered accord!n. o la&. d. De(endan .!"en $e oppo un! , o be $eard /re0u!re'en on no !ce and $ear!n.1

A'.i$istr%ti( D+ Pro! ss In ad'!n!s ra !"e proceed!n.s# $e ele'en s &ere la!d do&n !n $e case o( A$g Ti&%) (. CIR as $e 2se"en card!nal pr!'ar, r!.$ s2 !n +us !c!able cases be(ore ad'!n!s ra !"e r!bunals* a. T$ere 'us be a $ear!n.# &$ere a par , 'a, presen e"!dence !n suppor o( $!s case. b. T$e r!bunal 'us cons!der $e e"!dence presen ed b, a par ,. c. 3$!le $e r!bunal $as no du , o dec!de $e case correc l,# ! s dec!s!on 'us be suppor ed b, e"!dence. d. T$e e"!dence suppor !n. $e dec!s!on 'us be subs an !al. Subs an !al e"!dence !s suc$ rele"an e"!dence as a reasonable '!nd '!.$ accep as ade0ua e o suppor a conclus!on. e. T$e e"!dence 'us $a"e been presen ed a $e $ear!n. or a leas con a!ned !n $e record and 4no&n o $e par !es a((ec ed. (. T$e r!bunal 'us rel, on ! s o&n !ndependen cons!dera !on o( e"!dence# and no rel, on $e reco''enda !on o( a subord!na e. .. T$e dec!s!on 'us s a e $e (ac s and $e la& !n suc$ a &a, $a $e par !es can 4no& $e !ssues !n"ol"ed and $e reasons (or $e dec!s!on. S+&st%$ti( D+ Pro! ss /$ot (s. IAC, "01 SCRA 234 5"4167 F* Pe ! !oners5 6 carabaos &ere con(!sca ed b, $e pol!ce (or $a"!n. been ranspor ed (ro' Masba e o Ilo!lo !n "!ola !on o( EO 676-A. 8e brou.$ an ac !on (or reple"!n# c$allen.!n. $e cons! u !onal! , o( $e EO. T$e r!al cour sus a!ned $e con(!sca !on o( $e an!'als and decl!ned o rule on $e "al!d! , o( $e la& on $e .round $a ! lac4ed au $or! , o do so. I s dec!s!on &as a((!r'ed b, $e IA%. 8ence $!s pe ! !on (or re"!e&. 8ELD* /91 :nder $e pro"!s!on .ran !n. $e S% +ur!sd!c !on o 2re"!e&# re"!se# re"erse# 'od!(, or a((!r' on appeal or certiorari# as $e la& or rules o( cour 'a, pro"!de (!nal +ud.'en s o( lo&er cour s2 !n all cases !n"ol"!n. $e cons ! u !onal! , o( cer a!n 'easures# lo&er cour s can pass upon $e "al!d! , o( a s a u e !n $e (!rs !ns ance. /71 T$ere !s no doub $a b, bann!n. $e slau.$ er o( $ese an!'als /e;cep &$ere $ere a leas < ,rs. old !( 'ale and 99 ,rs old !( (e'ale upon $e !ssuance o( $e necessar, per'! 1 $e EO &!ll be conser"!n. $ose s !ll (! (or (ar' &or4 or breed!n. and pre"en !n. $e!r !'pro"!den deple !on. 3e do no see# $o&e"er# $o& $e pro$!b! !on o( $e !n erpro"!nc!al ranspor o( carabaos can pre"en $e!r !nd!scr!'!na e slau.$ er# cons!der!n. $a $e, can be 4!lled an, &$ere# &= no less d!((!cul , !n on pro"!nce $an !n ano $er. Ob"!ousl,# re a!n!n. $e carabao !n one pro"!nce &!ll no pre"en $e!r slau.$ er $ere# an, 'ore $an 'o"!n. $e' o ano $er pro"!nce &!ll 'a4e ! eas!er o 4!ll $e' $ere. As (or $e carabee(# $e pro$!b! !on !s 'ade o appl, o ! as o $er&!se# so sa,s $e EO# ! could be eas!l, c!rcu'sbcr!bed b, s!'pl, 4!ll!n. $e an!'al. Per$aps so. 8o&e"er# !( $e 'o"e'en o( $e l!"e an!'als (or $e purpose o( pre"en !n. $e!r slau.$ er canno be pro$!b! ed# ! s$ould (ollo& $a $ere !s no reason e! $er o pro$!b! $e!r rans(er as# no o be (l!ppan # dead 'ea . />1 In $e !ns an case# $e carabaos &ere arb! rar!l, con(!sca ed b, $e pol!ce s a !on co''ander# &ere re urned o $e pe ! !oner onl, a( er $e $ad (!led a co'pla!n (or reco"er,

Cri.i$%l D+ Pro! ss In cr!'!nal cases# $e ele'en s &ere la!d do&n !n Vera ". People* a. Accused !s !n(or'ed &$, $e !s proceeded a.a!ns # and &$a c$ar.e $e 'us ans&er. b. -ud.'en o( con"!c !on !s based on e"!dence $a !s no a!n ed b, (als! ,# and a( er $e de(endan &as $eard. If the prosecution produces the conviction based on untrue evidence, then it is guilty of depriving the accused of due process. Thus false testimony can be questioned by the accused regardless of the time that lapsed. c. -ud.'en accord!n. o la& d. Tr!bunal &! $ +ur!sd!c !on

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
and .!"en a supersedeas bond &=c &as ordered con(!sca ed upon $!s (a!lure o produce $e carabaos &$en ordered b, $e r!al cour . The "# defined the prohibition, convicted the petitioner and immediately imposed punishment, w$c was carried out forthright. The measures struc% him at once and pounced upon the petitioner w$o giving him a chance to be heard, thus denying him elementary fair play. /?1 I !s $ere au $or!@ed $a $e se!@ed prop. s$all 2be d!s r!bu ed o c$ar! able !ns ! u !ons and o $er s!'!lar !ns ! u !ons as $e %$a!r'an o( $e Na !onal Mea Inspec !on %o''!ss!on may see fit# !n $e case o( carabee(# and o deser"!n. (ar'ers $rou.$ d!spersal as $e D!rec or o( An!'al Indus r, may see fit !n $e case o( carabaos.2 T$e p$rase may see fit !s an e; re'el, .enerous and dan.erous cond! !on# !( cond! !on ! !s. I !s laden &= per!lous oppor un! !es (or par !al! , and abuse# and e"en corrup !on. One searc$es !n "a!n (or $e usual s andard and $e reasonable .u!del!nes# or be er s !ll# $e l!'! a !ons $a $e sa!d o((!cers 'us obser"e &$en $e, 'a4e $e!r d!s r!bu !on. 88. B. D+ Pro! ss %$' Poli! Po* r B%+tist% (. 9+i$io# 97< S%RA >7A /9AB?1 Ban on &se of 'eavy Cars on (ee% ends and 'oliday s )alid. F* LOI 6BA banned $e use o( "e$!cles &= A and E8 pla es on &ee4-ends and $ol!da,s !n "!e& o( $e ener., cr!s!s. I e;cep ed# $o&e"er# $ose class!(!ed as S /Ser"!ce1# T /Truc41# DPL /D!plo'a !c1# %% /%onsular %orps1# and T% /Tour!s %ars1. T$e resps.# M!n. o( Publ!c 3or4s# Transpor a !on# !ssued 'e'o. pro"!d!n. penal !es (or "!ol. o( $e LOI# na'el,# (!ne# con(!sca !on o( "e$!cles# and cancella !on o( re.!s ra !on. T$e pe ! !oners brou.$ su! 0ues !on!n. $e "al!d! , o( $e LOI on $e .round $a ! &as d!scr!'!na or, and a den!al o( due process. T$e resps. den!ed $e pe ! !oner5s alle.a !ons and ar.ued $a $e su! a'oun ed o a re0ues (or ad"!sor, op!n!on. 8ELD* /91 Pe ! !oners are o&ners o( an B c,l!nder 9A6A )u!c4 and o( a 6 c,l!nder 3!ll,5s Ca!ser -eep. T$e en(orce'en o( $e LOI o $e' &ould depr!"e $e' o( prop. T$e,# $ere(ore# $a"e s and!n. o c$allen.e $e "al!d! , o( $e LOI. /71 )u $e LOI canno be declared "o!d on ! s (ace. I $as be$!nd ! $e presu'p !on o( "al!d! ,. T$e necess! , (or e"!dence o rebu suc$ presu'p !on !s una"o!dable. As underl,!n. $e 0ues !ons o( (ac 'a, cond! !on $e cons ! u !onal! , o( le.!sla !on $e presu'p !on o( "al!d! , 'us pre"a!l !n $e absence o( so'e (ac ual (ounda !on o( record o"er $ro&!n. $e s a u e. T$e LOI !s an ener., conser"a !on 'easureD ! !s an apporpr!a e response o a proble'. />1 Nor does $e LOI den, e0ual pro ec !on o $e pe ! !oners. 3=!n $e class o &=c $e pe ! !oner belon.s $e LOI opera e e0uall, and un!(or'l,. T$a $e LOI does no !nclude o $ers does no render ! !n"al!d. T$e .o" !s no re0u!red o ad$ere o a pol!c, o( 2all or none.2 /?1 To $e e; en $a $e Land Transpo. %ode does no au $or!@e $e !'pound!n. o( "e$!cles as a penal ,# o $a e; en $e 'e'o. o( $e resps. &ould be ultra vires. 88.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


F* T$e ord!nance &as enac ed (or a &o-(old purpose* /91 To enable $e %! , o( Mla. o collec a (ee (or opera !n. 'assa.e cl!n!cs separa el, (ro' $ose opera !n. barber s$!ps and /71 To pre"en !''oral! , &=c '!.$ probabl, ar!se (ro' $e cons ruc !on o( separa e roo's. 8ELD* T$e S% $as been 'os l!beral !n sus a!n!n. ord!nances based on .eneral &el(are clause. 88. Cr+: (. P%r%s, 97> S%RA F6A /9AB>1 F* T$e pe ! !oners are opera ors or n!.$ clubs !n )ocaue# )ulacan. $e, (!led pro$!b! !on su! s o s op $e Mun. o( )ocaue (ro' en(orc!n. an ord!nance pro$!b! !n. $e opera !on o( n!.$ clubs# cabare s# and dance $ alls !n $a 'un. or $e rene&al o( l!censes o opera e $e'. T$e %FI up$eld $e "al!d! , o( $e ord!nance and d!s'!ssed $e pe ! !on. 8ence# $!s pe ! !on (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* A 'un. corp. canno pro$!b! $e opera !on o( n!.$ clubs. N!.$ clubs 'a, be re.ula ed bu no pre"en ed (ro' carr,!n. on $e!r bus!ness. RA A>B# as or.!nall, enac ed# .ran ed 'un!c!pal! !es $e po&er o re.ula e $e es abl!s$'en # 'a!n enance and opera !on o( n!.$ clubs and $e l!4e. 3$!le ! !s rue $a on F=79=F?# $e la& &as a'ended b, RA A<A &=c purpor ed o .!"e 'un!c!pal! !es $e po&er no onl, o re.ula e bu l!4e&!se o pro$!b! $e opera !on o( n!.$ clubs# $e (ac !s $a $e ! le o( $e la& re'a!ned $e sa'e so $a $e po&er .ran ed o 'un!c!pal! !es re'a!ns $a o( re.ula !on# no pro$!b! !on. To cons rue $e a'enda or, ac as .ran !n. 'un. corpora !ons $e po&er o pro$!b! $e opera !on o( n!.$ clubs &ould be o cons rue ! !n a &a, $a ! "!ola es $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on $a 2e"er, b!ll s$all e'brace onl, one sub+ec &$!c$ s$all be e;pressed !n $e ! le $ereo(.2 Moreo"er# $e recen ,l,-enac ed LG% /)P >><1 spea4s s!'pl, o( $e po&er o re.ula e $e es abl!s$'en # and opera !on o( b!ll!ard pools# $ea r!cal per(or'ances# c!rcuses and o $er (or's o( en er a!n'en . Certiorari .ran ed. 88. C. D+ Pro! ss %$' E.i$ $t Do.%i$ T$e a4!n. b, $e S a e o( pr!"a e proper , !n an e;propr!a !on proceed!n. 'us be* /91 (or publ!c use# /71 &! $ +us co'pensa !on# and />1 upon obser"ance o( due process. Arti!l III, S !. 4. Pri(%t #ro# rt) sh%ll $ot & t%; for #+&li! +s *itho+t <+st !o.# $s%tio$. Arti!l XII, S !. "1. Th St%t .%), i$ th i$t r st of $%tio$%l * lf%r or ' f $s , st%&lish %$' o# r%t (it%l i$'+stri s %$', +#o$ #%). $t of <+st !o.# $s%tio$, tr%$sf r to #+&li! o*$ rshi# +tiliti s %$' oth r #ri(%t $t r#ris s to & o# r%t ' &) th go( r$. $t. 9. Ta4!n. e! $er (or publ!c use or publ!c purpose. P+&li! Us Publ!c use !s e0u!"alen o publ!c purpose. I !s no con(!ned 'erel, o use b, $e publ!c a lar.e /e... roads1. I !s enou.$ $a ! ser"es a publ!c purpose# e"en !( ! bene(! a lar.e .roup o( people s$or o( $e publ!c !n .eneral /e... e;propr!a !n. proper , (or $e reloca !on o( s0ua ers1. H irs of 9+%$!ho Ar'o$% (. R ) s 97> S%RA 77E

8 l%s!o (. 8ill g%s# 97E S%RA /9AB>1 #rdinance *rohibiting Barbershops from Rendering +assage !ervices )alid.

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F* T$e P$!l!pp!ne Tour!s' Au $or! , sou.$ $e e;propr!a !on o( 7B7 8a o( land !n )aran.a, Malubo. and )aba. !n %ebu %! ,. upon depos! o( an a'oun e0u!"alen o 9EG o( $e "alue o( $e proper ,# $e %FI au $or!@ed $e PTA o a4e !''ed!a e possess!on o( $e proper ,. T$e c$ar er o( $e PTA au $or!@es ! o ac0u!re $rou.$ conde'na !on proceed!n.s lands (or our!s @one de"elop'en o( a spor s co'ple;. T$e pe ! !oners &$o are occupan s o( $e lands# (!led a pe ! !on (or cer !orar! !n $e S%. T$e, con ended $a /91 $e a4!n. &as no (or publ!c useD /71 $e land &as co"ered b, $e land re(or' pro.ra'D and />1 e;propr!a !on &ould !'pa!r $e obl!.a !on o( con rac s. 8ELD* T$e concep o( publ!c use !s no l!'! ed o rad! !onal purposes (or $e cons ruc !on o( roads# br!d.es# and $e l!4e. T$e !dea $a 2publ!c use2 'eans 2use b, $e publ!c2 $as been d!scarded. As lon. as $e purpose o( $e a4!n. !s publ!c# $en $e po&er o( e'!nen do'a!n co'es !n o pla,. I !s accura e o s a e $en $a a presen &$a e"er 'a, be bene(!c!all, e'plo,ed (or $e .eneral &el(are sa !s(!es $e re0u!re'en o( publ!c use. T$e pe ! ! !oners $a"e no s$o&n $a $e area be!n. de"eloped !s land re(or' area and $a $e a((ec ed persons $a"e been .!"en e'anc!pa !on pa en s and cer !(!ca es o( land rans(er. T$e con rac clause $as ne"er been re.arded as a barr!er o $e e;erc!se o( $e pol!ce po&er and l!4e&!se e'!nen do'a!n. 88. S+.+lo$g (. =+ rr ro 9F? S%RA ?69 /9AB<1 F* On Dece'ber F# 9A<<# $e Na !onal 8ous!n. Au $or! , (!led a co'pla!n (or $e e;propr!a !on o( 7F $ec ares o( land !n An !polo# R!@al pursuan o PD 977? au $or!@!n. $e e;propr!a !on o( pr!"a e lands (or soc!al!@ed $ous!n.. A'on. $ose lands sou.$ o be e;propr!a ed are $e pe ! !oners5 lands. T$e, brou.$ $!s su! !n $e S% c$allen.!n. $e cons ! u !onal! , o( PD 977?. 8ELD* Pe ! !oners con end $a soc!al!@ed $ous!n. (or $e purpose o( conde'na !on proceed!n.s !s no publ!c use s!nce ! &!ll bene(! onl, a $and(ul o( people. T$e 2publ!c use2 re0u!re'en !s an e"ol"!n. concep !n(luences b, c$an.!n. cond! !ons. :rban rene&al or rede"elop'en and $e cons ruc !on o( lo&-cos $ous!n. !s reco.n!@ed as a publ!c purpose# no onl, because o( $e e;panded concep o( publ!c use bu also because o( spec!(!c pro"!s!ons !n $e %ons ! u !on. S$or a.e !n $ous!n. !s a 'a er o( s a e concern s!nce ! d!rec l, and s!.n!(!can l, a((ec s publ!c $eal $# sa(e ,# $e en"!ron'en and# !n su'# $e .eneral &el(are. Pe ! !oners cla!' $a $ere are "as areas o( lands !n R!@al $undreds o( $ec ares o( &$!c$ are o&ned b, a (e& lando&ners onl,. 3$, s$ould $e N8A p!c4 $e!r s'all lo sH E;propr!a !on !s no con(!ned o landed es a es. T$e es o be appl!ed (or a "al!d e;propr!a !on o( pr!"a e lands &as $e area o( $e land and no $e nu'ber o( people &$o s ood o be bene(! ed. T$e S a e ac !n. $rou.$ $e N8A !s "es ed &! $ broad d!scre !on o des!.na e $e proper ,. T$e proper , o&ner 'a, no !n erpose ob+ec !ons 'erel, because !n $e!r +ud.'en so'e o $er proper , &ould $a"e been 'ore su! able. T$e pro"!s!ons on +us co'pensa !on (ound !n PD 977?# 97FA# and 9>9> are $e sa'e pro"!s!ons &$!c$ &ere declared uncons ! u !onal !n EPIA ". Dula, /9AB<1 (or be!n. encroac$'en s on +ud!c!al prero.a !"es. 88. >. 9+st !o.# $s%tio$ .+st & ' t r.i$ ' 9+st Co.# $s%tio$ -us co'pensa !on !s $e (a!r and reasonable e0u!"alen o( $e loss sus a!ned b, $e o&ner o( $e proper , due o $e <+'i!i%ll)

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


a4!n.D ! !s $e (a!r 'ar4e "alue o( $e proper , 'easured a $e !'e o( $e a4!n.# no 'a er $o& lon. a.o ! &as a4en /e... $e !'e o( $e a4!n. &as !n $e 9A7E5s# $e !'e o( pa,'en &as !n $e 9A6E5s# !n $e M!n!s er!o and A'!.able cases# supra1# and us!n. $e con"ers!on ra es a $e !'e o( a4!n. /because accord!n. o $ose cases# Ar . 97FE o( $e %!"!l %ode appl!ed onl, o con rac ual obl!.a !ons1. EP?A (. D+l%) "04 SCRA @-3 5"4167 F* T$e San An on!o De"elop'en %orpora !on &as $e o&ner o( a p!ece o( land !n Lapu-Lapu %! , &$!c$ $e EPIA e;propr!a ed !n 9A<A. T$e co''!ss!oners appo!n ed b, $e r!al cour reco''ended $a $e San An on!o De"elop'en %orp. be pa!d P9F.EE per s0uare 'e er. EPIA (!led a pe ! !on (or cer !orar!# ar.u!n. $a under PD 9F>> $e co'pensa !on s$ould be $e (a!r and curren 'ar4e "alue declared b, $e o&ner or $e 'ar4e "alue de er'!ned b, $e assessor# &$!c$e"er !s lo&er. 8ELD* T$e 'e $od o( ascer a!n!n. +us co'pensa !on under PD 9F>> cons ! u es !'per'!ss!ble encroac$'en on +ud!c!al prero.a !"es. Al $ou.$ $e cour ec$n!call, &ould s !ll $a"e $e po&er o de er'!ne $e +us co'pensa !on (or $e proper ,# (ollo&!n. $e decree# ! s as4 &ould be rele.a ed o s!'pl, s a !n. $e lo&er "alue o( $e proper , as declared e! $er b, $e o&ner or $e assessor. -us co'pensa !on 'eans $e "alue o( $e proper , a $e !'e o( $e a4!n.. I 'eans a (a!r and (ull e0u!"alen (or $e loss sus a!ned. All $e (ac s as o $e cond! !on o( $e proper , and ! s surround!n.s# ! s !'pro"e'en s and capab!l! !es s$ould be cons!dered. In $!s case# $e a; declara !ons used as bas!s (or $e +us co'pensa !on &ere 'ade lon. be(ore $e declara !on o( 'ar !al la& &$en $e land &as 'uc$ c$eaper. To pe. $e "alue o( $e lo s on $e bas!s o( $ose docu'en s &$!c$ are ou da ed &ould be arb! rar, and con(!sca or,. 88. M%$oto; (. NHA "3- SCRA 14 5"4167 F* Pe ! !oners are $e o&ners o( &o lar.e es a es 4no&n as $e Ta'bun !n. Es a e and Suno.-Apo. !n Tondo# Man!la# bo $ o( &$!c$ &ere declared e;propr!a ed !n &o decrees !ssued b, Pres!den Marcos# PD 966A and PD 96<E. T$e pe ! !oners con end $a $e decrees "!ola e $e!r cons ! u !onal r!.$ o due process and e0ual pro ec !on s!nce b, $e!r 'ere passa.e $e!r proper !es &ere au o'a !call, e;propr!a ed and $e, &ere !''ed!a el, depr!"ed o( $e o&ners$!p and possess!on $ereo( &! $ou be!n. .!"en $e c$ance o oppose suc$ e;propr!a !on. T$e .o"ern'en on $e o $er $and con ends $a $e po&er o( e'!nen do'a!n !s !n$eren !n $e S a e and &$en $e le.!sla ure or $e Pres!den $rou.$ $!s la&-'a4!n. po&ers e;erc!ses $!s po&er# $e publ!c use and publ!c necess! , o( $e e;propr!a !on and $e (!;!n. o( $e +us co'pensa !on beco'e pol! !cal !n na ure and $e cour s 'us respec $e dec!s!on. 8ELD* T$e c$allen.ed decrees are un(a!r !n $e procedures adop ed and $e po&ers .!"en o $e N8A. T$e Ta'bun !n. subd!"!s!on !s su''ar!l, procla!'ed a bl!.$ ed area and d!rec l, e;propr!a ed b, decree &! $ou $e sl!.$ es se'blance o( a $ear!n. or an, proceed!n. &$a soe"er. T$e e;propr!a !on !s !ns an and au o'a !c o a4e e((ec !''ed!a el, upon $e s!.n!n. o( $e decree. No depos! be(ore $e a4!n. !s re0u!red. T$ere !s no pro"!s!on (or an, !n eres o be pa!d upon unpa!d !ns all'en s. No onl, are $e o&ners .!"en absolu el, no oppor un! , o con es $e e;propr!a !on# or 0ues !on $e a'oun o( pa,'en s (!;ed b, $e decree# bu $e dec!s!on o( $e N8A are e;pressl, declared be,ond

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
+ud!c!al re"!e&. uncons ! u !onal. PD 966A and 96<E are declared

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


pr!"a e proper !es (or publ!c use upon pa,'en o( +us co'pensa !on !s so pro"!ded !n $e %ons ! u !on and $e la&s. Suc$ e;propr!a !on proceed!n. 'a, be under a4en b, $e pe ! !oner no onl, b, "olun ar, ne.o !a !on &! $ $e land o&ners bu also b, a4!n. appropr!a e cour ac !on or b, le.!sla !on. 3$en )P >?E &as passed# ! appears $a ! &as based on super"en!n. e"en s $a occured a( er $e 9ABE dec!s!on o( $e S% on $e De Cnec$ case &as rendered. T$e soc!al !'pac (ac or &$!c$ persuaded $e %our o cons!der $!s e; ens!on o be arb! rar, $ad d!sappeared. Moreo"er# $e sa!d dec!s!on !s no obs acle o $e le.!sla !"e ar' o( $e Go"ern'en !n $erea( er 'a4!n. ! s o&n !ndependen assess'en o( $e c!rcu's ances $en pra"a!l!n. as o $e propr!e , o( under a4!n. $e e;propr!a !on o( proper !es !n 0ues !on and $erea( er b, enac !n. $e correspond!n. le.!sla !on as ! d!d !n $!s case. T$e %our a.rees !n $e &!sdo' and necess! , o( enac !n. )P >?E. T$us $e an er!or dec!s!on o( $e %our 'us ,!eld o $e subse0uen le.!sla !"e (!a . Ch%ro.

Tee$an4ee# %-# concurr!n.* T$e +ud.'en a bar no& learl, o"er urns $e 'a+or! , rul!n. !n -M Tuason ". LTA $a $e po&er o( %on.ress o des!.na e $e par !cular proper , o be a4en adn $o& 'uc$ 'a, be conde'ned $ereo( 'us be dul, reco.n!@ed# lea"!n. onl, as a +ud!c!al 0ues !on &$e $er !n $e e;erc!se o( suc$ co'pe ence# $e par , ad"ersel, a((ec ed !s $e "!c !' o( par !al! , and pre+ud!ce. T$e S% no& rules $a suc$ s!n.l!n. ou o( proper !es does no (oreclose +ud!c!al scru !n, as o &$e $er suc$ e;propr!a !on b, le.!sla !"e ac rans.resses $e due process and e0ual pro ec !on and +us co'pensa !on .uaran ees o( $e %ons ! u !on. 88.

@. D+ #ro! ss .+st & o&s r( ' D A$ !ht (. B%+tist% "-- SCRA 22- 5"41-7 F* T$e plan o e; end EDSA o Ro;as )oule"ard o be ul !'a el, l!n4ed o $e %a"! e %oas al Road Pro+ec # or!.!nall, called (or $e e;propr!a !on o( proper !es alon. %une a A"enue !n Pasa, %! ,. La er on# $o&e"er# $e M!n!s r, o( Publ!c 8!.$&a,s dec!ded o 'a4e $e proposed e; ens!on pass $rou.$ Fernando Re!n and Del Pan S ree s. )ecause o( $e pro es s o( res!den s o( $e la er# $e %o''!ss!on on 8u'an Se le'en s reco''ended $e re"ers!on o $e or!.!nal plan# bu $e M!n!s r, ar.ued $e ne& rou e &! $$ sa"e $e .o"ern'en P7 '!ll!on. T$e .o"ern'en (!led e;propr!a !on proceed!n.s a.a!ns $e o&ners o( Fernando Re!n and Del Pan s ree s# a'on. &$o' &as pe ! !oner. 8ELD* T$e c$o!ce o( Fernando Re!n and Del Pan s ree s !s arb! ra,r and s$ould no rece!"e +ud!c!al aprpo"al. T$e 8u'an Se le'en s %o''!ss!on concluded $a $e cos (ac or !s so '!n!'al $a ! can be d!sre.arded !n 'a4!n. a c$o!ce be &een $e &o l!nes. T$e (ac or o( (unc !onal! , s ron.l, '!l! a es a.a!ns $e c$o!ce o( Fernando Re!n and Del Pan s ree s# &$!le $e (ac or o( soc!al and econo'!c !'pac bears .r!e"ousl, on $e res!den s o( %une a A"enue. 3$!le $e !ssue &ould see' o bo!l do&n o a c$o!ce be &een people# on one $and# and pro.ress and de"elop'en # on $e o $er# ! !s o be re'e'bered $a pro.ress and de"elop'en are carr!ed ou (or $e bene(! o( $e people. 88.

NAPOCOR (. =+ti rr :, "4@ SCRA " 5"44"7 F* For $e cons ruc !on o( ! s 7>E CV Me;!co-L!'a, rans'!ss!on l!nes# Napocor5s l!nes $a"e o pass $e lands belon.!n. o responden s. :nsuccess(ul &! $ ! s ne.o !a !ons (or $e ac0u!s! !on o( $e r!.$ o( &a, ease'en s# Napocor &as cons ra!ned o (!le e'!nen do'a!n proceed!n.s. ISS:E* 3=N pe ! oner s$ould be 'ade o pa, s!'ple ease'en (ee or (ull co'pensa !on (or $e land ra"ersed b, ! s rans'!ss!n l!nes. R:LING* In RP ". PLDT# $e S% ruled $a 2Nor'all,# $e po&er o( e'!nen do'a!n resul s !n $e a4!n. or appropr!a !on o( $e ! le o# and possess!on o(# $e e;propr!a ed proper ,# bu no co.en reason appears &$, sa!d po&er 'a, no be a"a!led o( o !'pose onl, a burrden upon $e o&ner o( $e conde'ned proper ,# &! $ou loss o( ! le or possess!on. I !s un0ues !onable $a real proper , 'a,# $rou.$ e;propr!a !on# be sub+ec ed o an ease'en o( r!.$ o( &a,.2 In $!s case# $e ease'en !s de(!n! el, a a4!n. under $e po&er o( e'!nen do'a!n. %ons!der!n. $e na ure and e((ec o( $e !ns alla !on o( $e rans'!ss!on l!nes# $e l!'! a !ons !'posed b, $e NP% a.a!ns $e use o( $e land / $a no plan $!.$er $an > 'e ers !s allo&ed belo& $e l!nes1 (or an !nde(!n! e per!od depr!"es pr!"a e responden s o( s ord!nar, use. For $ese reasons# $e o&ner o( $e proper , e;propr!a ed !s en ! led o a +us co'pensa !on &$!c$ s$ould ne! $er be 'ore nor less# &$ene"er ! !s poss!ble o 'a4e $e assess'en # $an $e 'one, e0u!"alen o( sa!d proper ,. -us e0u!!"alen $as al&a,s been unders ood o be $e +us and co'ple e e0u!"alen o( $e loss &$!c$ $e o&ner o( $e $!n. e;propr!a ed $as o su((er b, reason o( $e e;propr!a !on. T$e pr!ce or "alue o( $e land and ! s c$arac er a $e !'e o( a4!n. b, $e Go" . are $e cr! er!a (or de er'!n!n. +us c'pensa !on. Ch%ro. D. E,+%l Prot !tio$ Art. III, S !. ". No # rso$ sh%ll & ' #ri( ' of lif , li& rt) or #ro# rt) *itho+t '+ #ro! ss of l%*, nor shall any person be denied the e !al prote"tion o# the la$s. Art. XIII, S !. ". Th Co$gr ss sh%ll gi( high st #riorit) to th $%!t. $t of . %s+r th%t #rot !t %$' $h%$! th right of %ll th # o#l to h+.%$ 'ig$it), r '+! so!i%l, !o$o.i!, %$' #oliti!%l i$ ,+%liti s %$'

R #+&li! (. D A$ !ht, "1> SCRA "0> 5"44-7 F* De Cnec$ &as one o( $e o&ners o( se"eral proper !es alon. $e Fernando Re!n-Del Pan s ree s &$!c$ $e Go"ern'en sou.$ o e;propr!a e o .!"e &a, o $e e; ens!on o( EDSA and $e cons ruc !on o( dra!na.e (ac!l! !es. De Cnec$ (!led a case o res ra!n $e Go"ern'en (ro' proceed!n. &! $ $e e;propr!a !on. 8er pra,er &as den!ed b, $e lo&er cour bu upon cer !orar!# $e S% re"ersed $e lo&er cour dec!s!on and .ran ed $e rel!e( as4ed (or b, De Cnec$ rul!n. $a $e e;propr!a !on &as arb! rar,. T$e case &as re'anded o $e lo&er cour . No (ur $er ac !on &as a4en desp! e $e S% dec!s!on un !l &o ,ears la er# !n 9AB># &$en $e Go"ern'en 'o"ed (or $e d!s'!ssal o( $e case on $e .round $a $e Le.!sla ure $as s!nce enac ed )P >?E e;propr!a !n. $e sa'e proper !es (or $e sa'e purpose. T$e lo&er cour den!ed $e 'o !on. Appeal. R:LING* 3$!le ! !s rue $a sa!d (!nal +ud.'en o( $!s %ur on $e sub+ec beco'es $e la& o( $e case be &een $e par !es# ! !s e0uall, rue $a $e r!.$ o( pe ! !oner o a4e

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
r .o( !+lt+r%l i$ ,+iti s &) ,+it%&l) 'iff+si$g * %lth %$' #oliti!%l #o* r for th !o..o$ goo'. To this $', th St%t sh%ll r g+l%t th %!,+isitio$, o*$ rshi#, +s , %$' 'is#ositio$ of #ro# rt) %$' its i$!r . $ts. ". E!o$o.i! ,+%lit) Art. XIII, S !. >. Th #ro.otio$ of so!i%l <+sti! sh%ll i$!l+' th !o..it. $t to !r %t !o$o.i! o##ort+$iti s &%s ' o$ fr 'o. of i$iti%ti( %$' s lfB r li%$! . Art. XIII, S !. @. Th St%t sh%ll %ffor' f+ll #rot !B tio$ to l%&or, lo!%l %$' o( rs %s, org%$i: ' %$' +$org%$i: ', %$' #ro.ot f+ll .#lo). $t %$' ,+%lit) of .#lo). $t o##ort+$iti s for %ll. It sh%ll g+%r%$t th rights of %ll *or; rs to s lfB org%$i:%tio$, !oll !ti( &%rg%i$i$g %$' $ goti%tio$s, %$' # %! f+l !o$! rt ' %!ti(iti s, i$!l+'i$g th right to stri; i$ %!!or'%$! *ith l%*. Th ) sh%ll & $titl to s !+rit) of t $+r , h+.%$ !o$'itio$s of *or;, %$' li(i$g *%g . Th ) sh%ll %lso #%rti!i#%t i$ #oli!) %$' ' !isio$B.%;i$g #ro! ss %ff !ti$g th rights %$' & $ fits %s .%) & #ro(i' ' &) l%*. Th St%t sh%ll #ro.ot th #ri$!i#l of sh%r ' r s#o$si&ilit) & t* $ *or; rs %$' .#lo) rs %$' th #r f r $ti%l +s of (ol+$t%r) .o' s i$ s ttli$g 'is#+t s i$!l+'i$g !o$!ili%tio$, %$' sh%ll $for! th ir .+t+%l !o.#li%$! th r *ith to fost r i$'+stri%l # %! . Th St%t sh%ll r g+l%t th r l%tio$s & t* $ *or; rs %$' .#lo) rs, r !og$i:i$g th right of l%&or to its <+st sh%r i$ th fr+its of #ro'+!tio$ %$' th right of $t r#ris s to r %so$%&l r t+r$s o$ i$( st. $ts, %$' to C#%$sio$ %$' gro*th. Art. XII, S !. "-. Th Co$gr ss sh%ll, +#o$ r !o.. $'%tio$ of th !o$o.i! %$' #l%$$i$g %g $!), *h $ th $%tio$%l i$t r st 'i!t%t s, r s r( to !iti: $s of th Phili##i$ s or to !or#or%tio$s or %sso!i%tio$s %t l %st siCt) per "ent!% of *hos !%#it%l is o*$ ' &) s+!h !iti: $s, or s+!h high r # r! $t%g %s Co$gr ss .%) #r s!ri& , ! rt%i$ %r %s of i$( st. $ts. Th Co$gr ss sh%ll $%!t . %s+r s th%t *ill $!o+r%g th for.%tio$ %$' o# r%tio$ $t r#ris s *hos !%#it%l is *holl) o*$ ' &) Dili#i$os. I$ th gr%$t of rights, #ri(il g s %$' !o$! ssio$s !o( ri$g th $%tio$%l !o$o.) %$' #%tri.o$), th St%t sh%ll gi( #r f r $! to ,+%lifi ' Dili#i$os. Th St%t sh%ll r g+l%t %$' C r!is %+thorit) o( r for ig$ i$( st. $ts *ithi$ its $%tio$%l <+ris'i!tio$ %$' i$ %!!or'%$! *ith its $%tio$%l go%ls %$' #rioriti s. I'., S !. >. CCC Th St%t sh%ll #rot !t th $%tio$Es .%ri$ * %lth i$ its %r!hi# l%gi! *%t rs, t rritori%l s %, %$' C!l+si( !o$o.i! :o$ , %$' r s r( its +s %$' $<o). $t C!l+si( l) to Dili#i$o !iti: $s. Art. III, S !. "". Dr %!! ss to th !o+rts %$' ,+%siB<+'i!i%l &o'i s %$' %' ,+%t l g%l %ssist%$! sh%ll $ot & ' $i ' to %$) # rso$ &) r %so$ of #o( rt). Art. 8III, S !. 3. Th S+#r . Co+rt sh%ll h%( th follo*i$g #o* rsF CCC 537 Pro.+lg%t r+l s !o$! r$i$g th #rot !tio$ %$' $for! . $t of !o$stit+tio$%l rights, #l %'i$g, #r%!ti! , %$' #ro! '+r i$ %ll !o+rts, th %'.issio$ to th #r%!ti!

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


of l%*, th I$t gr%t ' B%r, %$' l g%l %ssist%$! to th +$' r#ri(il g '. S+!h r+l s sh%ll #ro(i' % si.#lifi ' %$' i$ C# $si( #ro! '+r for th s# ') 'is#ositio$ of !%s s, sh%ll & +$ifor. for %ll !o+rts of th s%. gr%' , %$' sh%ll $ot 'i.i$ish, i$!r %s , or .o'if) s+&st%$ti( rights. Rights of #ro! '+r of s# !i%l !o+rts %$' ,+%siB<+'i!i%l &o'i s sh%ll r .%i$ ff !ti( +$l ss 'is%##ro( ' &) th S+#r . Co+rt. T$ere are areas o( econo'!c ac !"! , &$!c$ can be l!'! ed o F!l!p!nos. T$e %ons ! u !on ! sel( ac4no&led.es $!s !n "ar!ous places - e;plo! a !on o( 'ar!ne &eal $ /Ar . JII# Sec. 7 par. 71# cer a!n areas o( !n"es 'en /Ar . JII# Sec. 9E1# o na'e a (e&. In Ic$on. ". 8ernande@# 7E9 P$!l. 99FF /9A><1# $e S% up$eld $e "al!d! , o( $e la& &$!c$ na !onal!@ed $e re a!l rade. For $e pro ec !on o( $e la& can be obser"ed b, $e na !onal !n eres .

Ic$on. ". 8ernande@# 7E9 P$!l. 99FF /9A><1 )u $ere are areas &$ere al!ens canno be 4ep a&a, (or $e s!'ple reason $a $e, canno be depr!"ed o( a co''on 'eans o( l!"el!$ood# espec!all, &$en $e, are ad'! ed o $e coun r, as !''!.ran s. In V!lle.as ". 8!u %$!on. Isa! Po 8o# B6 S%RA 7<E /9A<B1# $e S% !n"al!da ed a c! , ord!nance !'pos!n. a PFEE per'! (ee (or al!ens &$o &!s$ o en.a.e !n $e pursu! o( an occupa !on. T$e S% no ed $a $!s "!ola ed $e un!(or'! , o( a;a !on# and depr!"ed al!ens o( $e r!.$ o earn a co''on l!"el!$ood. 8ill g%s (. Hi+ Chi+$g Ts%i P%o Ho B6 S%RA 7<E /9A<B1 F* An ord!nance o( $e %! , o( Man!la pro$!b! ed $e e'plo,'en o( al!ens !n an, occupa !on or bus!ness unless $e, (!rs secured a per'! (ro' $e Ma,or o( Man!la and pa!d a (ee o( PFEE. Responden # an al!en# e'plo,ed !n Man!la# brou.$ su! and ob a!ned +ud.'en (ro' $e %FI declar!n. $e ord!nance null and "o!d. 8ELD* T$e ord!nance !s a a; 'easure. In !'pos!n. a (la ra e o( PFEE# ! (a!led o cons!der subs an !al d!((erences !n s! ua !ons a'on. al!ens and (or $a reason "!ola es $e rule on un!(or'! , o( a;a !on. I also la,s do&n no .u!de (or .ran !n.=den,!n. $e per'! and $ere(ore per'! s $e arb! rar, e;erc!se o( d!scre !on b, $e Ma,or. F!nall,# $e ord!nance den!es al!ens due process and $e e0ual pro ec !on o( $e la&s. 88. In Vera ". %ue"as# AE S%RA ><A /9A<A1# Sec. 96A o( $e NIR% re0u!r!n. 'anu(ac urers o( s4!''ed '!l4 /non-(a 1 o pu on ! s label $e &arn!n. $a $e '!l4 !s $ar'(ul (or !n(an s# &as s ruc4 do&n as uncons ! u !onal on $e .round $a ! d!d no re0u!re $e sa'e label!n. !n $e case o( (!lled '!l4 /coco-(a added1 A $a !'e o( $e dec!s!on $ou.$ # $e la& &as alread, !nopera !"e. 8 r% (. C+ (%s AE S%RA ><A /9A<A1 F* Responden s are en.a.ed !n $e 'anu(ac ure and sale o( (!lled '!l4 produc s. T$e, brou.$ an ac !on !n $e %FI (or a declara !on o( $e!r r!.$ s !n respec o( sec !on 96A o( $e Ta; %ode. T$!s pro"!s!on re0u!red $a 2all condensed s4!''ed

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
'!l4 !n &$a e"er (or'# (ro' &$!c$ $e (a , par $as been re'o"ed o all, or !n par or pu on sale !n $e P$!l!pp!nes s$all be clearl, and le.!bl, 'ar4ed on ! s !''ed!a e con a!ners &! $ $e &ords* T$!s '!l4 !s no su! able (or nour!s$'en (or !n(an s less $an one ,ear o( a.e. 8ELD* Sec. 96A o( $e Ta; %ode $as been repealed b, RA >??. A an, ra e# Sec. 96A appl!ed onl, o s4!''ed '!l4 and no o (!lled '!l4. Sec. 96A !s be!n. en(orced onl, a.a!ns responden 'anu(ac urers o( (!lled '!l4 bu no a.a!ns 'anu(ac urers o( s4!''ed '!l4# $us den,!n. $e' $e e0ual pro ec !on o( $e la&s. 88. >. Politi!%l ,+%lit) Art. III, S !. "1. 5"7 No # rso$ sh%ll & ' t%i$ ' sol l) &) r %so$ of his #oliti!%l & li fs %$' %s#ir%tio$s. Art. IX, C, S !. "-. &ona #ide !%$'i'%t s to #+&li! offi! sh%ll & fr fro. %$) for. of h%r%ss. $t %$' 'is!ri.i$%tio$. In Du'lao ". %o'elec# AF S%RA >A7 /9ABE1# $e S% up$eld $e "al!d! , o( sec. ? o( )a as )l.. F7 d!s0ual!(,!n. re !red elec !"e local o((!c!als &$o $a"e rece!"ed re !re'en bene(! s and &ould $a"e been 6F ,ears old a $e s ar o( $e er'. I does no "!ola e e0ual pro ec !on# (or ! .!"es ,oun.er blood $e oppor un! , o run $e local .o"ern'en . D+.l%o (. Co. l !, AF S%RA >A7 /9ABE1 F* Sec. ? o( )P F7 pro"!des !n par $a 2an, re !red elec !"e pro"!nc!al# c! , o 'un!c!pal o((!c!al &$o $as rece!"ed pa,'en o( $e re !re'en bene(! s o &$!c$ $e !s en ! led under $e la& and &$o s$all $a"e been 6F ,ears o( a.e a $e co''ence'en o( $e er' o( o((!ce o &$!c$ $e see4s o be elec ed# s$all no be 0ual!(!ed o run (or $e sa'e elec !"e local o((!ce (ro' &$!c$ $e $as re !red.2 Pe ! !oner# Go"ernor o( Nue"a V!@ca,a# sued (or pro$!b! !on o en+o!n en(orce'en o( $e la& on $e .round $a ! &as con rar, o $e e0ual pro ec !on and due process .uaran ee o( $e %ons ! u !on. 8ELD* Du'lao $as no been !n+ured b, $e appl!ca !on o( $e pro"!s!on. No pe ! !on see4!n. $!s d!s0ual!(!ca !on $as been (!led a.a!ns $!'. 8!s pe ! !on !s a 'ere re0ues (or ad"!sor, op!n!on. Ne"er $eless# because o( publ!c !n eres # $e 0ues !on s$ould be resol"ed. T$e purpose o( $e la& !s o allo& $e e'er.ence o( ,oun.er blood !n local .o"ern'en s and $ere(ore# no !n"al!d. T$e re !red e'plo,ee !n e((ec declares $!'sel( !red and una"a!lable (or $e sa'e .o"ern'en &or4. 88. In I.o ". %o'elec# AF S%RA >A7 /9ABE1# $o&e"er# $e d!s0ual!(!ca !on o( cand!da es con"!c ed or s!'pl, c$ar.ed &! $ na !onal secur! , o((enses &as s ruc4 do&n as uncons ! u !onal# (or "!ola !n. $e presu'p !on o( !nnocence and $us ul !'a el, $e e0ual pol! !cal pro ec !on. I.o c. %o'elec AF S%RA >A7 /9ABE1 F* Ro'eo I.o # as a;pa,er# "o er and 'e'ber o( $e bar# and Al(redo Salapan an -r.# as a;pa,er and "o er# sued (or pro$!b! !on o en+o!n en(orce'en o( )P F7# sec. ? o( &$!c$ pro"!des (or $e d!s0ual!(!ca !on as cand!da e o( an, person con"!c ed o( sub"ers!on# !nsurrec !on or rebell!on or s!'!lar o((enses.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


8ELD* Ne! $er pe ! !oner $as been con"!c ed nor c$ar.ed &! $ ac s o( d!slo,al , nor d!s0ual!(!ed (ro' be!n. cand!da es (or local elec !"e pos! !ons. T$e, $a"e no personal or subs an !al !n eres a s a4e and $ere(ore no locus s and!. Ne! $er can $e, sue as a;pa,ers because $e s a u e does no !n"ol"e d!sburse'en o( publ!c (unds. 88. >. Soc!al e0ual! , Art. XIII, S !. ". Th Co$gr ss sh%ll gi( high st #riorit) to th $%!t. $t of . %s+r th%t #rot !t %$' $h%$! th right of %ll th # o#l to h+.%$ 'ig$it), r '+! so!i%l, !o$o.i!, %$' #oliti!%l i$ ,+%liti s %$' r .o( !+lt+r%l i$ ,+iti s &) ,+it%&l) 'iff+si$g * %lth %$' #oliti!%l #o* r for th !o..o$ goo'. To this $', th St%t sh%ll r g+l%t th %!,+isitio$, o*$ rshi#, +s , %$' 'is#ositio$ of #ro# rt) %$' its i$!r . $ts. . II. REQUIREMENTS OD DAIR PROCEDURE A. Arres s# Searc$es and Se!@ures Art. III, S !. >. Th right of th # o#l to & s !+r i$ th ir # rso$s, ho+s s, #%# rs %$' ff !ts %g%i$st +$r %so$%&l s %r!h s %$' s i:+r s of *h%t ( r $%t+r %$' for %$) #+r#os , sh%ll & i$(iol%&l , %$' $o s %r!h *%rr%$t or *%rr%$t of %rr st sh%ll iss+ C! #t +#o$ #ro&%&l !%+s to & ' t r.i$ ' # rso$%ll) &) th <+'g %ft r C%.i$%tio$ +$' r o%th or %ffir.%tio$ of th !o.#l%i$%$t %$' th *it$ ss s h .%) #ro'+! , %$' #%rti!+l%rl) ' s!ri&i$g th #l%! to & s %r!h ' %$' th # rso$ or thi$gs to & s i: '. S !. @. Th #ri(%!) of !o..+$i!%tio$ %$' !orr s#o$' $! sh%ll & i$(iol%&l , C! #t +#o$ l%*f+l or' r of th !o+rt, or *h $ #+&li! s%f t) or or' r r ,+ir s oth r*is %s #r s!ri& ' &) l%*. A$) (i' $! o&t%i$ ' i$ (iol%tio$ of this or th #r ! 'i$g s !tio$, sh%ll & i$%'.issi&l for %$) #+r#os i$ %$) #ro! 'i$g. 9. Re0u!re'en s (or Searc$ 3arran s / S+ A+) (. Al. '%# <E P$!l. 9?9 /9A?E1

F* ), "!r ue o( $e s&orn appl!ca !on o( Al'eda# $e %$!e( a.en o( $e An !-:sur, )oard# a S3 &as !ssued o searc$ $e s ore and pre'!ses o( $e pe ! !oner# accused o( "!ola !n. $e An !-:sur, La&. Rece!p boo4s# PNs and o $er ar !cles &ere se!@ed and re a!ned !n $e possess!on o( $e An !:sur, )oard. ISS:E* 3=n $e re0u!re'en s (or $e !ssuance o( "al!d S3 &ere co'pl!ed &! $. R:LING* YES. T$e appl!can # Al'eda# !n $!s appl!ca !on# s&ore $a 2$e 'ade $!s o&n personal !n"es !.a !on and ascer a!ned $a pe ! !oner !s lend!n. 'one, &! $ou a l!cense# c$ar.!n. usur!ous ra es.2 T$e &! ness $e presen ed es !(!ed be(ore $e +ud.e and s&ore $a $e 4ne& $a YEE &as lend!n. &! $ou a l!cense because $e personall, !n"es !.a ed $e "!c !'s &$o secured loans (ro' $e pe ! !oner. T$e!r a((!da"! s &ere su((!c!en (or# $ereunder# $e, could be $eld l!able (or per+ur,. T$e e;!s ence o( probable cause $as been de er'!ned

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
b, $e +us !ce o( $e peace be(ore !ssu!n. $e &arran co'pla!ned o(# as s$o&n !n $e &arran ! sel(. Ch%ro. P%sio$ ('%. ' =%r!i% (. Lo!si$# 6F P$!l. 6BA# /9A>B1 F* T$!s !s a pe ! !on (or 'anda'us presen ed o secure $e annul'en o( a searc$ &arran /S31 K 7 orders o( $e resp. +ud.e# K $e res ora !on o( cer a!n docu'en s alle.ed o $a"e been !lle.all, se!@ed b, an a.en o( $e An !-:sur, )oard. Al'eda# an a.en o( $e An !-:sur, )oard# ob a!ned (ro' $e +us !ce o( $e peace o( Tarlac# Tarlac# a S3# co''and!n. an, o((!cer o( $e la& 2 o searc$ $e person# $ouse or s ore o( $e pe ! !oner (or cer a!n boo4s# l!s s# c$! s# rece!p s# docu'en s K o $er papers rela !n. o $er ac !"! !es as userer.2 On $e sa'e da e# Al'eda# acco'pan!ed b, a cap a!n o( $e P%# &en o $e o((!ce o( $e pe ! !oner# and a( er s$o&!n. $e S3 o $e pe ! !oner5s boo4eeper# Salas# K &=o $e presence o( $e pe ! !oner# &$o &as !ll and con(!ned a $a !'e# proceeded &= $e e;ecu !on $ereo(. T&o pac4a.es o( records K a loc4ed (!l!n. cab!ne con a!n!n. se"eral papers and docu'en s &ere se!@ed b, Al'eda and a rece!p $ereo( !ssued b, $!' o Salas. Separa e cr!'!nal cases &ere (!led a.a!ns pe ! !oner. Pe ! !oner de'anded $e re urn o( $e docu'en s se!@ed. )u 'o !on# pe . c$allen.ed $e le.al! , o( $e S3 and $e de"olu !on o( $e docu'en s de'anded. ), resolu !on# $e resp. +ud.e o( %FI den!ed $e pe ! !oner5s 'o !on (or $e reason $a $ou.$ $e S3 &as !lle.al# $ere &as a &a!"er on $e par o( $e pe ! !oner. T$e resolu !on o( 9E=F=>< K $e order o( 9=>=>B are sou.$ # o.e $er &= $e S3# o be null!(!ed !n $ese proceed!n.s. 8ELD* Freedo' (ro' unreasonable searc$es and se!@ures !s declared a popular r!.$ and (or a S3 o be "al!d# /91 it must be issued upon probable causeD /71 the probable cause must be determined by the ,udge himself and not by the applicant or anotherD />1 in the determination of probable cause, the ,udge must examine, under oath or affirmation, the complainant and such witnesses as the latter may produceD K /?1 the warrant issued must particularly describe the place to be searched and persons or things to be sei-ed. In $e !ns an case# $e e;!s ence o( probable cause &as de er'!ned no b, $e +ud.e $!'sel( bu b, $e appl!can . All $a $e +ud.e d!d &as o accep as rue $e a((!da"! 'ade b, a.en Al'eda. I does no appear $a $e e;a'!ned $e appl!can and $!s &! nesses# !( an,. E"en accep !n. $e descr!p !on o( $e prop. o be se!@ed o be su((!c!en and on $e assu'p !on $a $e rece!p !ssued !s su((!c!en l, de a!led &=!n $e 'ean!n. o( $e la&# $e prop. se!@ed &ere no del!"ered o $e cour &=c !ssued $e &arran # as re0u!red b, la&. Ins ead# $e, &ere urned o"er o $e resp. pro"!nc!al (!scal K used b, $!' !n bu!ld!n. up cases a.a!ns pe ! !oner. %ons!der!n. $a a $e !'e $e &arran &as !ssued# $ere &as no case pend!n. a.a!ns $e pe ! !oner# $e a"er'en $a $e &arran &as !ssued pr!'ar!l, (or e;plora !on purposes !s no &=o bas!s. IS T8ERE A 3AIVERH No e;press &a!"er. IS T8ERE AN IMPLIED 3AIVERH None.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


one# canno be &a!"ed b, an,one e;cep b, $e person &$ose r!.$ s are !n"aded or one &$o !s e;pressl, au $or!@ed o do so !n $!s or $er be$al(. T$e (a!lure on $e par o( $e pe ! !oner and $er boo44eeper o res!s or ob+ec o $e e;ecu !on o( $e &arran does no cons ! u e an !'pl!ed &a!"er o( $e cons !. r!.$ . I !s bu a sub'!ss!on o $e au $or! , o( $e la&. T$e dela, !n 'a4!n. $e de'and (or $e re urn o( $e docu'en s se!@ed !s no suc$ as o resul !' !'pl!ed. &a!"er. RAM. B+rgos (. Chi f of St%ff "@@ SCRA 1-- 5"4107 Ille.al searc$ o( ne&spaper o((!ces and press (reedo' F* On $e bas!s o( &o &arran s !ssued b, $e RT% o( L%# $e o((!ces o( $e Me ropol! an Ma!l and $e 3e Foru' &ere searc$ and pr!n !n. 'ac$!nes# parap$ernal!a# 'o or "e$!cles and o $er ar !cles used !n $e pr!n !n.# publ!ca !on and d!s r!bu !on o( $e ne&spapers as &ell as papers and o $er l! era ure se!@ed on $e .round $a $e, &ere used !n $e co''!ss!on o( $e cr!'e o( sub"ers!on. Pe ! !oners brou.$ and ac !on o annul $e &arran s and co'pel $e re urn o( $e $!n.s se!@ed. 8ELD* Pe ! !oners5 $es!s !s !'pressed &! $ 'er! . Probable cause (or a searc$ !s de(!ned as suc$ (ac s and c!rcu's ances &$!c$ &ould lead a reasonabl, d!scree and pruden 'an o bel!e"e $a an o((ense $as been co''! ed and $a $e ob+ec s sou.$ !n connec !on &! $ $e o((ense are !n $e place sou.$ o be searc$ed. 3$en addressed o a ne&spaper publ!s$er or ed! or# $e appl!ca !on (or a &arran 'us con a!n a spec!(!ca !on s a !n. &! $ par !cular! , $e alle.ed sub"ers!"e 'a er!als $e $as publ!s$ed or !n end!n. o publ!s$. )road s a e'en !n $e appl!ca !on !s a 'ere conclus!on o( la& and does no sa !s(, $e re0u!re'en o( probable cause. Ano $er (ac or $a 'a4es $e searc$ &arran s cons ! u !onall, ob+ec !onable !s $a $e, are !n $e na ure o( .eneral &arran s. In S an(ord ". S a e o( Te;as# $e :S S% declared $!s ,pe o( &arran "o!d. 88. %orro ". L!s!n. 9>< S%RA >?9 /9ABF1 F* Responden -ud.e !ssued a searc$ &arran (or $e se!@ure o( ar !cles alle.edl, used b, pe ! !oner !n co''! !n. $e cr!'e o( sed! !on. Se!@ed &ere pr!n ed cop!es o( $e P$!l!pp!ne T!'es# ne&spaper du''!es# ,pe&r! ers# '!'eo.rap$!n. 'ac$!nes and ape recorders# "!deo 'ac$!nes and apes. T$e pe ! !oner 'o"ed o 0uas$ $e &arran bu $!s 'o !on &as den!ed. 8ELD* T$e s a e'en s 'ade !n $e a((!da"! s are 'ere conclus!ons o( la& and do no sa !s(, $e re0u!re'en o( probable cause. T$e lan.ua.e used !s all e'brac!n. as o !nclude all conce!"able &ords and e0u!p'en o( pe ! !oner re.ardless o( &$e $er $e, are le.al or !lle.al. T$e searc$ &arran under cons!dera !on &as !n $e na ure o( a .eneral &arran &$!c$ !s ob+ec !onable. 88. )ac$e K %o. /P$!l.1 ". Ru!@# >< S%RA B7> /9A<91

To cons ! u e a &a!"er o( cons ! u !onal r!.$ # ! 'us appear (!rs $a /91 $e r!.$ e;!s sD /71 $a $e person !n"ol"ed $ad 4no&led.e# ac ual or cons ruc !"e# o( $e e;!s ence o( suc$ r!.$ D />1 $a sa!d person $ad an ac ual !n en !on o rel!n0u!s$ $e r!.$ . I !s rue $a $e pe ! !oner d!d no ob+ec o $e le.al! , o( $e searc$ &$en ! &as 'ade. S$e could no $a"e ob+ec ed bec. s$e &as s!c4 K &as no presen &$en $e &arran &as ser"ed upon Salas. %er a!nl,# $e cons ! u !onal !''un! , (ro' unreasonable searc$es and se!@ures# be!n. a personal

F* T$e %o'. o( In ernal Re"enue $rou.$ Re". E;a'!ner de Leon (!led an appl!ca !on (or a S3 a.a!ns )ac$e K %o. and ! s pres.# Se..er'an (or "!ola !on o( $e pro"!sons o( $e NIR%. As -ud.e Ru!@ &as $en conduc !n. a $ear!n.# $e depos! !on o( de Leon and $!s &! ness# Lo.ron!o# &as a4en b, $e Dep. %ler4 o( %our . T$e depos! !on &as la er read o $e +ud.e &$o as4ed $e &! ness o a4e an oa $ as o $e ru $ o( $!s s a e'en s. T$e +ud.e $en s!.ned $e S3 and accord!n.l, !ssued $e sa'e.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
ISS:E* 3=n $e re0u!re'en s (or $e !ssuance o( "al!d S3 &ere co'pl!ed &! $. R:LING* NO. T$e +ud.e d!d no personall, e;a'!ne $e co'pla!nan and $!s &! nesses. T$e +ud.e d!d no $a"e $e oppor un! , o obser"e $e de'eanor o( $e deponen s and o propound !n! !al and (ollo&-up 0ues !ons &$!c$ $!s +ud!c!al '!nd# on accoun o( $!s ra!n!n.# &as !n $e bes pos! !on o conce!"e. T$!s !s !'por an !n arr!"!n. a a sound !n(erence on $e all-!'por a n 0ues !on o( &=n $ere &as probable cause. Ch%ro. Pruden e ". Da,r! # 9BE S%RA 6A /9AAE1 F* -ud.e Da,r! # upon appl!ca !n o( P=Ma+. D!'a.'al!&# suppor ed b, a 2Depos! !on o( 3! ness#2 e;ecu ed b, P=L . An.eles# !ssued a searc$ &arran (or $e searc$ and se!@ure o( ar's# a''un! !ons and e;plos!"es !n $e pre'!ses o( $e P:P &$!c$ &ere supposed o be !n possess!on o( Dr. Pruden e. In en(orc!n. $e &arran # > (ra.'en a !on .renades &ere (ound !n $e ba $roo' o( $e o((!ce o( Dr. Pruden e. ISS:E* 3=n $e searrc$ &arran &as "al!d. R:LING* NO. /91 T$e &aran &as no !ssued on $e bas!s o( personal 4no&led.e o( $e appl!can and $!s &! ness. T$e probable cause re0u!red under $e %ons ! u !on (or $e !ssuance o( a searc$ &arran 'us be !n connec !on &! $ one spec!(!c o((ense# and $e +ud.e 'us # be(ore !ssu!n. $e &arran # personall, e;a'!ne !n $e (or' o( searc$!n. 0ues !ons and ans&ers# !n &r! !n. and under oa $# $e co'pla!nan and an, &! nesses $e 'a, produce# on (ac s personall, 4no&n o $e' and a ac$ o $e record $e!r s&orn s a e'en s o.e $er &! $ an, a((!da"! sub'! ed. 8o&e"er# !n $e case a bar# D!'a.'al!& 'erel, s a ed !n $!s appl!ca !on $a $!s 4no&led.e &as based 2on .a $ered !n(r'a !on (ro' "er!(!ed sources.2 T$e sa'e $olds rue (or $e a((!da"! o( An.eles. Moreo"er# $e +ud.e d!d no e;a'!ne An.eles !n $e (or' o( searc$!n. 0ues !ons and ans&ers. 3$a appears on $e record are lead!n. 0ues !ons ans&ereable b, ,es or no. /71 As o $e cla!' $a $e S3 (a!led o par !cularl, descr!be $e place o be searc$ed# $e S% ruled $a $e descr!p !on o( $e place o be searc$ed !s su((!c!en !( $e o((!cer &! $ $e &arran can# &! $ reasonable e((or # ascer a!n and !den !(, $e place !n ended o be searc$ed. 8ere# $e S3 descr!bed $e place as P:P# &! $ ! s address and spec!(!call, 'en !oned $e o((!ces o( $e 2Dep . o( M!l! ar, Sc!ence and Tac !cs on $e .round (loor and $e O((!ce o( $e Pres!den a $e 7nd (loor and $e o $er roo's !n $a (loor.2 T$!s !s dee'ed su((!c!en . />1 T$ere &as also an !ssue as o &=n $e S3 &as !ssued (or one spec!(!c o((ense. T$e &arrran &as !ssued (or "!ola !on o( PD 9B66 &$!c$ pun!s$es se"eral o((enses. 3$!le $ere &as (a!lure o s a e $e par !cular pro"!s!on o( $e la& "!ola ed# $e &arran ! sel( 0ual!(!ed $e descr!p !on o( $e o((ense as 2!lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's# e c.2 T$!s su((!ces o cure $e de(ec . T$e (ac $a $e &ord 2e c.2 &as added o re(er o a''un! !ons and e;plos!"es d!d no "!ola e $e rule on s!n.le o((ense# (or no &! $s and!n. $a possess!on o( (!rear's# e;plos!"es and a''un! !ons are pun!s$ed !n d!((eren sec !ons o( $e PD# $e, are rea ed as belon.!n. o a s!n.le spec!e. An e;cep !on o $e rule $a a &aran s$all be !ssued (or a s!n.le o((ense !s &$en e;!s !n. la&s prescr!be a s!n.le pun!s$'en (or "ar!ous o((enses. Ch%ro.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


Olaes ". People# 9FF S%RA ?B6 /9AB<1 F* Pe ! !oners cla!' $a $e S3 !ssued b, resp. +ud.e &as !n"al!d. T$e, also 0ues !on $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on a4en (ro' $e' &! $ou accord!n. $e' $e r!.$ o ass!s ance o( a counsel. T$e ar !cles se!@ed b, "!r ue o( $e S3 cons!s !n. o( dr!ed 'ar!+uana &ere ad'! ed as e"!dence (or "!ola !on o( RA 6?7F or Dan.erous Dru.s Ac . R:LING* 3$!le ! !s rue $a $e cap !on o( $e S3 s a es $a ! !s !n connec !on &! $ 2 $e "!ola !on o( RA 6?7F#2 ! !s clearl, rec! ed !n $e e; $ereo( $a 2 $ere !s probable cause o bel!e"e $a Olaes o( Olon.apo %! , $as !n $!s possess!on and con rol# 'ar!+uana dr!ed s al4s &$!c$ are su+ec o( $e o((ense s a ed abo"e.2 Al $ou.$ $e spec!(!c sec !on o( $e la& !s no s a ed# $ere !s no 0ues !on a all $a $e spec!(!c o((ense alle.ed o $a"e been co''! ed as bas!s (or de er'!n!n. probable cause !s alle.ed. Fur $er'ore# $e S3 spec!(!call, descr!bed $e place o be searc$ed and $e $!n.s o be se!@ed. As o $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons o( $e accused# $e sa'e are dee'ed !nad'!ss!ble a.a!ns $e'. In People V. Gal! # $e %our declared $a * 2 A $e !'e $e person !s arres ed# ! s$all be $e du , o( $e arres !n. o((!cer o !n(or' $!' o( $e reason (or $e arrres and $e 'us be s$o&n $e &arran o( arres # !( an,D $e s$all be !n(or'ed o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s o re'a!n s!len and o counsel# and $a an, s a e'en $e '!.$ 'a4e could be used a.a!ns $!'. T$e person arres ed s$all $a"e $e r!.$ o co''un!ca e &! $ $!s la&,er# a rela !"e# or an,one $e c$ooses b, $e 'os e;ped!en 'eans - b, elep$one !( poss!ble - or b, le er or 'essen.er. I s$all be $e respons!b!l! , o( $e arres !n. o((!cer o see o ! $a $!s !s acco'pl!s$ed. No cus od!al !n"es !.a !on s$all be conduc ed unless ! be !n $e presence o( counsel en.a.ed b, $e person arres ed# b, an, person on $!s be$al(# or appo!n ed b, $e cour upon pe ! !on e! $er o( $e de a!nee $!'sel( or b, an,one on $!s be$al(. T$e r!.$ o counsel 'a, be &a!"ed bu $e &!a"er s$all no be "al!d unless 'ade &! $ $e ass!s ance o( counsel. An, s a e'en ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $e procedure $ere!n la!d do&n# &$e $er e;culpa or, or !nculpa or,# !n &$ole or !n par # s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence.2 T$ese re0u!re'en s &ere e"en 'ade s r!c er under $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on &$!c$ pro"!des $a $e r!.$ s o( a person under cus od!al !n"es !.a !on canno be &a!"ed e;cep &$en 'ade !n &r! !n. and !n $e presence o( counsel. Ch%ro. Pr si' $ti%l A$tiBDoll%r S%lti$g T%s; Dor! (. CA # 9<9 S%RA >?B /9ABA1 F* T$e PASTF &as crea ed b, "!r ue o( PD 9A>6 o ser"e as $e Pres!den 5s ar' called upon o co'ba $e "!ce o( dollar sal !n. or $e blac4'ar4e !n. and sal !n. o( (ore!.n e;c$an.e. ISS:E* 3=N $e PASTF !s 2suc$ o $er o((!cer as 'a, be au $or!@ed b, la&2 o !ssue &arran s under $e 9A<> %ons ! ! !on. R:LING* NO. T$e %our # !n re"!e&!n. $e po&ers o( $e PASTF under ! s enabl!n. la&# sees no $!n. $a &!ll re"eal a le.!sla !"e !n ende'en o con(er upon $e bod,# 0uas!-+ud!c!al respons!!b!l! !es rela !"e o o((enses pun!s$able b, PD 9BB>. I s under a4!n. !s s!'pl, o de er'!ne &=n probable cause e;!s s o &arran $e (!l!n. o( c$ar.es &! $ $e proper cour # 'ean!n. o sa,# o conduc an !n0u!r, prel!'!nar, o a +ud!c!al recourse# and o reco''end ac !on o( appropr!a e au $or! !es. T$e %our a.rees $a PASTF e;erc!ses# or &as 'ean o e;erc!se# prosecu or!al po&ers# and on $a .round# ! canno

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
be sa!d o be a neu ral and de ac$ed +ud.e o de er'!ne $e e;!s ence o( probable cause (or purposes o( arres or searc$. :nl!4e a 'a.!s ra e# a prosecu or !s na urall, !n eres ed !n $e success o( $!s case. Al $ou.$ $!s o((!ce 2!s o see o ! $a +us !ce !( done and no necessar!l, o secure $e con"!c !on o( $e accused#2 $e s ands !n"ar!abl,# as $e accused5s ad"ersar, and $!s accuser. To per'! $!' o !ssue &arrran s and !ndeed# &arran s o( arres # !s o 'a4e $!' bo $ +ud.e and +ur, !n $!s o&n r!.$ # &$en $e !s ne! $er. T$!s 'a4es o our '!nd and o $a e; en # PD 96>6 as a'ended b, PD 7EE7# uncons ! u !onal. T$e 2respons!ble o((!cer2 re(erred o under $e %osn ! u !on !s one no onl, possess!n. $e necessar, s4!lls and co'pe ence bu 'ore s!.n!(!can l,# $e neu ral! , and !ndependence co'parable o $e !'par !al! , presu'ed o( a +ud!c!al o((!cer.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


es abl!s$ $e re0u!re'en o( probable cause# $e rule !s* One cr!'e# one &arran . &. As ' t r.i$ ' &) % <+'g :nder $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on# onl, a +ud.e can !ssue a &arran D $e o((ens!"e and 'uc$ abused p$rase 2and o $er respons!ble o((!cer as 'a, be au $or!@ed b, la&2 !n $e 9A<> %ons ! u !on $as been re'o"ed !. Aft r # rso$%ll) C%.i$i$g +$' r o%th or %ffir.%tio$ th !o.#l%i$%$t %$' his *it$ ss. T$e e;a'!na !on conduc ed b, $e +ud.e a4es $e (or' o( searc$!n. 0ues !ons. T$e re0u!re'en $a $e +ud.e 'us personall, e;a'!ne $e co'pla!nan and $!s &! nesses 'eans $a $e ac ual e;a'!na !on canno be dele.a ed o so'eone else# l!4e $e cler4 o( cour . So sa!d $e %our !n )ac$e and %o. /P$!l1 ". Ru!@# >< S%RA B7> /9A<91. In $!s case# &$en $e )IR a.en and $!s &! nesses arr!"ed !n cour !n $e '!ddle o( a $ear!n.# $e +ud.e suspended $e $ear!n. and d!rec ed $e branc$ cler4 o e;a'!ne and a4e $e es !'on, o( $e &! nesses !n $!s c$a'bers. A( er $e &as $rou.$ &! $ $e $ear!n.# $e &en bac4 o $!s c$a'bers and (!nd!n. $a $e e;a'!na !on &as (!n!s$ed# as4ed $e )IR a.en and $!s &! nesses !( $e, a((!r'ed &$a $e, &$a $e, es !(!ed o# a( er &$!c$ $e !ssued $e searc$ &arran !n 0ues !on. '. O$ th &%sis of th ir # rso$%l ;$o*l 'g of th f%!ts th%t th ) %r t stif)i$g to. T$e de er'!na !on o( $e reasonableness o( $e +ud!c!al &arran 'us be based on $e a((!da"! o( one &$o $as personal 4no&led.e o( $e (ac s o &$!c$ $e es !(!es. T$e es !'on, canno be based on 'ere bel!e(. Ne! $er can ! be based on a repor . O $er&!se# $e &arran !s "o!d. T$us# !n )ur.os ". %$!e( o( S a((# 9>> S%RA BEE /9AB?1# re! era !n. $e 9A>< case o( Rodr!.ue@ ". V!lla'!el# $e es !'on, based on a '!l! ar, repor $a $e ne&spaper 3e Foru' &as used (or sub"ers!"e &ere $eld o be no a personal 4no&led.e and so &as !nad'!ss!ble. L!4e&!se# !n %orro ". L!s!n.# 9>< S%RA F?9 /9ABF1# $e es !'on, based on !n"es !.a !on repor s $a cer a!n ! e's !n $e P$!l!pp!ne T!'es &ere sub"ers!"e &ere $eld o be no personal 4no&led.e# and $us $e searc$ &arran !ssued &as no "al!d. . Th s %r!h *%rr%$t .+st ' s!ri& #%rti!+l%rl) ' s!ri& th #l%! to & s %r!h ' %$' th thi$gs to & s i: '. Fa!lure o s a e &! $ par !cular! , $e place o be searc$ed and ! e's o be se!@ed 'a4es $e &arran used (or (!s$!n. e"!dence /a .eneral &arran 1 &$!c$ !s "o!d. In )ur.os ". %$!e( o( S a((# $e descr!p !on &$!c$ read 2sub"ers!"e docu'en s# lea(le s# papers o pro'o e $e ob+ec !"e o( $e Mo"e'en (or a Free P$!l!pp!nes# $e L!.$ a F!re Mo"e'en # and $e Apr!l 6 Mo"e'en 2 &ere $eld no o be par !cular descr!p !ons# $us 'a4!n. $e &arran a .eneral &arran . In %orro ". L!s!n.# $e searc$ and se!@ure o( 2pr!n ed cop!es and du''!es o( P$!l!pp!ne T!'es# sub"ers!"e docu'en s# ar !cles# pr!n ed 'a ers# $andb!lls# lea(le s#

S%l%:%r (. A!h%!oso, "1@ SCRA "03 F* Pursuan o $e po&ers "es ed b, PD 9A7E and EO 9E77# POEA Ad'!n!s ra or Ac$acoso ordered $e closure o( $e recru! 'en a.enc, o( 8or , Sala@ar# $a"!n. "er!(!ed $a s$e $ad no l!cense o opera e a recru! 'en a.enc,. 8e (ur $er ordered $e se!@ure o( $e docu'en s and parap$ernal!as# be!n. used or !n ended o be used as $e 'eans o( co''! !n. !lle.al recru! 'en . T$!s order &as en(orced on 76 -anuar, 9ABB. Pe ! !oner (!led $!s su! (or pro$!b! !on. Issue* Ma, $e POEA /or $e Sec. o( Labor1 "al!dl, !ssue &arran s o( serac$ and se!@ure /or arres 1 under Ar . >B o( $e Labor %odeH 8ELD* NO. T$e pro"!s!ons o( PD 9A7E and EO 9E77# no& e'bod!ed !n Ar . >B o( $e Labor %ode# are $e d,!n. "es !.es o( au $or! ar!an rule !n ! s &!l!.$ s 'o'en s. :nder Ar . III# Sec 7 o( $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on# ! !s onl, +ud.es and no o $er# &$o 'a, !ssue &arran s o( arres and searc$. T$e e;cep !on !s !n cases o( depor a !on o( !lle.al and undes!rable al!ens# &$o' $e Pres!den o( $e %o''!ss!oner o( I''!.ra !on 'a, order arres ed# (ollo&!n. a (!nal order o( depor a !on# (or $e purpose o( depor a !on. T$e Sec. o( Labor # no be!n. a +ud.e. 'a, no lon.er !ssue searc$ or arres &arran s. 8ence# $e au $or! !es 'us .o $rou.$ $e +ud!c!al process. To $a e; en # &e declare Ar . >B# par. % o( $e Labor %ode# uncons ! u !onal and o( no (orce and e((ec . %. ECist $! of #ro&%&l !%+s . Probable cause !s suc$ (ac s and c!rcu's ances as &ould reasonabl, 'a4e a pruden 'an bel!e"e $a a cr!'e $a"e been co''! ed and $a $e docu'en s or $!n.s sou.$ o be searc$ed and se!@ed are !n $e possess!on o( $e person a.a!ns &$o' $e &arran !s sou.$ . 3! $ou probable cause# $ere can be no "al!d searc$ &arran . In Sto$ hill (. Dio;$o, >- SCRA @13 5"4267, ?7 searc$ &arran s &ere !ssued (or alle.ed "!ola !on o( %en ral )an4 La&s# $e Tar!(( and %us o's %ode# $e NIR%# and $e Re"!sed Penal %ode. T$e S% "o!ded $e &arran s on $e .round $a ! &as !'poss!ble (or $e +ud.e o $a"e (ound probable cause !n "!e& o( $e nu'ber o( la&s alle.ed o $a"e been "!ola ed b, $e pe ! !oner. 8o& could $e e"en 4no& &$a par !cular pro"!s!on o( eac$ la& $ad been "!ola edH I( $e d!d no 4no& $!s# $o& could ! be de er'!ned !( $e person a.a!ns &$o' $e &arran &as !ssued &as probabl, .u!l , $ereo(H In ru $# $!s &as a (!s$!n. e;ped! !on# &$!c$ "!ola ed $e sanc ! , o( do'!c!le and pr!"ac, o( co''un!ca !ons. To

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
banners# and ,pe&r! ers# ape recorders# e c.2 &as a.a!n !n"al!da ed (or $e descr!p !on &as no a all par !cular or spec!(!c# $us 'a4!n. $e &arran s .eneral &arran s. 3$en ! co'es o pr!n ed 'a ers# $e o((ens!"e 'a er!al need no be se ou !n (ull. I !s enou.$ !( ! spec!(!es $e !ssues and $e ! le o( $e ar !cles. T$e !ns ruc !on o se!@e 2sub"ers!"e 'a er!als2 !s no "al!d because $e de er'!na !on o( &$e $er a 'a er!al !s sub"ers!"e or no !s no (or $e pol!ce o((!cer o dec!deD no un(e ered d!scre !on 'us be .ran ed o $!'. T$e 'a er !s d!((eren !( .oods &ere searc$ed and se!@ed because o( $e!r !n r!ns!c 0ual! , /as &$en $e, are s olen or s'u..led1# $an !( $e .oods &ere searc$ed (or $e !deas $e, con a!n /as &$en a 2sub"ers!"e ne&spaper !s sou.$ 1. In $e la er case# a 'ore de a!led descr!p !on o( $e p$,s!cal (ea ures o( $e ! e' !s re0u!red o a"o!d dele.a !n. $e apprec!a !on o( !deas# and $us $rea en (ree e;press!on. >. Wh $ S %r!h M%) B M%' *itho+t % W%rr%$t /a1 (hen search is made of moving vehicles T$e reason !s $e person 'a, escape eas!l, !( a &arran $as o be appl!ed (or $e 'ean !'e. In $e Tar!(( and %us o's %ode# cus o's a.en s are spec!(!call, au $or!@ed o searc$ and se!@e "e$!cles e"en &! $ou a &arran . %$ec4po!n s are "al!d !n so'e !ns ances depend!n. on $e purpose /e... appre$end a suspec ed cr!'!nal1 and $e c!rcu's ances /e... probable cause $a $e cr!'!nal !s !ns!de $e car1. T$ere !s no 0ues !on $a &$en a c$!ld $as been repor ed 4!dnapped !n a co''un! ,# $e pol!ce can s op all cars and c$ec4 !( $e de a!ned c$!ld !s !n an, one o( $e'. 5&7 When sear"h is an an in"ident to a 'alid arrest. R+l ">2, S !. ">. Sear"h in"ident to la$#!l arrest.BB A # rso$ l%*f+ll) %rr st ' .%) & s %r!h ' for '%$g ro+s * %#o$s or %$)thi$g *hi!h .%) & +s ' %s #roof of th !o..issio$ of %$ off $s , *itho+t % s %r!h *%rr%$t. 5R+l s of Co+rt.7 A person arres ed 'a, be searc$ed (or dan.erous &eapons or an, $!n. $a pro"es $e co''!ss!on o( $e o((ense. I (ollo&s $a $e searc$ can onl, be 'ade &! $!n $e area o( con rol o( $e arres ed person# and &! $!n $e !'e o( $e arres . In Nolasco ". %ru@ Pano# 9>A S%RA 9F7 /9ABF1D M!la.ros Ro0ue and %,n $!a Nolasco &ere arres ed a $e !n ersec !on o( Ma,on and Mar.al S ree s !n L% a 99*>E a.'.# $a"!n. been &an ed as $!.$ o((!cers o( $e %PP. A 97*EE noon# Ro0ue5s apar 'en loca ed 7 bloc4s a&a,# &as searc$ed and so'e docu'en s se!@ed. T$e S% a (!rs $eld $a $e searc$ &as "al!d e"en !( $e &arran !ssued &as "o!d (or (a!l!n. o descr!be &! $ par !cular! , $e $!n.s o be se!@ed# because ! &as an !nc!den o( a "al!d arres . )u a( er $e EDSA re"olu !on# $e recons ! u ed S% .ran ed $e 'o !on (or recons!dera !on and $eld $a +us because $ere &as a "al!d arres d!d no 'ean $a $e searc$ &as l!4e&!se "al!d. To be "al!d# $e searc$ 'us be 2!nc!den al2 o $e arres # $a !s# no separa ed b, !'e or place (ro' $e arres . I( $e bas!s (or allo&!n. !nc!den al searc$es !s loo4ed !n o# one can see $a $!s s! ua !on !s no one !n"ol"!n. a "al!d !nc!den al searc$. T$e la& allo&s $e arres !n. o((!cer o searc$ a person "al!dl, arres ed /b, (r!s4!n. $!' (or !ns ance1 because /a1 a

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


&eapon $eld b, $e arres ed person 'a, be urned a.a!ns $!s cap or and /b1 $e 'a, des ro, $e proo( o( $e cr!'e# !( $e arres ed o((!cer $as o (!rs appl, (or a searc$ &arran (ro' a +ud.e. I(# !n $e Nolasco case# $e searc$ &as conduc ed >E '!nu es a( er $e arres # $ere !s no lon.er an, dan.er $a $e cap ured 'a, urn a.a!ns $e cap orD and !( $e docu'en s !n $e apar 'en &ere 7 bloc4s a&a,# $e searc$ &ould no lon.er be +us !(!ed s!nce $ere !s no &a, (or Ro0ue o .o bac4 o $e apar 'en and des ro, $e docu'en s# $a"!n. been arres ed alread,. Nolasco ". %ru@ PaMo 9>A S%RA 9F7 /9ABF1 F* M!la.ros A.u!lar-Ro0ue &as arres ed o.e $er &! $ %,n $!a Nolasco b, $e %ons abular, Secur! , Group. M!la.rso $ad been &an ed as a $!.$ ran4!n. o((!cer o( $e %PP. T$e arres oo4 place a 99*>E a.'. o( Au.us 6# 9AB?. A noon o( $e sa'e da,# $er pre'!ses &ere searc$ed and ?7B docu'en s# a por able ,pe&r! er and 7 bo;es &ere se!@ed. Earl!er $a da,# -ud.e %ru@ PaMo !ssued a searc$ &arran (or rebell!on a.a!ns M!la.ros. On $e bas!s o( $e docu'en s se!@ed# c$ar.es o( sub"ers!on and rebell!on &ere (!led bu $e (!scal5s o((!ce 'erel, c$ar.ed $er and Nolasco &! $ !lle.al possess!on o( sub"ers!"e 'a er!als. M!la.ros as4ed (or suppress!on o( $e e"!dence on $e .round $a ! &as !lle.all, ob a!ned. T$e searc$ &arran descr!bed $e $!n.s o be se!@ed as 2Docu'en s# papers and o $er records o( $e %PP# NPA and NDF# ;;;2. 8ELD* T$e searc$ &arran !s "o!d because ! (a!ls o descr!be &! $ par !cular! , $e $!n.s o be se!@ed. I does no spec!(, &$a $e sub"ers!"e boo4s and !ns ruc !ons are and &$a $e 'anuals no o $er&!se a"a!lable o $e publ!c con a!n o 'a4e $e' sub"ers!"e. T$ere !s absen a de(!n! e .u!del!ne as o &$a ! e's '!.$ la&(ull, be se!@ed# $us .!"!n. $e o((!cers d!scre !on re.ard!n. &$a ar !cles $e, s$ould se!@e. I !s $us !n $e na ure o( a .eneral &arran . )u $e se!@ure o( $e ar !cles could be +us !(!ed as an !nc!den o( a "al!d arres . I !s a .eneral rule $a # as an !nc!den o( an arres # $e place o( pre'!ses &$ere $e arres &as 'ade can also be searc$ed &! $ou a searc$ &arran . 5!7 When thin(s sei)ed are $ithin plain 'ie$ o# a sear"hin( party Roan ". Gon@ales# 9?F S%RA 6B< /9AB61 F* T$e c$allen.ed S3 &as !ssued b, $e resp. +ud.e on F=9E=B?. T$e pe ! !oner5s $ouse &as searc$ed 7 da,s la er bu none o( $e ar !cles l!s ed !n $e &arran &as d!sco"ered. T$e o((!cers conduc !n. $e searc$ (ound 9 col Ma.nu' re"ol"er K 9B l!"e bulle s &=c $e, con(!sca ed. T$e, are no& $e bases o( $e c$ar.e a.a!ns $e pe ! !oner. R:LING* Searc$ &arran !ssued b, resp. +ud.e !s $ereb, declared null and "o!d and accord!n.l, se as!de. T$e pe ! !oner cla!'s $a no depos! !ons &ere a4en b, $e resp. +ud.e !n accordance &= Rule 976# Sec. ? o( $e RO%# bu $!s !s no en !rel, rue. Depos! !ons &ere a4en o( $e co'pla!nan 5s 7 &! nesses !n add! !on o $e a((!da"! e;ecu ed b, $e'. I !s correc o sa,# $o&e"er# $a $e co'pla!nan $!'sel( &as no sub+ec ed o a s!'!lar !n erro.a !on. ), $!s o&n accoun s# all $a resp. +ud.e d!d &as 0ues !on %ap . Lu!llosa on $e con en s o( $!s a((!da"! onl, 2 o ascer a!n a'on. o $ers# !( $e 4ne& and unders ood $e sa'e#2 and onl, bec. 2 $e appl!ca !on &as no ,e subscr!bed and s&orn o.2 T$e su..es !on !s $a $e &ould no $a"e

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
as4ed an, 0ues !ons a all !( $e a((!da"! $ad alread, been co'ple ed &$en ! &as sub'! ed o $!'. In an, case# $e d!d no as4 $!s o&n searc$!n. 0ues !ons. 8e l!'! ed $!'sel( o $e con en s o( $e a((!da"! . 8e d!d no a4e $e appl!can 5s depos! !on !n &r! !n. and a ac$ $e' o $e record# o.e $er &= $e a((!da"! presen ed o $!'. Suc$ &r! en depos! !on !s necessar, !n order $a $e -ud.e 'a, be able o properl, de er'!ne $e e;!s ence or non-e;!s ence o( $e probable cause# o $old l!able (or per+ur, $e person .!"!n. ! !( ! &!ll be (ound la er $a $!s declara !ons are (alse. /Ma a ". )a,ona.1 T$e appl!can &as as4!n. (or $e !ssuance o( $e S3 on $e bas!s o( 'ere $earsa, and no o( !n(o. personall, 4no&n o $!'. 8!s appl!ca !on# s and!n. alone# &as !nsu((!c!en o +us !(, $e !ssuance o( $e &arran sou.$ . I &as# $ere(ore# necessar, (or $e &! nesses $e'sel"es# b, $e!r o&n personal !n(o.# o es abl!s$ $e appl!can 5s cla!'s. E"en assu'!n. $en $a ! &ould $a"e su((!ed o a4e $e depos! !on onl, o( $e &! nesses and no o( $e appl!can $!'sel(# $ere !s s !ll $e 0ues !on o( $e su((!c!enc, o( $e!r depos! !ons. A s ud, o( $e depos! !on a4en (ro' &! nesess Es'ael Morada and -esus To$!l!da# &$o bo $ cla!'ed o be 2!n ell!.ence !n(or'ers#2 s$o&s $a $e, &ere !n $e 'a!n a 'ere res a e'en o( $e!r alle.a !ons !n $e!r a((!da"! s# e;cep $a $e, &ere 'ade !n $e (or' o( ans&ers o $e 0ues !ons pu o $e' b, $e resp. +ud.e. One 'a, &ell &onder &$, ! d!d no occur o $e resp. +ud.e o as4 $o& $e &! ness could be so cer a!n e"en as o $e cal!ber o( $e .uns# or $o& (ar $e &as (ro' $e &!ndo&# or &$e $er ! &as on $e (!rs (loor or second (loor# or &$, $!s presence &as no no !ced a all# or !( $e ac s rela ed &ere reall, done openl,# !n $e (ull "!e& o( $e &! nesses# cons!der!n. $a $ese ac s &ere a.a!ns $e la&. T$ese &ould $a"e been +ud!c!ous 0ues !ons bu $e, &ere !n+ud!c!ousl, o'! ed. Ins ead# $e declara !on o( $e &! nesses &ere read!l, accep ed and $e &arran sou.$ &as !ssued (or $&! $. SOL-GEN ARG:ES T8AT T8E PETITIONER 3AIVED 38ATEVER DEFE%T 38EN T8E PETITIONER VOL:NTARILY S:)MITTED TO T8E SEAR%8 AND MANIFESTED 8IS %ONFORMITY IN 3RITING. 3e do no a.ree. 3$a &e see $ere !s pressure e;er ed b, $e '!l! ar, au $or! !es# &$o prac !call, coerced $e pe ! !oner o s!.n $e supposed &a!"er as .uaran , a.a!ns a poss!ble c$allen.e la er o $e "al!d! , o( $e searc$ $e, &ere conduc !n.. +alum *rohibitum. I does no (ollo& $a bec. an o((ense !s malum prohibitum# $e sub+ec $ereo( !s necessar!l, !lle.al per se. Mo !"e !s !''a er!al !n mala prohibita# bu $e sub+ec s o( $!s 4!nd o( o((ense 'a, no be su''ar!l, se!@ed s!'pl, bec. $e, are pro$!b! ed. A S3 !s s !ll necessar,. +otion to .uash. Pe ! !oner s$ould $a"e# be(ore co'!n. o $e S%# (!led a 'o !on o 0uas$ $e searc$ &arran b, $e resp. +ud.e. )u as &e sa!d and d!d !n )ur.os# 2 $!s procedural (la& no &! $s and!n.# &e a4e co.n!@ance o( $!s pe ! !on !n "!e& o( $e ser!ousness and ur.enc, o( $e cons! u !onal !ssues ra!sed.2 RAM. Pit% (. CA, "61 SCRA @2> 5"4147 F* Pursuan o $e An !-S'u %a'pa!.n o( Ma,or Ra'on )a.a sn.# pol!ce'en se!@ed and con(!sca ed (ro' dealers# d!s r!bu ors# ne&ss and o&ners and peddlers alon. Man!la s!de&al4s# 'a.a@!nes# publ!ca !ons and o $er read!n. 'a er!als bel!e"ed o be obscene# porno.rap$!c# and !ndecen and la er burned $e se!@ed 'a er!als !n publ!c. A'on. $e

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


publ!ca !ons se!@ed and la er burned &as 2P!no, Pla,bo,2 'a.a@!nes publ!s$ed and co-ed! ed b, pla!n !(( Leo P! a. A( er $!s !n+unc !"e rel!e( &as d!s'!ssed b, $e RT% and $!s appeal re+ec ed b, %A# $e see4s re"!e& &! $ S%# !n"o4!n. $e .uaran , a.a!ns unreasonable searc$es and se!@ure. Issue* 3=N $e searc$ and se!@ure &as !lle.al 8ELD* YES. I !s bas!c $a searc$es and se!@ure 'a, be done onl, $rou.$ a +ud!c!al &arran # o $er&!se# $e, beco'e unreasonable and sub+ec o c$allen.e. In )ur.os " %$!e( o( S a(( /9>> S%RA BEE1 # $e S% coun er'anded $e orders o( $e RT% au $or!@!n. $e serac$ o( $e pre'!ses 3E Foru' and Me ropol! an Ma!l# &o Me ro Man!la Da!l!es# b, reason o( a de(ec !"e &arran . T$ere !s a .rea er reason !n $!s case o reproba e $e 0ues !oned ra!d# !n $e co'ple e absence o( a &arran # "al!d or !n"al!d. T$e (ac $a $e !ns an case !n"ol"es an obscen! , rap 'a4es ! no d!((eren (ro' )ur.os# a pol! !cal case# because speec$ !s speec$# &$e $er pol! !cal or 2obscene2. T$e au $or! !es 'us appl, (or $e !ssuance o( $e a searc$ &arran (ro' $e +ud.e # !( !n $e!r op!n!on# an obscen! , rap !s !n order. T$e, 'us con"!nce $e cour $a $e 'a er!als sou.$ o be se!@ed are 2obscene2 and pose a clear and presen dan.er o( an e"!l subs an !"e enou.$ o &arran S a e !n er(erence and ac !on. T$e +ud.e 'us de er'!ne 3ON $e sa'e are !ndeed 2obscene2* $e 0ues !on !s o be resol"ed on a case- o-case bas!s and on $e +ud.e5s sound d!scre !on. I( probable cause e;!s # a searc$ &arran &!ll !ssue. 5'7 Stop and *ris+ Posadas ". %A# 9BB S%RA 7BB /9AAE1 F* Pa rol'ans :n.ab and :'par# bo $ 'e'bers o( $e INP o( $e Da"ao Me rod!sco' ass!.ned &= $e In ell!.ence Tas4 Force# &ere conduc !n. a sur"e!llance alon. Ma.allanes# S .# Da"ao %! ,. 3$!le $e, &ere &=!n $e pre'!ses o( $e R!@al Me'or!al %olle.es# $e, spo ed pe ! !oner carr,!n. a 2bur!2 ba. K $e, no !ced $!' o be ac !n. susp!c!ousl,. T$e, approac$ed $e pe ! !oner and !den !(!ed $e'sel"es as 'e'bers o( $e INP. Pe ! !oner a e'p ed o (lee bu &as s opped b, $e 7. T$e, $en c$ec4ed $e 2bur!2 ba. o( $e pe ! !oner &$ere $e, (ound 9 cal!ber .>B S'! $ K 3esson re"ol"er# &= 7 rounds o( l!"e a''un! !on (or a .>B cal. .un# a s'o4e .renade# K 7 l!"e a''un! !on (or a .77 cal. .un. Pe ! !oner &as brou.$ o $e pol!ce s a !on (or (ur $er !n"es !.a !on. 8e &as prosecu ed (or !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's and a''un! !ons !n $e RT% o( Da"ao %! , &$ere!n a( er a plea o( no .u!l ,# and r!al on $e 'er! s# a dec!s!on &as rendered (!nd!n. pe ! !oner .u!l ,. T$e %A a((!r'ed $e appealed dec!s!on in toto. 8ence# $e pe ! !on (or re"!e&# $e 'a!n $rus o( &=c !s $a $ere be!n. no la&(ul arres or searc$ and se!@ure# $e ! e's &=c &ere con(!sca ed (ro' $e possess!on o( $e pe ! !oner are !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence a.a!ns $!'. T$e Sol-Gen ar.ues $a under Sec. 97# R 9>6 o( RO%# a person la&(ull, arres ed 'a, be searc$ed (or dan.erous &eapons or an, $!n. /&=c 'a, be1 used as proo( o( a co''!ss!on o( an o((ense# &=o a S3. 8ELD* Fro' Sec. F# R 99># RO%# ! !s clear $a an arres &=o a &arran 'a, be e((ec ed b, a peace o((!cer or pr!"a e person# a'on. o $ers# &$en !n $!s presence $e person o be arres ed $as co''! ed# !s ac uall, co''! !n.# or !s a e'p !n. o co''! an o((ense# or &$en an o((ense $as !n (ac # +us been co''! ed# K $e $as personal 4no&led.e o( $e (ac s !nd!ca !n. $a $e person arres ed $as co''! ed ! .

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
A $e !'e $e peace o((!cers !den !(!ed $e'sel"es and appre$ended $e pe ! !oner as $e a e'p ed o (lee# $e, d!d no 4no& $a $e $ad co''! ed# or &as ac uall, co''! !n.# $e o((ense. T$e, +us suspec ed $a $e &as $!d!n. so'e $!n. !n $e bur! ba.. T$e, d!d no 4no& &$a ! s con en s &ere. T$e sa!d c!rcu's ances d!d no +us !(, an arres &=o a &arran . 8o&e"er# $ere are 'an, !ns ances &$ere a &arran K se!@ure can be e((ec ed &=o necessar!l, be!n. preceded b, an arres # (ore'os o( &=c !s $e 5s op K searc$5 &=o a S3 a '!l! ar, or pol!ce c$ec4po!n s# $e cons ! u !onal! , o( &=c $as been up$eld b, $!s %our !n Val'on e ". de V!lla. As be . a &arran less searc$ and se!@ure /S K S1 conduc ed a '!l! ar, or pol!ce c$ec4po!n s and $e searc$ $ereo( !n $e case a bar# $ere !s no 0ues !on $a # !ndeed# $e la er !s 'ore reasonable cons!der!n. $a # unl!4e !n $e (or'er# ! &as e((ec ed on $e bas!s o( a probable cause. T$e probable cause !s $a &$en $e pe ! !oner ac ed susp!c!ousl, and a e'p ed o (lee &= $e bur! ba.# $ere &as a probable cause $a $e &as conceal!n. so'e $!n. !lle.al !n $e ba. and ! &as $e r!.$ and du , o( $e pol!ce o((!cers o !nspec $e sa'e. I !s oo 'uc$ !ndeed o re0u!re $e pol!ce o((!cers o searc$ $e ba. !n $e possess!on o( $e pe ! !oner onl, a( er $e, s$all $a"e ob a!ned a S3 (or $e purpose. Suc$ an e;erc!se 'a, pro"e o be useless# (u !le and 'uc$ oo la e. As $e Sol-Gen sa!d* 2T$e assa!led S K S 'a, s !ll be +us !(!ed as a4!n o a 5s op and (r!s45 s! ua !on &$ose ob+ec !s e! $er o de er'!ne $e !den ! , o( susp!c!ous !nd!"!duals or o 'a!n a!n $e s a us 0uo 'o'en ar!l, &$!le $e pol!ce o((!cers see4s o ob a!n 'ore !n(o. ... T$e :S S% $eld !n Terr, ". O$!o $a 2a pol!ce o((!cer 'a, !n appropr!a e c!rcu's ances K !n an appropr!a e 'anner approac$ a person (or $e purpose o( !n"es !.a !n. poss!ble cr!'!nal be$a"!our e"en $ou.$ $ere !s no probable cause o 'a4e an arres .2 In suc$ a s! ua !on# ! !s reasonable (or an o((!cer ra $er $an s!'pl, o s$ru. $!s s$oulder and allo& a cr!'e o occur# o s op a susp!c!ous !nd!"!dual br!e(l, !n order o de er'!ne $!s !den ! , or 'a!n a!n. $e s a us 0uo &$!le ob a!n!n. 'ore !n(o.2 PETITION DENIED. RAM. 5 7 When there is a 'alid e,press $ai'er %ade 'ol!ntarily and intelli(ently. 3a!"er canno be !'pl!ed (ro' $e (ac $a $e person consen ed or d!d no ob+ec o $e searc$# (or ! 'an, $appen $a $e d!d so onl, ou o( respec (or $e au $or! !es. T$e &a!"er 'us be e;pressl, 'ade. People ". De lara F* A( er a sur"e!llance conduc ed# a bu,-bus opera !on &as conduc ed b, $e pol!ce# as a conse0uence o( &$!c$# accused &as arres ed. T$e accused alread, poc4e ed $e 'ar4ed 'one, and $anded &o (o!ls o $e pol!ce &$en $e sensed $e presence o( pol!ce opera !"es. 8e r!ed o re r!e"e $e &o (o!ls bu $e &as pre"en ed (ro' do!n. so. 8e r!ed o escape b, runn!n. !ns!de $!s $ouse. T$e pol!ce pursued $!' and &ere able o subdue $!'. T$e accused ad'! ed $a $e 4ep pro$!b! ed dru.s !n $!s $ouse. 8e e"en s$o&ed $e arres !n. o((!cers a blue plas !c ba. con a!n!n. pro$!b! ed

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


dru.s. T$e ea'# o.e $er &! $ $e accused# proceeded o 3PD $ead0uar ers (or !n"es !.a !on. Dur!n. $e !n"es !.a !on# accused &as appr!sed o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s o re'a!n s!len and o $a"e $e ass!s ance o( counsel. 3$en appellan &as as4ed o .!"e a &r! en s a e'en # $e re(used o do so pend!n. arr!"al o( $!s la&,er. Accused con ends $a $!s arres and $e se!@ure o( $e ba. con a!n!n. pro$!b! ed dru.s &as null and "o!d. 8e also con ends $a $e &as no ass!s ed b, counsel dur!n. cus od!al !n"es !.a !on# &$ere $e &as (orced o s!.n $e p$o ocop, o( $e 'ar4ed 'one,# $e Rece!p o( Proper , Se!@ed# and $e )oo4!n. and In(or'a !on S$ee . ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e arres o( $e accused and $e se!@ure o( $e plas !c ba. &ere "al!d. R:LING* YES. T$e accused &as cau.$ in flagrante as a resul o( a bu,-bus opera !on. T$ere &as no need (or a &arran . T$e pol!ce'en &ere no onl, au $or!@ed bu &ere also under obl!.a !on o appre$end $e dru. pus$er e"en &! $ou a &arran . T$e pol!ce'enNs en r, !n o $e $ouse o( $e accused &! $ou a searc$ &arran &as !n $o -pursu! o( a person cau.$ co''! !n. an o((ense !n (la.ran e. T$e arres $a (ollo&ed $e $o -pursu! &as "al!d. T$e se!@ure o( $e plas !c ba. &as $e resul o( $e accusedNs arres !ns!de $e $ouse. A con e'poraneous searc$ 'a, be conduc ed upon $e person o( $e arres ee and $e !''ed!a e "!c!n! , &$ere $e arres &as 'ade. ISS:E* 3$e $er $e docu'en s s!.ned b, $e accused dur!n. $e !n"es !.a !on &ere ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. R:LING* NO. T$ere &as no s$o&!n. $a accused &as $en ass!s ed b, counsel nor $!s &a!"er $ere o pu !n o &r! !n.. /T$e re+ec !on o( $ese e"!dence &ould no a((ec $e con"!c !on o( $e accused !n "!e& o( $e abundance o( o $er e"!dence es abl!s$!n. $!s .u!l .1 B%.. People ". de Grac!a# 7>> S%RA <96 /-ul, 6# 9AA?1 F* T$e !nc!den s !n"ol"ed !n $!s case oo4 place a $e $e!.$ o( $e coup d5e a s a.ed !n Dece'ber# 9ABA. Accusedappellan Rolando de Grac!a &as c$ar.ed !n &o separa e !n(or'a !ons (or !lle.al possess!on o( a''un! !on and e;plos!"es !n (ur $erance o( rebell!on# and (or a e'p ed $o'!c!de. Appellan &as con"!c ed (or !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's !n (ur $erance o( rebell!on# bu &as ac0u! ed o( a e'p ed $o'!c!de. Sur"e!llance &as under a4en b, $e '!l! ar, alon. EDSA because o( !n ell!.ence repor s abou a coup. Me'bers o( $e ea' &ere en.a.ed b, rebels !n .un(!re 4!ll!n. one 'e'ber o( $e ea'. A searc$!n. ea' ra!ded $e Eurocar Sales O((!ce. T$e, &ere able o (!nd and con(!sca e s!; car ons o( M-96 a''un! !on# (!"e bundles o( %? d,na'! es# M-s$ells o( d!((eren cal!bers# and 2'olo o"2 bo'bs !ns!de one o( $e roo's belon.!n. o a cer a!n %ol. Ma !llano. De Grac!a &as seen !ns!de $e o((!ce o( %ol. Ma !llano# $old!n. a %-? and susp!c!ousl, peep!n. $rou.$ a door. T$e ea' arres ed appellan . T$e, &ere $en 'ade o s!.n an !n"en or,# &r! en !n Ta.alo.# o( $e e;plos!"es and a''un! !on con(!sca ed b, $e ra!d!n. ea'. No searc$ &arran &as secured b, $e ra!d!n. ea'. Accused &as (ound .u!l , o( !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's. T$a +ud.'en o( con"!c !on !s no& c$allen.ed be(ore us !n $!s appeal. Issue* 3$e $er or no $ere &as a "al!d searc$ and se!@ure !n $!s case. Rul!n.* YES

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
I !s ad'! ed $a $e '!l! ar, opera !"es &$o ra!ded $e Eurocar Sales O((!ce &ere no ar'ed &! $ a searc$ &arran a $a !'e. T$e ra!d &as ac uall, prec!p! a ed b, !n ell!.ence repor s $a sa!d o((!ce &as be!n. used as $ead0uar ers b, $e RAM. Pr!or o $e ra!d# $ere &as a sur"e!llance conduc ed on $e pre'!ses &$ere!n $e sur"e!llance ea' &as (!red a b, a .roup o( 'en co'!n. (ro' $e Eurocar bu!ld!n.. 3$en $e '!l! ar, opera !"es ra!ded $e place# $e occupan s $ereo( re(used o open $e door desp! e re0ues s (or $e' o do so# $ereb, co'pell!n. $e (or'er o brea4 !n o $e o((!ce. T$e Eurocar Sales O((!ce !s ob"!ousl, no a .un s ore and ! !s de(!n! el, no an ar'or, or arsenal &$!c$ are $e usual depos! or!es (or e;plos!"es and a''un! !on. I !s pr!'ar!l, and solel, en.a.ed !n $e sale o( au o'ob!les. T$e presence o( an unusual 0uan ! , o( $!.$-po&ered (!rear's and e;plos!"es could no be +us !(!abl, or e"en colorabl, e;pla!ned. In add! !on# $ere &as .eneral c$aos and d!sorder a $a !'e because o( s!'ul aneous and !n ense (!r!n. &! $!n $e "!c!n! , o( $e o((!ce and !n $e nearb, %a'p A.u!naldo &$!c$ &as under a ac4 b, rebel (orces. T$e cour s !n $e surround!n. areas &ere ob"!ousl, closed and# (or $a 'a er# $e bu!ld!n. and $ouses $ere!n &ere deser ed. :nder $e (ore.o!n. c!rcu's ances# ! !s our cons!dered op!n!on $a $e !ns an case (alls under one o( $e e;cep !ons o $e pro$!b! !on a.a!ns a &arran less searc$. In $e (!rs place# $e '!l! ar, opera !"es# a4!n. !n o accoun $e (ac s ob a!n!n. !n $!s case# $ad reasonable .round o bel!e"e $a a cr!'e &as be!n. co''! ed. T$ere &as conse0uen l, 'ore $an su((!c!en probable cause o &arran $e!r ac !on. Fur $er'ore# under $e s! ua !on $en pre"a!l!n.# $e ra!d!n. ea' $ad no oppor un! , o appl, (or and secure a searc$ &arran (ro' $e cour s. :nder suc$ ur.enc, and e;!.enc, o( $e 'o'en # a searc$ &arran could la&(ull, be d!spensed &! $. T$ere are &o separa e s a u es penal!@!n. d!((eren o((enses &! $ d!scre e penal !es. T$e Re"!sed Penal %ode rea s rebell!on as a cr!'e apar (ro' 'urder# $o'!c!de# arson# or o $er o((enses# suc$ as !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's# $a '!.$ conce!"abl, be co''! ed !n $e course o( a rebell!on. Pres!den !al Decree No. 9B66 de(!nes and pun!s$es# as a spec!(!c o((ense# $e cr!'e o( !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's co''! ed !n $e course or as par o( a rebell!on. Sub+ec o $e presence o( $e re0u!s! e ele'en s !n eac$ case# unla&(ul possess!on o( an unl!censed (!rear' !n (ur $erance o( rebell!on 'a, .!"e r!se o separa e prosecu !ons (or a "!ola !on o( Sec !on 9 o( Pres!den !al Decree No. 9B66# and also a "!ola !on o( Ar !cles 9>? and 9>F o( $e Re"!sed Penal %ode on rebell!on. Double +eopard, !n $!s case canno be !n"o4ed because $e (!rs !s an o((ense pun!s$ed b, a spec!al la& &$!le $e second !s a (elon, pun!s$ed b, $e Re"!sed Penal %ode# 7? &! $ "ar!an ele'en s. Pres!den !al Decree No. 9B66 !'poses $e dea $ penal , &$ere $e !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's and a''un! !on !s co''! ed !n (ur $erance o( rebell!on. A $e !'e $e o((ense c$ar.ed !n $!s case &as co''! ed under $e .o"ernance o( $a la&# $e !'pos! !on o( $e dea $ penal , &as proscr!bed b, $e %ons ! u !on. %onse0uen l,# appellan De Grac!a could onl, be sen enced o ser"e $e penal , o( reclusion perpetua &$!c$ &as correc l, 'e ed ou b, $e r!al cour # albe! &! $ an erroneous reco''enda !on !n connec !on $ere&! $. @. Co$stit+tio$%lit) of !h !;#oi$ts %$' G%r %l t%rg t :o$i$gs.G Val'on e ". De V!lla# 9<E S%RA 7F6 /9ABA1 F* On 9=7E=B<# $e N%RD% &as ac !"a ed &= $e '!ss!on o( conduc !n. secur! , opera !ons &=!n ! s area or respons!b!l! , and per!p$eral areas# (or $e purpose o(

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


es abl!s$!n. an e((ec !"e err! or!al de(ense# 'a!n a!n!n. peace and order# and pro"!d!n. an a 'osp$ere conduc!"e o $e soc!al# econo'!c and pol! !cal de"5 o( $e N%R. As par o( ! s du , o 'a! a!n peace and order# $e N%RD% !ns alled c$ec4po!n s !n "ar!ous par s o( Valen@uela and MM. Pe ! !oners a"er $a # bec. o( $e !ns ! u !on o( sa!d c$ec4po!n s# $e Valen@uela res!den s are &orr!ed o( be!n. $arassed and o( $e!r sa(e , be!n. placed a $e arb! rar,# capr!c!ous and &$!'s!cal d!spos! !on o( $e '!l! ar, 'ann!n. $e c$ec4po!n s# cons!der!n. $a $e!r cars and "e$!cles are be!n. sub+ec ed o re.ular searc$es and c$ec4-ups# espec!all, a n!.$ or a da&n# &=o a S3 and= or cour order. T$e!r alle.ed (ear (or $e!r sa(e , !ncreased &$en )en+a'!n Parpon# &as .aunned do&n alle.edl, !n cold blood b, 'e'bers o( $e N%RD% (or !.nor!n. and= or con !nu!n. o speed o(( !nsp! e o( &arn!n. s$o s (!red !n $e a!r. 8ELD* Pe ! !oner5s concern (or $e!r sa(e , and appre$ens!on a be!n. $arassed b, $e '!l! ar, 'ann!n. $e c$ec4po!n s are no su((!c!en .rounds o declare $e c$ec4po!n s per se# !lle.al. No proo( $as been presen ed be(ore $e %our o s$o& $a # !n $e course o( $e!r rou !ne c$ec4s# $e '!l! ar,# !ndeed# co''! ed spec!(!c "!ola !ons o( pe ! !oners5 r!.$ s a.a!ns unla&(ul searc$ and se!@ure o( o $er r!.$ s. T$e cons ! u !onal r!.$ a.a!ns unreasonable searc$es and se!@ures !s a personal r!.$ !n"ocable onl, b, $ose &$ose r!.$ s $a"e been !n(r!n.ed# or $rea ened o be !n(r!n.ed. No all searc$es and se!@ures are pro$!b! ed. T$ose &=c are reasonable are no (orb!dden. T$e se !n. up o( $e 0ues !oned c$ec4po!n s 'a, be cons!dered as a secur! , 'easure o enable $e N%RD% o pursue ! s '!ss!on o( es abl!s$!n. e((ec !"e err! or!al de(ense and 'a!n a!n!n. peace and order (or $e ben(! o( $e publ!c. %$ec4po!n s 'a, no also be re.arded as 'easures o $&ar plo s o des ab!l!@e $e .o" # !n $e !n eres o( publ!c secur! ,. )e &een $e !n$eren r!.$ o( $e s a e o pro ec ! s e;!s ence and pro'o e publ!c &el(are and an !nd!"!dual5s r!.$ a.a!ns a &arran less searc$ &=c !s# $o&e"er# reasonabl, conduc ed# $e (or'er s$ould pre"a!l. True# $e 'ann!n. o( c$ec4po!n s b, $e '!l! ar, !s suscep !ble o( abuse b, $e '!l! ar, !n $e sa'e 'anner $a all .o"ern'en al po&er !s suscep !ble o( abuse. )u # a $e cos o( occas!onal !ncon"en!nece# d!sco'(or and e"en !rr! a !on o $e c! !@en# $e c$ec4po!n s dur!n. $ese abnor'al !'es# &$en conduc ed &=!n reasonable l!'! s# are par o( $e pr!ce &e pa, (or an orderl, soc!e , and a peace(ul co''un! ,. Gua@on ". De V!lla# 9B9 S%RA 67> /9AAE1 F* T$!s !s a pe ! !on (or pro$!b! !on &= prel. !n+. o pro$!b! $e '!l! ar, and pol!ce o((!cers represen ed b, publ!c responden s (ro' conduc !n. 2areal ar.e @on!n.s2 or 2sa ura !on dr!"es2 !n MM. T$e ?9 pe ! !oners s a e $a $e, are all o( le.al a.e# bona fide res!den s o( MM and Ta;pa,ers and leaders !n $e!r respec !"e co''un! !es. Accd.. o $e pe ! !oners# $e 2areal ar.e @on!n.s2 or 2sa ura !on dr!"es2 are !n cr! !cal areas p!npo!n ed b, $e '!l! ar, and pol!ce as places &$ere $e sub"ers!"es are $!d!n.. Pe ! !oners cla!' $a $e sa ura !on dr!"es (ollo& a co''on pa ern o( $u'an r!.$ s abuses. Responden s s ress 7 po!n s. F!rs # $e resps. $a"e le.al au $or! , o conduc sa ura !on dr!"es. And# second# $e, alle.e $a $e accusa !ons o( $e pe ! !oners abou a del!bera e d!sre.ard (or $u'an r!.$ s# are total lies. Resps. c! e Ar . VII# Sec. 9< o( $e %ons .*2T$e Pres. s$all $a"e con rol o( all $e e;ecu !"e depar 'en s# bureaus and o((!ces. 'e shall ensure that the laws are faithfully executed.2

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e, also c! e sec. 9B.*2T$e Pres. s$all be $e %o''ander-!n-c$!e( o( all AFP and &$ene"er ! beco'es necessar,# $e 'a, call ou suc$ ar'ed (orces o pre"en or suppress la&less "!olence# !n"as!on or rebell!on. ;;; 8ELD* T$e %our bel!e"es ! !s $!.$l, probable $a so'e "!ola !ons &ere ac uall, co''! ed. T$!s !s so !nsp! e o( $e alle.ed pleas o( baran.a, o((!c!als (or $e $ousands o( res!den s2 o sub'! $e'sel"es "olun ar!l, (or c$arac er and personal "er!(!ca !on.2 8o&e"er# $e re'ed, !s no o s op all pol!ce ac !ons# including the essential and legitimate ones. 3e see no $!n. &ron. !n pol!ce 'a4!n. $e!r presence "!s!bl, (el !n roubled areas. Pol!ce canno respond o r!o s or "!olen de'ons ra !on !( $e, do no 'o"e !n su((!c!en nu'bers. A s$o& o( (orce !s so'e !'es necesar, as long as the rights of the people are protected and not violated . A blan4e pro$!b! !on suc$ as $a sou.$ b, $e pe ! !oners &ould l!'! all pol!ce ac !ons o one on one con(ron a !on &$ere searc$ &arran s and &arran s o( arres a.a!ns spec!(!c !nd!"!duals are eas!l, procured. Anarc$, 'a, re!.n !( $e '!l! ar, and $e pol!ce dec!de o s! do&n !n $e!r o((!ces bec. all concer ed dr!"es &$ere a s$o& o( (orce !s presen are o all, pro$!b! ed. T$e re'ed, !s no an or!.!nal ac !on (or pro$!b! !on brou.$ $rou.$ a TP5s su! . 3$ere no one "!c !' co'pla!ns# and no one "!ola or !s properl, c$ar.ed# the problem is not initially for the !C. It is basically one for the executive departments and for the trial courts. :nder $e c!rcu's ances o( $!s TP5s su! # $ere !s no err!n. sold!er or pol!ce'an &$o' &e can order prosecu ed. In $e absence o( clear (ac s ascer a!ned $rou.$ an orderl, procedure# no per'anen rel!e( can be .!"en a $!s !'e. Fur $er !n"es !.a !on o( $e pe ! !oners5 c$ar.es and a $ard loo4 b, ad'!n. o((!c!als a $e pol!c, !'pl!ca !ons o( $e pra,ed (or blan4e pro$!b! !on are also &arran ed. In $e 'ean !'e# and !n $e (ace o( a prima facie s$o&!n. $a so'e abuses &ere probabl, co''! ed and could be co''! ed dur!n. (u ure pol!ce ac !ons# &e $a"e o e'porar!l, res ra!n $e alle.ed ban!n. on &alls# $e 4!c4!n. !n o( doors# $e $erd!n. o( $al(-na4ed 'en o asse'bl, areas (or e;a'!na !on o( a oo 'ar4s# $e "!ola !on o( res!dences e"en !( $ese are $u'ble s$an !es o( s0ua ers# and o $er alle.ed ac s &=c are s$oc4!n. o $e consc!ence. 0. Wir T%##i$g Gaanan ". IA%# 9?F S%RA 997 /9AB61 F* %o'pla!nan A ,. P!n or and Mon ebon o((ered o &! $dra& $e co'pla!n (or d!rec assaul $e, (!led a.a!ns Lacon!co a( er de'and!n. PB#EEE (ro' $!'. T$!s de'and &as $eard b, A ,. Gaanan $rou.$ a elep$one e; ens!on as re0ues ed b, Lacon!co so as o personall, $ear $e proposed cond! !ons (or $e se le'en . A ,. P!n or &as subse0uen l, arres ed !n an en rap'en opera !on upon rece!p o( $e 'one,. S!nce A ,. Gaanan l!s ened o $e elep$one con"ersa !on &! $ou co'pla!nan 5s consen # co'pla!nan c$ar.ed Gaanan and Lacon!co &! $ "!ola !on o( $e An !3!re app!n. Ac /RA ?7EE1. ISS:E* 3=N an e; ens!on elep$one !s a'on. $e pro$!b! ed de"!ces !n Sec. 9 o( RA ?7EE suc$ $a !u s use o o"er$ear a pr!"a e con"ersa !on &ould cons ! u e an unla&(ul !n ercep !on o( co''un!ca !on be &een 7 par !es us!n. a elep$one l!ne. 8ELD* NO An e; ens!on el. canno be placed !n $e sa'e ca e.or, as a d!c ap$one# d!c a.rap$# or o $er de"!ces enu'era ed !n Sec. 9 o( $e la& as $e use $ereo( canno be cons!dered as 2 app!n.2 $e &!re or cable o( a elep$one l!ne.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


T$!s sec !on re(ers o !ns ru'en s &$ose !ns alla !on or presence canno be presu'ed b, $e par , or par !es be!n. o"er$eard because# b, $e!r "er, na ure# $e, are no o( co''on usa.e and $e!r purpose !s prec!sel, (or app!n.# !n ercep !n.# or record!n. a el. con"ersa !on. T$e el. e; ens!on !n $!s case &as no !ns alled (or $a purpose. I +us $appened o be $ere (or ord!nar, o((!ce use. Fur $er'ore# ! !s a .eneral rule $a penal s a u es 'us be cons rued s r!c l, !n (a"or o( $e accused. T$us !n $e case o( doub as !n $!s case# on 3ON an e; ens!on el. !s !ncluded !n $e p$rase 2de"!ce or arran.e'en 2 $e penal s a u e 'us be cons rued as no !nclud!n. an e; ens!on el. A perusal o( $e Sena e %on.ress!onal Record s$o&s $a our la&'a4ers !n ended o d!scoura.e# $rou.$ pun!s$'en # persons suc$+ as .o"ern'en au $or! !es or represen a !"es o( or.an!@ed .roups (ro' !ns all!n. de"!ces !n order o .a $er e"!dence (or use !n cour or o !n !'!da e# blac4'a!l or .a!n so'e un&arran ed ad"an a.e o"er $e el. users. %onse0uen l,# $e 'ere ac o( l!s en!n. # !n order o be pun!s$able 'us s r!cl, be &! $ $e use o( $e enu'era ed de"!ces !n RA ?7EE or o $ers o( s!'!lar na ure. 3. Wh%t .%) & s i: ' R+l ">2, s !. >. Personal property to be sei)ed.BB A s %r!h *%rr%$t .%) & iss+ ' for th s %r!h %$' s i:+r of th follo*i$g # rso$%l #ro# rt)F 5%7 S+&< !t .%tt r of th off $s H 5&7 Stol $ or .& ::l ' %$' oth r #ro! 's or fr+its of th off $s H %$' 5!7 Us ' or i$t $' ' to & +s ' %s % . %$s of !o..itti$g %$ off $s . 5R+l s of Co+rt.7 2. EC!l+sio$%r) R+l Art. III, S !. @. CCC 5>7 A$) (i' $! o&t%i$ ' i$ (iol%tio$ of this 5#ri(%!) of !o..+$i!%tio$ %$' !orr s#o$' $! 7 or th #r ! 'i$g s !tio$ 5+$r %so$%&l s %r!h s %$' s i:+r s7 sh%ll & i$%'.issi&l for %$) #+r#os i$ %$) #ro! 'i$g. One o( $e re'ed!es o( one &$o &as "!c !'!@ed b, an !lle.al searc$ !s o as4 (or $e suppress!on o( $e $!n.s se!@ed and $e e"!dence !lle.all, a4en. T$e e;clus!onar, rule pro$!b! s $e use o( an, e"!dence ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( secs. 7 and > /91 o( Ar . III (or 2an, purpose2 and !n 2an, proceed!n.2. T$e e"!dence !s absolu el, useless. T$!s $as no al&a,s been $e case. In Moncado ". People5s %our /9A?B1# $e S%# (ollo&!n. $e :.S. case o( 3ol( V. %olorado# rules $a e"!dence !lle.all, ob a!ned !s no necessar!l, e;cluded !( !s o $er&!se ad'!ss!ble under $e rules o( e"!dence. In suc$ case# $e e"!dence ad'! ed# &! $ou pre+ud!ce o an, cr!'!nal# c!"!l or ad'!n!s ra !"e l!ab!l! , o( $e o((!cer &$o !lle.all, se!@ed ! . In o $er &ords# $e ad'!ss!b!l! , o( $e e"!dence !s no e((ec ed b, $e !lle.al! , o( $e 'eans b, &$!c$ ! &as ac0u!red. I &as !n S one$!ll ". D!o4no# supra# (ollo&!n. $e :.S. case o( Maop ". O$!o 9A6A# &$en $e e;clus!onar, rule &as (!rs adop ed !n $e P$!l!pp!nes# $e S% no !n. $a $e o al suppress!on o( $e $!n. se!@ed !s $e onl, e((ec !"e 'eans o( ensur!n. $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ &$!c$ ! see4s o preser"e. T$e %our no ed# $e !nsu((!c!enc, o( $e o $er re'ed!es /e... ac !on (or da'a.es# cr!'!nal pun!s$'en # res!s ance1# espec!all, !n $e P$!l!pp!nes &$ere "!ola !ons &ere co''! ed b, $ose !n po&er and &ere $us e0u!pped &! $ $e pardon!n.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
po&er o &a er do&n $e .ra"! , o( $e o $er penal !es !'posed o "!ola ors o( $ose cons ! u !onal r!.$ s. T$e "!c !' 'a, or 'a, no .e bac4 $e $!n. se!@ed# depend!n. on &$e $er ! !s con raband or no . I $e $!n. !s con raband# ! &ould no be re urned# and onl, ! s suppress!on can be as4ed (or. )u !( $e $!n. !s le.al# $e par , can as4 (or ! s re urn# e"en !( no cr!'!nal prosecu !on $as ,e been (!led# as !n $e S one$!ll case. S one$!ll ". D!o4no# 7E S%RA >B> /9A6<1 F* :pon appl!ca !on o( $e o((!cers o( $e .o" /resp. prosecu ors1# se"eral +ud.es /resp. +ud.es1 !ssued a o al o( ?7 searc$ &arran s a.a!ns pe ! !oners K= or $e corpora !ons o( &=c $e, &ere o((!cers# d!rec ed o an, peace o((!cer# o searc$ $e perons na'ed and= or $e pre'!ses o( $e!r o((!ces# &are$ouses# and= or res!dences# and o se!@e se"eral personal prop. as $e 2sub+ec o( $e o((enseD s olen or e'be@elled or $e (ru! s o( $e o((ense#2 or 2used or !n ended o be used as $e 'eans o( co''! !n. $e o((ense2 as "!ola !on o( %) La&s# Tar!(( and %us o's La&s /T%%1# NIR% and $e RP%.2 Alle.!n. $a $e a(ore'en !oned searc$ &arran s are null K "o!d# sa!d pe ! !oners (!led &= $e S% $!s or!.. ac !on (or cer !orar!# pro$!b! !on# 'anda'us K !n+unc !on. T$e &r! &as par !all, l!( ed or d!ssol"ed# !nso(ar as $e papers# docu'en s# and $!n.s se!@ed (ro' $e o((!cers o( $e corpora !onsD bu $e !n+unc !on &as 'a!n a!ned as re.ards $ose (ound K se!@ed !n $e res!dences o( pe ! !oners. ISS:ES* /91 3! $ respec o $ose (ound K se!@ed !n $e o((!ces o( $e corpora !ons# &=n pe ! !oners $a"e cause o( ac !on o assa!l $e "al!d! , o( $e con es ed &arran s. /71 In connec !on &= $ose (ound K se!@ed !n $e res!dences o( pe ! !oners# &=n $e searc$ &arran s !n 0ues !on and $e searc$es and se!@ures 'ade under $e au $or! , $ereo( are "al!d. />1 I( $e ans&er !n no. 7 !s no# &=n sa!d docu'en s# papers and $!n.s 'a, be used !n e"!dence a.a!ns pe ! !oners. 8ELD* /91 No. Pe ! !oners $a"e no cause o( ac !on o assa!l $e le.al! , o( $e con es ed &arran s and $e se!@ure 'ade !n pursuance $ereo( bec. sa!d corpora !ons $a"e $e!r respec !"e personal! !es# separa e and d!s !nc (ro' $e personal! , o( pe ! !oners. T$e le.al! , o( a se!@ure can be con es ed only b, $e par , &$ose r!.$ s $a"e been !'pa!red $ereb, and $a $e ob+ec !on o an unla&(ul searc$ and se!@ure !s purely personal and canno be a"al!ed o( b, >rd par !es. /71 No. T&o po!n s 'us be s ressed !n connec !on &= Ar . III# Sec. 7 o( $e %ons !* /a1 $a no &arran s$all !ssue bu upon probable cause o be de er'!ned b, $e +ud.e !n $e 'anner se (or $ $ere!nD K /b1 $a $e &arran s$all par !cularl, descr!be $e $!n.s o be se!@ed. None o( $ese re0u!re'en s $as been co'pl!ed &=. I &as s a ed $a $e na ural and +ur!d!cal persons $as co''! ed a "!ola !on o( %) la&s# T%%# NIR% K RP%. No specific offense $ad been alle.ed !n sa!d appl!ca !ons. T$e a"er'en s $ereo( &= respec o $e o((ense co''! ed &ere abstract. As a conse0uence# ! &as impossible (or $e +ud.es &$o !ssued $e &arran s o $a"e (ound $e e;!s ence o( a probable cause# (or $e sa'e presupposes $e !n roduc !on o( co'pe en proo( $a $e par , a.a!ns &$o' ! !s sou.$ $as per(or'ed particular ac s# or co''! ed specific o'!ss!ons# "!ola !n. a .!"en pro"!s!on o( our cr!'!nal la&s. General searc$ &arran s are ou la&ed bec. $e, place $e sanc ! , o( $e do'!c!le and $e pr!"ac, o( co''un!ca !on and correspondence a $e 'erc, o( $e &$!'s# capr!ce or pass!on o( peace o((!cers.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


T$e &arran s sanc !oned $e se!@ure o( all records o( $e pe ! !oners and $e a(ore'en !oned corpora !ons# &$a e"er $e!r na ure# $us openl, con ra"en!n. $e e;pl!c! co''and o( our )!ll o( R!.$ s-- $a $e $!n.s o be se!@ed be par !cularl, descr!bed-- as &ell as end!n. o de(ea ! s 'a+or ob+ec !"e* $e el!'!na !on o( general warrants. RAM. 6. Ci(il A!tio$ for D%.%g s A c!"!l case (or da'a.es can also be (!led pursuan o Ar !cle >7 o( $e %!"!l %ode. In Aberca ". Ver# $e S% $eld $a e"en !( $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! !s suspended# $e cour can ne"er $eless en er a!n an ac !on no onl, a.a!ns $e as4 (orce bu e"en a.a!ns $e op ran4!n. o((!c!als &$o ordered $e se!@ure# o reco"er da'a.es (or $e !lle.al searc$es and se!@ures 'ade !n a despo !c 'anner. ), so do!n.# one can !nd!rec l, !n0u!re !n o $e "al!d! , o( $e suspens!on o( $e pr!"!le.e. 1. S %r!h %$' S i:+r &) Pri(%t P rso$s People ". Mar !# 9A> S%RA F< /9AA91 F* )e(ore del!"er, o( appellan 5s bo; o $e )ureau o( %us o's and= or )ureau o( Pos s# Mr. -ob Re,es /propr!e or1 K $usband o( An! a Re,es# (ollo&!n. s andard opera !n. procedure# opened $e bo;es (or (!nal !nspec !on. 3$en $e opened appellan 5s bo;# a pecul!ar order e'! ed $ere(ro'. 8!s cur!os! , aroused# $e s0uee@ed one o( $e bundles alle.edl, con a!n!n. .lo"es and (el dr!ed lea"es !ns!de. Open!n. one o( $e bundles# $e pulled ou a cellop$ane &rapper pro rud!n. (ro' $e open!n. o( one o( $e .lo"es. 8e 'ade an open!n. on one o( $e cellop$ane &rappers and oo4 se"eral .ra's o( $e con en s $ereo(. -ob Re,es repor ed $e !nc!den o $e N)I and re0ues ed a labora or, e;a'!na !on o( $e sa'ples $e e; rac ed (ro' $e cellop$ane &rapper. I urned ou $a $e dr!ed lea"es &ere 'ar!+uana (lo&er!n. ops as cer !(!ed b, $e (orens!c c$e'!s o( $e Narco !cs Sec !on o( $e N)I. T$erea( er# an !n(or'a !on &as (!led a.a!ns appellan (or "!ola !on o( RA 6?7F. APPELANT %ONTENDS $a $e e"!dence sub+ec o( $e !'pu ed o((ense $ad been ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $!s cons !. r!.$ s a.a!ns unreasonable searc$es and se!@ures and pr!"ac, o( co''un!ca !on and $ere(ore ar.ues $a $e sa'e s$ould be $eld !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. T$e case a bar assu'es a pecul!ar c$arac er s!nce $e e"!dence sou.$ o be e;cluded &as pr!'ar!l, d!sco"ered and ob a!ned b, a pr!"a e person# ac !n. !n a pr!"a e capac! , and &=o $e !n er"en !on and par !c!pa !on o( s a e au $or! !es. ISS:E* Ma, an ac o( a pr!"a e !nd!"!dual# alle.edl, !n "!ola !on o( appellan 5s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s# be !n"o4ed a.a!ns $e s a eH 8ELD* 3e $old !n $e ne.a !"e. In $e absence o( .o"ern'en al !n er(erence# $e l!ber !es .uaran eed b, $e %ons !. canno be !n"o4ed a.a!ns $e S a e. T$!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ re(ers o $e !''un! , o( one5s person# &$e $er c! !@en or al!en# (ro' !n er(erence b, .o" . ;;; /V!llanue"a ". Luerub!n.1 T$e con raband !n $e case a bar $a"!n. co'e !n o possess!on o( $e .o" &=o $e la er rans.ress!n. appellan 5s r!.$ s a.a!ns unreasonable searc$es and se!@ures /S K S1# $e %our sees no co.en reason &$, $e sa'e s$ould no be ad'! ed a.a!ns $!'.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
Appellan # $o&e"er# &ould l!4e $!s %our o bel!e"e $a N)I a.en s 'ade an !lle.al searc$ and se!@ure o( $e e"!dence la er on used !n prosecu !n. $e case. T$e ar.u'en s o( appellan s ands o (all on ! s o&n &e!.$ # or $e lac4 o( ! . /irst# $e (ac ual cons!dera !ons o( $e case a bar read!l, (oreclose $e propos! !on $a N)I a.en s conduc ed an !lle.al S K S o( $e pro$!b! ed 'erc$and!se. Records o( $e case clearl, !nd!ca e $a ! &as Mr. -ob Re,es# $e propr!e or o( $e (or&ard!n. a.enc,# &$o 'ade $e searc$= !nspec !on. Suc$ !nspec !on &as reasonable and a SOP on $e par o( Mr. Re,es as a precau !onar, 'easure be(. del!"er, o( pac4a.es o $e )ureau o( %us o's or )ureau o( Pos s. !econd# $e 'ere presence o( $e N)I a.en s d!d no con"er $e reasonable searc$ e((ec ed b, Re,es !n o a &arran less S K S proscr!bed b, $e %ons !. Merel, o obser"e and loo4 a $a &=c !s pla!n s!.$ !s no searc$. 8a"!n. obser"ed $a &=c !s open# &$ere no respass $as been co''! ed !n a!d $ereo(# !s no searc$. T$a $e )!ll o( R!.$ s e'bod!ed !n $e %ons !. !s no 'ean o be !n"o4ed a.a!ns ac s o( pr!"a e !nd!"!duals (!nds suppor !n $e del!bera !ons o( $e %on %o'.* 2 ;;; T$e )!ll o( R!.$ s .o"erns $e rela !ons$!p be &een $e !nd!"!dual and $e s a e. I s concern !s no $e rela !on be &een !nd!"!duals# be &een a pr!"a e !nd!"!dual and o $er !nd!"!duals. ;;;2 /Sponsors$!p speec$ o( %o''!ss!oner )ernas.1 T$e cons ! u !onal proscr!p !on a.a!ns unla&(ul S K S $ere(ore appl!es as a res ra!n d!rec ed onl, a.a!ns $e .o" and ! s a.enc!es as4ed &= $e en(orce'en o( $e la&. T$us# ! could onl, be !n"o4ed a.a!ns $e S a e o &$o' $e res ra!n a.a!ns arb! rar, and unreasonable e;erc!se o( po&er !s !'posed. I $e searc$ !s 'ade a $e be$es or !n! ! !a !on o( $e propr!e or o( a pr!"a e es abl!s$'en (or ! s o&n and pr!"a e purposes# as !n $e case a bar# and &=o $e !n er"en !on o( pol!ce au $or! !es# $e r!.$ a.a!ns unreasonable S K S canno be !n"o4ed (or onl, $e ac o( pr!"a e !nd!"!duals# no la& en(orcers# !s !n"ol"ed. In su'# $e pro ec !on a.a!ns unreasonable S K S canno be e; ended o ac s co''! ed b, pr!"a e !nd!"!duals so as o br!n. ! &=!n $e a'b! o( alle.ed unla&(ul !n rus!on b, $e .o" . 4. I$ th iss+%$! of *%rr%$ts of ARREST, %s 'isti$g+ish ' fro. SEARCH *%rr%$ts, th <+'g .%) r l) si.#l) o$ fis!%lEs ! rtifi!%tio$ %s to #ro&%&l !%+s %o'pare Rule 997# Sec. 6 / on warrants of arrest1 &! $ Rule 976# Sec. ? /on search warrants.1 R+l "">, S !. 2. When $arrant o# arrest %ay iss!e-.. 5%7 &y the /e(ional Trial Co!rt-.. U#o$ th fili$g of %$ i$for.%tio$, th R gio$%l Tri%l Co+rt .%) iss+ % *%rr%$t for th %rr st of th %!!+s '. 5&7 &y the 0!ni"ipal Trial Co!rt-.. If th .+$i!i#%l tri%l <+'g !o$'+!ti$g th #r li.i$%r) i$( stig%tio$ is s%tisfi ' %ft r %$ C%.i$%tio$ i$ *riti$g %$' +$' r o%th of th !o.#l%i$%$t %$' his *it$ ss s i$ th for. of s %r!hi$g ,+ stio$s %$' %$s* rs, th%t % #ro&%&l !%+s Cists %$' th%t th r is % $ ! ssit) of #l%!i$g th r s#o$' $t +$' r i.. 'i%t !+sto') i$ or' r $ot to fr+str%t th $'s of <+sti! , h sh%ll iss+ % *%rr%$t of %rr st. 5R+l s of Co+rt.7 R+l ">2, S !. 0. E,a%ination o# "o%plainant1 re"ord-.. Th <+'g .+st, & for iss+i$g th *%rr%$t, # rso$%ll) C%.i$ i$ th for. of s %r!hi$g ,+ stio$s %$' %$s* rs, i$ *riti$g %$' +$' r o%th th !o.#l%i$%$t %$' %$) *it$ ss s h .%) #ro'+! o$ f%!ts # rso$%ll) ;$o*$ to th . %$' %tt%!h to th r !or's th ir s*or$ st%t . $ts tog th r *ith %$) %ffi'%(its s+&.itt '. T$e re0u!re'en !n $e case o( &arran s o( arres !s rela;ed !n $a $e +ud.e can rel, on $e cer !(!ca !on o( $e (!scal $a $e

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


la er $as conduc ed $e prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on and $as (ound probable cause on $e par o( $e accused. T$e +ud.e can !ssue $e &arran on $e bas!s o( $e !n(or'a !on (!led b, $e (!scal and $e cer !(!ca !on o( probable cause. T$e S% $as allo&ed $!s prac !ce !n A'ar.a ". Abbas# AB P$!l. <>A /9AF61# no !n. $a ! $as been prac !ce lon. se led and $a a +ud.e can !ssue an order o arres on $e bas!s o( $e cer !(!ca e. O( course# !( $e +ud.e !s !n doub # $e can al&a,s as4 $e (!scal o sub'! $e records o( $e prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on# so $e could de er'!ne (or $!'sel( !(# on $e bas!s o( $e a((!da"! s# $ere e;!s s probable cause. I $e !s sa !s(!ed &! $ $e a((!da"! s# $e need no su''on $e a((!an s. A'ar.a ". Abbas# AB P$!l. <>A /9AF61 F* Mun!c!pal -ud.e Sa'ulde conduc ed a prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on /PI1 o( Aran.ale upon a co'pla!n (or robber, (!led b, co'pla!nan Ma.banua# alle.!n. $a Aran.ale $ar"es ed pala, (ro' a por !on o( $er land d!rec l, ad+o!n!n. Aran.aleNs land. A( er $e PI# Sa'ulde rans'! ed $e records o( $e case o Pro"!nc!al F!scal Sal"an! &! $ $!s (!nd!n. $a O $ere !s pr!'a (ac!e e"!dence o( robber, as c$ar.ed !n $e co'pla!n P. F!scal Sal"an! re urned $e records o -ud.e Sa'ulde on $e .round $a $e rans'! al o( $e records &as Opre'a ureP because -ud.e Sa'ulde (a!led o !nclude $e &arran o( arres /3A1 a.a!ns $e accused. -ud.e Sa'ulde sen $e records bac4 o F!scal Sal"an! s a !n. $a al $ou.$ $e (ound $a a probable cause e;!s ed# $e d!d no bel!e"e $a Aran.ale s$ould be arres ed. F!scal Sal"an! (!led a 'anda'us case a.a!ns -ud.e Sa'ulde o co'pel $!' o !ssue a 3A. RT% d!s'!ssed $e pe ! !on on $e .round $a $e (!scal $ad no s$o&n $a $e $as a clear# le.al r!.$ o $e per(or'ance o( $e ac o be re0u!red o( $e +ud.e and $a $e la er $ad an !'pera !"e du , o per(or' ! . Ne"er$ eless# -ud.e Sa'ulde &as ordered o !ssue a 3A !n accordance &! $ Sec. F# Rule 997 o( $e 9ABF Rules o( %our . ISS:E* 3$e $er ! !s 'anda or, (or $e !n"es !.a !n. +ud.e o !ssue a 3A o( $e accused !n "!e& o( $!s (!nd!n.# a( er conduc !n. a PI# $a $ere e;!s s pr!'a (ac!e e"!dence $a $e accused co''! ed $e cr!'e c$ar.ed. 8ELD* T8E P:RPOSE OF A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION DOES NOT %ONTEMPLATE T8E ISS:AN%E OF A 3A )Y T8E INVESTIGATING -:DGE OR OFFI%ER. :nder Rule 997 o( $e 9ABF RO%# a PI !s conduc ed on $e bas!s o( a((!da"! s o de er'!ne &$e $er or no $ere !s su((!c!en .round o $old $e accused (or r!al. To de er'!ne &$e $er a 3A s$ould !ssue# $e !n"es !.a !n. +ud.e 'us $a"e e;a'!ned !n &r! !n. and under oa $ $e co'pla!nan and $!s &!r nesses b, searc$!n. 0ues !ons and ans&ersD $e 'us be sa !s(!ed $a a probable cause e;!s sD and $ere 'us be a need o place $e accused under !''ed!a e cus od, !n order no o (rus ra e $e ends o( +us !ce. I !s no obl!.a or,# bu 'erel, d!scre !onar,# upon $e !n"es !.a !n. +ud.e o !ssue a 3A# (or $e de er'!na !on o( &$e $er ! !s necessar, o arres $e accused !n order no o (rus ra e $e ends o( +us !ce# !s le( o $!s sound +ud.'en or d!scre !on. T$e (!scal s$ould# !ns ead# $a"e (!led an !n(or'a !on !''ed!a el, so $a $e RT% 'a, !ssue a &arran (or $e arres o( $e accused. B%.. B ltr%$ (. M%;%si%r, "26 SCRA @4@ 5"4117

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
F* T$e Pres. o( $e P$!ls. (!led a co'pla!n (or l!bel a.a!ns $e pe ! !oners# &$o &ere publ!s$er and colu'n!s o( $e P$!l!pp!ne S ar# based on $e (ollo&!n. s a e'en !n )el ran5s colu'n o( Oc . 97# 9AB< en ! led 2T$e Ner"ous O((!c!als o( $e A0u!no Ad'!n!s ra !on*2 2I( ,ou &!ll recall# dur!n. $e Au.. 7A coup a e'p # $e Pres. $!d under $er bed# &$!le $e (!r!n. &as .o!n. on-- per$aps $e (!rs %o''ander!n-%$!e( o( $e AFP o $a"e o do so.2 Ins ead o( sub'! !n. $!s coun er-a((!da"! # )el ran 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e co'pla!n . T$e (!scal den!end $!s 'o !on a( er (!nd!n. a pr!'a (ac!e case a.a!ns $e pe ! !oners and (!led $e case !n cour &=c $erea( er !ssued &arran s o( arres a.a!ns $e pe ! !oners. T$e pe ! !oners (!led a pe ! !on (or cer !orar! and pro$!b! !on. 8ELD* T$e add! !on o( $e &ord 2personall,2 a( er $e &ord 2de er'!ned2 /Ar . III# Sec. 71 and $e dele !on o( $e .ran o( au $or! , b, $e 9A<> %ons !. o !ssue &arran s o 2o $er respons!ble o((!cer as 'a, be au $or!@ed b, la&#2 $as apparen l, con"!nced pe ! !oner )el ran $a $e %ons !. no& re0u!res $e +ud.e o personall, e;a'!ne $e co'pla!nan and $!s &! nesses !n $!s de er'!na !on o( probable cause (or $e !ssuance o( &arran s o( arres . T$!s !s no an accura e !n erpre a !on. 3$a $e %ons !. underscores !s $e e;clus!"e and personal respons!b!l! , o( $e !ssu!n. +ud.e o sa !s(, $!'sel( o( $e e;!s ence o( probable cause. In sa !s(,!n. $!'sel( o( $e e;!s ence o( probable cause (or $e !ssuance o( a &arran o( arres # $e +ud.e !s no re0u!red o personall, e;a'!ne $e co'pla!nan and $!s &! nesses. Follo&!n. es abl!s$ed doc r!ne and procedure# $e s$all* /91 personall, e"alua e $e repor and $e suppor !n. docu'en s sub'! ed b, $e (!scal re.ard!n. $e e;!s ence o( probable cause and# on $e bas!s $ereo(# !ssue a &arran o( arres D or /71 !( on $e bas!s $ereo( $e (!nds no probable cause# $e 'a, d!sre.ard $e (!scal5s repor and re0u!re $e sub'!ss!on o( suppor !n. a((!da"! s o( &! nesses o a!d $!' !n arr!"!n. a a conclus!on as o $e e;!s ence o( probable cause. Sound pol!c, d!c a es $!s procedure# o $er&!se +ud.es &ould be undul, laden &= $e prel!'!nar, e;a'!na !on and !n"es !.a !on o( cr!'!nal co'pla!n s !ns ead o( concen ra !n. on $ear!n. and dec!d!n. cases (!led be(ore $e!r cour s. ;;; "-. Wh $ %rr st .%) & .%' *itho+t % *%rr%$t R+l ""@, S !. 3. Arr st *itho+t *%rr%$tH *h $ l%*f+l.BB A # %! offi! r or % #ri(%t # rso$ .%), *itho+t % *%rr%$t, %rr st % # rso$F 5%7 Wh $, i$ his #r s $! , th # rso$ to & %rr st ' h%s !o..itt ', is %!t+%ll) !o..itti$g, or is %tt .#ti$g to !o..it %$ off $s H 5&7 Wh $ %$ off $s , h%s i$ f%!t <+st & $ !o..itt ', %$' h h%s # rso$%l ;$o*l 'g of f%!ts i$'i!%ti$g th%t th # rso$ to & %rr st ' h%s !o..itt ' itH 5!7 Wh $ th # rso$ to & %rr st ' is % #riso$ r *ho h%s s!%# ' fro. % # $%l st%&lish. $t of #l%! *h r h is s r(i$g fi$%l <+'g. $t or t .#or%ril) !o$fi$ ' *hil his !%s is # $'i$g, or h%s s!%# ' *hil & i$g tr%$sf rr ' fro. o$ !o$fi$ . $t to %$oth r. I$ !%s s f%lli$g +$' r #%r%gr%#hs 5%7 %$' 5&7 h r of, th # rso$ %rr st ' *itho+t % *%rr%$t sh%ll & forth*ith ' li( r ' to th $ %r st #oli! st%tio$ or <%il, %$' h sh%ll & #ro! ' ' %g%i$st i$ %!!or'%$! *ith R+l "">, S !tio$. 6. 5R+l s of Co+rt.7 Rule 99># sec. F al4s o( 2c! !@en arres s2# cases &$ere an arres can be 'ade e! $er b, $e peace o((!cer or a pr!"a e person &! $ou need o( a &arran .

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


T$e 4e, ele'en !n $e (!rs case !s $a $e o((ense &as co''! ed 2!n $!s presence2. T$e 4e, ele'en !n $e second case !s $a $e $as 2personal 4no&led.e2. T$us# !n People ". )ur.os# 9?? S%RA 9 /9AB61# $e arres 'ade b, $e cons abular, &! $ou a &arran o( a (ar'er on $e bas!s o( !n(or'a !on $a $e &as a sub"ers!"e &as $eld uncons ! u !onal# s!nce $ere &as no personal 4no&led.e o( $e o((ense ! sel(. T$e .un and sub"ers!"e docu'en s (ound b, $e o((!cer and ad'! ed b, $e (or'er o be $!s &ere l!4e&!se $eld !nad'!ss!ble because $e ad'!ss!on "!ola ed $e M!randa rule. %. Stri!t $for! . $t of r+l People ". )ur.os# 9?? S%RA 9 /9AB61 F* On $e bas!s o( !n(o. .!"en b, %esar Masa'lo4# $e appellan &as arres ed &$!le plo&!n. $!s (ar' !n T!.u'an# Da"ao del Sur# on Ma, 9># 9AB7# on c$ar.es o( !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear' !n (ur $erance o( sub"ers!on. A .>B cal!ber re"ol"er &as (ound bur!ed under $!s $ouse. Sub"ers!"e docu'en s &ere also se!@ed (ro' a place near $!s $ouse. T&o arres !n. o((!cers es !(!ed $a $e appellan $ad read!l, ad'! ed o&ners$!p o( $e .un and $e docu'en s. T$e appellan &as (ound .u!l , o( $e c$ar.e and sen enced o 7E ,ears o( reclusion temporal# as '!n!'u'# o reclusion perpetua# as 'a;!'u'# and $e .un and docu'en s &ere ordered con(!sca ed. 8ELD* /91 :nder R 99># Sec. F /a1# $e arres !n. o((!cer 'us $a"e personal 4no&led.e $a $e cr!'e $as been co''! ed# !s be!n. co''! ed# or !s abou o be co''! ed# !n order o +us !(, an arres &=o a &arran . T$e o((ense 'us also be co''! ed !n $!s presence or &=!n $!s "!e&. T$ere !s no suc$ personal 4no&led.e !n $!s case. 8ence $e arres o( $e appellan &as !lle.al. /71 %onse0uen l,# $e !nc!den al searc$ and se!@ure &ere l!4e&!se !lle.al and $e (!rear' and docu'en are !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. />1 T$e prosecu !on ar.ues $a $e appellan ad'! ed o&ners$!p o( $e .un and cla!'s $a ! &as $e &$o po!n ed o $e place &$ere $e sub"ers!"e docu'en s &ere $!dden. 8o&e"er# as $e appellan &as no !n(or'ed o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s a $a !'e# $!s ad'!ss!on !s !nad'!ss!ble under QAr . III# Sec. 97 /91.R I !s rue $a 6 da,s la er $e e;ecu ed a con(ess!on be(ore $e (!scal &= $e ass!s ance o( counsel# bu ! &as $en alread, oo la e. /?1 As $e re'a!n!n. e"!dence a.a!ns $e appellan !s $e es !'on, o( %esar M. and ! !s uncorrobora ed and unrel!able# $e appellan s$ould be ac0u! ed# bu $e .un and $e sub"ers!"e docu'en s 'us be con(!sca ed. P o#l (. Ro'rig+ :, >@> SCRA 041 5A#ril >3, "4147 F* Pa . Mar"!n Pa+!lan rece!"ed a p$one call (ro' $e des4 o((!cer o( Sub-S a !on I# na'el,# M!c$ael Orbe a# &$o !n(or'ed $!' $a a person na'ed 5Al,as Allan5 &as sell!n. 'ar!+uana a No. B9AA %ons anc!a S .# Ma4a !# Me ro Man!la and re0ues ed $a sa!d person be appre$ended. Ac !n. on $!s p$one call o( des4 o((!cer M!c$ael Orbe a# a ea' o( pol!ce'en pos ed $e'sel"es abou 9E o 9F 'e ers (ro' $e $ouse loca ed a B9AA %ons anc!a S .# Ma4a !. T$e, sa& a r!c,cle &! $ > persons on board# a dr!"er and 7 passen.ers# s op !n (ron o( $e $ouse a B9AA %ons anc!a S . T$e, also sa& a 'ale person co'e ou o( $e sa!d $ouse and approac$ and al4 o $e dr!"er o( $e r!c,cle. A( er a &$!le $e, sa& $e 'ale person .o bac4 o $e $ouse and a l! le la er co'e bac4 and $and o $e r!c,cle dr!"er 5a susp!c!ous s u(( o( a c!.are e# a 'ar!+uana c!.are e5# $e, (ur $er sa& $e r!c,cle dr!"er !n

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
urn .!"e so'e $!n. o $e 'ale person. Pa . Pa+!lan o.e $er &! $ $!s co'pan!ons approac$ed $e 'ale person and $e r!c,cle dr!"er and a( er !n roduc!n. $e'sel"es as pol!ce o((!cers# $e, as4ed $e 'ale person# $e r!c,cle dr!"er and $!s 7 passen.ers o br!n. ou $e con en s o( $e!r poc4e s# &$!c$ $e 'ale person# $e dr!"er and $e passen.ers o( $e r!c,cle d!d. T$e 'ale person brou.$ ou (ro' $!s poc4e s 7 s'all plas !c ba.s con a!n!n. suspec ed 'ar!+uana lea"es. T$e r!c,cle dr!"er brou.$ ou (ro' $!s r!.$ (ron poc4e > s !c4s o( suspec ed 'ar!+uana c!.are es. No $!n. !lle.al &as (ound !n $e poc4e s o( $e 7 passen.ers o( $e r!c,cle. T$e appellan con ends $a $e pol!ce o((!cers $ad no personal 4no&led.e $a $e &as !ndeed $and!n. 'ar!+uana o Enr!co )acod as $e, &ere 9E-9F 'e ers a&a, (ro' $e alle.ed sale ransac !on. T$e arres $ere(ore &as no "al!d as $e re0u!re'en s (or a &arran less arres &ere no co'pl!ed &! $. Issue* 3as $e &aran less arres "al!dH Rul!n.* YES. T$e &arran less arres 'ade b, $e la& en(orcers &as "al!d s!nce ! (alls under $e pro"!s!ons o( Rule 99># Sec. F/a1 o( $e Rules o( %our &$!c$ pro"!des* Sec. F. Arres &! $ou &arran D &$en la&(ul. A peace o((!cer or a pr!"a e person 'a,# &! $ou a &arran # arres a person* /a1 3$en# !n $!s presence# $e person o be arres ed $as co''! ed# !s ac uall, co''! !n.# or !s a e'p !n. o co''! an o((enseD 8a"!n. cau.$ $e appellan in flagrante as a resul o( $e bu,-bus opera !on# $e pol!ce'en &ere no onl, au $or!@ed bu &ere also under obl!.a !on o appre$end $e dru. pus$er e"en &! $ou a &arran o( arres . T$e pol!ce o((!cers &ere !pped o(( b, an !n(or'er abou $e !lle.al rade o( $e accused. T$e e;ac loca !on &$ere $!s rad!n. !n dru.s &as a4!n. place &as .!"en o $e'. T$e 5susp!c!ous s u((5 a4en (ro' $e accused &ere con(!r'ed o be 'ar!+uana a( er es s &ere conduc ed on $e'. T$e a endan c!rcu's ances a4!n. place be(ore $e!r e,es led $e pol!ce o((!cers o reasonabl, conclude $a an o((ense &as ac uall, be!n. co''! ed. &. EC! #tio$s to stri!t $for! . $t /91 2%on !nuous2 cr!'es o( sub"ers!on :'!l ". Ra'os# 9B< S%RA >99 /9AAE1 T$ese are B pe ! !ons (or habeas corpus 0'C1 (!led be(. $e %our . T$e %our (!nds $a $e persons de a!ned $a"e no been !lle.all, arres ed nor arb! rar!l, depr!"ed o( $e!r cons ! u !onal r!.$ o l!ber , and $a $e c!rcu's ances a end!n. $ese cases do no &arran $e!r release on 'C. An arres &=o a &arran # under Sec. F# pars. /a1 and /b1 o( Rule 99># RO%# as a'ended !s +us !(!ed &$en $e person arres ed !s cau.$ in flagrante delicto# "!@.# !n $e ac o( co''! !n. an o((enseD or &$en an o((ense $as +us been co''! ed and $e person 'a4!n. $e arres $as personal 4no&led.e o( $e (ac s !nd!ca !n. $a $e person arres ed $as co''! ed ! . T$e persons !n &$ose be$al( $ese pe ! !ons (or 'C $a"e been (!led $ad (res$l, co''! ed or &ere ac uall, co''! !n. an o((ense# &$en appre$ended# so $a $e!r arres s# &=o &arran &ere clearl, +us !(!ed# and $a $e, are# (ur $er de a!ned b, "!r ue o( "al!d !n(or'a !ons (!led a.a!ns $e' !n cour . I

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


In :'!l ". Ra'os# RIO:-%AP%OM rece!"ed con(!den !al !n(o. abou a 'e'ber o( $e NPA-Sparro& un! be!n. rea ed (or a .uns$o &ound a $e S . A.nes 8osp! al !n Roose"el A"e.# L.%. I &as (ound $a $e &ounded person# &$o &as l!s ed !n $e $osp! al records as Ronn!e -a"elon# !s ac uall, Rolando Dural# a 'e'ber o( $e NPA l!0u!da !on s0uad# respons!ble (or $e 4!ll!n. o( 7 %AP%OM sold!ers $e da, be(ore. Dural &as $en rans(erred o $e Re.!onal Med!cal Ser"!ces o( $e %AP%OM. :pon pos! !"e !den !(!ca !on b, an e,e&! ness# Dural &as re(erred o $e %aloocan %! , F!scal &$o conduc ed an !n0ues and $erea( er (!led &= $e RT%-%aloocan %! , an !n(o. c$ar.!n. Dural &= $e cr!'e o( 2Double Murder &= Assaul upon a.en s o( persons !n au $or! ,.2 T$e pe ! !on (or 'C# !nso(ar as :'!l K V!llanue"a are concerned# !s no& 'oo and acade'!c and !s accord!n.l, d!s'!ssed# s!nce $e &r! does no l!e !n (a"or o( an accused !n a cr!'. case# &$o $as been released on ba!l. As o Dural# $e &as no arres ed &$!le !n $e ac o( s$oo !n. $e 7 sold!ers. Nor &as $e arres ed a( er $e co''!ss!on o( sa!d o((ense (or $!s arres ca'e a day after $e s$oo !n. !nc!den . 8o&e"er# Dural &as arres ed (or be!n. a 'e'ber o( $e NPA# an ou la&ed sub"ers!"e or.an!@a !on. Sub"ers!on be!n. a continuing offense# $e arres o( Dural &=o &arran !s +us !(!ed as ! can be sa!d $a $e &as co''! !n. an o((ense &$en arres ed. T$e arres o( persons !n"ol"ed !n rebell!on &$e $er as ! s (!.$ !n. ar'ed ele'en s# or (or co''! !n. non-"!olen ac s bu !n (ur $erance o( rebell!on# !s 'ore an ac o( cap ur!n. $e' !n $e course o( an ar'ed con(l!c # o 0uell $e rebell!on# $an (or $e purpose o( !''ed!a el, prosecu !n. $e' !n cour (or a s a u or, o((ense. T$e arres # $ere(ore# need no (ollo& $e usual procedure !n $e prosecu !on o( o((enses &=c re0u!res $e de er'!na !on b, a +ud.e o( $e e;!s ence o( probable cause be(. $e !ssuance o( a +ud!c!al &arran and $e .ran !n. o( ba!l !( $e o((ense !s ba!lable. Ob"!ousl,# $e absence o( a +ud!c!al &arran !s no le.al !'ped!'en o arres !n. or cap ur!n. persons co''! !n. o"er ac s o( "!olence a.a!ns .o" (orces# or an, o $er '!lder ac s bu e0uall, !n pursuance o( $e rebell!ous 'o"e'en . ;;; /Garc!a-Pad!lla ". Enr!le.1 Dural &as (ound .u!l , o( $e c$ar.e and !s no& ser"!n. $e sen ence !'posed upon $!' b, $e r!al cour . T$us# $e &r! o( 'C !s no lon.er a"a!lable II T$e arres o( A'el!a Ro0ue and 3!l(redo )uenaobra# &=o &arran !s also +us !(!ed. In "!e& o( $e re"ela !ons 'ade b, Ro.el!o Ra'os# a (or'er NPA# $e %ons an !no $ouse !n Mar!4!na 8e!.$ s &as placed under '!l! ar, sur"e!llance and on B=97=BB# pursuan o a searc$ &arran # a searc$ o( $e $ouse &as conduc ed a F PM b, %IS%-N%D K %SG. In $e course o( $e searc$ &ere (ound se"eral (!rear's# re.ular po&er suppl,# an ennae# spea4er and sub"ers!"e docu'en s. 3$en con(ron ed# R. %ons an !no /R%1 could no produce an, per'! or au $or! , o possess $e (!rear's# a''un! !on# rad!o# e c. 8e &as brou.$ o %IS 8L (or !n"es !.a !on. 3$en 0ues !oned# $e re(used o .!"e a &r! en s a e'en # al $ou.$ $e ad'! ed $a $e &as a s a(( 'e'ber o( $e e;ecu !"e o( $e N:F% and a ran4!n. 'e'ber o( $e In erna !onal Dep . o( $e %PP. A abou B PM# sa'e da,# )uenaobra arr!"ed a R%5s $ouse. 3$en arres ed# $e read!l, sub'! ed o $e '!l! ar, a.en s $a $e !s a re.ular 'e'ber o( $e %PP= NPA and $a $e &en o $e place o del!"er le ers o 2Ca Mon.#2 re(err!n. o R% and o $er 'e'bers o( $e rebel .roup. Also (ound !n )uenaobra5s possess!on &as a p!ece o( paper con a!n!n. $e +u'bled el. no. o( Flor!da Ro0ue# s!s er o( A'el!a Ro0ue#

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
a4a. 2Ca Nel!a.2 T$e, &en o $e address on B=9>=BB and arr!"ed a $e place abou 99 AM. A( er !den !(,!n. $e'sel"es as '!l! ar, a.en s and a( er see4!n. per'!ss!on o searc$ $e place# &=c &as .ran ed# $e '!l! ar, a.en s conduc ed a searc$ !n $e presence o( $e occupan s o( $e $ouse and $e baran.a, cap a!n o( $e place. T$e '!l! ar, (ound $e place o be ano $er sa(e$ouse o( $e N:F%= %PP. T$e, (ound (!rear's# sub"ers!"e docu'en s# led.ers# +ournals# "ouc$ers# a'on. o $ers. A'el!a ad'! ed o&ners$!p o( $e docu'en s se!@ed. Ro0ue &as brou.$ o $e %aloocan %! , F!scal (or !n0ues a( er &=c an !n(o. c$ar.!n. $er &= "!ol. o( PD 9B66 &as (!led. Ano $er !n(o. (or "!ol. o( $e An !-Sub"ers!on Ac &as (!led a.a!ns Ro0ue and also o )uenaobra. A pe ! !on (or 'C &as (!led be(. $!s %our on be$al( o( Ro0ue and )uenaobra. A $e $ear!n.# )uenaobra 'an!(es ed $!s des!re o s a, !n $e P%-INP s oc4ade a %a'p %ra'e# L.%. Accord!n.l,# $e pe ! !on (or 'C on $!s be$al( !s no& 'oo and acade'!c. III Anonue"o ". Ra'os. T$e arres o( Do'!n.o Anonue"o /A1 and Ra'on %as!ple /%1 &=o &arran !s +us !(!ed. A abou <*>E PM on B=9>=BB# A and % arr!"ed a $e $ouse o( R% &=c &as s !ll under sur"e!llance. T$e '!l! ar, no !ced bul.!n. ob+ec s on $e!r &a!s l!nes. 3$en (r!s4ed# $e a.en s (ound $e' o be loaded .uns. T$e, &ere as4ed o s$o& $e!r per'! or l!cense o possess or carr, (!rear's and a''un! !ons bu $e, could no produce an,. 8ence# $e, &ere brou.$ o P% 8L (or !n"es !.a !on. A $e P% s oc4ade# A &as !den !(!ed as 2Ca Ted#2 and % as 2Ca To o,2 o( $e %PP b, $e!r (or'er co'rades. On B=9F=BB# an !n(o. c$ar.!n. $e' &= "!ol. o( PD 9B66 &as (!led be(. RT%-Pas!.. On B=7?=BB# a pe ! !on (or 'C &as (!led be(. $!s %our . 8ELD* T$e pe ! !oner5s cla!' $a $e, &ere unla&(ull, arres ed bec. $ere &as no pre"!ous &arran # !s &=o 'er! . T$e records s$o& $a $e, &ere carr,!n. unl!censed (!rear's and a''un! !ons !n $e!r person &$en appre$ended. T$ere !s also no 'er! !n $e con en !on $a $e !n(o. (!led a.a!ns $e' are null and "o!d (or &an o( prel. !n". T$e (!l!n. o( an !n(o.# &=o a prel. !n".# $a"!n. been (!rs conduc ed# !s sanc !oned b, Rule 997# Sec. <# RO%. Pe ! !oners re(used o s!.n a &a!"er o( $e pro"!s!ons o( Ar . 97F# RP%. Nor d!d pe ! !oners as4 (or prel. !n". a( er $e !n(or'a !ons $ad been (!led a.a!ns $e' !n cour . IV Oca,a ". A.u!rre. VII On F=97=BB# a.en s o( $e P% In ell!.ence and In"es !.a !on D!"!s!on o( R!@al P%-INP %o''and# ar'ed &= a searc$ &arran # conduc ed a searc$ o( a $ouse loca ed a Mar!4!na Green 8e!.$ s# bel!e"ed o be occup!ed b, )en! o T!a'son# $ead o( $e %PP-NPA. In $e course o( $e searc$# Oca,a arr!"ed !n a car dr!"en b, Dann, R!"era. Sub"ers!"e docu'en s and se"eral rounds o( a''un! !ons (or a .?F cal. p!s ol &ere (ound !n V!c4, Oca,a5s car. T$e, &ere brou.$ o $e P% 8L (or !n"es !.a !on# &$en O. could no produce an, per'! or au $or!@a !on o possess $e a''un! !on# an !n(o. c$ar.!n. $er &= "!ol. o( PD 9B66 &as (!led &= RT%-Pas!.. R!"era &as released (ro' cus od,. On F=9<=BB# a pe ! !on (or 'C &as (!led on be$al( o( $ese 7.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


8ELD* V!c4, O. &as arres ed in flagrante delicto so $a $er arres &=o &arran !s +us !(!ed. No. prel. !n". &as conduc ed bec. s$e &as arres ed &=o a &arran and s$e re(used o &a!"e $e pro"!s!ons o( Ar . 97F o( $e RP%# pursuan o R997# Sec. <# RO%. V T$e pe ! !oners Oca,a# Anonue"o# %as!ple and Ro0ue cla!' $a $e (!rear's# a''un! !ons and sub"ers!"e docu'en s alle.ed o $a"e been (ound !n $e!r possess!on# &$en arres ed# d!d no belon. o $e'# bu &ere plan ed b, $e '!l! ar, o +us !(, $e!r !lle.al arres . T$e pe ! !oners# $o&e"er# $a"e no !n roduced an, e"!dence o suppor $e!r cla!'. On $e o $er $and# no e"!l 'o !"e or !ll &!ll on $e par o( $e arres !n. o((!cers $a could cause $e sa!d o((!cers !n $ese cases o accuse $e pe ! !oners (alsel,# $as been s$o&n. As po!n ed ou b, $e Sol-Gen# $e arres o( $e pe ! !oners !s no a produc o( a &! c$ $un or a (!s$!n. e;ped! !on# bu $e resul o( an !n-dep $ sur"e!llance o( NPA sa(e$ouses po!n ed no less $an b, (or'er co'rades o( $e pe ! !oners. VI Esp!r! u ". L!'. Deo.rac!as Esp! ! u !s $e Gen. Sec. o( PISTON. Pe ! !oner cla!'s $a a abou F AM o( 99=7>=BB# &$!le $e &as sleep!n. !n $!s $o'e loca ed a S a. Mesa# Mla.# $e &as a&a4ened b, $!s s!s er &$o old $!' $a a .roup o( persons &an ed o $!re $!s +eepne,. 3$en $e &en do&n o al4 o $e'# $e &as !''ed!a el, pu under arres . 3$en $e as4ed (or $e &arran # $e 'en bod!l, l!( ed $!' and placed $!' !n $e!r o&ner ,pe +eepne,. 8e de'anded $a $!s s!s er be allo&ed o acco'pan, $!'# bu $e 'en d!d no accede o $!s re0ues . An !n(o. c$ar.!n. $!' &= "!ol. o( Ar . 9?7# RP% /Inc! !n. o sed! !on1 &as (!led a.a!ns $!'. In $e a( ernoon o( 99=77=BB# dur!n. a press-con a $e NP% 2Deo.rac!as E. $rou.$ r!-'ed!a &as $eard ur.!n. all dr!"ers and opera ors o .o on na !on&!de s r!4e on 99=7>=BB ;;;.2 Pol!ce'en &a! ed (or pe ! !oners ou s!de $e NP% !n order o !n"es !.a e $!'# bu $e .a"e $e la&'en $!s sl!p. 8e &as ne; seen a abou F PM a a .a $er!n. o( dr!"ers and s,'pa $!@ers# &$ere $e &as $eard as sa,!n.# 2)u4as ulo, and &el.a na !n ... $an..an. sa 'a.4a.ulo na.2 S!nce $e arres o( $e pe ! !oner &=o &arran &as !n accordance &= $e pro"!s!ons o( R 99># Sec. F /b1# RO%# and $e pe ! !oner !s de a!ned b, "!r ue o( a "al!d !n(o. (!led &= $e co'pe en cour # $e 'a, no be released on 'C.

Na@areno ". S a !on %o''ander. A abou B*>E AM o( 97=9?=BB# one Ro'ulo )un,e II &as 4!lled b, a .roup o( 'en !n Alaban.# Mun !n.lupa# MM. One o( $e suspec s !n $e 4!ll!n. &as Ra'!l Re.ala &$o &as arres ed b, $e pol!ce on 97=7B=BB. :pon 0ues !on!n.# Re.ala po!n ed o Na@areno as one o( $!s co'pan!ons !n $e 4!ll!n. o( )un,e II. In "!e& $ereo(# $e o((!cers# &=o &arran # p!c4ed up Na@areno and brou.$ $!' o $e pol!ce 8L (or 0ues !on!n.. ;;; On 7=9=BA# $e pres!d!n. +ud.e o( $e RT%-)!nan# La.una# !ssued a resolu !on den,!n. $e pe ! !on (or 'C, ! appear!n. $a sa!d Narc!so Na@areno !s !n $e cus od, o( $e responden s b, reason o( an !n(o. (!led a.a!ns $!' &= $e RT%-M4 !.# MM.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
8ELD* T$e arres o( Na@areno &as e((ec ed b, $e pol!ce &=o &arran pursuan o Sec. F /b1# R 99># RO%# a( er $e &as pos! !"el, !'pl!ca ed b, $!s co-accusedD and a( er !n"es !.a !on b, $e pol!ce. T$e obl!.a !on o( an a.en o( au $or! , o 'a4e an arres b, reason o( a cr!'e# does no presuppose as a necessar, re0u!s! e (or $e (ul(!ll'en $ereo(# $e !ndub! able e;!s ence o( a cr!'e. For $e de en !on o be per(ec l, le.al# ! !s su((!c!en $a $e a.en or person !n au $or! , 'a4!n. $e arres $as reasonabl, su((!c!en .rounds o bel!e"e $e e;!s ence o( an ac $a"!n. $e c$arac er!s !c o( a cr!'e and $a $e sa'e .rounds e;!s o bele!"e $a $e person sou.$ o be de a!ned par !c!pa ed $ere!n.2 /Peo. ". Anc$e a.1

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


be(ore $!s arres # &=o &arran # $ad s$o 7 %AP%OM pol!ce'en !n $e!r pa rol car. Dural# .!"en ano $er oppor un! ,# &ould $a"e s$o or &ould s$oo o $er pol!ce'en# an,&$ere as a.en s or represen a !"e o( an or.an!@ed .o" . I !s !n $!s sense $a sub"ers!on and rebell!on are anc$ored on an !deolo.!cal base &=c co'pels $e repe ! !on o( $e sa'e ac s o( la&lessness and "!olence un !l $e o"err!d!n. ob+ec !"e o( o"er $ro&!n. or.an!@ed .o" !s a a!ned. 8!s arres &as based on 2probable cause.2 Sec. F# R 99># RO%# re0u!res 7 cond! !ons (or a "al!d arres &=o &arran * /91 $e person o be arres ed $as +us co''! ed an o((ense and /71 $e person arres !n. $as personal 4no&led.e o( (ac s !nd!ca !n. $a $e person o be arres ed !s $e one &$o co''! ed $e o((ense. It has been ruled that personal +no$led(e o# #a"ts in arrests w$o warrant must be based upon probable "a!se, w$c means on actual belief or reasonable grounds of suspicion. T$e .rounds o( susp!c!on are reasonable &$en# !n $e absence o( ac ual bel!e( o( $e arres !n. o((!cers# $e susp!c!on $a $e person o be arres ed !s probabl, .u!l , o( co''! !n. $e o((ense# !s based on a"t!al #a"ts# !.e.# supported by circumstances sufficiently strong in themselves to create the probable cause of guilt of the person to be arrested. A reasonable suspicion therefore must be founded on probable cause, coupled w$ good faith on the part of the peace officers ma%ing the arrest. Sa!d con(!den !al !n(o. rece!"ed b, $e arres !n. o((!cers# o $e e((ec $a an NPA &as be!n. rea ed (or a .uns$o &ound &as based on ac ual (ac s and suppor ed b, c!rcu's ances su((!c!en l, o en.ender a bel!e( $a an NPA 'e'ber &as rul, !n sa!d $osp! al. T$e ac ual (ac s suppor ed b, c!rcu's ances are* /91 $e da, be(.# or on 9=>9=BB# 7 %AP%OM sold!ers &ere ac uall, 4!lled !n )a.on. )o.# %aloocan %! , b, F 2sparro&s2 !nclud!n. DuralD /71 a &ounded person l!s ed !n $e $osp! al records as 2Ronn!e -a"elon2 &as ac uall, $en be!n. rea ed !n sa!d $osp! al (or (or a .uns$o &oundD />1 2Ronn!e -a"elon2 and $!s address en ered !n $e $osp! al records &ere (!c ! !ous and $e &ounded 'an &as !n real! , Dural. #n good faith.-- T$e peace o((!cers &$o arres ed Dural are dee'ed o $a"e conduc ed $e sa'e !n .ood (a! $# cons!der!n. $a la& en(orcers are presu'ed o re.ularl, per(or' $e!r o((!c!al du !es. A (e& da,s a( er Dural5s arres # an !n(o. c$ar.!n. $!' &= Double 'urder &= assaul a.a!ns a.en s o( persons !n au $or! , &as (!led !n RT%-%aloocan %! ,. 8e &as placed under +ud!c!al cus od,. On B=>9=BB# $e &as con"!c ed and sen enced o reclusion perpetua. As o 3. Roque.# (. Buenaobra# 2. 3nonuevo, R.. Casiple 4 ). #caya# $e!r arres s# &=o &arran # are also +us !(!ed. T$e, &ere searc$ed pursuan o a &arran !ssued b, a cour o( la& and &ere (ound &= unl!censed (!rear's# e;plos!"es and= or a''un! !ons on $e!r persons. T$e, &ere# $ere(ore# cau.$ in flagrante delicto &=c +us !(!ed $e!r ou r!.$ arres &=o &arran under Sec. F /a1# R99># RO%. A (e& da,s a( er $e!r arres s# !n(or'a !ons &ere (!led !n cour a.a!ns sa!d pe ! !oners plac!n. $e' &=!n +ud!c!al cus od, and d!spos! !on. )uenaobra5s pe ! !on !s 'oo bec. $e $ad c$osen o re'a!n !n de en !on. T$e reason &$!c$ co'pelled $e '!l! ar, a.en s o 'a4e $e arres s &=o &arran &as $e !n(o. .!"en o $e '!l! ar, $a 7 sa(e$ouses /one occup!ed b, R% and $e o $er b, )en! o T!a'son1 &ere be!n. used b, $e %PP= NPA (or $e!r opera !ons# &= !n(o. as o $e!r e;ac loca !on and $e na'es o( R% and )T as res!den s and occupan s $ereo(. And a $e !'e o( $e ac ual arres s# $e (ollo&!n. c!rcu's ances surrounded sa!d arres s /o( Ro0ue# )uenaobra# Anonue"o and %as!ple1# &=c con(!r'ed $e bel!e( o( $e '!l! ar, $a $e !n(o. $e, $ad rece!"ed &as rue and $e

VIII In all $e pe ! !ons $ere cons!dered# cr!'!nal c$ar.es $a"e been (!led !n $e proper cour s a.a!ns $e pe ! !oners. T$e rule !s $a !( a person alle.ed o be res ra!ned o( $!s l!ber , !s !n $e cus od, o( an o((!cer under process !ssued b, a cour or +ud.e# and $a $e cour or +ud.e $ad +ur!sd!c !on o !ssue $e process or 'a4e $e order# or if such person is charged before any court # $e &r! o( 'C &!ll no be allo&ed. /Sec. ?# R 9E7# RO%.1 On $e Ila.an Doc r!ne. As $e %our sees ! # re-e;a'!na !on or re-appra!sal# &= a "!e& o ! s abandon'en # o( $e Ila.an case doc r!ne !s no $e ans&er. T$e ans&er and $e be er prac !ce &ould be# no o l!'! $e (unc !on o( 8% o a 'ere !n0u!r, as o &=n $e cour &=c !ssued $e process# +ud.e'en or order o( co''! 'en # or be(. &$o' $e de a!ned person !s c$ar.ed# $ad +ur!sd!c !on or no o !ssue $e process# +ud.'en or order or o a4e co.n!@ance o( $e case# bu ra$ er# as $e cour ! sel( s a ed !n Morales# -r. ". Enr!le# !n all pe ! !ons (or 8%# $e cour 'us !n0u!re !n o e"er, p$ase and aspec o( pe ! !oner5s de en !on-- 2(ro' $e 'o'en pe ! !oner was ta%en into custody up to the moment the court passes upon the merits of the petitionD2 and 2onl, after such a scrutiny can the court satisfy itself that the due process clause of our Constitution in fact has been satisfied.2 :'!l ". Ra'os# 7E7 S%RA 7F9 PETITION SEECING SEPARATE MOTIONS FOR RE%ONSIDERATION FROM T8E %O:RT5S DE%ISION PROM:LGATED ON A -:LY 9AAE T$e dec!s!on /on -ul, A# 9AAE1 d!d not rule $a 'ere susp!c!on $a one !s a %PP or NPA !s a "al!d .round (or $!s arres &=o &arran . 3e (!nd no 'er! !n $e 'o !ons (or recons!dera !on. Rolando 2ural.-- 8!s arres &=o &arran !s +us !(!ed as ! can be sa!d $a # &=!n $e con e'pla !on o( Sec. F /a1# R 99># RO%# $e &as co''! !n. an o((ense# &$en arres ed# bec. Dural &as arres ed (or be!n. a 'e'ber o( $e NPA# an ou la&ed or..# &$ere 'e'bers$!p !s penal!@ed# and (or sub"ers!on &=c# l!4e rebell!on !s# under Garc!a ". Pad!lla# a continuing crime. Dural d!d no cease o be# or beco'e less o( a sub"ers!"e# FOR P:RPOSES OF ARREST# s!'pl, bec. $e &as# a $e !'e o( arres # con(!ned !n $e S . A.nes 8osp! al. Dural &as !den !(!ed as one o( se"eral persons &$o# $e da,

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
persons o be arres ed &ere probabl, .u!l , o( $e co''!ss!on o( cer a!n cr!'es* (!rs # $e searc$ &arran &as dul, !ssued o e((ec $e searc$ o( $e %ons an !no sa(e$ouseD second# (ound !n $e sa(e$ouse &as a person na'ed R%# &$o ad'! ed $a $e &as a ran4!n. 'e'ber o( $e %PP# and (ound !n $!s possess!on &ere unl!censed (!rear's and co''un!s e0u!p'en D $!rd# a $e !'e o( $e!r arres s# !n $e!r possess!on &ere unl!censed (!rear's# a''un! !ons# and= or sub"ers!"e docu'en s# and $e, ad'! ed o&ners$!p $ereo( as &ell as $e!r 'e'bers$!p !n $e %PP= NPA. And $en s$or ,l, a( er $e!r arres s# $e, &ere pos! !"el, !den !(!ed b, $e!r (or'er co'rades as %PP= NPA 'e'bers. An arres !s !n $e na ure o( an ad'!n!s ra !"e 'easure. T$e po&er o arres &=o &arran !s &=o l!'! a !on as lon. as $e re0u!re'en s o( Sec. F# R 99> are 'e . T$!s rule !s (ounded on an o"er&$el'!n. publ!c !n eres !n peace and order !n our co''un! ,. 2;;; T$e le.al! , o( $e de en !on does no depend upon $e (ac o( $e cr!'e# bu ;;; upon $e na ure o( $e deed# &$ere(ro' suc$ c$arac er!@a !on 'a, reasonabl, be !n(erred b, $e o((!cer or (unc !onar, o &$o' $e la& a $e 'o'en lea"es $e dec!s!on (or $e ur.en purpose o( suspend!n. $e l!ber , o( $e c! !@en.2 /:S ". Sanc$e@.1 ESPIRIT: &as arres ed &=o &arran # no (or sub"ers!"e or an, 2con !nu!n. o((ense#2 bu (or u er!n. $e &ords 2)u4as ulo, an. &el.a na !n ;;; $an..an. sa 'a.4a.ulo na2 &=c !n $e percep !on o( $e arres !n. o((!cers# &as inciting to sedition. Man, persons d!((er as o $e "al!d! , o( suc$ percep !on and re.ard $e lan.ua.e as (all!n. &=!n (ree speec$ .uaran eed b, $e %ons !. )u # $e au $or! , o( $e peace o((!cers o 'a4e $e arres # &=o &arran # a $e !'e $e &ords &ere u ered# or soon $erea( er# !s s !ll ano $er $!n.. In $e balanc!n. o( au $or! , and (reedo'# &=o ob"!ousl, beco'es d!((!cul a !'es# $e cour # $as !n $!s case# !l ed $e scale !n (a"or o( au $or! , but only for purposes of the arrest /no con"!c !on.1 Super"en!n. e"en s 'ade $!s case 'oo and acade'!c. (or E. $ad be(. arra!.n'en as4ed $e cour a quo (or re-!n"es !.a !on# $e peace o((!cers d!d no appear. %ase a.a!ns E. $as been pro"!s!onall, d!s'!ssed and $!s ba!l cancelled. 5363R"5#7! 3RR"!T. Al $ou.$ $e 4!ll!n. o( )un,e II occured on 97=9?=BB# &$!le Na@areno5s arres &=o &arran &as 'ade onl, on 97=7B=BB or 9? da,s la er# e$ arres (alls under Sec. F /b1# R99># s!nce ! &as onl, on 97=7B=BB $a $e pol!ce au $or! !es ca'e o 4no& $a Na@areno &as probabl, one o( $ose .u!l , !n $e 4!ll!n. o( )un,e II and $e arres $ad o be 'ade pro'p l,# e"en &=o a &arran /a( er $e pol!ce &ere aler ed1 and desp! e $e lapse o( 9? da,s o pre"en poss!ble (l!.$ . Na@areno $as s!nce been con"!c ed b, $e cour a quo (or 'urder and sen enced o reclusion perpetua. 32+I!!IB8IT9 #/ ":TR3 ;&2ICI38 32+I!!I#5. T$ese ad'!ss!ons s ren. $en $e %our 5s percep !on $a rul, $e .rounds upon &=c $e arres !n. o((!cers based $e!r arres s &=o &arran # are suppor ed b, probable cause# !.e.# $a $e persons arres ed &ere probabl, .u!l , o( $e co''!ss!on o( cer a!n o((enses# !n co'pl!ance &= Sec. F# R 99># RO%. To no e $ese ad'!ss!ons# on $e o $er $and# !s no o rule $a $e persons arres ed are alread, .u!l , o( $e o((enses upon &=c $e!r &arran less arres s &ere pred!ca ed. T$e as4 o( de er'!n!n. $e .u!l or !nnocence o( persons arres ed &=o &arran !s no proper !n a pe ! !on (or 'C. I per a!ns o $e r!al o( $e case on $e 'er! s.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

5>7 Ill g%l Poss ssio$ of g+$s or 'r+gs People ". L!nsan.an# 9AF S%RA <B? F* Accused L!nsan.an &as arres ed a( er a Obu,-bus P opera !on. T$e &o 'ar4ed en-peso b!ll &ere re r!e"ed (ro' $!'. 8e &as as4ed o s!.n $!s na'e on $e &o 'ar4ed b!lls. T$e en $androlled c!.are e s !c4s con(!sca ed (ro' $e accused &ere sub'! ed (or e;a'!na !on. A( er (!nd!n. $ese pos! !"e (or 'ar!+uana# a case &as (!led (or "!ola !on o( $e Dan.erous Dru.s La&. L!nsan.an den!ed $e c$ar.e. T$e r!al cour (ound L!nsan.an .u!l ,. :pon appeal# one o( $e asser !ons o( L!nsan.an &as $a $e r!al cour erred !n no $old!n. $a &$en $e pol!ce'en re0u!red $!' o !n! !al $e 'ar4ed b!lls# $e, "!ola ed $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ o counsel# o re'a!n s!len # and no o !ncr!'!na e $!'sel( &$!le under cus od!al !n"es !.a !on. ISS:E* 38ET8ER OR NOT T8ERE 3AS A VIOLATION OF T8E A%%:SEDNS %ONSTIT:TIONAL RIG8TS 38EN 8E 3AS MADE TO SIGN T8E MARCED )ILLS. 8ELD* Al $ou.$ $e accused &as no ass!s ed b, counsel &$en $e !n! !aled $e P9E-b!lls $a $e pol!ce (ound uc4ed !n $!s &a!s # $!s r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on &as no "!ola ed (or $!s possess!on o( $e 'ar4ed b!lls d!d no cons ! u e a cr!'eD $e sub+ec o( $e prosecu !on &as $!s ac o( sell!n. 'ar!+uana c!.are es. 8!s con"!c !on &as no based on $e presence o( $!s !n! !als on $e 'ar4ed b!lls# bu on $e (ac $a $e r!al cour bel!e"ed $e es !'on, o( $e pol!ce'en $a $e, arres ed $!' &$!le $e &as ac uall, en.a.ed !n $e sell!n. 'ar!+uana c!.are es o a 'e'ber o( $e arres !n. par ,. T$e r!al cour .a"e 'ore credence o $e!r ca e.or!cal declara !ons $an o $e appellan Ns den!als. T$a !s as ! s$ould be (or as la& en(orcers# $e, are presu'ed o $a"e per(or'ed $e!r o((!c!al du !es !n a re.ular 'anner. T$e!r as4 o( appre$end!n. persons en.a.ed !n $e deadl, dru. rade !s d!((!cul enou.$ &! $ou le.al and procedural ec$n!cal! !es o 'a4e ! doubl, so. 99. I''un! , (ro' arres o( 'e'bers o( %on.ress Art. 8I, S !. "". A S $%tor or M .& r of th Ho+s sh%ll, i$ %ll off $s s #+$ish%&l &) $ot .or th%$ siC 527 ) %rs i.#riso$. $t 5prision "orre"ional7, & #ri(il g ' fro. %rr st *hil Co$gr ss is i$ s ssio$. CCC B. Rights of P rso$s +$' r !+sto'i%l i$t rrog%tio$ Art. III, S !. ">. 5"7 A$) # rso$ +$' r !+sto'i%l i$( stig%tio$ for th !o..issio$ of %$ off $s , sh%ll h%( th right to & i$for. ' of his right to r .%i$ sil $t %$' to h%( !o.# t $t %$' i$' # $' $t !o+$s l #r f r%&l) of his o*$ !hoi! . If th # rso$ !%$$ot %ffor' th s r(i! s of !o+$s l, h .+st & #ro(i' ' *ith o$ . Th s rights !%$$ot & *%i( ' C! #t i$ *riti$g %$' i$ th #r s $! of !o+$s l. 5>7 No tort+r , for! , (iol $! , thr %t, i$ti.i'%tio$, or %$) oth r . %$s *hi!h (iti%t th fr *ill sh%ll & +s ' %g%i$st hi.. S !r t ' t $tio$ #l%! s, solit%r), in"o%%!ni"ado, or oth r si.il%r for.s of ' t $tio$ %r #rohi&it '.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
5@7 A$) !o$f ssio$ or %'.issio$ o&t%i$ ' i$ (iol%tio$ of this or s !. "6 h r of, sh%ll & i$%'.issi&l i$ (i' $! %g%i$st hi.. 507 Th l%* sh%ll #ro(i' for # $%l %$' !i(il s%$!tio$s for (iol%tio$s of this s !tio$, %s * ll %s !o.# $s%tio$ to %$' r h%&ilit%tio$ of (i!ti.s of tort+r or si.il%r #r%!ti! s, %$' th ir f%.ili s. So+r! F Mir%$'% (. Ari:o$%, @10 U.S. 0@2 5"4227 Accord!n. o %$!e( -us !ce 3arren# &$en a de(endan !s $rus !n o an un(a'!l!ar a 'osp$ere and run $rou.$ 'enac!n. pol!ce !n erro.a !on procedures# &$ere co'puls!on !s (orce(ull, po en !al and $!s &!ll !s l!4el, o be sub+u.a ed# $e o((!cers 'us under a4e o a((ord proper sa(e.uards b, $e read!n. o( $e 2M!randa r!.$ s2 a $e ou se o( $e !n"es !.a !on o ensure $a $e s a e'en s 'ade are rul, $e produc o( (ree c$o!ce. An, person under cus od!al or pol!ce !n"es !.a !on $as $e r!.$ o be !n(or'ed o( $e (ollo&!n. r!.$ s* 9. R!.$ o re'a!n s!len a1 To 'a4e $!' a&are o( ! . b1 To o"erco'e $e !n$eren pressure o( $e !n erro.a !n. a 'osp$ere c1 To s$o& $e !nd!"!dual $a $!s !n erro.a ors are prepared o reco.n!@e $!s pr!"!le.e s$ould $e c$oose o !n"o4e $!s r!.$ . 7. R!.$ o be re'!nded $a !( $e &a!"es $!s r!.$ o re'a!n s!len # an, $!n. $e sa,s can and &!ll be used a.a!ns $!'. a1 To &arn $!' o( $e conse0uences o( &a!"!n. $!s r!.$ o re'a!n s!len . b1 To 'a4e $!' a&are $a $!s !s an ad"ersar, s,s e'# and $a $e pol!ce are no ac !n. !n $!s !n eres . >. R!.$ o counsel be(ore and dur!n. $e !n erro.a !on a1 To '! !.a e $e dan.ers o( un rus &or $!ness !n $!s es !'on,# s!nce $e !n$eren pressures !n! !all, o"erco'e b, $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len 'a, a.a!n run unless coupled &! $ $e r!.$ o counsel. b1 To lessen $e poss!b!l! , o( coerc!on b, $e pol!ce. ?. R!.$ o be re'!nded $a !( $e canno a((ord counsel# $en one &!ll be pro"!ded (or $!' b, $e s a e. a1 To !n(or' $!' $a !( $e does no $a"e counsel or canno a((ord one# $e does no $a"e o de(end $!'sel( alone. b1 To !n(or' $!' $a $!s po"er , !s no reason &$, $e s$ould lose $!s r!.$ o counsel. /T$e read!n. o( $ese r!.$ s !s no less !nd!spensable e"en !( $e person arres ed !s a pro'!nen %ons ! u !onal la&,er. Al $ou.$ $e 'a, alread, 4no& $ese r!.$ s# $e purpose !s no so 'uc$ o !n(or' $!'# as o assure $!' $a $!s !n erro.a ors are &!ll!n. o respec $!s r!.$ s a'!ds $e pressure o( cus od!al !n"es !.a !on.1 T$e read!n. o( 2cus od!al !n"es !.a !on2. $ese r!.$ s !s re0u!red dur!n.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


an,one5s .u!l !n par !cular. A $!s s a.e# $e M!randa rule !s no ,e appl!cableD o $er&!se# people &$o could o $er&!se e;pla!n $e!r !nnocence &ould be arres ed. 71 2%us od!al !n"es !.a !on2 - &$en $e !n"es !.a !on no& (ocuses on $e .u!l o( a person suc$ $a $e !s no lon.er allo&ed o lea"e $e pre'!se. I !s a $!s s a.e $a $e M!randa rul!n. !s necessar,# s!nce $e purpose o( $e !n erro.a !on !s o e"!nce e"!dence $a can be used o prosecu e $e person. For !ns ance# &$en A# a pol!ce'an# sees J runn!n. &! $ a s a!ned 4n!(e a&a, (ro' an apparen l, dead 'an# $e can run. a( er J and $a"!n. .rabbed $!'# as4 $!' (or an e;plana !on as o &$a $e sa& &! $ou read!n. $!s M!randa r!.$ s. )u once A arres s J and s ar s !n erro.a !n. $!' !n $e pol!ce prec!nc # $en $!s r!.$ s 'us no& be read# (or $ere can onl, be one purpose o $e 0ues !on!n.# and $a !s o el!c! e"!dence o be used o prosecu e $!'. Mendo@a# The Right to Counsel 2uring Custodial Investigations# 7 La& Re". No. 9E# 7 /9ABB1D 69 P$!l. L- ?EA I. RIG8T TO %O:NSEL 3AS DEVELOPED AS PART OF PROTE%TION AGAINST INVOL:NTARY %ONFESSIONS. S!nce $e !n roduc !on o( $e A'er!can accusa or!al s,s e' o( cr!'!nal procedure !n $e P$!ls.# $e rule $as been $a !n"olun ar, con(ess!ons are !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence a.a!ns $e accused. T$e 0ues !on !s on &$o' $e burden o( proo( !s placed. T$e earl, rule placed $e burden o( pro"!n. $a $e con(ess!on &as "olun ar, and# $ere(ore# ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence# on $e prosecu !on. /Sec. ?# Ac No. 69A.1 I &as $eld $a a con(ess!on no s$o&n o $a"e been "olun ar!l, .!"en could be ob+ec ed o a an, s a.e o( $e proceed!n.s# e"en (or $e (!rs !'e on appeal !n $e S%. Ac No. 69A &as la er repealed b, $e Ad'!n. code o( 9A96# &=c placed $e burden o( proo( on $e accused o s$o& $a $!s con(ess!on &as !n"olun ar,. :nder $e ne& rule# ! &as su((!c!en $a $e con(ess!on &as .!"en under cond! !ons &=c accred! prima facie ! s ad'!ss!b!l! ,. In 9AF># a (ur $er c$an.e oo4 place &$en $e S% $eld !n Peo. ". de los San os $a 2A con(ess!on# o be repud!a ed# 'us no onl, be pro"ed o $a"e been ob a!ned b, (orce and "!olence# bu also $a ! !s (alse or un rue# (or $e la& re+ec s $e con(ess!on &$en# b, (orce or "!olence or !n !'!da !on# $e accused !s co'pelled a.a!ns $!s &!ll o ell a (alse$ood# no e"en &$en suc$ (orce and "!olence $e !s co'pelled o ell $e ru $. In $e la er case o( Peo. ". V!llanue"a# $e %our s a ed 2 $e ad'!ss!b!l! , o( $a 4!nd o( e"!dence depends no on $e supposed !lle.al 'anner !n &=c ! !s ob a!ned bu on $e ru $ or (als! , o( $e (ac s or ad'!ss!on con a!ned $ere!n. T$e !lle.al! , o( $e 'eans used !n ob a!n!n. e"!dence does no a((ec ! s ad'!ss!b!l! , /Moncado ". People5s %our .1 T8E EFFE%T OF T8E EJ%L:SIONARY R:LE IN SEAR%8 AND SEII:RE %ASES T$e adop !on !n 9A6< o( $e e;clus!onar, rule !n searc$ and se!@ure cases /S one$!ll ". D!o4no1 &or4ed a parallel !n $e la& o( con(ess!on. 3=o e;pressl, o"errul!n. ! s dec!s!on !n de los San os and V!llanue"a# $e %our # !n Peo. ". :rro# &en bac4 o $e (or'er rule $a !n"olun ar, or coerced con(ess!ons# re.ardless o( $e!r ru $# are null and "o!d. ;;; In"olun ar, or coerced con(ess!ons ob a!ned b, la&# &=c proscr!bes $e use o( suc$ cruel and !n$u'an 'e $ods o secure con(ess!ons. ;;; Indeed# !n $e :S# ! !s sa!d $a an 2uncons ! u !onal coerc!on &!ll render !nad'!ss!ble e"en $e 'os

A pol!ce !n"es !.a !on cons!s s o( 7 s a.es* 91 2General e;plora or, !n"es !.a !on2 - &$en $e !n"es !.a !on cons!s s 'erel, o( .eneral 0ues !ons o (!nd ou &$o '!.$ be $e culpr! # bu &! $ou be!n. d!rec ed a

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
un0ues !onabl, rue !nculpa or, s a e'en s.2 ;;; T$!s !s no bec. suc$ con(ess!ons are unl!4el, o be rue bu bec. $e 'e $ods used o e; rac $e' o((end an underl,!n. pr!nc!ple !n $e en(orce'en o( our cr!'!nal la&* $a ours !s an accusa or!al and no an !n0u!s! or!al s,s e' -- a s,s e' !n &=c $e S a e 'us es abl!s$ .u!l b, e"!dence !ndependen l, and (reel, secured and no b, coerc!on pro"e ! s c$ar.e a.a!ns an accused ou o( $!s o&n 'ou $ ;;;.2 /Ro.ers ". R!c$'ond# -. Fran4(ur er.1 T8E MIRANDA R:LE T$e prosecu !on 'a, no use s a e'en s# &$e $er e;culpa or, or !nculpa or,# s e''!n. (ro' cus od!al !n erro.a !on o( $e de(. unless ! de'ons ra es $e use o( procedural sa(e.uards e((ec !"e o secure $e pr!"!le.e a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on. ), custodial interrogation# &e 'ean questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been ta%en to custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way. xxx II. IN T:RN# MIRANDA 3ARNINGS 3ERE DEVISED AS MEANS OF SE%:RING T8E RIG8T TO %O:NSEL. M!randa ". Ar!@ona re0u!res cer a!n &arn!n.s o be .!"en b, pol!ce !n erro.a ors be(. a person !n cus od, 'a, be !n erro.a ed# &=c $a"e been adop ed b, $e P$!l. S%* 9. T$e person !n cus od, 'us be !n(or'ed !n clear and une0u!"ocal er's $a $e $as a r!.$ o re'a!n s!len . T$e purpose !s o appr!se $!' o( $!s pr!"!le.e no o be co'pelled o !ncr!'!na e $!'sel(# o o"erco'e $e !n$eren pressures o( $e !n erro.a !on a 'osp$ere# and o assure $e !nd!"!dual $a $!s !n erro.a ors are prepared o reco.n!@e $!s pr!"!le.e# s$ould $e c$oose o e;erc!se ! . 7. T$e person !n cus od, 'us be &arned $a an, $!n. $e &!ll sa, can and &!lol be used a.a!ns $!'. T$!s &arn!n. !s !n ended o 'a4e $!' a&are no onl, o( $e pr!"!le.e bu also o( $e conse0uences o( (ore.o!n. ! . >. S!nce $e c!rcu's ances surround!n. !n-cus od, !n erro.a !on can opera e "er, 0u!c4l, o o"erbear $e &!ll o( one 'erel, 'ade a&are o( $!s pr!"!le.e b, $!s !n erro.a ors# ! !s !nd!spensable $a $e $as $e ass!s ance o( counsel. T8E %:STODIAL P8ASE OF INTERROGATION A &$a s a.e o( $e pol!ce !n erro.a !on 'us $e &arn!n.s be .!"enH T$e %ons !. does no s a e a &$a s a.e o( $e !n erro.a !on process $e, 'us be 'ade. bu !n M!randa# $e cour spec!(!ed $a ! !s onl, a $e cus od!al p$ase o( $e !n erro.a !on $a ! s rul!n. appl!ed. As $e %our !nd!ca ed !n Escobedo ". Ill!no!s# ! !s onl, a( er $e !n"es !.a !on ceases o be a .eneral !n0u!r, !n o an unsol"ed cr!'e and be.!ns o (ocus on a par !cular suspec # $e suspec !s a4en !n o cus od,# and $e pol!ce carr!es ou a process o( !n erro.a !on $a leads ! sel( o el!c! !n. !ncr!'!na !n. s a e'en s $a $e rule be.!ns o opera e. In Ga'boa ". %ru@# $e accused &as arres ed# &=o a &arran # (or "a.ranc,. 8e &as a4en o pol!ce prec!n no. 7 !n Mla. T$e ne; da,# $e &as !ncluded !n a pol!ce l!ne-up o( F de a!nees and &as po!n ed o b, $e co'pla!nan as a co'plan!on o( $e 'a!n suspec on $e bas!s o( &=c $e accused &as ordered o s a, and s! !n (ron o( $e co'pla!nan # &$!le $e la er &as !n erro.a ed. T$e accused &as $en c$ar.ed &= robber,. T$e accused 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e case a.a!ns $!' on $e .round $a $e $ad been den!ed $e ass!s ance o( counsel dur!n. $e l!ne-up. 8!s 'o !on &as den!ed. 8ence# $!s pe ! !on (or certiorari.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


8ELD* T$e r!.$ o counsel a ac$es onl, upon $e s ar o( an !n erro.a !on# &$en $e pol!ce o((!cer s ar s o as4 0ues !ons des!.ned o el!c! !n(o. and= or con(ess!ons or ad'!ss!ons (ro' $e accused. As $e pol!ce l!ne-up !n $!s case &as no par o( $e cus od!al !n0ues # $e pe ! !oner &as no en ! led o counsel ;;;. III. 3AIVER OF RIG8TS. I !s !'por an o d!s !n.u!s$ be . $e &a!"er o( r!.$ s and $e &a!"er o( &arn!n.s. T$e (!rs can be 'ade pro"!ded $a $e &a!"er !s 2"olun ar,# 4no&!n. and !n ell!.en 2 bu $e second canno . As $e &arn!n.s are $e 'eans o( !nsur!n. $a $e suspec !s appr!sed o( $!s r!.$ s so $a an, subse0uen &a!"er o( $!s r!.$ s can be 2"olun ar,# 4no&!n. and !n ell!.en #2 ! !s ob"!ous $a $ere can be no "al!d &a!"er o( $e &arn!n.s. A &a!"er o( r!.$ s &!ll no be presu'ed. 9. 3! $ respec o con(ess!ons ob a!ned be(. -an. 9<# 9A<># $e rule $a $e suspec 'us be &arned $a $e $as a r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o $a"e $e ass!s ance o( counsel does no appl,. suc$ con(ess!ons# e"en $ou.$ presen ed !n e"!dence !n a r!al a( er $e e((ec !"! , o( $e 9A<> %ons !.# are ad'!ss!ble# pro"!ded $e, are "olun ar,# us!n. $e rad! !onal es o( "olun ar!ness. 7. 3! $ respec o con(ess!ons ob a!ned a( er -an. 9<# 9A<># bu be(ore Marc$ 7E# 9ABF# &$en $e dec!s!on o( Peo. ". Gal! &as $anded do&n# $e rule !s $a $e "olun ar!ness o( a &a!"er o( $e r!.$ s o s!lence and o counsel 'us be de er'!ned on a case- o-case bas!s# a4!n. !n o accoun $e c!rcu's ances under &=c $e &a!"er &as 'ade. >. 3! $ re.ard o con(ess!ons ob a!ned a( er Marc$ 7E# 9ABF bu be(ore Feb. 7# 9AB<# &$en $e presen %ons !. oo4 e((ec # $e rule !s $a a &a!"er o( $e r!.$ s o re'a!n s!len and o $e ass!s ance o( counsel# o be "al!d# 'us be 'ade &= $e ass!s ance o( counsel. ?. 3! $ re.ard o con(ess!ons .!"en a( er Feb. 7# 9AB<# $e presen %ons !. re0u!res $a $e &a!"er o be "al!d# 'us be !n &r! !n. and &= $e ass!s ance o( counsel. IJ. T8E EJL:SIONARY R:LE. An, con(ess!on or ad'!ss!on ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $!s or Sec. 9< $ereo( s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence a.a!ns $!'# $e %ons !. sa,s. No d!s !nc !on !s 'ade be . con(ess!on or ad'!ss!on. Al $ou.$ $e pre"!ous %ons !. spo4e o( con(ess!ons onl,# I $a"e ar.ued $a ! &as no so l!'! ed bu $a ! also e'braced uncounselled s a e'en s. For 2!( a s a e'en 'ade &ore !n (ac e;culpa or,# ! could ... ne"er be used b, $e prosecu !on# !n (ac # s a e'en s 'erel, !n ended o be e;culpa or, b, $e de(endan are o( en used o !'peac$ $!s es !'on, a r!al or o de'ons ra e un ru $s !n $e s a e'en .!"en under !n erro.a !on and $us o pro"e .u!l b, !'pl!ca !on.2 EJ%EPTIONS TO T8E EJ%L:SIONARY R:LE T$e p$rase 2(or an, purpose !n an, proceed!n.2 con"e,s $e !dea $a $e rule e;clud!n. e"!dence !lle.all, ob a!ned !s absolu e. No s!'!lar p$raseolo., !s used !n $e e;clus!onar, rule !'ple'en !n. $e M!randa rule. Does $!s 'ean $ere can be !ns ances# &$ere uncounselled s a e'en s 'a, ne"er $eless be ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence# albe! # (or a l!'! ed purposeH In 8arr!s ". :S# ! &as $eld $a al $ou.$ a con(ess!on ob a!ned &=o co'pl,!n. &= $e M!randa rule &as !nad'!ss!ble

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
(or $e purpose o( es abl!s$!n. !n c$!e( $e con(essor5s .u!l # ! 'a, ne"er $eless be presen ed !n e"!dence o !'peac$ $!s cred! . Pe ! !oner# as a de(.# !n a prosecu !on (or sell!n. $ero!n# cla!'ed $a &$a $e $ad sold o a pol!ce o((!cer &as ba4!n. po&der# as par o( $e sc$e'e o de(raud $e purc$aser ;;; T$e s$!eld pro"!ded b, M!randa canno be per"er ed !n o a l!cense o use per+ur, b, &a, o( a de(ense# (ree (ro' $e r!s4 o( con(ron a !on &= pr!or !ncons!s en u erance In Ne& Yor4 ". Luarles# $e S% crea ed a 2publ!c sa(e ,2 e;cep !on o $e M!randa rule. ;;;. 2T$ere !s publ!c sa(e , e;cep !on o $e re0u!re'en $a M!randa &arn!n.s be .!"en be(ore a suspec 5s ans&ers 'a, be ad'! ed !n e"!dence.2 I $eld $a $e &arn!n.s &ere no $e'sel"es %ons ! u !onal r!.$ s bu 'erel, 2prop$,lac !c2 'easures o !nsure $e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on. T$e %our no ed $e cos !'posed on $e publ!c b, $e rule# na'el,# $a $e .!"!n. o( &arn!n.s '!.$ de er suspec s (ro' ans&er!n. 0ues !ons and $!s '!.$ lead !n urn o (e&er con"!c !ons. I $en ruled $a $e soc!al cos !s $!.$er &$en $e .!"!n. o( &arn!n.s '!.$ de er suspec s (ro' ans&er!n. 0ues !ons $an are necessar, o a"er an !''ed!a e $rea o publ!c sa(e ,. 3$en ans&ers are no ac uall, coerced# $!s soc!al cos ou &e!.$ s $e need (or M!randa sa(e.uards. In suc$ e;!.en c!rcu's ances# pol!ce o((!cers 'us no be 'ade o c$oose be . .!"!n. $e &arn!n.s a $e r!s4 $a publ!c sa(e , &!ll be endan.ered and &! $$old!n. $e &arn!n.s a $e r!s4 $a proba !"e e"!dence &!ll be e;cluded. P o#l (. Bol%$os, >"" SCRA >2> F* )olanos &as con"!c ed (or Murder. T$e "!c !'# Pa.dal!an &as (ound dead# sus a!n!n. s ab &ounds. 3$en $e pol!ce'en !n0u!red abou $e c!rcu's ances o( $e !nc!den # $e, &ere !n(or'ed $a $e deceased &as &! $ &o co'pan!ons# on $e pre"!ous n!.$ . T$e accused &as appre$ended. In $e "e$!cle &$ere $e accused boarded# on $!s &a, o $e Pol!ce S a !on# )olanos alle.edl, ad'! ed $a $e 4!lled Pa.dal!an because $e &as abus!"e. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. $e ad'!ss!on !n $e +eep &as

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


)andula. T$e > o $er accused &ere ac0u! ed (or 2!nsu((!c!enc, o( e"!dence2. Issue* 3=N $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on o( )andula con(or'ed &! $ $e cons ! u !onal re0u!s! es (or ! s "al!d! ,# $ence ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. 8ELD* NO Fro' $e records# ! can be .leaned $a &$en accused )andula and D!onanao &ere !n"es !.a ed !''ed!a el, a( er $e!r arres # $e, $ad no counsel presen . I( a all# counsel ca'e !n onl, a da, a( er $e cus od!al !n"es !.a !on &! $ respec o D!onanao# and 7 &ee4s la er &! $ respec o )andula. And counsel &$o supposedl, ass!s ed bo $ accused &as A ,. Ierna# $e Mun!c!pal A orne, o( Tan+a,# &$ose !n eres !s ad'! edl, ad"erse o $e accused and &$o !s no an !ndependen counsel. On op o( $!s# $ere are ell ale s!.ns $a "!olence &as used a.a!ns $e accused. %er a!nl,# $ese are bla an "!ola !ons o( o( Sec. 97# Ar III o( $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on &$!c$ pro ec s $e r!.$ s o( $e accused dur!n. cus od!al !n"es !.a !on. S+: tt . ". Mir%$'% r+l $ot %##li!%&l to !o$f ssio$s C !+t ' & for 9%$+%r) "6, "46@ 7. No appl!cable o res gestae s a e'en s People ". D,# 9FB S%RA 999 /9ABB1 Res .es ae /a La !n p$rase 'ean!n. 2 $!n.s done21 !s an e;cep !on o $e rule a.a!ns 8earsa, e"!dence. Res .es ae !s based on $e bel!e( $a because cer a!n s a e'en s are 'ade na urall,# spon aneousl, and &! $ou del!bera !on dur!n. $e course o( an e"en # $e, lea"e l! le roo' (or '!sunders and!n.='!s!n erpre a !on upon $ear!n. b, so'eone else/ !.e. b, $e &! ness &$o &!ll la er repea $e s a e'en o $e cour 1 and $us $e cour s bel!e"e $a suc$ s a e'en s carr, a $!.$ de.ree o( cred!b!l! ,. E"!dence &$!c$ can be ad'! ed !n o e"!dence as Res .es ae (all !n o $ree $ead!n.s* 3ords or p$rases &$!c$ e! $er (or' par o(# or e;pla!n a p$,s!cal ac # E;cla'a !ons &$!c$ are so spon aneous as o bel!e concoc !on# and S a e'en s &$!c$ are e"!dence as o so'eone5s s a e o( '!nd. @. Not %##li!%&l to st%t . $ts gi( $ i$ %'.i$istr%ti( i$( stig%tio$s People ". A,son# 9<F S%RA 796 /9ABA1 I s$ould a once be apparen $a $ere are &o /71 r!.$ s# or se s o( r!.$ s# deal &! $ !n $e sec !on# na'el,* 91 $e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on !.e.# $e r!.$ o( a person no o be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel( se ou !n $e (!rs sen ence# &$!c$ !s a "erba !' reproduc !on o( Sec !on 9B# Ar !cle III o( $e 9A>F %ons ! u !on# and !s s!'!lar o $a accorded b, $e F!( $ A'end'en o( $e A'er!can %ons ! u !on# and 71 $e r!.$ o( a person !n cus od!al !n erro.a !on# !.e.# $e r!.$ s o( e"er, suspec 2under !n"es !.a !on (or $e co''!ss!on o( an o((ense.2 Paren $e !call,# $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on !nd!ca es 'uc$ 'ore clearl, $e !nd!"!dual! , and d!spara eness o( $ese r!.$ s. I $as placed $e r!.$ s !n separa e sec !ons. T$e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(- !ncr!'!na !on# 2No person s$all be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(#2 !s no& e'bod!ed !n Sec !on 9<#

8ELD* T$e r!al cour # !n ad'! !n. $e e; ra-+ud!c!al con(ess!on o( $e accused !n e"!dence# "!ola ed $!s %ons ! u !onal r!.$ o be !n(or'ed# o re'a!n s!len and o $a"e a counsel o( $!s c$o!ce# &$!le alread, !n pol!ce cus od,. S!nce $e e; ra-+ud!c!al con(ess!on &as $e onl, bas!s (or $e con"!c !on o( $e accused# $e r!al cous Ns +ud.'en &as re"ersed. B%.. P o#l (. B%$'+l%, >@> SCRA 322 F* A( er $e and $!s &!(e &ere !nd!"!duall, $o. !ed and $e!r $ouse ransac4ed# A ,. Gara, &as (ound dead &! $ > .uns$o &ounds . For $!s dea $ and $e loss o( $e!r $!n.s on $e occas!on $ereo(# )andula# S!d!.o# D!onanao# and E+an &ere c$ar.ed !n cour (or robber, &! $ $o'!c!de. On $e bas!s o( $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons /E-%1 alle.edl, 'ade b, )andula and D!onanao dur!n. $e!r cus od!al !n"es !.a !on &$!c$ $e cour (ound o 2$a"e all $e 0ual! !es and $a"e co'pl!ed &! $ all $e re0u!re'en s o( an ad'!ss!ble con(ess!on# ! appear!n. (ro' $e con(ess!on $a acussed &ere !n(or'ed o( $e!r r!.$ s under $e la& re.ard!n. cus od!al !n"es !.a !on and &ere dul, represen ed b, %ounsel /A ,. Ierna12# ! d!sre.arded $e de(enses !n erposed b, $e accused and con"!c ed

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
Ar !cle III o( $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on. T$e r!.$ s o( a person !n cus od!al !n erro.a !on# &$!c$ $a"e been 'ade 'ore e;pl!c! # are no& con a!ned !n Sec !on 97 o( $e sa'e Ar !cle III. Right Ag%i$st S lfBI$!ri.i$%tio$ T$e (!rs r!.$ # a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on# 'en !oned !n Sec !on 7E# Ar !cle IV o( $e 9A<> %ons ! u !on# !s accorded o e"er, person &$o .!"es e"!dence# &$e $er "olun ar!l, or under co'puls!on o( subpoena# !n an, c!"!l# cr!'!nal# or ad'!n!s ra !"e proceed!n.. T$e r!.$ !s NOT o 2be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(.2 I prescr!bes an 2op !on o( re(usal o ans&er !ncr!'!na !n. 0ues !ons and no a pro$!b! !on o( !n0u!r,.2 I s!'pl, secures o a &! ness# &$e $er $e be a par , or no # $e r!.$ o re(use o ans&er an, par !cular !ncr!'!na or, 0ues !on# !.e.# one $e ans&er o &$!c$ $as a endenc, o !ncr!'!na e $!' (or so'e cr!'e. 8o&e"er# $e r!.$ can be cla!'ed onl, &$en $e spec!(!c 0ues !on# !ncr!'!na or, !n c$arac er# !s ac uall, pu o $e &! ness. I canno be cla!'ed a an, o $er !'e. I does no .!"e a &! ness $e r!.$ o d!sre.ard a subpoena# o decl!ne o appear be(ore $e cour a $e !'e appo!n ed. T$e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on !s no sel(e;ecu !n. or au o'a !call, opera !onal. I 'us be cla!'ed. I (ollo&s $a $e r!.$ 'a, be &a!"ed# e;pressl,# or !'pl!edl,# as b, a (a!lure o cla!' ! a $e appropr!a e !'e. Rights i$ C+sto'i%l I$t rrog%tio$ Sec !on 7E# Ar !cle IV o( $e 9A<> %ons ! u !on also rea s o( a second r!.$ # or be er sa!d# .roup o( r!.$ s. T$ese r!.$ s appl, o persons 2under !n"es !.a !on (or $e co''!ss!on o( an o((ense#2 !.e.# 2suspec s2 under !n"es !.a !on b, pol!ce au $or! !esD and $!s !s &$a 'a4es $ese r!.$ s d!((eren (ro' $a e'bod!ed !n $e (!rs sen ence# $a a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on &$!c$# as a(ores a ed# !nd!scr!'!na el, appl!es o an, person es !(,!n. !n an, proceed!n.# c!"!l# cr!'!nal# or ad'!n!s ra !"e. T$!s pro"!s!on .ran !n. e;pl!c! r!.$ s o persons under !n"es !.a !on (or an o((ense &as no !n $e 9A>F %ons ! u !on. I !s a"o&edl, der!"ed (ro' $e dec!s!on o( $e :.S. Supre'e %our !n M!randa ". Ar!@ona# a dec!s!on descr!bed as an 2ear $0ua4e !n $e &orld o( la& en(orce'en .2 Sec !on 7E s a es $a &$ene"er an, person !s 2under !n"es !.a !on (or $e co''!ss!on o( an o((ense2-91 $e s$all $a"e $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o counsel# and o be !n(or'ed o( suc$ r!.$ # 71 no (orce# "!olence# $rea # !n !'!da !on# or an, o $er 'eans &$!c$ "! !a es $e (ree &!ll s$all be used a.a!ns $!'D and >1 an, con(ess!on ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $ese r!.$ s s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. Mir%$'% rights Pol!ce L!neups 8e 'us be &arned pr!or o an, 0ues !on!n. $a $e $as $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len # $a an, $!n. $e sa,s can be used a.a!ns $!' !n a cour o( la&# $a $e $as $e r!.$ o $e presence o( an a orne,# and $a !( $e canno a((ord an a orne, one &!ll be appo!n ed (or $!' pr!or o an, 0ues !on!n. !( $e so des!res. Oppor un! , o e;erc!se $ose r!.$ s 'us be a((orded o $!' $rou.$ou $e !n erro.a !on. A( er suc$ &arn!n.s $a"e been .!"en# suc$ oppor un! , a((orded $!'# $e !nd!"!dual 'a, 4no&!n.l, and !n ell!.en l, &a!"e $ese r!.$ s and a.ree o ans&er or 'a4e a s a e'en . )u unless and un !l suc$ &arn!n.s and &a!"er are Ga'boa ". %ru@ -une 7<# 9ABB

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


de'ons ra ed b, $e prosecu !on a $e r!al# no e"!dence ob a!ned as a resul o( !n erro.a !on can be used a.a!ns $!'. T$e ob+ec !"e !s o pro$!b! 2!nco''un!cado !n erro.a !on o( !nd!"!duals !n a pol!ce-do'!na ed a 'osp$ere# resul !n. !n sel(- !ncr!'!na !n. s a e'en &! $ou (ull &arn!n.s o( cons ! u !onal r!.$ s.2 T$e r!.$ s abo"e spec!(!ed# o repea # e;!s onl, !n 2cus od!al !n erro.a !ons#2 or 2!n-cus od, !n erro.a !on o( accused persons.2 And# as $!s %our $as alread, s a ed# b, cus od!al !n erro.a !on !s 'ean 20ues !on!n. !n! !a ed b, la& en(orce'en o((!cers a( er a person $as been a4en !n o cus od, or o $er&!se depr!"ed o( $!s (reedo' o( ac !on !n an, s!.n!(!can &a,.2 R!.$ s o( De(endan !n %r!'!nal %ase As Re.ards G!"!n. o( Tes !'on, In (!ne# a person suspec ed o( $a"!n. co''! ed a cr!'e and subse0uen l, c$ar.ed &! $ ! s co''!ss!on !n cour # $as $e (ollo&!n. r!.$ s !n $e 'a er o( $!s es !(,!n. or produc!n. e"!dence# o &! * 91 )EFORE T8E %ASE IS FILED IN %O:RT /or &! $ $e publ!c prosecu or# (or prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on1# bu a( er $a"!n. been a4en !n o cus od, or o $er&!se depr!"ed o( $!s l!ber , !n so'e s!.n!(!can &a,# and on be!n. !n erro.a ed b, $e pol!ce* $e con !nu!n. r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o counsel# and o be !n(or'ed $ereo(# no o be sub+ec ed o (orce# "!olence# $rea # !n !'!da !on or an, o $er 'eans &$!c$ "! !a es $e (ree &!llD and o $a"e e"!dence ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $ese r!.$ s re+ec edD and 71 AFTER T8E %ASE IS FILED IN %O:RT

a1 o re(use o be a &! nessD b1 no o $a"e an, pre+ud!ce &$a soe"er resul o $!' b, suc$ re(usalD c1 o es !(, !n $!s o&n be$al(# sub+ec o cross-e;a'!na !on b, $e prosecu !onD d1 38ILE TESTIFYING# o re(use o ans&er a spec!(!c 0ues !on &$!c$ ends o !ncr!'!na e $!' (or so'e cr!'e o $er $an $a (or &$!c$ $e !s $en prosecu ed. I !s clear (ro' $e und!spu ed (ac s o( $!s case $a Fel!pe Ra'os &as no !n an, sense under cus od!al !n erro.a !on# as $e er' s$ould be properl, unders ood# pr!or o and dur!n. $e ad'!n!s ra !"e !n0u!r, !n o $e d!sco"ered !rre.ular! !es !n !c4e sales !n &$!c$ $e appeared o $a"e $ad a $and. T$e cons ! u !onal r!.$ s o( a person under cus od!al !n erro.a !on under Sec !on 7E# Ar !cle IV o( $e 9A<> %ons ! u !on d!d no $ere(ore co'e !n o pla,# &ere o( no rele"ance o $e !n0u!r,. 0. C+sto'i%l Ph%s of I$( stig%tio$

*olice line up not part of custodial inquest F* Pe ! !oner &as arres ed (or "a.ranc, !n Man!la. T$e (ollo&!n. da,# $e &as !ncluded !n a pol!ce l!ne-up and &as !den !(!ed as one o( $e suspec s !n a robber, case. 8e &as la er c$ar.ed &! $ robber, and c$ar.ed. 8e 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e case on $e .round $a $e conduc o( $e l!ne-up# &! $ou $e ass!s ance o( counsel# &as uncons ! u !onal.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
8ELD* T$e pol!ce l!ne-up &as no par o( $e cus od!al !n0ues # $ence# pe ! !oner &as no ,e en ! led# a suc$ s a.e# o counsel. 88. :S ". 3ade# >BB :S 79B /9A6<1 People ". 8a on# 79E S%RA 9 F* Al.ra'e &as s abbed a $e bac4 &$!le &al4!n. &! $ se"eral co'pan!ons !nclud!n. On.ue &$o "a.uel, reco.n!@ed $e assa!lan # descr!b!n. $e la er as a 2'es !@o.2 T&o da,s la er# On.ue &as !n"! ed b, $e pol!ce o !den !(, $e suspec !n a pol!ce l!ne- up. 8a on &as po!n ed b, On.ue as $e assa!lan . 8a on alle.es $a a $e !'e $a $e &as 'ade o s and !n $e pol!ce l!ne-up# $e &as no ass!s ed b, counsel. 8ence# $!s !den !(!ca !on $ere!n b, On.ue !s !nad'!ssble. R:LING* 3$en $e suspec &as brou.$ o $e pol!ce s a !on (or !nden !(!ca !on# ec$n!call,# $e &as no ,e under cus od!al !n"es !.a !on. T$us# $e r!.$ o counsel does no ,e appl,. 8o&e"er# $ere !s e"er, reason o doub $e re.ular! , o( $e !den !(!ca !on o( $e suspec b, $e &! ness. Dur!n. $e proceed!n.s !n $e pol!ce s a !on# On.ue !den !(!ed 8a on no because $e &as cer a!n $a 8a on &as reall, $e assa!lan bu because $e &as $e onl, 'es !@o !n $e s a !on and because $e &as po!n ed b, $e pol!ce as $e suspec . T$!s canno be cons!dered as pos! !"e !den !(!ca !on o( $e accused b, $e &! ness. 3. T sts of 8%li'it) of W%i( r of Mir%$'% Rights No (%li' *%i( r.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


F* -ose Ta'pus and Rodol(o A"!la &ere pr!soners a $e Na !onal Pen! en !ar, !n Mun !nlupa# R!@al. On -une 9?# 9A<6# $e, a ac4ed and 4!lled %elso Sa'!nado# ano $er pr!soner. A( er&ards# $e, surrendered o $e pr!son .uard# sa,!n. 2surrender po 4a'!. Gu'an ! lan. po 4a'!.2 T&o da,s la er# $e, .a"e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons ad'! !n. $e 4!ll!n.. T$e, &ere accused o( 'urder and pleaded .u!l ,. T$e, oo4 $e &! ness s and and a((!r'ed $e!r con(ess!ons. Ta'pus &as sen enced o dea $ &$!le A"!la o reclus!on e'poral. Tr!al oo4 place a $e Pen! en !ar,. On re"!e&# ! &as con ended $a Ta'pus &as den!ed $e r!.$ o a publ!c r!al and o counsel. 8ELD* T$e record does no s$o& $a $e publ!c &as ac uall, e;cluded (ro' $e place &$ere $e r!al &as $eld or $a $e accused &as pre+ud!ced b, $e $old!n. o( $e r!al $ere. An,&a,# $e r!.$ o publ!c r!al 'a, be &a!"ed. In ano $er case &$ere A"!la &as also a de(endan # $e S% d!rec ed $a # (or secur! , reasons# A"!la5s r!al be $eld !n $e Na !onal Pen! en !ar,. T$e accused &as &arned !n Ta.alo. $a $e $ad a r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o counsel bu desp! e $!s# $e &as &!ll!n. o ans&er 0ues !ons o( $e pol!ce. T$ere !s no doub $a $e con(ess!on &as "olun ar!l, 'ade. T$e ru $ !s $a s$or l, a( er $e 4!ll!n.# Ta'pus and A"!la ad'! ed $e!r .u!l . That spontaneous statement, elicited without interrogation, was part of the res gestae and at the same time was a voluntary confession of guilt. By means of that statement given freely on the spur of the moment without any urging or suggestion, the two waived their right to remain silent and to counsel. P o#l (. Po)os "0@ SCRA 30@ 5"4127 5o valid waiver of right to counsel and to silence

People ". %a.u!oa AF S%RA 7 /9ABE1 Right to counsel may be waived provided the waiver is voluntary, %nowing and intelligent F* Responden Pa0u! o Yupo &as accused o( 'urder !n $e %FI o( )ulacan. T$e prosecu !on presen ed %orporal %onrado Roca o( $e Me,caua,an Pol!ce &$o !den !(!ed a s a e'en o( $e accused dur!n. a pol!ce !n erro.a !on and $!s alle.ed &a!"er o( $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o counsel. 3$en Roca &as 0ues !oned on $e !ncr!'!na !n. ans&ers !n $e s a e'en # $e de(ense ob+ec ed# con end!n. $a Yupo5s s a e'en &as .!"en &! $ou $e ass!s ance o( counsel. Responden -ud.e sus a!ned $e ob+ec !on on $e .round $a $e r!.$ o counsel canno be &a!"ed. 8ELD* T$e r!.$ o counsel dur!n. cus od!al !n erro.a !on 'a, be &a!"ed pro"!ded $e &a!"er !s 'ade !n ell!.en l, and "olun ar!l,# &! $ (ull unders and!n. o( ! s conse0uences. In $!s case# $e s a e'en 'ade onl, a per(unc or, open!n. 0ues !on# a( er !n(or'!n. $e suspec $a $e &as under !n"es !.a !on# $a $e $ad a r!.$ o counsel and $a an, $!n. $e sa!d could be used (or or a.a!ns $!' and a( er as4!n. &$e $er $e &as &!ll!n. o ans&er 0ues !ons and $e ans&ered 2,es.2 T$e s a e'en &as !n Ta.alo. &$!c$ $e de(endan # a na !"e o( Sa'ar# $ad no been s$o&n o be (ull, ac0ua!n ed &! $. T$e da e o( e;ecu !on o( $e s a e'en be(ore $e 'un!c!pal cour &as no !nd!ca ed. T$e separa e s a e'en s!.ned b, $e de(endan s a !n. $e &as 'ade o read $e open!n. s a e'en con a!n!n. $e M!randa &arn!n.s and $a $e, &ere e;pla!ned o $!' all $e 'ore en.enders doub as o &$e $er $e de(endan &as properl, !n(or'ed o( $!s r!.$ . People ". Ta'pus A6 S%RA 67? /9ABE1 *ublic trial< waiver of right to counsel F* Po,os &as con"!c ed o( $e 'urder o( a <<-,ear-old &o'an and sen ence o dea $. 8!s con"!c !on &as based solel, on $!s e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on &$!c$ $e d!so&ned !n cour . T$e con(ess!on &as .!"en o $e pol!ce and subscr!bed be(ore $e cler4 o( cour and con a!ns a &a!"er. 8ELD* I !s doub (ul# .!"en $e enor o( $e 0ues !on &$e $er $ere &as a de(!n! e &a!"er b, $e suspec o( $!s r!.$ o counsel. 8!s ans&er &as ca e.or!cal enou.$# o be sure# bu $e 0ues !on ! sel( &as no s!nce ! spo4e o( a &a!"er onl, 2(or $e 'o'en .2 As &orded# $e 0ues !on su..es ed a en a !"eness $a bel!ed $e suspec 5s supposed per'anen (ore.o!n. o( $!s r!.$ o counsel# !( !ndeed $ere &as an, &a!"er a all. Moreo"er# $e &as old $a $e could $!re a la&,er bu no $a one could be pro"!ded (or $!' (or (ree. 88. S!nce Ro,o5s con"!c !on (or 'urder &as based on a &r! en con(ess!on s$o&!n. $a $e &as appr!sed o( $!s r!.$ no onl, b, $e pol!ce bu also b, $e (!scal# bu $a $e &a!"ed $ese r!.$ s# $en $e &a!"er (ound o be "olun ar,# 4no&!n. and !n ell!.en and $us ad'!ss!ble. &. Th =%lit R+l 5M%r!h >-, "413 to D &. >, "4167 I !s no enou.$ $a $e con(ess!on !s "olun ar,# 4no&!n. and !n ell!.en . T$e &a!"er 'us be 'ade !n $e presence o( counsel. 3a!"er o( $e r!.$ o counsel 'us be 'ade &! $ $e ass!s ance o( counsel. T$!s rule appl!ed (ro' Marc$ 7E# 9ABF o Februar, 7# 9AB<. In People ". Gal! # 9>F S%RA ?BF /9ABF1# $e S%# re! era !n. a d!c u' !n Morales ". Enr!le# 979 S%RA F>B /9AB>1# ruled $a no cus od!al !n"es !.a !on s$ould be

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
conduc ed unless ! be !n $e presence o( counsel# and $a al $ou.$ $e r!.$ o counsel 'a, be &a!"ed# $e &a!"er s$ould no be "al!d unless 'ade &! $ $e ass!s ance o( counsel. In $e Gal! case# $o&e"er# $e adop !on o( $e Morales ob! er &as also an ob! er. T$e con(ess!on !n $!s case &as rad! !onall, !n"olun ar,# and so $e S% d!d no need $e Morales ob! er !n order o d!sallo& $e con(ess!on. :nder $e (ac s o( $e case# $e accused Gal! &as con"!c ed o( robber, &! $ $o'!c!de on $e bas!s o( $!s con(ess!on# &$!c$ &as ob a!ned $rou.$ or ure. T$e N)I !n"es !.a ors co"ered Gal! 5s (ace &! $ a ra. and $en pus$ed ! !n o a o!le bo&l (ull o( $u'an &as e. I &as onl, a( er $e, $ad bro4en $!s &!ll $a $e s!.ned $e con(ess!on and posed (or p!c ures (or re-enac 'en as d!rec ed b, $e !n"es !.a ors. P o#l (. =%lit "@3 SCRA 023 5"4137

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


P o#l (. Siso$ "0> SCRA >"4 5"4127 F* -ocel,n de As!s &as accused o( sub"ers!on. A $e r!al# $e F!scal o((ered as e"!dence an e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on .!"en b, $er !n $e $osp! al. In $a con(ess!on# s$e ad'! ed# $rou.$ a lead!n. 0ues !on $a s$e &as a 'e'ber o( $e NPA. T$e r!al cour e;cluded $e con(ess!on on $e .round $a $e &a!"er o( M!randa r!.$ s &as 'ade &! $ou $e ass!s ance o( counsel. T$e prosecu !on con ends $a $e rul!n. !n Morales ". Ponce Enr!le $a $e r!.$ o counsel 'a, be &a!"ed onl, &! $ $e ass!s ance o( counsel# &as onl, a d!c u'. 8ELD* In $e case o( People ". Gal! # &$!c$ &as dec!ded en banc and concurred !n b, all -us !ces e;cep one &$o oo4 no par # $e S% pu o res all doub s re.ard!n. $e rul!n. !n Morales ". Ponce Enr!le and Moncupa ". Enr!le.

People ". L!'# 9A6 S%RA BEA /9AA91 F* De(endan &as con"!c ed o( robber, &! $ $o'!c!de b, $e %!rcu! %r!'!nal %our . T$e pr!nc!pal prosecu !on &! ness es !(!ed $a $e $eard $e de(endan and $!s &!(e# &$o &as $e 'o $er o( $e &! ness5 &!(e# 0uarrell!n. $e 'orn!n. a( er $e cr!'e. 8e sa!d $e de(endan &an ed o lea"e $e!r $ouse because $e and $!s co'pan!ons $ad robbed 2Al!n. Nene.2 T$e prosecu !on also presen ed $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on o( $e de(endan . 8ELD* T$e con(ess!on o( $e de(endan !s !nad'!ss!ble because ! &as ob a!ned $rou.$ or ure. T$e N)I !n"es !.a ors co"ered $e de(endan 5s (ace &! $ a ra. and $en pus$ed !n !n o a o!le bo&l (ull o( $u'an &as e. I &as onl, a( er $e, $ad bro4en $!s &!ll $a $e de(endan s!.ned $e con(ess!on and posed (or p!c ures (or reenac 'en as d!rec ed b, $e !n"es !.a ors. T$e de(endan !s (ro' Sa'ar and $ere !s no s$o&!n. $a $e unders ood Ta.alo.. I &as &o &ee4s a( er $e e;ecu ed $e sala,sa, $a $!s rela !"es &ere per'! ed o "!s! $!'. 8!s s a e'en does no con a!n an, &a!"er or r!.$ o counsel and ,e dur!n. $e !n"es !.a !on $e &as no ass!s ed b, one. T$ese cons ! u e .ross "!ola !ons o( $!s r!.$ . T$e S% c! ed $e case o( Morales ". Ponce Enr!le &$ere ! la!d $e procedure !n cus od!al !n"es !.a !ons* No cus od!al !n"es !.a !on s$all be conduc ed unless ! be !n $e precense o( counsel en.a.ed b, $e person arres ed# or b, an, person on $!s be$al(# or appo!n ed b, $e cour upon pe ! !on e! $er o( $e de a!nee $!'sel( or o( an,one on $!s be$al(. T$e r!.$ o counsel 'a, be &a!"ed bu $e &a!"er s$all no be "al!d unless 'ade &! $ $e ass!s ance o( counsel. An, s a e'en ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $!s# &$e $er e;culpa or, or !nculpa or,# !n &$ole or !n par # s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. 3$a e"er doub as o $e "al!d! , o( $e Gal! rule# $o&e"er# &as la!d o res b, $e S% !n People ". S!son# 9?7 S%RA 79A /9AB61. T$e %our $eld $a !n People ". Gal! # &$!c$ &as dec!ded en banc and concurred !n b, all $e -us !ces e;cep one &$o oo4 no par # $e %our &as ou o res all doub s re.ard!n. $e rul!n. !n Morales ". Enr!le# and e'braced ! s rul!n.. In $!s case# $e prosecu !on sou.$ o pro"e ! s c$ar.e o( sub"ers!on a.a!ns As!s b, 'eans o( $er con(ess!on .!"en !n $e $osp! al# !n &$!c$ s$e ad'! ed $rou.$ a lead!n. 0ues !on# $a s$e &as a 'e'ber o( $e NPA and $a s$e &as &ounded !n $e encoun er. T$e S% up$eld $e r!al cour 5s dec!s!on e;clud!n. $e con(ess!on on $e .round $a $e &a!"er o( $e M!randa r!.$ s &as 'ade &! $ou $e ass!s ance o( counsel. In People ". Nabaluna# 9?7 S%RA ??6 /9AB61# Nabaluna e . al. &ere con"!c ed o( robber, &! $ $o'!c!de on $e bas!s# a'on. o $ers# o( e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons a4en !n 9A<<. T$e con(ess!ons and $e spec!al counsel be(ore &$o' $e con(ess!ons &ere s!.ned pro"e $a $e M!randa &arn!n.s &ere .!"en# bu $ese &ere no 'ade !n $e presence o( counsel. T$e S%# !n allo&!n. $e con(ess!on# ruled $a $e GAl! rul!n. could no $a"e a re roac !"e e((ec # espec!all, s!nce !n $!s case $e r!al cour dec!s!on &as alread, rendered be(ore $e S% pronounce'en .

People ". Lasac 9?B S%RA 67? /9AB<1 F* Appellan &as con"!c ed o( parr!c!de on $e bas!s o( a con(ess!on and c!rcu's an !al e"!dence &$!c$ $e r!al cour (ound subs an !al o es abl!s$ .u!l . 8ELD* T$e &a!"er b, $e appellan o( $!s r!.$ o counsel &as 'ade &! $ou $e ass!s ance o( a counsel. T$e S% $as $eld !n Morales ". Ponce Enr!le# People ". Gal! and People ". S!son /9AB61 $a $!s re0u!re'en !s 'anda or,. An, s a e'en ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $!s procedure s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. 88. c. Ne& rule on &a!"er /Feb. 7# 9AB<1 Ar . III# Sec. 97 /91* 3a!"er 'us be !n &r! !n. and 'ade !n $e presence o( counsel Art. III, S !. ">. 5"7 A$) # rso$ +$' r i$( stig%tio$ for th !o..issio$ of %$ off $s sh%ll h%( th right to & i$for. ' of his right to r .%i$ sil $t %$' to h%( !o.# t $t %$' i$' # $' $t !o+$s l #r f r%&l) of his !hoi! . If th # rso$ !%$$ot %ffor' th s r(i! s of !o+$s l, h .+st & #ro(i' ' *ith o$ . Th s rights !%$$ot & *%i( ' C! #t i$ *riti$g %$' i$ th #r s $! of !o+$s l. :nder $e ne& %ons ! u !on# an, &a!"er 'us no& be 'ade /91 !n &r! !n.# and /71 !n $e presence o( counsel. 2. Th &+r' $ of #ro(i$g (ol+$t%ri$ ss of *%i( rs is o$ th #ros !+tio$ T$e burden o pro"e $a $ere &as a "al!d &a!"er o( $e M!randa &arn!n. de"ol"es upon $e one see4!n. o presen $e con(ess!on# $a !s# on $e prosecu !on. T$!s rule appl!es &$e $er !n $e pre-Gal! # Gal! # or 9AB< rule.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
In People ". -ara# 9?? S%RA F96 /9AB61# $e S% no ed $a $e s ereo ,pe 2ad"!ce2 appear!n. !n prac !call, all e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons &$!c$ are la er repud!a ed $as assu'ed $e na ure o( a le.al (or'. In"es !.a ors au o'a !call, ,pe ! o.e $er &! $ 2opo2 as $e ans&er# or as4 $e accused o s!.n ! or e"en cop, ! !n $e!r $and&r! !n.. I s !red punc !l!ous# (!;ed and ar !(!c!all, s a el, s ,le does no crea e an !'press!on o( "olun ar!ness or e"en unders and!n. on $e par o( $e accused. 3$ene"er a %ons ! u !onal pro ec !on !s &a!"ed b, one en ! led o $a pro ec !on# $e presu'p !on !s al&a,s a.a!ns $e &a!"er. T$us# $e prosecu !on 'us pro"e &! $ s ron.l, con"!nc!n. e"!dence $a !ndeed $e accused &!ll!n.l, and "olun ar!l, sub'! ed $!s con(ess!on# and 4no&!n.l, and del!bera el, 'an!(es ed $a $e &as no !n eres ed !n $a"!n. a la&,er ass!s $!' dur!n. $e a4!n. o( $a con(ess!on. People ". -ara# 9?? S%RA F96 /9AB61 F* Appellan s &ere (ound .u!l , o( robber, &! $ $o'!c!de (or $e 4!ll!n. and robber, o( A'para "da. de )an !.ue on -une A# 9A<B. In ano $er case# &o o( $e appellan s &ere (ound .u!l , o( $o'!c!de (or $e 4!ll!n. on $e sa'e da e o( Lu!sa -ara &$!le Fel!c!s!'o -ara# $e $usband o( $e deceased# &as (ound .u!l , o( parr!c!de. T&o o( $e appellan s# Ra,'undo Ver.ara and )ernardo )ernadas# 'ade e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons !'pl!ca !n. -ara as $e 'as er'!nd. T$e con(ess!ons &ere a4en &$!le $e &o &ere $eld !nco''un!cado !n $e presence o( (!"e pol!ce'en and a( er &o &ee4s o( de en !on. 8ELD* T$e s ereo ,ped 2ad"!ce2 o( $e M!randa r!.$ s appear!n. !n prac !call, all e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons &$!c$ are la er repud!a ed assu'ed $e na ure o( a le.al (or' or 'odel. I s !red# punc !l!ous# (!;ed and ar !(!c!al s ,le does no crea e an !'press!on o( "olun ar!ness or e"en unders and!n. on $e par o( $e accused. T$e s$o&!n. o( a spon aneous# (ree and uncons ra!ned .!"!n. up o( a r!.$ !s '!ss!n.. 3$ene"er a pro ec !on .!"en b, $e %ons ! u !on !s &a!"ed b, $e person en ! led o $a pro ec !on# $e presu'p !on !s al&a,s a.a!ns $e &a!"er. %onse0uen l,# $e prosecu !on 'us pro"e &! $ s ron.# con"!nc!n. e"!dence $a !ndeed $e accused &!ll!n.l, and "olun ar!l, sub'! ed $!s con(ess!on and 4no&!n.l, and del!bera el, 'an!(es ed $a $e &as no !n eres ed !n $a"!n. a la&,er ass!s $!' dur!n. $e a4!n. o( $a con(ess!on. T$a proo( !s '!ss!n. !n $!s case. 6. Wh%t .%) & *%i( 'F Th right to r .%i$ sil $t %$' to !o+$s l, &+t $ot th right to & gi( $ GMir%$'% *%r$i$gsG T$e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and o counsel# &$!c$ are $e e((ec ua !ons o( $e M!randa r!.$ s# can be &a!"ed. 3$a canno be &a!"ed are* 9. T$e r!.$ o be .!"en $e M!randa &arn!n.s. /For $o& can one &a!"e &$a one does no 4no&H1 7. T$e r!.$ o counsel &$en 'a4!n. $e &a!"er o( $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len or o counsel. B. E;clus!onar, rule Art. III, S !. ">. CCC 5@7 A$) !o$f ssio$ or %'.issio$ o&t%i$ ' i$ (iol%tio$ of this or S !tio$ "6 h r of sh%ll & i$%'.issi&l i$ (i' $! %g%i$st hi.. C- /i(ht to bail

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

No e $an under QAr . III# Sec. >/71R $e e;clus!onar, rule reads* /an, e"!dence ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( $!s or $e preced!n. sec !on s$all be !nad'!ss!ble 2(or an, purpose !n an, proceed!n..2 T$ere are &o e;cep !ons o $e e;clus!onar, rule. One# o !'peac$ $e cred!b!l! , o( $e accused. T&o# publ!c sa(e ,. I'peac$ $e cred!b!l! , T$e un&arned or uncounselled con(ess!on !s no o all, &! $ou use. 3$!le ! !s no ad'!ss!ble o pro"e $e .u!l o( $e accused# ! 'a, be used a.a!ns $!' o !'peac$ $!s cred!b!l! , b, s$o&!n. $a $e !s l,!n. !n cour # so ruled $e :.S. Supre'e %our !n 8arr!s ". Ne& Yor4# ?E9 :.S. 777 /9A<91. 8arr!s ". Ne& Yor4# ?E9 :.S. 777 /9A<91 In $!s case# 8arr!s &as arres ed (or &!ce sell!n. $ero!n o an underco"er pol!ce a.en . 8e con(essed o $e cr!'e dur!n. $e pol!ce !n erro.a !on# bu $e con(ess!on &as uncounselled# and so ! &as $eld as !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. )u &$en 8arr!s oo4 $e &! ness s and# $e es !(!ed $a &$a $e sold &as ba4!n. po&der !n order o de(raud $e pol!ce a.en . T$e S% allo&ed $e prosecu !on o !n roduce $e uncounselled s a 'en o s$o& $a $e &as l,!n.. In +us !(,!n. $e ad'!ss!on o( $e es !'on,# -us !ce )ur.er sa!d $a ! !s one $!n. o sa, $a $e .o"ern'en canno 'a4e an a((!r'a !"e use o( $e e"!dence unla&(ull, ob a!ned# and 0u! e ano $er o sa, $a $e de(endan can urn $e !lle.al 'e $od b, &$!c$ $e e"!dence !n $e possess!on o( $e .o"ern'en &as ob a!ned o $!s o&n ad"an a.e# pro"!d!n. $!'sel( &! $ a s$!eld a.a!ns per+ur, and $e con rad!c !on o( $!s un ru $s. T$e reason# con !nued $e %our !s $a $e s$!eld pro"!ded b, $e M!randa r!.$ s canno be per"er ed !n o a l!cense o use per+ur, b, &a, o( a de(ense# (ree (ro' $e r!s4 o( con(ron a !on &! $ pr!or !ncons!s en u erances. P+&li! S%f t) Publ!c Sa(e , 'a, +us !(, $e pol!ce !n a4!n. con(ess!ons &! $ou pr!or &arn!n.. T$us ruled $e :.S. Supre'e %our !n Ne& Yor4 ". Luarles# 9E? S. % . 7676 /9AB?1.

Ne$ 2or+ '- 3!arles4 567 S- Ct- 2828 95:;7<In $e case# $e %our e;cused $e .!"!n. o( $e M!randa &arn!n. because $e publ!c sa(e , re0u!red $a $e &eapon $ad o be loca ed be(ore ! could be used b, $e accused a.a!ns $ose !n $e super'ar4e . T$e cr! !c!s' $urled a.a!ns $!s rul!n. !s $a &$!le $e pol!ce 'a, be +us !(!ed !n (orc!n. $e assa!lan o sa, &$ere $e &eapon !s loca ed# $e !s no +us !(!ed o presen $!s !n e"!dence !n $e subse0uen cr!'!nal prosecu !on.

Art. III, S !. "@. All # rso$s, C! #t thos !h%rg ' *ith off $s s #+$ish%&l &) re"l!sion perpet!a *h $ th

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
(i' $! of g+ilt is stro$g, sh%ll, & for !o$(i!tio$, & &%il%&l &) s+ffi!i $t s+r ti s, or & r l %s ' o$ r !og$i:%$! %s .%) & #ro(i' ' &) l%*. th right to &%il sh%ll $ot & i.#%ir ' ( $ *h $ th #ri(il g of th *rit of habeas "orp!s is s+s# $' '. EC! ssi( &%il sh%ll $ot & r ,+ir '. ". Wh $ right .%) & i$(o; '

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


perpe ua# ! !s con ended $a &$en $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on den!es $e r!.$ o ba!l !n o((enses pun!s$able b, reclus!on perpe ua# ! !s 'ean o appl, onl, o $ose cr!'es &$!c$ &ere once pun!s$able b, dea $. For !( ! !ncludeds e"en $ose cr!'es &$!c$ be(ore and no& are reall, pun!s$able b, reclus!on perpe ua# ! &ould .o a.a!ns $e "er, sp!r! o( $e %ons ! u !on. People ". Dona o# 9A6 S%RA 9>E /9AA91

T$e r!.$ o ba!l !s a"a!lable (ro' $e "er, 'o'en o( arres /&$!c$ 'a, be be(ore or a( er $e (!l!n. o( (or'al c$ar.es !n cour 1 up o $e !'e o( con"!c !on b, (!nal +ud.e'en /&$!c$ 'eans a( er appeal1. No c$ar.e need be (!led (or'all, be(ore one can (!le (or ba!l# so lon. as one !s under arres . So ruled $e S% !n 8eras Tee$an4ee ". Ro"!ca. <F P$!l.6>? /9A?F1. T$e case &as un!0ue !n $a a( er $e &ar# $e People5s %our Ac a'ended Ar . 97F o( $e RP% o allo& (or a lon.er !'e o de a!n persons because o( $e !'poss!b!l! , o( (!l!n. c$ar.es &! $!n $e re.le'en ar, per!od due o $e nu'ber o( !nd!c ees. B%il %$' =abeas Corp!s In $e case o( ba!l# $ere !s an !'pl!c! reco.n! !on $a $e arres and de en !on# are "al!d# or $a e"en !( $e, &ere !n! !all, !lle.al# suc$ !lle.al! , &as cured b, $e subse0uen (!l!n. o( a case !n cour . T$us# $e pra,er !n ba!l !s $a one be released e'porar!l, (ro' suc$ "al!d de en !on# and $!s can be 'ade an, !'e a( er arres . In habeas corpus# $e assu'p !on !s prec!sel, $a $e arres and de en !on are !lle.al# so $a $e pra,er !s o be released per'anen l, (ro' suc$ !lle.al de en !on. 3$en $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! !s suspended# $e arres and de en !on re'a!n !lle.al# bu $e re'ed, a((orded b, la& o $e "!c !' !s no a"a!lable. :nder $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on# $ou.$ $e e((ec o( $e suspens!on $as been cons!derabl, lessened o $e need o (!le a case &! $!n <7 $ours (ro' $e !lle.al arres # o $er&!se $e de a!nee !s o be released. T$e %ons ! u !on no& pro"!des# o"errul!n. Morales ". Enr!le# $a $e suspens!on o( $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! does no carr, &! $ ! $e suspens!on o( $e r!.$ o ba!l. 8abeas %orpus re(ers o !lle.al de en !on# &$!le ba!l re(ers o le.al de en !on# or e"en de en !on $a s ar ed as !lle.al bu &as cured b, $e (!l!n. o( a case !n cour . >. Wh $ &%il is % .%tt r of right, *h $ it is % .%tt r of 'is!r tio$ )a!l !s a 'a er o( r!.$ !n all cases no pun!s$able b, reclus!on perpe ua. I !s a 'a er o( d!scre !on !n case $e e"!dence o( .u!l !s s ron.. In suc$ a case# accord!n. o People ". San D!e.o# 76 S%RA F77 /9A661# $e cour 5s d!scre !on o .ran ba!l 'us be e;erc!sed !n $e l!.$ o( a su''ar, o( $e e"!dence presen ed b, $e prosecu !on. T$us# $e order .ran !n. or re(us!n. ba!l 'us con a!n a su''ar, o( $e e"!dence (or $e prosecu !on (ollo&ed b, $e conclus!on on &$e $er or no $e e"!dence o( .u!l !s s ron.. T$e onl, !'e ba!l 'a, be den!ed !s &$en /a1 $e o((ense !s pun!s$able b, reclus!on perpe ua# and /b1 $e e"!dence o( .u!l !s s ron.. 3! $ $e abol! !on o( $e dea $ penal , /III# 7E1# and $e au o'a !c co''u a !on o( a dea $ sen ence o reclus!on

@. B%il i$ !o+rtsB.%rti%l %o''endador ". De V!lla# 7EE S%RA BE /9AA91 0. St%$'%r's for fiCi$g &%il R+l ""0, S !. 2. A%o!nt o# bail1 (!idelines-.. Th <+'g *ho iss ' th *%rr%$t or gr%$t ' th %##li!%tio$ sh%ll fiC % r %so$%&l %.o+$t of &%il !o$si' ri$g #ri.%ril), &+t $ot li.it ' to th follo*i$g g+i' li$ sF 5%7 Di$%$!i%l %&ilit) of th %!!+s ' to gi( &%ilH 5&7 N%t+r %$' !ir!+.st%$! s of th off $s H 5!7 P $%lt) of th off $s !h%rg 'H 5'7 Ch%r%!t r %$' r #+t%tio$ of th %!!+s 'H 5 7 Ag %$' h %lth of th %!!+s 'H 5f7 Th * ight of th (i' $! %g%i$st th %!!+s 'H 5g7 Pro&%&ilit) of th %!!+s ' %## %ri$g i$ tri%lH 5h7 Dorf it+r of oth r &o$'sH 5i7 Th f%!t th%t %!!+s ' *%s % f+giti( fro. <+sti! *h $ %rr st 'H %$' 5<7 Th # $' $!) of oth r !%s s i$ *hi!h th %!!+s ' is +$' r &o$'. EC! ssi( &%il sh%ll $ot & r ,+ir '. 3$ere $e r!.$ o ba!l e;!s s# ! s$ould no be rendered nu.a or, be re0u!r!n. a su' $a !s e;cess!"e# o $er&!se# ! beco'es 2a pro'!se o $e ear o be bro4en o $e $ope# a eas!n. !llus!on l!4e a 'un!(!cen be0ues !n a pauper5s &!ll2 /-ac4son1. T$us# sa!d $e S% !n De la %a'ara ". Ena.e# ?9 S%RA 9 /9A<91. In $!s case# a ba!l o( P9.9AF '!ll!on !'posed a.a!ns Ma,or %a'ara (or c$ar.es o( 97 'urders and 97 (rus ra ed 'urder &as (ound e;cess!"e. T$e S% la!d do&n $e (ollo&!n. .u!del!nes !n (!;!n. $e a'oun o( ba!l !n V!llasenor ". Abano# 79 S%RA >97 /9A6<1# la er con a!ned !n sec. 6 o( Rule 99?. 9. Ab!l! , o( $e accused o .!"e $e ba!l. 7. Na ure o( $e o((ense. >. Penal , (or $e o((ense c$ar.ed. ?. %$arac er and repu a !on o( $e accused F. 8eal $ o( $e accused. 6. %$arac er and s ren. $ o( $e e"!dence. <. Probab!l! , o( $e accused appear!n. !n r!al. B. For(e! ure o( o $er bonds. A. 3$e $er $e accused &as a (u.! !"e (ro' +us !ce &$en arres ed. 9E. I( $e accused !s under bond (or appearance a r!al !n o $er cases. E"en &$en $e accused $as pre"!ousl, +u'ped ba!l# s !ll $e canno be den!ed ba!l. $e re'ed, !n $!s case !s o !ncrease $e a'oun o( $e ba!l /S!0u!a' ". A'paro1. 3. Right to &%il %$' right to tr%( l %&ro%' Art. III, S !. 2. Th li& rt) of %&o' %$' of !h%$gi$g th s%. *ithi$ th li.its #r s!ri& ' &) l%* sh%ll

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
$ot & i.#%ir ' C! #t +#o$ l%*f+l or' r of th !o+rt. Neither shall the ri(ht to tra'el be i%paired e,"ept in the interest o# national se"!rity4 p!bli" sa#ety4 or p!bli" health4 as %ay be pro'ided by la$. In Mano oc ". %our o( Appeals# 9?7 S%RA 9?A /9AB61# $e S% d!sallo&ed a person released on ba!l o ra"el abroad (or a bus!ness r!p. T$e %our .a"e 7 reasons &$, ba!l opera es onl, &! $!n $e coun r,. One# $e accused 'a, be placed be,ond $e +ur!sd!c !on o( $e cour !( $e &ere allo&ed o lea"e $e P$!l!pp!nes &! $ou su((!c!en reason# $us a((ec !n. one o( $e cond! !ons !n $e .ran o( ba!l# na'el, o $a"e $e accused a"a!lable &$ene"er $e cour re0u!res $!s presence. T&o# !'pl!c! !n $e ba!l !s $e a.ree'en be &een $e S a e and $e sure , $a $e S a e &!ll do no $!n. o 'a4e ! d!((!cul (or $e sure , o arres $e de(endan upon order o( $e cour . I( $e cour $us allo&s $!s o lea"e# $en $e S a e loses ! s r!.$ o order $e (or(e! ure o( $e bond because ! ! sel( $as breac$ed ! s obl!.a !on o $e sure ,. T$e case lea"es $e 0ues !on o( allo&!n. an accused under ba!l o .o abroad (or $u'an! ar!an reasons open-ended. T$!s reason &as no (oreclosed b, $e %our # &$!c$ $!n ed $a $e accused could be allo&ed o lea"e !( $e $ad 2su((!c!en reason2. 3$a $e %our (ound !nsu((!c!en &as $e bus!ness r!p. M%$oto! (. CA, "0> SCRA "04 5"4127 F* Pe ! !oner !s a pr!nc!pal s oc4$older o( &o corpora !ons# !n one o( &$!c$ $e &as $e pres!den . T$e (!r's &ere placed under a 'ana.e'en co''! ee b, $e SE% and pe ! !oner &as placed 2on $old2 b, $e %o''!ss!on o( I''!.ra !on. Pe ! !oner &as c$ar.ed &! $ es a(a. 8e la er as4ed (or per'!ss!on o lea"e $e coun r, (or bus!ness reasons# bu $!s re0ues &as den!ed b, $e cour s. 8e (!led a pe ! !on (or cer !orar! bu $!s pe ! !on &as also d!s'!ssed (or lac4 o( 'er! . 8e appealed o $e S%. 8ELD* T$e cond! !on !'posed b, Rule 99?# sec. 9 upon $e accused o 'a4e $!'sel( a"a!lable &$ene"er $e cour re0u!res $!s presence# opera es as a "al!d res r!c !on on $!s r!.$ o ra"el. T$e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o ra"el !s no absolu e# bu !s sub+ec o la&(ul orders o( $e cour . 88. 2. W%i( r of th Right to B%il People ". Dona o# 9AB S%RA 9>E /9AA91 D. Rights '+ri$g tri%l Art. III, S !. "0. 5"7 No # rso$ sh%ll & h l' to %$s* r for % !ri.i$%l off $s *itho+t '+ #ro! ss of l%*. I$ %ll !ri.i$%l #ros !+tio$s, th %!!+s ' sh%ll & #r s+. ' i$$o! $t +$til th !o$tr%r) is #ro( ', %$' sh%ll $<o) th right to & h %r' &) hi.s lf %$' !o+$s l, to & i$for. ' of th $%t+r %$' !%+s of th %!!+s%tio$ %g%i$st hi., to h%( % s# '), i.#%rti%l %$' #+&li! tri%l, to . t th *it$ ss s f%! to f%! , %$' to h%( !o.#+lsor) #ro! ss to s !+r th %tt $'%$! of *it$ ss s %$' th #ro'+!tio$ of (i' $! i$ his & h%lf. Ho* ( r, %ft r %rr%ig$. $t, tri%l .%) #ro! ' $ot*ithst%$'i$g th %&s $! of th %!!+s ' #ro(i' ' th%t h h%s & $ '+l) $otifi ' %$' his f%il+r to %## %r is +$<+stifi%&l .

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


9. Presu'p !on o( !nnocence In People ". Dra'a,o# ?7 S%RA 6A /9A<91# $e S% no ed $a $e re0u!re'en o( proo( be,ond reasonable doub !s a necessar, corollar, o( $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o be presu'ed !nnocen . In I.o ". %o'elec# AF S%RA >A7 /9ABE1# a la& d!s0ual!(,!n. cand!da es c$ar.ed &! $ na !onal secur! , o((ences &as s ruc4 do&n as uncons ! u !onal# (or "!ola !n. $e presu'p !on a.a!ns !nnocence. In Ale+andro ". Pep! o# A6 S%RA >77 /9ABE1# a +ud.e &$o allo&ed $e accused o presen $!s e"!dence a$ead o( $e prosecu !on# o"er $e ob+ec !on o( $e prosecu !on# a( er $e acused ad'! ed $e 4!ll!n. bu !n"o4ed sel(-de(ense# &as re"ersed b, $e S% on $e .round $a $!s c$an.e !n $e order o( r!al "!ola ed $e cons ! u !onal presu'p !on o( !nnocence &$!c$ places $e burden proo( on $e prosecu !on. T$!s rul!n. &as 'od!(!ed b, Rule 99A# sec. > /e1 o( $e 9ABF Rules o( %r!'!nal Procedure &$!c$ no& re"erses $e order o( r!al &$en $e de(endan ad'! s $e ac bu !n"o4es a +us !(,!n. or e;e'p !n. c!rcu's ance. P o#l (. ' =+:.%$, >@" SCRA 6@4 F* De Gu@'an# %as ro and %a ap &ere c$ar.ed &! $ 'urder (or $e 4!ll!n. o( an un!den !(!ed person on No". 96# 9AA?. Onl, De Gu@'an and %as ro &ere arres ed and bo $ pleaded no .u!l ,. T$e, &ere con"!c ed b, $e cour 'a!nl, on $e bas!s o( $e es !'on, o( Adel!a An.eles. S$e pos! !"el, !den !(!ed $e 7 accused as $e persons &$o &ere &! $ %a ap &$o 'al rea ed an un!den !(!ed person &$o' $e, $ad !ed o an !p!l-!p!l ree and upon see!n. $er# s$e es !(!ed $a $e, un !ed $e 'an and brou.$ $!' o&ards $e d!rec !on o( $e Pas!. r!"er &$!c$ &as onl, > $ouses a&a,. T$!s &as (ur $er s ren. $ened b, $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on /E-%1 o( accused %as ro o Pol!ce %orporal Do'!nador %unanan $a ! &as %a ap &$o 4!lled $e "!c !' and $a $e and de Gu@'an ac ed onl, as loo4-ou s. Issue* 3=N $e cons ! u !onal presu'p !on o( !nnocenec o( $e accused $as been o"erco'e. 8ELD* YES T$ou.$ $ere !s no d!rec e"!dence o l!n4 $e > accused o $e 4!ll!n. o( $e un4no&n "!c !'# $e c!rcu's an !al e"!dence presen ed sa !s(!ed Sec. ?# Rule 9>> RO% na'el,* /91 $ere !s 'ore $an one c!rcu's anceD /71 $e (ac s (ro' &$!c$ $e !n(erences are der!"ed are pro"enD and />1 $e co'b!na !on o( all $e c!rcu's ances !s suc$ as o produce con"!c !on be,ond resonable doub . 3! $ re.ard o $e E-% o( Accused %as ro o Pol!ce %pl. %unanan# $ere !s no e"!dence $a %unanan $ad an, 'o !"e o (alsel, es !(, a.a!ns accused. 3$!le ! !s rue $a accused5s E-% &as 'ade &! $ou $e ad"!ce and ass!s ance o( counsel# $ence !nad'!ss!ble as e"!dence# ! could be rea ed as a "erbal ad'!ss!on o( $e accused es abl!s$ed $rou.$ $e es !'on!es o( persons &$o $eard ! or &$o conduc ed $e !n"es !.a !uon o( $e accused /Peo " Molas 79B S%RA ?<>1. Moreo"er !n Peo " Al"are@# $e cour ruled $a an e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!on !s ad'!ss!ble a.a!ns a co-accused &$en ! !s used as a c!rcu's an !al e"!dence o s$o& $e

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
probab!l! , o( $e par !c!pa !on o( sa!d co-accused !n $e cr!'e co''! ed. >. Right to & h %r' # rso$%ll) or &) !o+$s l Ade0ua e le.al ass!s ance s$all no be den!ed o an, person b, reason o( po"er , /Ar . III# Sec. 99.1 No 'a er $o& educa ed one 'a, be# $e 'a, no 4no& $o& o es abls!$ $!s !nnocence (or $e s!'ple reason $a $e does no 4no& $e rules o( e"!dence sa!d $e S% !n People ". 8ol.ado# BF P$!l <F7 /9AF71. People ". 8ol.ado# BF P$!l <F7 /9AF71 F* Appellan Fr!sco 8ol.ado &as c$ar.ed !n $e cour o( F!rs Ins ance o( Ro'blon &! $ sl!.$ !lle.al de en !on because $e d!d 2(elon!ousl, and &! $ou +us !(!able 'o !"e# 4!dnap and de a!n one Ar e'!a Fabrea. !n $e $ouse o( An ero 8ol.ado (or abou e!.$ $ours $ereb, depr!"!n. sa!d Ar e'!a Fabrea. o( $er personal l!ber ,.2 Accused# una!ded b, counsel# pleaded .u!l , and sa!d $a $e &as !ns ruc ed b, Mr. Oca'po o do so. Accused &as con"!c ed o( a cap! al o((ense. S!nce $e accused-appellan pleaded .u!l , and no e"!dence appears o $a"e been presen ed b, e! $er par ,# $e r!al +ud.e 'us $a"e deduced $e cap! al o((ense (ro' $e (ac s pleaded !n $e !n(or'a !on. Rul!n.* :nder $e c!rcu's ances# par !cularl, $e 0ual!(!ed plea .!"en b, $e accused &$o &as una!ded b, counsel# ! &as no pruden # o sa, $e leas # (or $e r!al cour o render suc$ a ser!ous +ud.'en (!nd!n. $e accused .u!l , o( a cap! al o((ense# and !'pos!n. upon $!' suc$ a $ea", penal , as en ,ears and one da, o( pr!s!on 'a,or o &en , ,ears# &! $ou absolu e an, e"!dence o de er'!ne and clar!(, $e rue (ac s o( $e case. T$e proceed!n.s !n $e r!al cour are !rre.ular (ro' $e be.!nn!n.. I !s e;pressl, pro"!ded !n our rules o( %our # Rule 997# sec !on > /no& Rule 996# Sec. 61# $a * I( $e de(endan appears &! $ou a orne,# $e 'us be !n(or'ed b, $e cour $a ! !s $!s r!.$ o $a"e a orne, be(ore be!n. arra!.ned.# and 'us be as4ed !( $e des!res $e a!d o( a orne,# $e %our 'us ass!.n a orne, de oficio o de(end $!'. A reasonable !'e 'us be allo&ed (or procur!n. a orne,. No one o( $ese du !es $ad been co'pl!ed &! $ b, $e r!al cour . One o( $e .rea pr!nc!ples o( +us !ce .uaran eed b, our %ons ! u !on !s $a 2no person s$all be $eld o ans&er (or a cr!'!nal o((ense &! $ou due process o( la&2# and $a all accused 2s$all en+o, $e r!.$ o be $eard b, $!'sel( and counsel.2 In cr!'!nal cases $ere can be no (a!r $ear!n. unless $e accused be .!"en $e oppor un! , o be $eard b, counsel. T$e r!.$ o be $eard &ould be o( l! le a"a!l !( ! does no !nclude $e r!.$ o be $eard b, counsel. E"en $e 'os !n ell!.en or educa ed 'an 'a, $a"e no s4!ll !n $e sc!ence o( $e la&# par !cularl, !n $e rules o( procedure# and# &! $ou counsel# $e 'a, be con"!c ed no because $e !s .u!l , bu because $e does no 4no& $o& o es abl!s$ $!s !nnocence. And $!s can $appen 'ore eas!l, o persons &$o are !.noran or uneduca ed. I !s (or $!s reason $a $e r!.$ o be ass!s ed b, counsel !s dee'ed so !'por an $a ! $as beco'e a cons ! u !onal r!.$ and ! !s so !'ple'en ed $a under our rules o( procedure ! !s no enou.$ (or $e %our o appr!se an accused o( $!s r!.$ o $a"e an a orne,# ! !s no enou.$ o as4 $!' &$e $er $e des!res $e a!d o( an a orne,# bu ! !s essen !al $a $e cour s$ould ass!.n one de oficio !( $e so des!res and $e !s poor .ran $!' a reasonable !'e o procure an a orne, o( $!s o&n.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

L* 3$a $appens !( $e accused (!les a de'urrer o $e e"!dence o( $e prosecu !on /on $e .round $a $e prosecu !on (a!led o ender a case1 and $!s 'o !on !s den!ed -could $e de(ense s !ll presen ! s o&n e"!denceH In Abr!ol ". 8o'eres# B? P$!l F7F# /9A?A1# $e S% ruled !n $e a((!r'a !"e# con end!n. $a $e r!.$ o( $e accused o presen $!s e"!dence !s a cons ! u !onal r!.$ &$!c$ canno be de(ea ed b, $e d!s'!ssal o( $e 'o !on o( de'urrer. *ilin( o# de%!rrer to e'iden"e is a WAI>E/ o# ri(ht to be heard 5R+l ""4, S !. "3.7 Abr!ol ". 8o'eres# B? P$!l F7F# /9A?A1 F* F!del Abr!ol# o.e $er &! $ s!; o $er persons# &as accused o( !lle.al possess!on o( (!rear's and a''un! !on. A( er $e prosecu !on $ad presen ed ! s e"!dence and res ed ! s case# counsel (or $e de(ense 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e case on $e .round o( !nsu((!c!enc, o( $e e"!dence o pro"e $e .u!l o( $e accused. A( er $ear!n. $e ar.u'en s (or and a.a!ns $e 'o !on (or d!s'!ssal# $e cour $eld $e proo(s su((!c!en o con"!c and den!ed sa!d 'o !on# &$ereupon counsel (or $e de(ense o((ered o presen e"!dence (or $e accused. T$e pro"!nc!al (!scal opposed $e presen a !on o( e"!dence b, $e de(ense# con end!n. $a $e presen procedural prac !ce and la&s precluded $e de(ense !n cr!'!nal cases (ro' presen !n. an, e"!dence a( er ! $ad presen ed a 'o !on (or d!s'!ssal &! $ or &! $ou reser"a !on and a( er sa!d 'o !on $ad been den!ed# and c! !n. as au $or! , $e case o( :n! ed S a es "s. De la %ru@# 7B P$!l.# 7<A. 8!s 8onor -ud.e S. %. Moscoso sus a!ned $e oppos! !on o( $e pro"!nc!al (!scal and# &! $ou allo&!n. $e accused o presen e"!dence !n $e!r de(ense# con"!c ed all o( $e' and sen enced $e $ere!n pe ! !oner o su((er se"en ,ears o( !'pr!son'en and o pa, a (!ne o( P7#EEE. Issue* 3$e $er $e accused s$ould be allo&ed o presen e"!dence a( er $e den!al o( $e!r 'o !on o d!s'!ss on $e .round o( !nsu((!c!enc, o( e"!dence o( $e prosecu !on Rul!n.* T$e accused s$ould be allo&ed o presen e"!dence. 9. T$e re(usal o( -ud.e Moscoso o allo& $e accusedpe ! !oner o presen proo(s !n $!s de(ense a( er $e den!al o( $!s 'o !on (or d!s'!ssal &as a palpable error &$!c$ resul ed !n den,!n. o $e sa!d accused $e due process o( la& .uaran eed !n $e )!ll o( R!.$ s e'bod!ed !n $e %ons ! u !on# ! be!n. pro"!ded !n Ar !cle II# sec !on 9 /9<1# o( $e %ons ! u !on $a !n all cr!'!nal prosecu !ons $e accused s$all en+o, $e r!.$ o be $eard b, $!'sel( and counsel and o $a"e co'pulsor, process o secure $e a endance o( &! nesses !n $!s be$al(. T$ere !s no la& nor 2procedural prac !ce2 under &$!c$ $e accused 'a, e"er be den!ed $e r!.$ o be $eard be(ore be!n. sen enced. No& $a $e Go"ern'en canno appeal !n cr!'!nal cases !( $e de(endan &ould be placed $ereb, !n double +eopard, /sec. 7# Rule 99B1# $e d!s'!ssal o( $e case (or !nsu((!c!enc, o( $e e"!dence a( er $e prosecu !on $as res ed er'!na es $e case $en and $ere. )u !( $e 'o !on (or d!s'!ssal !s den!ed# $e cour s$ould proceed o $ear $e e"!dence (or $e de(ense be(ore en er!n. +ud.'en re.ardless o( &$e $er or no $e de(ense $ad reser"ed ! s r!.$ o presen e"!dence !n $e e"en ! s 'o !on (or d!s'!ssal be den!ed. T$e reason !s $a ! !s $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o( $e accused o be $eard !n $!s de(ense be(ore sen ence !s pronounced on $!'. O( course !( $e accused $as no e"!dence o presen or e;pressl, &a!"es $e r!.$ o presen ! # $e cour $as no al erna !"e bu o dec!de $e case upon $e e"!dence presen ed b, $e prosecu !on alone.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
7. T$e 'a!n 0ues !on o dec!de !s &$e $er $e &r! o( habeas corpus l!es !n a case l!4e $e presen . 3e $a"e alread, s$o&n $a $ere !s no la& or preceden &$!c$ could be !n"o4ed o place !n doub $e r!.$ o( $e accused o be $eard or o presen e"!dence !n $!s de(ense be(ore be!n. sen enced. On $e con rar,# $e pro"!s!ons o( $e %ons ! u !on $ere!nabo"e c! ed e;pressl, and clearl, .uaran ee o $!' $a r!.$ . Suc$ cons ! u !onal r!.$ !s !n"!ola e. No cour o( +us !ce under our s,s e' o( .o"ern'en $as $e po&er o depr!"e $!' o( $a r!.$ . I( $e accused does no &a!"e $!s r!.$ o be $eard bu on $e con rar, as !n $e !ns an case !n"o4es $a rou.$# and $e cour den!es ! o $!'# $a cour no lon.er $as +ur!sd!c !on o proceedD ! $as no po&er o sen ence $e accused &! $ou $ear!n. $!' !n $!s de(enseD and $e sen ence $us pronounced !s "o!d and 'a, be colla erall, a ac4ed !n a habeas corpus proceed!n.. Al $ou.$ $e sen ence a.a!ns $e pe ! !oner !s "o!d (or $e reasons $ere!nabo"e s a ed# $e 'a, be $eld under $e cus od, o( $e la& b, be!n. de a!ned or ad'! ed o ba!l un !l $e case a.a!ns $!' !s (!nall, and la&(ull, dec!ded. T$e process a.a!ns $!' !n cr!'!nal case No. 9?<7 'a, s and s$ould be resu'ed (ro' $e s a.e a &$!c$ ! &as "! !a ed b, $e r!al cour 5s den!al o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ o be $eard. :p o $e po!n &$en $e prosecu !on res ed# $e proceed!n.s &ere "al!d and s$ould be resu'ed (ro' $ere. People ". Donesa# ?A S%RA 7B9 /9A<>1 =rant of demurrer is equivalent to an acquittal F* A( er prosecu !on presen ed ! s &! nesses# $e de(ense 'o"ed (or d!s'!ssal o( $e case on $e .round o( !nsu((!c!enc, o( e"!dence. T$e +ud.e .ran ed $e 'o !on. Issue* D!d suc$ d!s'!ssal opera e as an ac0u! al o( $e accusedH Rul!n.* YES A d!s'!ssal ordered a( er $e er'!na !on o( $e presen a !on o( $e e"!dence (or $e prosecu !on $as $e (orce and e((ec o( an ac0u! al. S!nce $ere !s a (a!lure o pro"e $e .u!l o( $e accused# $e case 'us be d!s'!ssed# and ! &!ll be a bar o ano $er prosecu !on (or $e sa'e o((ense e"en $ou.$ ! &as ordered b, $e %our upon 'o !on or &! $ $e e;press consen o( $e de(endan # !n e;ac l, $e sa'e &a, as a +ud.'en o( ac0u! al. R+l ""4, S !. "3. D .+rr r to (i' $! .BB Aft r th #ros !+tio$ h%s r st ' its !%s , th !o+rt .%) 'is.iss th !%s o$ th gro+$' of i$s+ffi!i $!) of (i' $! F 5"7 o$t its o*$ i$titi%ti( %ft r gi(i$t th #ros !+tio$ %$ o##ort+$it) to & h %r'H or 5>7 o$ .otio$ of th %!!+s ' fil ' *ith #ro# r l %( of !o+rt. If th !o+rt ' $i s th .otio$ for 'is.iss%l, th %!!+s ' .%) %''+! (i' $! i$ his ' f $s . Wh $ th %!!+s ' fil s s+!h .otio$ to 'is.iss *itho+t C#r ss l %( of !o+rt, h *%i( s th right to #r s $t (i' $! %$' s+&.its th !%s for <+'g. $t o$ th &%sis of th (i' $! for th #ros !+tio$. 5R+l s of Co+rt.7 @. Right to fr l g%l %ssist%$!

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


F* On 7A Dece'ber 9ABA# $e accused-appellan R!cardo R!o# !n &o /71 le ers da ed 9? Dece'ber 9ABA# addressed o D!"!s!on %ler4 o( %our Fer'!n -. Gar'a and o Ass!s an %ler4 o( %our To'as! a M. Dr!s# 'an!(es ed $!s !n en !on o &! $dra& $e appeal due o $!s po"er ,. Parap$ras!n. Mr. -us !ce Malcol'# 2T&o /71 o( $e bas!c pr!"!le.es o( $e accused !n a cr!'!nal prosecu !on are $e r!.$ o $e ass!s ance o( counsel and $e r!.$ o a prel!'!nar, e;a'!na !on. Pres!den Mc4!nle, 'ade $e (!rs a par o( $e Or.an!c La& !n $!s Ins ruc !ons o $e %o''!ss!on b, !'pos!n. $e !n"!olable rule $a !n all cr!'!nal prosecu !ons $e accused 5s$all en+o, $e r!.$ ... o $a"e ass!s ance o( counsel (or $e de(ense5 2. Toda, sa!d r!.$ !s ens$r!ned !n $e 9AB< %ons ! u !on (or# as -ud.e %oole, sa,s# $!s !s 2per$aps $e pr!"!le.e 'os !'por an o $e person accused o( cr!'e.2 2In cr!'!nal cases $ere can be no (a!r $ear!n. unless $e accused be .!"en an oppor un! , o be $eard b, counsel. T$e r!.$ o be $eard &ould be o( l! le 'ean!n. !( ! does no !nclude $e r!.$ o be $eard b, counsel. E"en $e 'os !n ell!.en or educa ed 'an 'a, $a"e no s4!ll !n $e sc!ence o( $e la&# par !cularl, !n $e rules o( procedure# and# &! $ou counsel# $e 'a, be con"!c ed no because $e !s .u!l , bu because $e does no 4no& $o& o es abl!s$ $!s !nnocence. And $!s can $appen 'ore eas!l, o persons &$o are !.noran or uneduca ed. I !s (or $!s reason $a $e r!.$ o be ass!s ed b, counsel !s dee'ed so !'por an $a ! $as beco'e a cons ! u !onal r!.$ and ! !s so !'ple'en ed $a under our rules o( procedure ! !s no enou.$ (or $e %our o appr!se an accused o( $!s r!.$ o $a"e an a orne,# ! !s no enou.$ o as4 $!' &$e $er $e des!res $e a!d o( an a orne,# bu ! !s essen !al $a $e cour s$ould ass!.n one de oficio (or $!' !( $e so des!res and $e !s poor# or .ran $!' a reasonable !'e o procure an a orne, o( $!s o&n.2 T$!s r!.$ o a counsel de oficio does no cease upon $e con"!c !on o( an accused b, a r!al cour . I con !nues# e"en dur!n. appeal# suc$ $a $e du , o( $e cour o ass!.n a counsel de oficio pers!s s &$ere an accused !n erposes an !n en o appeal. E"en !n a case# suc$ as $e one a bar# &$ere $e accused $ad s!.n!(!ed $!s !n en o &! $dra& $!s appeal# $e cour !s re0u!red o !n0u!re !n o $e reason (or $e &! $dra&al. 3$ere ! (!nds $e sole reason (or $e &! $dra&al o be po"er ,# as !n $!s case# $e cour 'us ass!.n a counsel de oficio# (or desp! e suc$ &! $dra&al# $e du , o pro ec $e r!.$ s o( $e accused subs!s s and per$aps# &! $ .rea er reason. A( er all# 2 $ose &$o $a"e less !n l!(e 'us $a"e 'ore !n la&.2 -us !ce s$ould ne"er be l!'! ed o $ose &$o $a"e $e 'eans. I !s (or e"er,one# &$e $er r!c$ or poor. I s scales s$ould al&a,s be balanced and s$ould ne"er e0u!"oca e or co.! a e !n order o (a"or one par , o"er ano $er. I !s &! $ $!s $ou.$ !n '!nd $a &e c$ar.e cler4s o( cour o( r!al cour s o be 'ore c!rcu'spec &! $ $e du , !'posed on $e' b, la& /Sec !on 9># Rule 977 o( $e Rules o( %our 1 so $a cour s &!ll be abo"e reproac$ and $a ne"er /!( poss!ble1 &!ll an !nnocen person be sen enced (or a cr!'e $e $as no co''! ed nor $e .u!l , allo&ed o .o sco -(ree. In $!s sp!r! # $e %our ordered $e appo!n 'en o( a counsel de oficio (or $e accused-appellan and (or sa!d counsel and $e Sol!c! or General o (!le $e!r respec !"e br!e(s# upon sub'!ss!on o( &$!c$ $e case &ould be dee'ed sub'! ed (or dec!s!on. Fro' $e records o( $e case# ! !s es abl!s$ed $a $e accused- appellan &as c$ar.ed &! $ $e cr!'e o( rape !n a "er!(!ed co'pla!n (!led b, co'pla!nan 3!l'a P$ua R!o# dul, subscr!bed be(ore >rd Ass!s an F!scal Rodol(o M. Ale+andro o( $e pro"!nce o( R!@al# &$!c$ reads as (ollo&s* T$a on or abou $e 7? $ da, o( Marc$# 9AB?# !n $e Mun!c!pal! , o( Mun !nlupa# Me ro Man!la# P$!l!pp!nes# a place &! $!n $e +ur!sd!c !on o( $!s 8onorable %our # $e

Art. III, S !. "". Dr %!! ss to th !o+rts %$' ,+%siB<+'i!i%l &o'i s %$' %' ,+%t l g%l %ssist%$! sh%ll $ot & ' $i ' to %$) # rso$ &) r %so$ of #o( rt). People ". R!o# 7E9 S%RA <E7 /9AA91

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
abo"e-na'ed accused# b, 'eans o( (orce and !n !'!da !on d!d $en and $ere &!l(ull,# unla&(ull, and (elon!ousl, $a"e carnal 4no&led.e o( $e unders!.ned 3!l'a P$ua a.a!ns $er &!ll. On 76 -une 9ABF# a $e arra!.n'en # $e accusedappellan # ass!s ed b, A ,. Leon!do Manalo o( $e Ma4a ! %LAO o((!ce# as counsel de oficio# en ered a plea o( no .u!l , o $e o((ense c$ar.ed. ;;; T$e r!al cour (ound $e accused-appellan .u!l , o( $e cr!'e o( rape. T$e $eor, o( $e de(ense a $e r!al le"el &as .rounded on al!b!. T$e accused cla!'ed $a a $e !'e o( $e alle.ed co''!ss!on o( $e cr!'e o( rape $e &as !n Ro'blon. T$!s cla!' &as corrobora ed b, $e accused5s bro $er# A'ado R!o. 8o&e"er# $!s cla!' &as# as a(ores a ed# rebu ed b, $e prosecu !on5s sub'!ss!on o( $e "o er5s a((!da"! e;ecu ed b, $e accused !n Mun !nlupa# Me ro Man!la on >9 Marc$ 9AB? &$en appellan cla!'ed $e &as !n Ro'blon. 8ELD* On appeal# appellan 5s counsel de oficio c$an.ed $e $eor, o( $e de(ense. T$e ne& $eor, presen ed b, counsel de oficio !s $a 3!l'a P$ua consen ed &$en accused-appellan $ad se;ual !n ercourse &! $ $er on 7? Marc$ 9AB?. I &as s ressed b, counsel de oficio $a $e rape occurred on 7? Marc$ 9AB? and $a # alle.edl,# ! &as $e (our $ !'e accused $ad abused co'pla!nan . T$!s alle.a !on as &ell as $e (ac $a co'pla!nan (a!led o loc4 $e door o $e ba $roo' could onl, $a"e been due o $e (ac $a $ere &as consen . T$e c$ar.e &as (!led# accord!n. o de(ense counsel de oficio# onl, because $e co'pla!nan 5s 'o $er cau.$ $e'. T$!s $eor, o( $e de(ense on appeal $a $ere $ad been consen (ro' $e co'pla!nan # (a!ls o .enera e doub as o $e accused5s .u!l # (or ! &ould be an !ncredulous s! ua !on !ndeed o bel!e"e $a one# so ,oun. and as ,e un!n! !a ed o $e &a,s o( $e &orld# &ould per'! $e occurrence o( an !nces uous rela !ons$!p &! $ an uncle# a bro $er o( $er "er, o&n 'o $er. T$e %our no es $e sudden s&!( !n $e $eor, o( $e de(ense (ro' one o( o al den!al o( $e !nc!den !n 0ues !on# b, &a, o( al!b!# o one o( par !c!pa !on# $a !s# &! $ $e alle.ed consen o( $e co'pla!nan . T$!s ne& "ers!on could onl, be a r!bu ed b, $e %our o $e (ac $a counsel on appeal !s d!((eren (ro' $e counsel !n $e r!al cour . Al $ou.$ $e Sol!c! or General $as su..es ed $a $!s sudden s$!( be !n erpre ed as an a( er $ou.$ b, $e accused or a despera e e((or o .e $!'sel( ac0u! ed# $e %our dee's ! 'ore l!4el, $a $!s s$!( &as caused b, counsel de oficio5s prepara !on o( $e appellan 5s br!e( &! $ou e;a'!n!n. $e en !re records o( $e case. I( $e appo!n ed counsel (or $e accused# on appeal# $ad read $e records and ranscr!p s o( $e case $orou.$l,# $e &ould no $a"e c$an.ed $e $eor, o( $e de(ense (or suc$ a s$!( can ne"er spea4 &ell o( $e cred!b!l! , o( $e de(ense. Moreo"er# $e rule !n c!"!l procedure# &$!c$ appl!es e0uall, !n cr!'!nal cases# !s $a a par , 'a, no s$!( $!s $eor, on appeal. I( $e counsel de oficio $ad been 'ore consc!en !ous# $e &ould $a"e 4no&n $a $e sudden s$!( &ould be "!ola !"e o( a(ore'en !oned procedural rule and de r!'en al o $e cause o( $e accused-appellan /$!s cl!en 1. The Court hereby admonishes members of the Bar to be more conscious of their duties as advocates of their clients7 causes, whether acting de parte or de oficio, for >public interest requires that an attorney exert his best efforts and ability in the prosecution or defense of his client7s cause.> 8awyers are an indispensable part of the whole system of administering ,ustice in this ,urisdiction. 3nd a lawyer who performs that duty with diligence and candor not only protects the interests of his client< he also serves the ends of ,ustice, does honor to the Bar and helps maintain the respect of the community to the legal profession. This is so because the entrusted privilege to practice law carries with it correlative

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


duties not only to the client but also to the court, to the bar and to the public. (hile a lawyer is not supposed to %now all the laws, he is expected to ta%e such reasonable precaution in the discharge of his duty to his client and for his professional guidance as will not ma%e him, who is sworn to uphold the law, a transgressor of its precepts. The fact that he merely volunteered his services or the circumstance that he was a counsel de oficio neither diminishes nor alters the degree of professional responsibility owed to his client. The ethics of the profession require that counsel display warm -eal and great dedication to duty irrespective of the client7s capacity to pay him his fees. 3ny attempted presentation of a case without adequate preparation distracts the administration of ,ustice and discredits the Bar. 0. Right to & i$for. ' of $%t+r %$' !%+s of %!!+s%tio$ T$e arra!.n'en !n cr!'!nal prosecu !on !s prec!sel, !n ended o co'pl, &! $ $e r!.$ o( $e accused o be !n(or'ed o( $e na ure and cause o( $e accusa !on a.a!ns $!'. As no ed !n Vera ". People# procedural due process re0u!res $a $e accused 'us be !n(or'ed &$, $e !s be!n. prosecu ed and &$a c$ar.e $e 'us 'ee . )or+a ". Mendo@a# << S%RA ?77 /9A<<1 5o valid trial in absentia without arraignment F* Pe ! !oner &as accused o( sl!.$ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es !n $e %! , %our o( %ebu. A( er one pos pone'en due o pe ! !oner5s (a!lure o appear# $e case &as rese . A.a!n# pe ! !oner (a!led o appear# desp! e no !ce o $!s bonds'an. T$e cour $en allo&ed $e prosecu !on o presen e"!dence desp! e $e (ac $a pe ! !oner $ad no been arra!.ned. A( er $e o((ended par , $ad es !(!ed and presen ed docu'en ar, e"!dence# $e cour (ound pe ! !oner .u!l ,. T$e %FI a((!r'ed $e dec!s!on. 8ence# $!s pe ! !on (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* Responden -ud.e co''! ed a .ra"e abuse o( d!scre !on and $!s dec!s!on !s "o!d. )ecause pe ! !oner &as no arra!.ned# $e &as no !n(or'ed o( $e na ure and cause o( accusa !on a.a!ns $!'. Arra!.n'en !s an !nd!spensable re0u!re'en !n an, cr!'!nal proceed!n.. 3. Right to s# '), i.#%rti%l %$' #+&li! tri%l /91 Speed, Tr!al T$e r!.$ o a speed, r!al 'eans one $a !s (ree (ro' "e;a !ous and oppress!"e dela,s. I s ob+ec !"e !s o (ree $e !nnocen person (ro' an;!e , and e;pense o( a cour l! !.a !on# or o $er&!se# o $a"e $!s .u!l de er'!ned &! $!n $e s$or es poss!ble !'e# co'pa !ble &! $ $e presen a !on and cons!dera !on o( &$a e"er le.! !'a e de(ense $e accused 'a, !n erpose. 3$!le reasonable dela, 'a, be allo&ed as de er'!ned on a case o case bas!s# an unreasonable dela, on $e par o( $e prosecu !on o presen ! s case# $ereb, caus!n. $e $rea o( penal l!ab!l! , o re'a!n $an.!n. o"er $e $ead o( $e accused (or an e; ended per!od o( !'e# "!ola es $e r!.$ o( $e accused o a speed, r!al. T$e re'ed, o( $e accused !n $!s case !s habeas corpus !( $e $as been res ra!ned o( $!s l!ber ,# or certiorari# pro$!b! !on or 'anda'us (or $e (!nal d!s'!ssal o( $e caseD and d!s'!ssal based on $e den!al o( $e r!.$ o speed, r!al a'oun s o an ac0u! al.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
So sa!d $e S% !n Ace"edo ". Sar'!en o# >6 S%RA 7?< /9A<E1# a case !n"ol"!n. $e prosecu !on (or da'a.e o proper , $rou.$ rec4less !'prudence &$!c$ $ad been pend!n. (or 6 ,ears# $e las s ep a4en be!n. $e s ar o( $e crosse;a'!na !on o( $e co'pla!n!n. &! ness# &$o d!d no appear $erea( er. T$e S% ordered $e case d!s'!ssed &! $ pre+ud!ce# $us ac0u! !n. $e accused. 5>7 P+&li! Tri%l A publ!c r!al does no re0u!re $a $e en !re publ!c can &! ness $e r!al. I !s enou.$ !( ! !s conduc ed a a place &$ere one5s rela !"es and (r!ends can be acco''oda ed and $e publ!c 'a, 4no& &$a !s .o!n. on. T$e r!.$ !s no absolu e. T$e cour can order $e publ!c ou o( $e r!al roo' !n $e !n eres o( 'oral! , and order. In Garc!a ". Do'!n.o# F7 S%RA 9?> /9A<E1# $e S% d!s'!ssed $e con en !on o( one par , $a $e r!al &as conduc ed !ns!de $e c$a'ber o( $e +ud.e on $e .round $a $e ob+ec !on ca'e oo la e / $e par , onl, co'pla!ned a( er $e 9? $ $ear!n.1 and $a $e place &as a.reed upon b, $e par !es (or $e!r 'u ual con"en!ence / $e +ud.e5s roo' &as a!r cond! !oned1. Garc!a ". Do'!n.o# F7 S%RA 9?> /9A<E1 T$e p!"o al 0ues !on !n $!s pe ! !on (or certiorari and pro$!b! !on# one &$!c$ $us (ar $as re'a!ned unresol"ed# !s $e 'ean!n. o be accorded $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o publ!c r!al. Issue* Is $e $old!n. o( r!al !n $e c$a'bers o( $e +ud.e "!ola !"e o( $e r!.$ o a publ!c r!alH Rul!n.* NO T$e de(endan s !n $!s case a.reed $a $e $ear!n.s be $eld !n $e c$a'bers. On (our een separa e occas!ons $!s &as $e case and $ere &as no ob+ec !on on $e!r par . T$ere &as no e"!dence o subs an !a e $e cla!' $a an, o $er person &as e;cluded (ro' $e c$a'bers. I !s $us e"!den $a &$a oo4 place !n $e c$a'bers o( $e c! , cour +ud.e &as de"o!d o( $as e or !n en !onal secrec,. T$e r!al 'us be publ!c. I possesses $a c$arac er &$en an,one !n eres ed !n obser"!n. $e 'anner a +ud.e conduc s $e proceed!n.s !n $!s cour roo' 'a, do so. T$ere !s o be no ban on suc$ a endance. 8!s be!n. a s ran.er o $e l! !.an s !s o( no 'o'en . No rela !ons$!p o $e par !es need be s$o&n. T$e $ou.$ $a l!es be$!nd $!s sa(e.uard !s $e bel!e( $a $ereb, $e accused !s a((orded (ur $er pro ec !on# $a $!s r!al !s l!4el, o be conduc ed &! $ re.ular! , and no a!n ed &! $ an, !'propr!e ,. I !s no a'!ss o recall $a Dele.a e Laurel !n $!s erse su''a !on $e !'por ance o( $!s r!.$ s!n.led ou ! s be!n. a de errence o arb! rar!ness. I !s $us unders andable &$, suc$ a r!.$ !s dee'ed e'braced !n procedural due process. 3$ere a r!al a4es place# as !s 0u! e usual# !n $e cour roo' and a calendar o( &$a cases are o be $eard !s pos ed# no proble' ar!ses. I $e usual course o( e"en s $a !nd!"!duals des!rous o( be!n. presen are (ree o do so. T$ere !s $e &ell reco.n!@ed e;cep !on $ou.$ $a &arran s $e e;clus!on o( $e publ!c &$ere $e e"!dence 'a, be c$arac er!@ed as 2o((ens!"e o decenc, or publ!c 'orals.2 3$a d!d occas!on d!((!cul , !n $!s su! &as $a (or $e con"en!ence o( $e par !es# and o( $e c! , cour -ud.e# ! &as !n $e la er5s a!r-cond! !oned c$a'bers $a $e r!al &as $eld. D!d $a su((!ce o !n"es !.a e $e proceed!n.s as "!ola !"e o( $!s r!.$ H T$e ans&er 'us be !n $e ne.a !"e. T$ere !s no s$o&!n. $a $e publ!c &as $ereb, e;cluded. I !s o be ad'! ed $a $e s!@e o( $e roo' allo ed $e -ud.e

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


&ould reduce $e nu'ber o( $ose &$o could be presen . Suc$ a (ac $ou.$ !s no !nd!ca !"e o( an, rans.ress!on o( $!s r!.$ . %our roo's are no o( un!(or' d!'ens!ons. So'e are s'aller $an o $ers. Moreo"er# as ad'! ed b, -us !ce )lac4 !n $!s 'as erl, In re Ol!"er op!n!on# ! su((!ces o sa !s(, $e re0u!re'en o( a r!al be!n. publ!c !( $e accused could 2$a"e $!s (r!ends# rela !"es and counsel presen # no 'a er &! $ &$a o((ense $e 'a, be c$ar.ed.2 T$en# oo# re(erence 'a, also be 'ade o $e und!spu ed (ac a leas (our een $ear!n.s $ad been $eld !n c$a'bers o( $e c! , cour -ud.e# &! $ou ob+ec !on on $e par o( responden pol!ce'en. ;;; 5@7 I.#%rti%l tri%l One aspec o( an !'par !al r!al !s a neu ral 'a.!s ra e &$o e;erc!ses cold !'par !al! ,. In Tu'e, ". O$!o# 7<> :.S. F9E /9A7<1# ! &as $eld $a a o&n 'a,or &$o &as pa!d on $e bas!s o( $e (!ne $e !'poses (or e"er, con"!c !on (or "!ola !on o( $e dr!n4!n. la&s# could no be an !'par !al +ud.e. :nder suc$ a s! ua !on# $e &ould be !n eres ed !n con"!c !n. $ose $e r!es so $e &ould earn 'ore. Ano $er aspec o( an !'par !al r!al !s an !'par !al r!bunal bound b, $e )!ll o( R!.$ s and $e s r!c rules o( e"!dence and procedure. In Ola.uer ". M!l! ar, %o''!ss!on# 9FE S%RA 9?? /9AB<1# $e S% $eld $a a c!"!l!an canno be r!ed b, a '!l! ar, cour /!n connec !on &! $ $e L!.$ a F!re Mo"e'en 1 so lon. as $e c!"!l cour s are open and opera !n.# e"en dur!n. Mar !al La&. 2. Right to !o$fro$t *it$ ss T$e purpose o( $!s r!.$ !s o enable $e accused o es $e cred!b!l! , o( $e &! ness. T$e bes 'eans o( con(ron a !on !s $e process o( cross-e;a'!na !on. 6. Right to s !+r %tt $'%$! of *it$ ss s 5%$' th #ro'+!tio$ of (i' $! i$ his & h%lf7 T$ere are "ar!ous 'eans a"a!lable o $e par !es o co'pel $e a endance o( &! nesses and $e produc !on o( docu'en s and $!n.s needed !n $e prosecu !on or de(ense o( a case !n an ad"ersar!al 'anner* subpoena and subpoena duces tecum* depos! !ons and o $er 'odes o( d!sco"er,D perpe ua !on o( es !'on!es. 1. Tri%l in Absentia Al $ou.$ $e r!.$ o be presen !s no e;pl!c! !n $e pro"!s!on# ! !s !n(errable (ro' $e p$rase 2 r!al 'a, proceed no &! $s and!n. $e absence o( $e accused2 T$!s r!.$ o be presen 'a,# $o&e"er# be &a!"ed b, $e accused. Rule 99F# sec# 9/c1# al4s o( > &a,s $a $e &a!"er 'a, a4e place* /a1 e;press &a!"er pursuan o $e s !pula !ons se (or $ !n $!s ba!l bond# unless $!s presence !s spec!(!call, ordered b, $e cour (or purposes o( !den !(!ca !onD /b1 !'pl!ed &a!"er &$en $e accused &! $ou an, +us !(!able cause !s absen a $e r!al on a par !cular da e o( &$!c$ $e $ad no !ceD and /c1 !'pl!ed &a!"er &$en $e accused under cus od, &$o $ad been no !(!ed o( $e da e o( r!al escapes. In cases !n &$!c$ $ere $a"e been a &a!"er o( $e r!.$ o be presen # &$e $er e;pressed or !'pl!ed# $e r!al 'a, be $eld 2in absentia2. T$e re0u!s! es o( a "al!d r!al in absentia are* /!1 $e accused $as been arra!.nedD /!!1 $e &as dul,

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
no !(!ed o( $e $ear!n.D and /!!!1 $!s (a!lure o a end $e r!al !s un+us !(!ed. T$ere can be no "al!d r!al in absentia unless $e accused $as been arra!.ned# ruled $e S% !n )or!a ". Mendo@a# << S%RA ?77 /9A<<1# a case !n"ol"!n. a c$ar.e (or sl!.$ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es &$ere $e accused (a!led o appear and so $e r!al cour allo&ed $e prosecu !on o presen ! s e"!dence e"en !( $e accused $as no ,e been arra!.ned. Arra!.n'en !s cruc!al because ! !n(or's $e accued o( $e na ure and cause o( $e accusa !on a.a!ns $!'. %on"!c !on &! $ou arra!.n'en "!ola es due process and ous s $e cour o( ! s +ur!sd!c !on. )or!a ". Mendo@a# << S%RA ?77 /9A<<1# supra. 8ELD* T$e subse0uen r!al in absentia depr!"ed pe ! !oner o( $!s r!.$ o be $eard b, $!'sel( and counsel. T$e !nd!spensable re0u!re'en (or r!al in absentia !s $a ! s$ould co'e a( er arra!.n'en . 88. 3a!"er o( $e r!.$ o be presen !'pl!es also &a!"er o( $e r!.$ o presen e"!dence. T$us# !( $e accused (a!ls o a end r!al /&$!c$ presupposes arra!.n'en 1# &! $ou an, +us !(!able cause# $e prosecu !on can proceed &! $ $e presen a !on o( $e e"!dence# and $ereupon# $e cour 'a, cons!der $e case sub'! ed (or dec!s!on. T$e cour &!ll dec!de $e case on $e bas!s onl, o( $e prosecu !on5s e"!dence. T$!s does no "!ola e $e cons ! u !onal presu'p !on o( !nnocence because ! does no 'ean $a $e +ud.'en o( $e r!al cour &!ll resul !n con"!c !on. So ruled $e S% !n People ". Salas# 9?> S%RA 96> /9AB61# &$!c$ (ur $er ruled $a r!al in absentia appl!es e"en o cap! al cases. People ". Salas 9?> S%RA 96> /9AB61 Trial in absentia applies even to capital cases F* Mar!o Abon. &as or!.!nall, c$ar.ed &! $ $o'!c!de !n $e %FI %ebu bu be(ore $e could be arra!.ned# $e case &as re!n"es !.a ed on 'o !on o( $e prosecu !on. As a resul o( $e re!n"es !.a !on# an a'ended !n(or'a !on &as (!led# &! $ no ba!l reco''ended# o &$!c$ $e pleaded no .u!l ,. Tr!al co''enced bu &$!le ! &as !n pro.ress# $e pr!soner oo4 ad"an a.e o( $e (!rs !n(or'a !on (!led and succeeded !n dece!"!n. $e c! , cour o( %ebu !n o .ran !n. $!' ba!l and order!n. $!s release. T$e responden -ud.e# learn!n. o( $e r!c4er,# cancelled $e !lle.al ba!l bond and ordered Abon.5s re-arres . )u $e &as .one. None $eless# $e prosecu !on 'o"ed $a $e $ear!n. con !nue !n accordance &! $ $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on au $or!@!n. r!al !n absen !a. T$e responden -ud.e den!ed $e 'o !on and suspended all proceed!n.s un !l $e re urn o( $e accused. 8ence# $!s pe ! !on. 8ELD* T$e doc r!ne la!d do&n !n People ". A"anceMa $as been 'od!(!ed b, Ar . IV# sec. 9A Qno& Ar . III# sec. 9?/71 o( $e 9AB< %ons ! u !onR &$!c$ allo&s r!al in absentia. T$e pr!soner canno b, s!'pl, escap!n. $&ar $!s con !nued prosecu !on and poss!ble e"en ual con"!c !on pro"!ded onl, $a /a1 $e $as been arra!.nedD /b1 $e $as been dul, no !(!ed o( $e r!alD and /c1 $!s (a!lure o appear !s un+us !(!ed. T$e r!.$ o be presen a one5s r!al 'a, no& be &a!"ed e;cep onl, a $a s a.e &$ere $e prosecu !on !n ends o presen &! nesses &$o &!ll !den !(, $e accused. T$e de(endan 5s escape &!ll be cons!dered a &a!"er o( $!s r!.$ and $e !nab!l! , o( $e cour

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


o no !(, $!' o( $e subse0uen $ear!n.s &!ll no pre"en ! (ro' con !nu!n. &! $ $!s r!al. 88. Tr!al in absentia &as !n roduced onl, !n $e 9A<> %ons ! u !on o re'ed, a s! ua !on !n &$!c$ cr!'!nal prosecu !on could no 'o"e because $e accused $as e! $er escaped or +u'ped ba!l. In People ". Pr!e o# B? S%RA 9AB /9A<B1# $e S% ruled $a r!al in absentia does no +us !(, $e accused o +u'p ba!l. -us because $ %ons ! u !on allo&s r!al in absentia does no 'ean $a $e accused !s no& (ree o &a!"e $!s r!.$ o be presen dur!n. $e r!al. I( $e does# $e runds $e r!s4 o( $a"!n. $!s ba!l bond (or(e! ed. *rovision for trial in absentia not a ,ustification for ,umping bail F* For repea ed (a!lure o( $e accused Dar!o Ga'a,on o appear# responden -ud.e declared $e ba!l bond (or(e! ed and re0u!red $e bonds'en o produce $e accused &! $!n $!r , da,s and o s$o& cause &$, no +ud.'en s$ould be rendered a.a!ns $e'. 8o&e"er# on 'o !on o( de(ense counsel# &$o !n"o4ed $e las sen ence o( Ar . IV# sec !on 9A Qno& Ar . III# sec. 9?/71R on r!al !n absen !a# responden -ud.e recons!dered $!s order. 8e ar.ued $a 2!( r!al could be conduc ed a( er $e accused $as been arra!.ned and !den !(!ed# $e conclus!on !s !nescapable $a !ssu!n. an order o( (or(e! ure o( $e ba!l bond !s pre'a ure.2 T$e prosecu !on (!led a pe ! !on (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* T$e !nno"a !on !n roduced b, $e presen %ons ! u !on .oes no (ur $er $an o enable a +ud.e o con !nue &! $ $e r!al e"en !( $e accused !s no presen under $e cond! !ons $ere!n spec!(!ed. I does no .!"e $e accused $e r!.$ o +u'p ba!l. 88. G!'ene@ ". Na@areno# 96E S%RA 9 /9ABB1 In trial in absentia accused waives the right to present evidence and confront witnesses F* Teodoro dela Ve.a -r.# o.e $er &! $ (!"e o $ers# &as c$ar.ed &! $ 'urder. A( er arra!.n'en # dur!n. &$!c$ $e pleaded no .u!l ,# $e case &as se (or $ear!n. on Sep . 9B# 9A<> bu $e escaped. 8e &as r!ed in absentia. T$e r!al cour rendered +ud.'en d!s'!ss!n. $e case a.a!ns $!s co-accused bu ! $eld !n abe,ance $e proceed!n.s a.a!ns $!' !n order o .!"e $!' $e c$ance o cross e;a'!ne $e &! nesses a.a!ns $!' and presen e"!dence. 8ence# $!s pe ! !on (or certiorari. 8ELD* 3as $e +ur!sd!c !on los &$en $e accused escaped (ro' $e cus od, o( $e la& and (a!led o appear dur!n. $e r!alH No. As &e $a"e cons!s en l, ruled# +ur!sd!c !on once ac0u!red !s no los upon $e !ns ance o( par !es bu con !nues un !l $e case !s er'!na ed. T$e lo&er cour &as correc !n proceed!n. &! $ $e recep !on o( e"!dence bu ! erred &$en !s suspended $e proceed!n.s as o $e responden . T$e cour need no &a! (or $e !'e un !l $e accused (!nall, dec!des o appear. To allo& $!s dela, !s o render !ne((ec !"e $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on on r!al in absentia. 4. Wh $ #r s $! of th %!!+s ' is % DUT/ In People ". A"ancena# >7 O.G. <9># $e S% $eld $a /a1 $e accused $as $e r!.$ o be presen dur!n. r!alD /b1 !( $e !s !n $e cus od, o( $e la&# presence !n all s a.e !s l!4e&!se a du , dur!n. /!1 arra!.n'en # /!!1 en er!n. a plea# and /!!!1 pro'ul.a !on o( +ud.'en . T$!s rule $o&e"er $as been 'od!(!ed.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
As $!n.s s and# $e (ollo&!n. are $e rules* 9. Generall,# $e accused $as $e r!.$ o be presen a all s a.es $e r!al /(ro' arra!.n'en o rend! !on o( +ud.'en 1. 7. I( $e accused !s !n $e cus od, o( $e la&# $!s presence dur!n. $e r!al !s a du , onl, !( $e cour orders $!s presence o enable $e prosecu !on &! nesses o !den !(, $!'. /People ". Salas# !n(ra. re! era !n. A0u!no ". M!l! ar, %o''!!ss!on# !n(ra. 'od!(,!n. People ". A"ancena# !n(ra.1 >. Al $ou.$ $e accused !s no !n $e cus od, o( $e la& /and 'ore so !( $e !s !n $e cus od, o( $e la&1# $!s presence !s re0u!red !n $e (ollo&!n. cases* a1 Arra!.n'en # re.ardless o( $e o((enseD b1 En er!n. a plea# re.ardless o( &$e $er $e plea !s .u!l , or no .u!l ,. c1 Pro'ul.a !on o( +ud.'en # e;cep $a &$en $e +ud.'en !s (or a l!.$ o((ense# $e 'a, be represen ed b, $!s counsel or a personal e'!ssar,.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


T$us $e accused can be re0u!red o allo& a sa'ple o( a subs ance a4en (ro' $!s bod, /:.S. ". Tan Ten.. 7># P$!l. 9?F /9A9711. F* T$!s de(endan &as c$ar.ed &! $ $e cr!'e o( rape. 8e &as (ound .u!l , o( $e c$ar.e. 8e appeals $e dec!s!on on $e .round $a $e lo&er cour erred !n ad'! !n. $e es !'on, o( $e p$,s!c!ans abou $a"!n. a4en a cer a!n subs ance (ro' $e bod, o( $e accused &$!le $e &as con(!ned !n +a!l and re.ard!n. $e c$e'!cal anal,s!s 'ade o( $e subs ance o de'ons ra e $e p$,s!cal cond! !on o( $e accused &! $ re(erence o a "enereal d!sease. I &as d!sco"ered $a $e rape "!c !' &as !n(ec ed b, "enereal d!sease so $a $e (!nd!n. o( "enereal d!sease !n $e accused &as 'a er!al o $!s con"!c !on. :pon $!s !n(or'a !on $e de(endan &as arres ed and a4en o $e pol!ce s a !on and s r!pped o( $!s clo $!n. and e;a'!ned. T$e pol!ce'an &$o e;a'!ned $e de(endan s&ore (ro' $e "enereal d!sease 4no&n as .onorr$ea. T$e pol!ce'an oo4 a por !on o( $e subs ance e'! !n. (ro' $e bod, o( $e de(endan and urned ! o"er o $e )ureau o( Sc!ence (or $e purpose o( $a"!n. a sc!en !(!c anal,s!s 'ade o( $e sa'e. T$e resul o( $e e;a'!na !on s$o&ed $a $e de(endan &as su((er!n. (ro' .onorr$ea. Issue* 3$e $er or no $e !n(or'a !on $a .onorr$ea 'a, be used a.a!ns $!' $e accused $as

a. Arra!.n'en and plea# &$e $er o( !nnocence or o( .u!l R+l %ade-.. CCC 5&7 %rr%ig$. $t %rr%ig$. $t f%il+r to $t #ro! 'i$gs. ""2, S !. ". Arrai(n%ent and plea1 ho$ Th %!!+s ' .+st & #r s $t %t th %$' .+st # rso$%ll) $t r his #l %. Both %$' #l % sh%ll & .%' of r !or', &+t % r of r !or' sh%ll $ot %ff !t th (%li'it) of th

b. Dur!n. r!al# (or !den !(!ca !on People ". Salas# 9?> S%RA 96> /9AB61# supra. 8ELD* T$e r!.$ o be presen a one5s r!al 'a, no& be &a!"ed e;cep onl, a $a s a.e &$ere $e prosecu !on !n ends o presen &! nesses &$o &!ll !den !(, $e accused. c. Pro'ul.a !on o( sen ence# unless ! !s (or a l!.$ o((ense# !n &$!c$ case accused 'a, appear by counsel# or a representative /Rule 97E# Sec. 6.1 E. Pri(il 'g %g%i$st s lf i$!ri.i$%tio$ Art. III, S !. "6. No # rso$ sh%ll & !o.# ll ' to & % *it$ ss %g%i$st hi.s lf. An, con(ess!on or ad'!ss!on ob a!ned !n "!ola !on o( sec !on 9< $ereo( s$all be !nad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence a.a!ns $!'. QAr . III# Sec. 97 />1R 9. Scope o( pr!"!le.e* %o'pulsor, Tes !'on!al sel(-!ncr!'!na !on T$e pr!"!le.e co"ers onl, es !'on!al !ncr!'!na !on ob a!ned co'pulsor!l,. I re(ers $ere(ore o $e use o( $e 'en al process and $e co''un!ca !"e (acul !es# and no o a 'erel, p$,s!cal ac !"! ,. I( $e ac !s p$,s!cal or 'ec$an!cal# $e accused can be co'pelled o allo& or per(or' $e ac # and $e resul can be used !n e"!dence a.a!ns $!'.

Rul!n.* YES. T$e accused &as no co'pelled o 'a4e an, ad'!ss!ons or ans&er an, 0ues !ons# and $e 'ere (ac $a an ob+ec (ound on $!s person &as e;a'!ned* see's no 'ore o !n(r!n.e $e rule !n"o4ed# $an &ould $e !n roduc !on !n e"!dence o( s olen proper , a4en (ro' $e person o( a $!e(. T$e subs ance &as a4en (ro' $e bod, o( $e de(endan &! $ou $!s ob+ec !on# $e e;a'!na !on &as 'ade b, co'pe en 'ed!cal au $or! , and $e resul s$o&ed $a $e de(endan &as su((er!n. (ro' sa!d d!sease. As &as su..es ed b, -ud.e Lob!n.!er# $ad $e de(endan been (ound &! $ s olen proper , upon $!s person# $ere cer a!nl, could $a"e been no 0ues !on $ad $e s olen proper , been a4en (or $e purpose o( us!n. $e sa'e as e"!dence a.a!ns $!'. So also !( $e clo $!n. &$!c$ $e &ore# b, reason o( blood s a!ns or o $er&!se# $ad (urn!s$ed e"!dence o( $e co''!ss!on o( a cr!'e# $ere cer a!nl, could $a"e been no ob+ec !on o a4!n. suc$ (or $e purpose o( us!n. $e sa'e as proo(. No one &ould $!n4 o( e"en su..es !n. $a s olen proper , and $e clo $!n. !n $e case !nd!ca ed# a4en (ro' $e de(endan # could no be used a.a!ns $!' as e"!dence# &! $ou "!ola !n. $e rule $a a person s$all no be re0u!red o .!"e es !'on, a.a!ns $!'sel(. )u $e pro$!b! !on o( co'pell!n. a 'an !n a cr!'!nal cour o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(# !s a pro$!b! !on o( $e use o( p$,s!cal or 'oral co'puls!on# o e; or co''un!ca !ons (ro' $!'# no an e;clus!on o( $!s bod, as e"!dence# &$en ! 'a, be 'a er!al. T$e ob+ec !on# !n pr!nc!ple# &ould (orb!d a +ur, /cour 1 o loo4 a a person and co'pare $!s (ea ures &! $ a p$o o.rap$ !n proo(. Moreo"er &e are no cons!der!n. $o& (ar a cour &ould .o !n co'pell!n. a 'an o e;$!b! $!'sel(# (or &$en $e !s e;$!b! ed# &$e $er "olun ar!l, or b, order# e"en !( $e order .oes oo (ar# $e e"!dence !( 'a er!al# !s co'pe en . T$e pro$!b! !on con a!ned !n sec !on F o( $e P$!l!pp!ne )!ll $a a person s$all no be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(# !s s!'pl, a pro$!b! !on a.a!ns le.al process o e; rac (ro' $e de(endan 5s o&n l!ps# a.a!ns $!s &!ll# an ad'!ss!on o( $!s .u!l . Mr. 3!.'ore# !n $!s "aluable &or4 on e"!dence# !n d!scuss!n. $e 0ues !on be(ore us# sa!d* I(# !n o $er &ords# ! / $e rule1 crea ed !n"!olab!l! , no onl, (or $!s Qp$,s!cal con rolR !n &$a e"er (or' e;erc!sed# $en ! &ould be poss!ble (or a .u!l , person o s$u $!'sel( up

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
!n $!s $ouse# &! $ all $e ools and !nd!c!a o( $!s cr!'e# and de(, $e au $or! , o( $e la& o e'plo, !n e"!dence an, $!n. $a '!.$ be ob a!ned b, (orc!bl, o"er $ro&!n. $!s possess!on and co'pell!n. $e surrender o( $e e"!den !al ar !cles a clear reductio ad absurdum. In o $er &ords# ! !s no 'erel, co'puls!on $a !s $e 4ernel o( $e pr!"!le.e# . . . bu es !'on!al co'puls!on. /? 3!.'ore# sec. 776>.1 T$e 'a!n purpose o( $e pro"!s!on o( $e P$!l!pp!ne )!ll !s o pro$!b! co'pulsor, oral e;a'!na !on o( pr!soners be(ore r!al. or upon r!al# (or $e purpose o( e; or !n. un&!ll!n. con(ess!ons or declara !ons !'pl!ca !n. $e' !n $e co''!ss!on o( a cr!'e. /People "s. Gardner# 9?? N. Y.# 99A.1 T$e doc r!ne con ended (or b, appellan &ould pro$!b! cour s (ro' loo4!n. a $e (ac o( a de(endan e"en# (or $e purpose o( d!sclos!n. $!s !den ! ,. Suc$ an appl!ca !on o( $e pro$!b! !on under d!scuss!on cer a!nl, could no be per'! ed. Suc$ an !nspec !on o( $e bod!l, (ea ures b, $e cour or b, &! nesses# can no "!ola e $e pr!"!le.e .ran ed under $e P$!l!pp!ne )!ll# because ! does no call upon $e accused as a &! ness ! does no call upon $e de(endan (or $!s es !'on!al respons!b!l! ,. Mr. 3!.'ore sa,s $a e"!dence ob a!ned !n $!s &a, (ro' $e accused# !s no es !'on, bu $!s bod, $!s bod, ! sel(. T$e accused can be ordered o e;pel $e 'orp$!ne (ro' $!s 'ou $ /:.S. ". On. S!o 8on. >6 P$!l <>F# /9A9<11. :.S. ". On. S!o 8on. >6 P$!l <>F# /9A9<1 %ounsel (or appellan ra!ses $e cons ! u !onal 0ues !on $a $e accused &as co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(. T$e con en !on !s $a $!s &as $e resul o( (orc!n. $e accused o d!sc$ar.e $e 'orp$!ne (ro' $!s 'ou $. To (orce a pro$!b! ed dru. (ro' $e person o( an accused !s alon. $e sa'e l!ne as re0u!r!n. $!' o e;$!b! $!'sel( be(ore $e cour D or pu !n. !n e"!dence papers and o $er ar !cles a4en (ro' $e roo' o( an accused !n $!s absenceD or# as !n $e Tan Ten. case# a4!n. a subs ance (ro' $e bod, o( $e accused o be used !n pro"!n. $!s .u!l . I &ould be a (orced cons ruc !on o( $e para.rap$ o( $e P$!l!pp!ne )!ll o( R!.$ s !n 0ues !on o $old $a an, ar !cle# subs ance# or $!n. a4en (ro' a person accused o( cr!'e could no be .!"en !n e"!dence. T$e 'a!n purpose o( $!s cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on !s o pro$!b! es !'on!al co'puls!on b, oral e;a'!na !on !n order o e; or un&!ll!n. con(ess!ons (ro' pr!soners !'pl!ca !n. $e' !n $e co''!ss!on o( a cr!'e. /8arr!s "s. %oa s Q9BBFR# <F Ga.# ?9F.1 T$e accused can be 'ade o a4e o(( $er .ar'en s and s$oes and be p$o o.rap$ed. /People ". O adura# A6 P$!l 7?? /9AFE11. A &o'an accused o( adul er, can be co'pelled o s$o& $er bod, (or p$,s!cal !n"es !.a !on o see !( s$e !s pre.nan /V!lla(lor ". Su''ers# ?9 P$!l. 67 /9A7E11. V!e&ed a.a!ns presen s andards# $o&e"er# ! !s poss!ble $a $!s 'e $od o( de er'!n!n. pre.nanc, &ould "!ola e due process as be!n. oo barbar!c. V!lla(lor ". Su''ers# ?9 P$!l. 67 /9A7E1 F* T$e (ac s are no d!spu e. In a cr!'!nal case pend!n. be(ore $e %our o( F!rs Ins ance o( $e c! , o( Man!la# E'e er!a V!lla(lor and Floren !no Sou!n.co are c$ar.ed &! $ $e cr!'e o( adul er,. T$e cour ordered $e de(endan E'e er!a V!lla(lor# o sub'! $er bod, o $e e;a'!na !on o( one or &o co'pe en doc ors o de er'!ne !( s$e &as pre.nan or no . T$e accused re(used o obe, $e order on $e .round $a suc$ e;a'!na !on o( $er person &as a "!ola !on o( $e

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on rela !n. o sel(-!ncr!'!na !on. T$ereupon s$e &as (ound !n con e'p o( cour and &as ordered o be co''! ed o )!l!b!d Pr!son un !l s$e s$ould per'! $e 'ed!cal e;a'!na !on re0u!red b, $e cour . Issue* 3$e $er $e co'pell!n. o( a &o'an o per'! $er bod, o be e;a'!ned b, p$,s!c!ans o de er'!ne !( s$e !s pre.nan # "!ola es $a por !on o( $e P$!l!pp!ne )!ll o( R!.$ s Rul!n.* T$e cons ! u !onal .uaran ,# $a no person s$all be co'pelled !n an, cr!'!nal case o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(# !s l!'! ed o a pro$!b! !on a.a!ns co'pulsor, es !'on!al sel(!ncr!'!na !on. T$e corollar, o $e propos! !on !s $a # an ocular !nspec !on o( $e bod, o( $e accused !s per'!ss!ble. T$e pro"!so !s $a or ure o( (orce s$all be a"o!ded. 3$e $er (ac s (all &! $!n or &! $ou $e rule &! $ ! s corollar, and pro"!so 'us # o( course# be dec!ded as cases ar!se. I !s a reasonable presu'p !on $a !n an e;a'!na !on b, repu able and d!s!n eres ed p$,s!c!ans due care &!ll be a4en no o use "!olence and no o e'barass $e pa !en an, 'ore $an !s absolu el, necessar,. Indeed# no ob+ec !on o $e p$,s!cal e;a'!na !on be!n. 'ade b, $e (a'!l, doc or o( $e accused or b, doc or o( $e sa'e se; can be seen. T$e a4!n. o( (oo pr!n sa'ple o see !( ! 'a c$es $e ones (ound !n $e scene o( $e cr!'e !s allo&ed /People ". Salas and People ". Sara1. 8o&e"er# 'a4!n. $e accused a4e d!c a !on o .e a spec!'en o( $er $and&r! !n. !s no allo&ed# (or $!s !n"ol"es $e use o( $e 'en al process. Q)er'ude@ ". %as !llo# 6? P$!l. ?BF /9A><1.R )er'ude@ ". %as !llo# 6? P$!l. ?BF /9A><1 F* In connec !on &! $ $!s ad'!n!s ra !"e case# sa!d responden (!led# s!; le ers &$!c$# (or purposes o( !den !(!ca !on# &ere 'ar4ed as E;$!b! s >7# >?# >F# >6 and ><. 8e con ends $a sa!d s!; le ers are $e co'pla!nan 5s# bu $e la er den!ed ! &$!le s$e &as es !(,!n. as a &! ness !n rebu al. Responden re0u!red co'pla!nan o cop, $e le ers !n $er o&n $and&r! !n. !n $e presence o( $e !n"es !.a or. T$e co'pla!nan # re(used !n"o4!n. $er r!.$ no o !ncr!'!na e $ersel(. T$e !n"es !.a or# up$old!n. $e co'pla!nan # d!d no co'pel $er o sub'! o $e r!al re0u!red# $ereb, den,!n. $e responden 5s pe ! !on. Issue* 3$e $er or no $e co'pla!nan 'a, be (orced o 'a4e a cop, o( $e le ers !n $er o&n $and&r! !n. Rul!n.* No. I &ould "!ola e $er r!.$ a.a!ns sel(!ncr!'!na !on. T$e cons ! u !on pro"!des* 2No person s$all be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(.2 I s$ould be no ed $a be(ore ! &as a e'p ed o re0u!re $e co'pla!nan o cop, $e s!; docu'en s abo"e-s a ed# s$e $ad s&orn o ell $e ru $ be(ore $e !n"es !.a or au $or!@ed o rece!"e s a e'en s under oa $# and under sa!d oa $ s$e asser ed $a $e docu'en s !n 0ues !on $ad no been &r! en b, $er. 3ere s$e co'pelled o &r! e and &ere ! pro"en b, 'eans o( &$a s$e '!.$ &r! e la er $a sa!d docu'en s $ad reall, been &r! en b, $er# ! &ould be !'poss!ble (or $er o e"ade prosecu !on (or per+ur,. T$e reason (or $e pr!"!le.e appears e"!den . T$e purpose $ereo( !s pos! !"el, o a"o!d and pro$!b! $ereb, $e repe ! !on and recurrence o( $e cer a!nl, !n$u'an procedure o( co'pell!n. a person# !n a cr!'!nal or an, o $er case# o (urn!s$ $e '!ss!n. e"!dence necessar, (or $!s con"!c !on. I( suc$ !s ! s purpose# $en $e e"!dence 'us be sou.$ else&$ereD and !( ! !s des!red o d!sco"er e"!dence !n $e person $!'sel(# $en $e 'us be pro'!sed and assured a leas

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
absolu e !''un! , b, one au $or!@ed o do so le.all,# or $e s$ould be as4ed# one (or all# o (urn!s$ suc$ e"!dence "olun ar!l, &! $ou an, cond! !on. T$!s cour !s o( $e op!n!on $a !n order $a $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on under cons!dera !on 'a, pro"e o be a real pro ec !on and no a dead le er# ! 'us be .!"en a l!beral and broad !n erpre a !on (a"orable o $e person !n"o4!n. ! . In "!e& o( $e (ore.o!n. cons!dera !on and $old!n.# as ! !s $ereb, $eld# $a $e co'pla!nan !s per(ec l, en ! led o $e pr!"!le.e !n"o4ed b, $er# $e responden 5s pe ! !on !s den!ed. Also re0u!r!n. $e accused o reenac $e cr!'e !s no allo&ed# (or $!s also !n"ol"es $e 'en al process. People ". Ol"!s# 9F? S%RA F7F F* V!llaro+o# %ade'as and Sorela &ere con"!c ed !n $e lo&er cour o( 'urder (or $e dea $ o( )a.on. Ol"!s# $e alle.ed pr!nc!pal b, !nduce'en # &as ac0u! ed. T$e $ree accused &ere con"!c ed on $e bas!s o( $e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons e;ecu ed b, $e' !n $e presence o( a counsel su''oned b, $e N)I o $andle appellan s5 case# and $e reenac 'en done b, $e' o( $e c!rcu's ances surround!n. $e 4!ll!n.. R:LING* T$e e; ra+ud!c!al con(ess!ons are !nad'!ss!ble. T$e, &ere 'ade !n $e presence o( a counsel su''oned b, $e N)I and no o( appellan s5 o&n c$o!ce. 8e canno $ere(ore be sa!d o $a"e been ac !n. on be$al( o( $e accused &$en $e len $!s presence a $e con(ess!on proceed!n.s. )u $e accused &ere den!ed $e!r r!.$ o counsel no once bu &!ce &$en $e, &ere (orced o re-enac $e cr!'e. Forced re-enac 'en s l!4e uncounselled and coerced con(ess!ons co'e &! $!n $e ban a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on. T$!s cons ! u !onal pr!"!le.e $as been de(!ned as a pro ec !on a.a!ns es !'on!al co'puls!on bu $!s $as s!nce been e; ended o an, e"!dence co''un!ca !"e !n na ure ac0u!red under c!rcu's ances o( duress. Essen !all,# $e r!.$ !s 'ean o a"o!d and pro$!b! pos! !"el, $e repe ! !on and recurrence o( $e cer a!nl, !n$u'an procedure o( co'pell!n. a person# !n a cr!'!nal or an, o $er case# o (urn!s$ $e '!ss!n. e"!dence necessar, (or $!s con"!c !on. People ". Go# 7>< S%RA <> F* A( er a bu,-bus opera !on accused &ere arres ed b, $e pol!ce. :pon $e presen a !on o( a searc$ &arran # $e $ouse o( $e accused &as searc$ed# and se"eral pro$!b! ed dru.s &ere se!@ed. T$e, &ere c$ar.ed &! $ and con"!c ed o( "!ola !on o( $e Dan.erous Dru.s la&. T$e, con ended $a $e, $ad no been s$o&n a searc$ &arran . In conclud!n. $a a searc$ &arran $ad been presen ed o $e accused pr!or o $e searc$# $e r!al cour rel!ed on a docu'en en ! !led O%er !(!ca e o( Re-conduc o( Searc$P# s!.ned b, $e accused. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no suc$ docu'en !s ad'!ss!ble !n e"!dence. R:LING* IT %ANNOT )E ADMITTED IN ITS ENTIRETY. T$e second para.rap$ o( $e %er !(!ca !on a'oun s o an !'pl!ed ad'!ss!on $a s$abu# $e 'ar4ed 'one,# and s$abu papap$ernal!a $ad been (ound b, $e pol!ce au $or! !es a $e res!dence o( $e Go spouses and $ere(ore# sub+ec o $e con rol and cus od, o( $e accused / $e spouses1 and necessar!l, !n $e!r possess!on. To $!s e; en # $e O%er !(!ca !onP !s a declara !on a.a!ns $e !n eres and ac! ad'!ss!on o( $e cr!'e c$ar.ed. T$e second para.rap$ o( $e %er !(!ca !on !s a sel(-!ncr!'!na or, s a 'en 'ade a a !'e

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


&$en $e spouses &ere no ass!s ed b, counsel and under c!rcu's ances /!n $e course o( or !''ed!a el, a( er $e searc$ o( $e res!dence and se!@ure o( 0uan ! !es o( s$abu1 &$!c$ render !n ell!.en &a!"er o( $e!r r!.$ a.a!ns sel(!ncr!'!na !on open o ser!ous doub . T$e %our cons!ders $a $ere !s no $!n. o pre"en ad'!ss!on o( $e O%er !(!ca !onP o subs an !a e $e (ac $a a searc$ &arran !ssued b, a +ud.e $ad been brou.$ o $e a en !on o( $e spouses !n $e course o( $e ra!d or bu,-bus opera !on carr!ed ou a $e!r res!dence and $a !n $e course $ereo(# no (orce or !n !'!da !on $ad been e;erc!sed upon $e spouses. No &! $s and!n. suc$# $e accused &ere con"!c ed o( $e cr!'e c$ar.ed a.a!ns $e'. >. I$ *h%t #ro! 'i$gs %(%il%&l T$e pr!"!le.e !s a"a!lable !n an, proceed!n.s# e"en ou s!de $e cour # (or $e, 'a, e"en uall, lead o a cr!'!nal prosecu !on. In Pascual ". )oard o( Med!cal E;a'!ners# 7B S%RA >?? /9A6A1# $e S% $eld $a $e pr!"!le.e a.a!ns sel(!ncr!'!na !on e; ends o ad'!n!s ra !"e proceed!n.s &$!c$ possess a cr!'!nal or penal aspec . In $!s case# ! &as $eld $a a doc or &$o &as be!n. !n"es !.a ed b, a 'ed!cal board (or alle.ed 'alprac !ce and &ould lose $!s l!cense !( (ound .u!l ,# could no be co'pelled o a4e $e &! ness s and &! $ou $!s consen . Pascual ". )oard o( Med!cal E;a'!ners# 7B S%RA >?? /9A6A1 F* Arsen!o Pascual# -r.# pe ! !oner-appellee# (!led on Februar, 9# 9A6F &! $ $e %our o( F!rs Ins ance o( Man!la an ac !on (or pro$!b! !on &! $ pra,er (or prel!'!nar, !n+unc !on a.a!ns $e )oard o( Med!cal E;a'!ners# no& responden appellan . I &as alle.ed $ere!n $a a $e !n! !al $ear!n. o( an ad'!n!s ra !"e case (or alle.ed !''oral! ,# counsel (or co'pla!nan s announced $a $e &ould presen as $!s (!rs &! ness $ere!n pe ! !oner- appellee# &$o &as $e responden !n suc$ 'alprac !ce c$ar.e. T$ereupon# pe ! !oner-appellee# $rou.$ counsel# 'ade o( record $!s ob+ec !on# rel,!n. on $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o be e;e'p (ro' be!n. a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(. Responden -appellan # $e )oard o( E;a'!ners# oo4 no e o( suc$ a plea# a $e sa'e !'e s a !n. $a a $e ne; sc$eduled $ear!n.# on Februar, 97# 9A6F# pe ! !oner-appellee &ould be called upon o es !(, as suc$ &! ness# unless !n $e 'ean !'e $e could secure a res ra!n!n. order (ro' a co'pe en au $or! ,. A dec!s!on &as rendered b, $e lo&er cour on Au.us 7# 9A6F# (!nd!n. $e cla!' o( pe ! !oner-appellee o be &ell-(ounded and pro$!b! !n. responden )oard 2(ro' co'pell!n. $e pe ! !oner o ac and es !(, as a &! ness (or $e co'pla!nan !n sa!d !n"es !.a !on &! $ou $!s consen and a.a!ns $!'sel(.2 8ELD* Pe ! !oner could su((er $e re"oca !on o( $!s l!cense as a 'ed!cal prac ! !oner# (or so'e an e"en .rea er depr!"a !on. 3$, ! s$ould be $us !s no d!((!cul o d!scern. T$e cons ! u !onal .uaran ee# alon. &! $ o $er r!.$ s .ran ed an accused# s ands (or a bel!e( $a &$!le cr!'e s$ould no .o unpun!s$ed and $a $e ru $ 'us be re"ealed# suc$ des!rable ob+ec !"es s$ould no be acco'pl!s$ed accord!n. o 'eans or 'e $ods o((ens!"e o $e $!.$ sense o( respec accorded $e $u'an personal! ,. More and 'ore !n l!ne &! $ $e de'ocra !c creed# $e de(erence accorded an !nd!"!dual e"en $ose suspec ed o( $e 'os $e!nous cr!'es !s .!"en due &e!.$ . To 0uo e (ro' %$!e( -us !ce 3arren# 2 $e cons ! u !onal (ounda !on underl,!n. $e pr!"!le.e !s $e respec a .o"ern'en ... 'us accord o $e d!.n! , and !n e.r! , o( ! s c! !@ens.2

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$us accord!n. o -us !ce Dou.las* 2T$e F!( $ A'end'en !n ! s Sel(-Incr!'!na !on clause enables $e c! !@en o crea e a @one o( pr!"ac, &$!c$ .o"ern'en 'a, no (orce o surrender o $!s de r!'en .2 So also &! $ $e obser"a !on o( $e la e -ud.e Fran4 &$o spo4e o( 2a r!.$ o a pr!"a e encla"e &$ere $e 'a, lead a pr!"a e l!(e. T$a r!.$ !s $e $all'ar4 o( our de'ocrac,.2 In $e l!.$ o( $e abo"e# ! could $us clearl, appear $a no poss!ble ob+ec !on could be le.! !'a el, ra!sed a.a!ns $e correc ness o( $e dec!s!on no& on appeal. 3e $old $a !n an ad'!n!s ra !"e $ear!n. a.a!ns a 'ed!cal prac ! !oner (or alle.ed 'alprac !ce# responden )oard o( Med!cal E;a'!ners canno # cons!s en l, &! $ $e sel(-!ncr!'!na !on clause# co'pel $e person proceeded a.a!ns o a4e $e &! ness s and &! $ou $!s consen . In Gal'an ". Pa'aran# !n(ra# $e pr!"!le.e &as $eld o e; end o (ac -(!nd!n. !n"es !.a !on b, an adhoc bod,. Gal'an ". Pa'aran# 9>B S%RA 7<? /9ABF1 3 person can be compelled to testify provided he is given immunity co extensive with the privilege against self incrimination F* T$e responden s led b, General Fab!an Ver and Ma+or General Prospero Ol!"as es !(!ed be(ore $e A.ra"a )oard loo4!n. !n o $e 4!ll!n. o( (or'er Sena or )en!.no A0u!no. T$e, &ere subse0uen l, accused o( 'urder !n &o cases (or $e 4!ll!n. o( Sen. A0u!no and Rolando Gal'an. T$e, &ere c$ar.ed as accessor!es !n bo $. T$e prosecu !on o((ered !n e"!dence $e es !'on, o( Ver and Ol!"as be(ore $e A.ra"a )oard# bu on $e la er5s ob+ec !ons# $e Sand!.anba,an e;cluded $e es !'on,. T$e pr!"a e and publ!c prosecu !ons (!led pe ! !ons (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* T$e persons su''oned o es !(, be(ore $e A.ra"a )oard &ere 2under !n"es !.a !on (or $e co''!ss!on o( $e o((ense2 &! $!n $e 'ean!n. o( Ar . III# sec. 97. I !s o be no ed $a $e (ra'ers o( $e %ons ! u !on d!d no adop $e M!randa re(erence o 2cus od!al !n"es !.a !on.2 T$e sub+ec 'a er deal &! $ and $e 0ues !on!n. be(ore $e A.ra"a )oard !ndub! abl, e"!nced purposes o $er $an 'erel, de er'!n!n. $e surround!n. (ac s and c!rcu's ances o( $e assass!na !on. T$e responden s &ere called o de er'!ne $e!r probable !n"ol"e'en !n $e cr!'e. Ye $e, &ere no !n(or'ed or a $e "er, leas &arned o( $e!r r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and $a an, s a e'en .!"en b, $e' 'a, be used a.a!ns $e'. T$e (!rs por !on o( Sec. F o( PD 9BB6 den!ed $e' $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len # and .a"e po&er o $e )oard o pun!s$ re(usal o es !(,. T$e S% sa!d ! !s no sa !s(!ed $a &$en $e, es !(!ed $e, &a!"ed $e!r cons ! u !onal r!.$ no be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $e'sel"es# 'uc$ less $e!r r!.$ o re'a!n s!len . T$e S% also sa!d ! canno be con ended $a $e pr!"!le.e a.a!ns sel(- !ncr!'!na !on appl!es onl, o cr!'!nal prosecu !ons. Ar . III# sec. 9< o( $e %ons . pro"!des $a 2No person s$all be co'pelled o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(.2

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


$e es !'on, o( cer a!n persons and $e $!.$l, pr!'ed cons ! u !onal r!.$ no o 'a4e a person a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(. T$rou.$ an e;c$an.es !''un! , proble' concerns $e .ran !n order o !ncr!'!na !on. !''un! , s a u e# $e s a e !n e((ec (or $e es !'on, o( a &! ness. T$e e; en o( !''un! , $a $e S a e 'us pro ec $e pr!"!le.e a.a!ns sel(-

Transac !onal I''un! , In a ransac !onal !''un! ,# a person !s .!"en !''un! , (ro' prosecu !on o( $e cr!'e !n connec !on &! $ &$!c$ $e .a"e $!s es !'on,. T$e !''un! , !s (ro' $e prosecu !on# no 'erel, (ro' $e use o( $e es !'on,. T$us# e"en !( $e .u!l o( $e person es !(,!n. can be pro"en b, !ndependen 'eans# $e can no be prosecu ed an,'ore. :se and Fru! I''un! , In a use and (ru! !''un! ,# a person !s e;e'p ed (ro' $e use o( $!s es !'on, as &ell as $e leads /(ru! s1 $a $e es !'on, opened up !n a cr!'!nal prosecu !on ar!s!n. (ro' &$a $e es !(!ed on. T$e !''un! , !n $!s case !s (ro' $e es !'on, .!"en. T$us# !( $e s a e can procure e"!dence# !ndependen o( $e es !'on, and ! s (ru! s# ! can prosecu e $e person es !(,!n. ne"er $eless. 8!s or, !n $e :n! ed S a es In %ounc!l'an ". 8! c$coc4 /9BA71# $e S% ruled $a $e onl, &a, o respec $e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on !s o .!"e ransac !onal !''un! ,D an, $!n. less "!ola es $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ . T$us# %on.ress !n 9BA> passed $e %o'pulsor, Tes !'on, Ac # pro"!d!n. (or ransac !onal !''un! ,. In 9A6?# $e :.S. S% !n Murp$, ". 3a er(ron %o''!ss!on o( Ne& Yor4 $!n ed $a ! &as no reall, necessar, o .!"e ransac !onal !''un! , !n order o pro ec $e r!.$ a.a!ns sel( !ncr!'!na !on. T$!s .a"e $e :.S. %on.ress $e cue o re"!se $e %o'pulsor, Tes !'on, Ac and pro"!de (or a 2use and (ru! !''un! ,2. 3! $ $e "al!d! , o( $!s l!'! ed !''un! , &as ra!sed# $e S% !n %as !.as ". :.S. and I!carell! ". :.S. ruled $a $e r!.$ !s a'pl, pro ec ed b, $e use and (ru! !''un! ,. In $e P$!l!pp!nes T$ere !s no (!;ed rule !n $e P$!l!pp!nes. 2Transac !onal !''un! ,2 can be (ound !n $e (ollo&!n.* Art. XIII, S !. "1. Th Co..issio$ o$ H+.%$ Rights sh%ll h%( th follo*i$g #o* rs %$' f+$!tio$s CCC 517 =r%$t i..+$it) fro. #ros !+tio$ to %$) # rso$ *hos t sti.o$) or #oss ssio$ of 'o!+. $ts or oth r (i' $! is $ ! ss%r) or !o$( $i $t to ' t r.i$ th tr+th i$ %$) i$( stig%tio$ !o$'+!t ' &) it or +$' r its %+thorit). :se and Fru! I''un! ,

%o'pare People ". A,son# 9<F S%RA 796 /9ABA1# supra. @. GUs %$' I..+$it)G Dr+it I..+$it)G (. GTr%$s%!tio$%l

3$en $e S a e re0u!res es !'on, o be 'ade be(ore a board or bod,# ! $as o .ran !''un! , b, 'eans o( la& o $e persons es !(,!n.# so as no o "!ola e $e!r r!.$ a.a!ns sel(!ncr!'!na r!on. T$!s !s $e onl, &a, o reconc!le &o con(l!c !n. "aluesD publ!c !n eres o .e cer a!n rele"an !n(or'a !on# sa,# o le.!sla !on# $a can onl, be suppl!ed b,

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
On $e o $er $and# 2use and (ru! !''un! , can be (ound !n P.D. 9BB6# &$!c$ crea ed $e A.ra"a Fac F!nd!n. )oard# and &$!c$ &as $e sub+ec -'a er o( Gal'an ". Pa'aran# 9>B S%RA 7<? /9ABF1. In $!s case# Ver and o $er $!.$-ran4!n. AFP o((!c!als &ere 'ade o es !(, be(ore $e A.ra"a )oard !n"es !.a !n. $e double 'urder o( Sen. A0u!no and Gal'an. :nder P.D.9BB6# e"er, person su''oned b, $e )oard $as o appear and es !(, on pa!n o( be!n. $eld !n con e'p . An, es !'on, 'ade# !n urn# &as e;e'p ed (ro' be!n. 2used2 !n a cr!'!nal prosecu !on. Desp! e $!s $o&e"er# a case &as (!le a.a!ns Ver !n $e Sand!.anba,an# and one o( $e e"!dence presen ed &as $e es !'on, $e 'ade be(ore $e )oard. 3$en ob+ec ed o# $e Sand!.anba,an sus a!ned $e ob+ec !on. And so $e 'a er &as ra!sed o $e S% on cer !orar!. T$e S% $eld $a $e es !'on, could no be used !n a subse0uen proceed!n.. ! $!n ed $a &ere ! no (or $e pro"!s!on !n $e decree con'pell!n. a endance and es !'on, on pa!n o( be!n. $eld !n con e'p # $e accused could $a"e !n"o4ed $e r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on. )u s!nce $e s a e needed $e es !'on,# ! .a"e $e' !''un! , and so no&# $e S a e 'us $onor ! s obl!.a !on and d!sallo& $e use o( $e es !'on, !n $e cr!'!nal prosecu !on. Gal'an ". Pa'aran# 9>B S%RA 7<? /9ABF1, supra. 8ELD* I''un! , s a u es 'a, be .enerall, class!(!ed !n o &o* one# &$!c$ .ran s 2use !''un! ,2 and $e o $er# &$!c$ .ran s &$a !s 4no&n as 2 ransac !onal !''un! ,.2 T$e d!s !nc !on be &een $e &o !s* 2:se !''un! ,2 pro$!b! s use o( a &! ness5 co'pelled es !'on, and ! s (ru! s !n an, 'anner !n connec !on &! $ $e cr!'!nal prosecu !on o( $e &! ness. On $e o $er $and# 2 ransac !onal !''un! ,2 .ran s !''un! , o $e &! ness (ro' prosecu !on (or an o((ense o &$!c$ $!s co'pelled es !'on, rela es. PD 9BB6# sec. F .ran s 'erel, !''un! , (ro' use o( an, s a e'en .!"en be(ore $e )oard# bu no !''un! , (ro' prosecu !on b, reason or on $e bas!s $ereo(. 88 0. EC!l+sio$%r) r+l Art. III, S !. ">. CCC 5@7 A$) !o$f ssio$ or %'.issio$ o&t%i$ ' i$ (iol%tio$of this or S !tio$ "6 h r of sh%ll & i$%'.issi&l i$ (i' $! %g%i$st hi.. T$e parad!.'a !c appl!ca !on o( $e e;clus!onar, rule !s a rad! !onall, coerced con(ess!on# and no so 'uc$ on uncounselled s a e'en . A fortiori# es !'on, (orced ou o( a person canno be used !n e"!dence a.a!ns $a person. 3. Eff !t of ' $i%l of th #ri(il g &) !o+rt 3$en $e pr!"!le.e a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on !s "!ola ed ou s!de o( cour # sa,# b, $e pol!ce# $en $e es !'on,# as alread, no ed# !s no ad'!ss!ble under $e e;clus!onar, rule. 3$en $e pr!"!le.e !s "!ola ed b, $e cour ! sel(# $a !s# b, $e +ud.e# $e cour !s ous ed o( ! s +ur!sd!c !on# all ! s proceed!n.s are null and "o!d# and ! !s as !( no +ud.'en $as been rendered. A class!c case !s %$a"e@ ". %our o( Appeals# >? S%RA 66> /9A6B1. %$a"e@ ". %our o( Appeals# >? S%RA 66> /9A6B1 F* T$e $rus o( pe ! !oner5s case presen ed !n $!s or!.!nal and supple'en ar, pe ! !ons !n"o4!n. +ur!sd!c !on o( $!s %our !s $a $e !s en ! led# on habeas corpus# o be (reed (ro'

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


!'pr!son'en upon $e .round $a !n $e r!al &$!c$ resul ed !n $!s con"!c !on $e &as den!ed $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ no o be co'pelled o es !(, a.a!ns $!'sel(. T$ere !s $!s pra,er# oo# $a # s$ould $e (a!l !n $!s# $e be .ran ed $e al erna !"e re'ed!es o( cer !orar! o s r!4e do&n $e &o resolu !ons o( $e %our o( Appeals d!s'!ss!n. $!s appeal (or (a!lure o (!le br!e(# and o( 'anda'us o d!rec $e sa!d cour o (or&ard $!s appeal o $!s %our (or $e reason $a $e &as ra!s!n. purel, 0ues !ons o( la&. Accused %$a"e@ &as 'ade o es !(, as a &! ness (or $e prosecu !on &! $ou $!' be!n. cons!dered a s a e &! ness !nsp! e o( ob+ec !ons b, $!s counsel. Ro.er %$a"e@ &as (ound .u!l ,. T$e cour $ad $!s o sa,* 2Ro.er %$a"e@ does no o((er an, de(ense. As a 'a er o( (ac # $!s es !'on, as &! ness (or $e prosecu !on es abl!s$es $!s .u!l be,ond reasonable doub .2 T$e r!al cour branded $!' 2a sel(- con(essed culpr! 2. Issue* 3$e $er or no %$a"e@ r!.$ a.a!ns sel(-!ncr!'!na !on &as "!ola ed Rul!n.* YES T$e r!.$ a.!ans sel(-!ncr!'!na !on !s 2no 'erel, a (or'al ec$n!cal rule $e en(orce'en o( &$!c$ !s le( o $e d!scre !on o( $e cour 2D ! !s 'anda or,D ! secures o a de(endan a "aluable and subs an !"e r!.$ D ! !s (unda'en al o our sc$e'e o( +us !ce. T$e cons ! u !onal proscr!p !on &as es abl!s$ed on broad .rounds o( publ!c pol!c, and $u'an! ,D o( pol!c, because ! &ould place $e &! ness a.a!ns $e s ron.es e'p a !on o co''! per+ur,# and o( $u'an! , because ! &ould be o e; or a con(ess!on o( ru $ b, a 4!nd o( duress e"er, spec!es and de.ree o( &$!c$ $e la& ab$ors. T$ere(ore# $e cour 'a, no e; rac (ro' a de(endan 5s o&n l!ps and a.a!ns $!s &!ll an ad'!ss!on o( $!s .u!l . Nor 'a, a cour as 'uc$ as resor o co'pulsor, d!sclosure# d!rec l, or !nd!rec l,# o( (ac s usable a.a!ns $!' as a con(ess!on o( $e cr!'e or $e endenc, o( &$!c$ !s o pro"e $e co''!ss!on o( a cr!'e. )ecause# ! !s $!s r!.$ o (ore.o es !'on,# o re'a!n s!len # unless $e c$ooses o a4e $e &! ness s and &! $ und!lu ed# un(e ered e;erc!se o( $!s o&n (ree# .enu!ne &!ll. %o'puls!on as ! !s unders ood $ere does no necessar!l, conno e $e use o( "!olenceD ! 'a, be $e produc o( un!n en !onal s a e'en s. Pressure &$!c$ opera es o o"erbear $!s &!ll# d!sable $!' (ro' 'a4!n. a (ree and ra !onal c$o!ce# or !'pa!r $!s capac! , (or ra !onal +ud.'en &ould !n our op!n!on be su((!c!en . So !s 'oral coerc!on 2 end!n. o (orce es !'on, (ro' $e un&!ll!n. l!ps o( $e de(endan .2 Pe ! !oner# as accused# occup!es a d!((eren !er o( pro ec !on (ro' an ord!nar, &! ness. 3$ereas an ord!nar, &! ness 'a, be co'pelled o a4e $e &! ness s and and cla!' $e pr!"!le.e as eac$ 0ues !on re0u!r!n. an !ncr!'!na !n. ans&er !s s$o a $!'# and accused 'a, al o.e $er re(use o a4e $e &! ness s and and re(use o ans&er an, and all 0ues !ons. For# !n real! ,# $e purpose o( call!n. an accused as a &! ness (or $e People &ould be o !ncr!'!na e $!'. ;;; 3! $ all $ese# &e $a"e no $es! anc, !n sa,!n. $a pe ! !oner &as (orced o es !(, o !ncr!'!na e $!'sel(# !n (ull breac$ o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ o re'a!n s!len . I canno be sa!d no& $a $e $as &a!"ed $!s r!.$ . 8e d!d no "olun eer o a4e $e s and and !n $!s o&n de(enseD $e d!d no o((er $!'sel( as a &! nessD on $e con rar,# $e cla!'ed $e r!.$ upon be!n. called o es !(,. I( pe ! !oner ne"er $eless ans&ered $e 0ues !ons !nsp! e o( $!s (ear o( be!n. accused o( per+ur, or be!n. pu under con e'p # $!s c!rcu's ance canno be coun ed a.a!ns $!'. 8!s es !'on, !s no o( $!s o&n c$o!ce. To $!' ! &as a case o( co'pelled sub'!ss!on. 8e &as a co&ed par !c!pan !n proceed!n.s be(ore a +ud.e &$o possessed $e po&er o pu $!' under con e'p $ad $e c$osen

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
o re'a!n s!len . Nor could $e escape es !(,!n.. T$e cour 'ade ! abundan l, clear $a $!s es !'on, a leas on d!rec e;a'!na !on &ould be a4en r!.$ $en and $ereon $e (!rs da, o( $e r!al. T$e course &$!c$ pe ! !oner a4es !s correc . 'abeas corpus !s a $!.$ prero.a !"e &r! . I !s rad! !onall, cons!dered as an e;cep !onal re'ed, o release a person &$ose l!ber , !s !lle.all, res ra!ned suc$ as &$en $e accused5s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s are d!sre.arded. Suc$ de(ec resul s !n $e absence or loss o( +ur!sd!c !on and $ere(ore !n"al!da es $e r!al and $e conse0uen con"!c !on o( $e accused &$ose (unda'en al r!.$ &as "!ola ed. T$a "o!d +ud.'en o( con"!c !on 'a, be c$allen.ed b, colla eral a ac4# &$!c$ prec!sel, !s $e (unc !on o( habeas corpus. 'abeas corpus !s proper o c$allen.e a con"!c !on &$ere $e cons! u !onal r!.$ s o( $e accused &ere "!ola ed. A cour &$!c$ den!es $e accused o( $!s cons ! u !onal r!.$ s !s ous ed o( ! s +ur!sd!c !on. T$e +ud.'en o( con"!c !on pronounced b, a cour &! $ou +ur!sd!c !on !s "o!d# and one !'pr!soned $ereunder 'a, ob a!n release o( habeas corpus. No es on $e case* In $!s case# $e accused %$a"e@ &as co'pelled b, $e +ud.e &! $ $e $rea o( be!n. $eld !n con e'p o a4e $e &! ness s and# !n sp! e o( $!s ob+ec !on $a $e $ad $e r!.$ o re'a!n s!len and no o be a &! ness a.a!ns $!'sel(. And so $e oo4 $e &! ness s and and &as con"!c ed b, 0ual!(!ed $e( . 8e appealed bu $e la&,er (a!led o (!le $e appellan 5s br!e( and so $e appeal &as d!s'!ssed# $e +ud.'en beca'e (!nal and e;ecu or,# and $e ser"ed $!s sen ence. Years la er# %$a"e@ &en o $e S% on habeas corpus# con end!n. $a $!s con"!c !o!n &as "o!d because ! &as rendered on $e bas!s o( e"!dence ob a!ned !n $e "!ola !on o( $!s r!.$ a.a!ns sel(- !ncr!'!na !on. T$e S% .ran ed $e pe ! !on and released $!'. 'abeas Corpus# as s$o&n b, $!s case# !s an e; raord!nar, pos -con"!c !on# '!d-sen ence# re'ed,. T$e pe ! !on (or habeas corpus !s suc$ $a ! !n0u!res !n o all 0ues !ons o( !lle.al de en !on. 3$en $e +ud.e co'pelled $e accused o a4e $e &! ness s and# $e &as ous ed o( $!s +ur!sd!c !on and all subse0uen proceed!n.s beca'e "o!d. :l !'a el,# $e +ud.'en o( con"!c !on and e"en $e sen ence &ere l!4e&!se "o!d# $us 'a4!n. $e de en !on o( %$a"e@ !lle.al# and $us ac !onable b, habeas corpus. T$e case also !llus ra es $e d!((erence be &een $e ord!nar, &! ness and $e accused. A &! ness can be con'pelled o a4e $e s andD $e can onl, ob+ec o $e 0ues !ons as $e, co'e# !n"o4!n. $!s r!.$ a.a!ns sel(!ncr!'!na !on. )u !n $e case o( $e accused# $e canno e"en be 'ade o a4e $e &! ness s and# (or $e onl, purpose o( suc$ !s o !ncr!'!na e $!'. O( course# $e 'o'en $e accused a.rees o a4e $e s and# $e !s dee'ed o $a"e &a!"ed $!s r!.$ # and 'us no& $us sub'! $!'sel( o cross-e;a'!na !on. E. Right to %$ i.#%rti%l tri&+$%l %$' tri%l of !i(ili%$s &) .ilit%r) !o+rts An!'as ". M!n!s er o( Na !onal De(ense# 9?6 S%RA ?E6 /9AB61 F* T$!s pe ! !on c$allen.es $e +ur!sd!c !on o( a '!l! ar, r!bunal o r, &el"e accused persons# onl, one o( &$o' !s !n $e '!l! ar,# (or $e o((ense de"o!d o( an, na !onal secur! , or pol! !cal co'ple;!on and co''! ed lon. be(ore $e procla'a !on o( 'ar !al la&# T$e pe ! !oners &ere c$ar.ed &! $ 'urder !n connec !on &! $ $e alle.ed 4!ll!n. o( Yanson# a pol! !cal leader#dur!n. $e No"e'ber 99 elec !ons. T$e accused &ere arres ed al'os a ,ear la er# on Sep e'ber 79# 9A<7 a( er 'ar !al la& &as procla!'ed. I &as

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


onl, !n 9A<? $a a 2su''ar, prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on2 &as conduc ed b, a P% cap a!n belon.!n. o $e -ud.e Ad"oca e General Ser"!ce. T$e pe ! !oners &ere reco''ended (or prosecu !on be(ore $e M!l! ar, Tr!bunal# cons!der!n. $a one o( $e'# pe ! !oner S. . Rodol(o An!'as !s a '!l! ar, personnel. T$erea( er# $e -ud.e Ad"oca e General (!led $e correspond!n. c$ar.e s$ee # bu $e 'od!(!ed $e cr!'e c$ar.ed (ro' 2Murder2 o 2V!ola !on o( Sec !on B<B o( $e Re"!sed Ad'!n!s ra !"e %ode2 !n Rela !on o Sec !on 76A7 o( $e sa'e %ode and Pres!den !al Decree No. A# 2 Ille.al Possess!on o( F!rear's &! $ Murder.2 On Februar, 96# 9A<B# $e M!n!s er o( Na !onal De(ense re(erred $e case o $e M!l! ar, Tr!bunal5s )ranc$ o( $e -ud.e Ad"oca e General5s O((!ce /-AGO1 &$!c$ !n urn ass!.ned $e sa'e o responden M!l! ar, %o''!ss!on No. 7<. Issue* 3$e $er or no M!l! ar, %o''!ss!on No. 7< !s &! $ou +ur!sd!c !on o"er $e cr!'!nal case Rul!n.* T$e '!l! ar, cour !s &! $ou +ur!sd!c !on. 3e appl, $e rule !n Rolando A. de Gu@'an ". 8on. Ale+andro R. Leopando# e al# /G.R. No. 67<AB# Dece'ber 77# 9AB> and Marc$ 9># 9AB?1 &$ere $e lone '!l! ar, personnel &as ordered r!ed o.e $er &! $ 9A c!"!l!ans accused be(ore a c!"!l cour . I !s also clear (ro' $e records $a $e ac s (or &$!c$ S. . An!'as &as c$ar.ed $ad no $!n. o do &! $ $e per(or'ance o( o((!c!al du ,. T$e cr!'e (or &$!c$ $e pe ! !oners &ere c$ar.ed &as co''! ed on No"e'ber 9E# 9A<9 lon. be(ore $e procla'a !on o( 'ar !al la&. T$ere &as no 0ues !on abou $e case be!n. prosecu ed b, c!"!l!an (!scals and r!ed b, c!"!l cour s a $e !'e. No& $a ! !s alread, la e 9AB6# and 'ar !al la& !s a $!n. o( $e pas # $ope(ull, ne"er 'ore o re urn# $ere !s no 'ore reason &$, a 'urder co''! ed !n 9A<9 s$ould s !ll be re a!ned# a $!s !'e# b, a '!l! ar, r!bunal. Ol%g+ r (. Milit%r) Co..issio$ No. @0, "3- SCRA "00 +ilitary trial of civilians void even under +artial 8aw if the civil courts are open F* Pe ! !oners &ere (ound .u!l , o( sub"ers!on b, $e responden '!l! ar, co''!ss!on and sen enced o dea $. T$e, (!led a pe ! !on (or habeas corpus# certiorari# pro$!b! !on and mandamus be(ore $e S%# 0ues !on!n. $e +ur!sd!c !on o( $e '!l! ar, r!bunal. 8ELD* In A0u!no ". M!l! ar, %o''!ss!on /9A<F1# $e S% $eld $a 2Mar !al la& crea es and e;cep !on o $e .eneral rules o( e;clus!"e +ur!sd!c !on# and renders o((enses a.a!ns $e la&s o( &ar as &ell as $ose o( a c!"!l c$arac er# r!able b, '!l! ar, r!bunals.;;;2 Due process# $o&e"er de'ands $a !n all cr!'!nal cases prosecu !ons# $e accused s$all be en ! led o# a'on. o $ers# a r!al. As e;pla!ned b, -us !ce Tee$an4ee !n $!s d!ssen !n. op!n!on !n A0u!no ". M!l! ar, %o''!ss!on supra* 2-ud!c!al po&er !s "es ed b, $e %ons ! u !on e;clus!"el, !n $e S% and !nsuc$ !n(er!or cour s as are es abl!s$ed b, la&. -ud!c!al po&er e;!s s onl, !n $e cour s &$!c$ $a"e $e e;lcus!"e po&er o $ear and de er'!ne $ose 'a ers &$!c$ a((ec $e l!(e or l!ber , or proper , o( a c! !@en.2 S!nce &e are no an ene', occup!ed err! or, and e"en on $e pre'!se $a 'ar !al con !nues !n (orce# $e '!l! ar, r!bunals canno r, and e;erc!se +ur!sd!c !on o"er c!"!l!ans (or c!"!l o((enses co''! ed b, $e' &$!c$ are properl, co.n!@able b, $e c!"!l cour s. ;;; 2T$e pres!d!n. o((!cer a a cour 'ar !al !s no a +ud.e &$ose ob+ec !"! , and !ndependence are pro ec ed b, enure and und!'!ns$ed salar, and nur ured b, $e +ud!c!al rad! !on# bu !s a '!l! ar, o((!cer. Subs an !all, d!((eren rules o(

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
e"!dence and procedure appl, !n '!l! ar, r!als. Apar (ro' $ese d!((erences# $e su..es !on o( $e poss!b!l! , o( !n(luence on $e ac !ons o( $e cour -'ar !al b, $e o((!cer &$o con"enes ! # selec s ! s 'e'bers and $e counsel on bo $ s!des# and &$o usuall, $as d!rec co''and and au $or! , o"er ! s 'e'bers !s a per"as!"e one !n '!l! ar, la&s# desp! e s renuous e((or s o el!'!na e $e dan.er. 88.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


A 2b!ll o( a a!nder2 !s a la& &$!c$ subs ! u es $e le.!sla !"e de er'!na !on o( .u!l (or a +ud!c!al de er'!na !on. T$rou.$ a s a u e# $e le.!sla ure (!nds !nd!"!duals or .roups .u!l ,# &! $ou $e bene(! o( be!n. pro"en so !n cour . A b!ll o( a a!nder !s o( &o 4!nds* /!1 b!ll o( a a!nder proper /le.!sla !"e !'pos! !on o( $e dea $ penal ,1 and /!!1 b!ll o( pa!ns and penal !es /!'pos! !on o( a lesser penal ,1. In People ". Ferrer# ?B S%RA >B7 /9A<71# $e An !Sub"ers!on La& /RA 9<EE1 &$!c$ declared $e %o''un!s Par , o( $e P$!l!pp!nes a clear and presen dan.er o P$!l!pp!ne secur! ,# and $us pro$!b! ed 'e'bers$!p !n suc$ or.an!@a !on# &as con ended o be a b!ll o( a a!nder. T$e S%# $o&e"er# d!s'!ssed $e con en !on# $old!n. $a al $ou.$ $e la& 'en !ons $e %PP !n par !cular# ! s purpose !s no o de(!ne a cr!'e bu onl, o la, a bas!s or o +us !(, $e le.!sla !"e de er'!na !on $a 'e'bers$!p !n suc$ or.an!@a !on !s a cr!'e because o( $e clear and presen dan.er o na !onal secur! ,. People ". Ferrer# ?B S%RA >B7 /9A<71 F* Posed !n !ssue !n $ese &o cases !s $e cons ! u !onal! , o( $e An !-Sub"ers!on Ac # &$!c$ ou la&s $e %o''un!s Par , and o $er 2sub"ers!"e assoc!a !ons2# and pun!s$es an, person &$o 24no&!n.l,# &!ll(ull, and b, o"er ac s a((!l!a es $!'sel(# &! $# beco'es or re'a!ns a 'e'ber#2 o( $e Par , and o( an, o $er s!'!lar 2sub"ers!"e2 or.an!@a !on. ISS:E* 3=N $!s la& !s a b!ll o( a a!nder. 8ELD* NO A b!ll o( a a!nder !s a le.!sla !"e ac &$!c$ !n(l!c s pun!s$'en &! $ou r!al. I s essence !s $e subs ! u !on o( a le.!sla !"e (or a +ud!c!al de er'!na !on o( .u!l . T$e cons ! u !onal ban a.a!ns b!ll o( a a!nder ser"es o !'ple'en $e pr!nc!ple o( separa !on o( po&ers b, con(!n!n. le.!sla ures o rule-'a4!n. and $ereb, (ores all!n. le.!sla !"e usurpa !on o( $e +ud!c!al (unc !on. 3$en $e Ac !s "!e&ed !n ! s ac ual opera !on# ! &!ll be seen $a ! does no spec!(, $e %o''un!s Par , o( $e P$!ls /%PP1 o( $e 'e'bers $ereo( (or $e purpose o( pun!s$'en . 3$a ! does !s s!'pl, o declare $e Par , o an or.an!@ed consp!rac, (or $e o"er $ro& o( $e Go"ern'en (or $e purposes o( $e pro$!b! !on a.a!ns 'e'bers!p !n $e ou la&ed or.an!@a !on. T$e er' 2%PP2 !s used solel, (or de(!n! !on purposes. In (ac $e Ac appl!es no onl, o $e %PP bu o 2an, o $er or.an!@a u!!on $a"!n. $e sa'e purposes and $e!r successors2. I s (ocus !s no on !nd!"!duals bu on conduc . Indeed# &ere $e An !-Sub"ers!on Ac a b!ll o( a a!nder# ! &ould be o all, unnecessar, o c$ar.e %o''un!s s !n cour # as $e la& alone# &! $ou 'ore &ould su((!ce o secure $e!r pun!s$e'en . )u $e unden!able (ac !s $a $e!r .u!l s !ll $as o be +ud!c!all, es abl!s$ed. T$e Go"ern'en $as ,e o pro"e a $e r!al $a $e accused +o!ned $e Par , 4no&!n.l,# &!ll(ull, and b, o"er ac s# and $a $e, +o!ned &! $ $e spec!(!c !n en o (ur $er ! s bas!c ob+ec !"es. H. Right to % s# ') 'is#ositio$ of !%s s Art. III, S !. "2. All # rso$s sh%ll h%( th right to % s# ') 'is#ositio$ of th ir !%s s & for %ll <+'i!i%l, ,+%siB <+'i!i%l, or %'.i$istr%ti( &o'i s.

%ru@ ". Ponce-Enr!le# 96E S%RA <E7 /9ABB1 F* 'abeas corpus proceed!n.s &ere co''enced !n $!s %our on Oc ober 9# 9AB6 o es $e le.al! , o( $e con !nued de en !on o( so'e 79< so-called 2pol! !cal de a!nees arres ed !n $e n!ne-,ear span o( o((!c!al 'ar !al rule and co''! ed o $e Ne& )!l!b!d Pr!sons !n Mun !nlupa. All $ad been 'ade o s and r!al (or co''on cr!'es be(ore "ar!ous cour s 'ar !alD !( an, o( $ese o((enses $ad an, pol! !cal color# $!s $ad ne! $er been pleaded nor pro"ed. O( $e 79< pr!soners# 9F< are c!"!l!ans# and onl, 76 con(!r'ed as '!l! ar, personnel. Issue* 3$e $er or no '!l! ar, cour s $a"e +ur!sd!c !on o"er c!"!l!ans Rul!n.* No As $eld !n Ola.uer* A '!l! ar, +ur!sd!c !on or r!bunal canno r, and e;erc!se +ur!sd!c !on# e"en dur!n. $e per!od o( 'ar !al la&# o"er c!"!l!ans (or o((enses alle.edl, co''! ed b, $e' as lon. as $e c!"!l cour s are open and (unc !on!n.# and $a an, +ud.'en rendered b, suc$ bod, rela !n. o a c!"!l!an !s null and "o!d (or lac4 o( +ur!sd!c !on on $e par o( $e '!l! ar, r!bunal concerned T$e (ac canno be !.nored# $o&e"er# $a cr!'es appear o $a"e been co''! ed# and $ere are accusa !ons a.a!ns $ere!n pe ! !oners (or $ose o((enses. Ola.uer canno and does no opera e o absol"e $e pe ! !oners o( $ese c$ar.es# or es abl!s$ $a $e sa'e are baseless# so as o en ! le $e' o !''ed!a e release (ro' de en !on. I !s no o be (or.o en $a $e "!c !'s !n o((enses ascr!bed o $e pe ! !oners $a"e as 'uc$ !n eres as $e S a e $as o prosecu e $e alle.ed au $ors o( $e '!sdeeds. -us !ce &!ll be be er ser"ed !( $e de en !on o( suc$ o( $e pe ! !oners as are no $ereb, ordered released or e;cep ed# !s con !nued un !l $e!r cases are rans(erred o $e ord!nar, cour s $a"!n. +ur!sd!c !on# and $e necessar, !n(or'a !ons $a"e been (!led a.a!ns $e' $ere!n# as $as alread, been done !n $e case o( pe ! !oners I'per!al D. :s'an and Sa'u Gu'al. T$e S a e s$ould be .!"en a reasonable per!od o( !'e o acco'pl!s$ $!s rans(er# a &$!c$ !'e $e pe ! !oners 'a, appl, (or ba!l (or $e!r e'porar, release. T$e Sol!c! or General no unreasonabl, an !c!pa es 0ues !ons o ar!se as o $e a"a!lab!l! , o( cer a!n de(enses o $e pe ! !oners upon $e!r prosecu !on be(ore $e c!"!l cour s. I see's e"!den # $o&e"er# $a no breac$ o( $e cons ! u !onal pro$!b! !on a.a!ns &!ce pu !n. an accused !n +eopard, o( pun!s$'en (or $e sa'e o((ense &ould resul (ro' $e re r!al o( $e pe ! !oners2 cases# (or $e s!'ple reason $a $e absence o( +ur!sd!c !on o( $e cour s 'ar !al o r, and con"!c $e pe ! !oners pre"en ed $e (!rs +eopard, (ro' a ac$!n.. Val!d pre"!ous proceed!n.s are re0u!red !n order $a $e de(ense o( double +eopard, can be ra!sed b, $e accused !n $e second prosecu !on. =. Bills of %tt%i$' rBB L gisl%ti( %'<+'i!%tio$ of g+ilt )!ll o( A a!nder

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e r!.$ o a speed, d!spos! !on o( cases co'ple'en s $e r!.$ o a speed, r!al. A( er $e case $as been sub'! ed (or dec!s!on# so $a ec$n!call, $e r!al s a.e !s er'!na ed# $e %ons ! u !on 'anda es $a $e +ud!c!al# 0uas!- +ud!c!al or ad'!n!s ra !"e bod, or r!bunal 'us dec!de $e case cons!s en &! $ $e r!.$ o( $e accused o a speed, d!spos! !on o( $!s case. To carr, ou $!s 'anda e# $e %ons ! u !on !n se"eral o $er places pro"!des per!ods (or dec!d!n. a case* T$e Supre'e %our $as o dec!de cases &! $!n 7? 'on $s (ro' $e da e o( sub'!ss!on o( $e case (or dec!s!on &$!c$ !s $e da e o( (!l!n. o( $e las plead!n. QAr . VIII# Sec. 9F /91.R III. SUBSTANTI8E RI=HTS UNDER THE DUE PROCESS CLAUSE A. 3$a ac s canno be cr!'!nal!@ed E; Pos Fac o La& 9. Mere bel!e(s and asp!ra !ons Art. III, S !. "1. 5"7 No # rso$ sh%ll & ' t%i$ ' sol l) &) r %so$ of his #oliti!%l & li fs %$' %s#ir%tio$s. 7. Deb s and c!"!l obl!.a !ons Art. III. S !. >-. No # rso$ sh%ll & i.#riso$ ' for ' &t or $o$B#%). $t of % #oll t%C. 3$a $e la& pro$!b! s !s !'pr!son'en (or nonpa,'en o( a con rac ual obl!.a !on. 3$en one !s con"!c ed o( es a(a and sen o pr!son# $e !'pr!son'en !s no (or $e non- pa,'en o( deb bu (or $e dece! or abuse o( con(!dence e'plo,ed b, $e con"!c . T$us# !n Lo@ano ". Mar !ne@# 9?6 S%RA 97> /9AB61# $e S% a.a!n up$eld )a as )l.. 77 /)ounc!n. %$ec4s La&1 as no uncons! u !onal (or be!n. "!ola !"e o( $e rule a.a!ns non!'pr!son'en (or deb . I !s rue $a under $!s la& dece! !s no necessar,. I !s# $o&e"er# a "al!d e;erc!se o( $e S a e o( ! s po&er o de er'!ne &$a ac s cons ! u e a cr!'e. 3$a $e %ons! u !on (ur $er pro$!b! s !s !'pr!son'en (or non-pa,'en o( poll a;# &$!c$ !s a a; !'posed on cer a!n persons re.ardless o( $e!r proper , or bus!ness. T$e pro$!b! !on does no appl, o non-pa,'en o( proper , a;es and a;es on pr!"!le.e. Lo@ano ". Mar !ne@# 9?6 S%RA >7> /9AB61 F* )P 77 pun!s$es an, person 2&$o 'a4es or dra&s and !ssues an, c$ec4 on accoun or (or "alue# 4no&!n. a $e !'e o( !ssue $a $e does no $a"e su((!c!en (unds !n or cred! &! $ $e dra&ee ban4 (or $e pa,'en o( sa!d c$ec4 !n (ull upon presen 'en # &$!c$ c$ec4 !s subse0uen l, d!s$onored b, $e dra&ee ban4 (or !nsu((!c!enc, o( (unds ;;;2 Pe ! !oners c$allen.ed $e cons ! u !onal! , o( )P 77 on $e (ollo&!n. .rounds* 91 I o((ends $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!on pro$!b! !n. !'pr!son'en (or deb D 71 ! !'pa!rs (reedo' o( con rac D >1 ! con ra"enes $e e0ual pro ec !on clauseD ?1 ! undul, dele.a es le.!sla !"e and e;ecu !"e po&ersD and F1 ! s enac 'en !s (la&ed because $e In er!' )a asan pro$!b! ed a'end'en o( $e b!ll on >rd read!n..

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


8ELD* T$e .ra"a'en o( $e o((ense pun!s$ed !n )P 77 !s $e ac o( 'a4!n. and !ssu!n. a &or $less c$ec4 or a c$ec4 $a !s d!s$onored upon ! s presen a !on (or pa,'en . I !s no $e non- pa,'en o( an obl!.a !on &$!c$ $e la& pun!s$es. T$e la& pun!s$es $e ac no as an o((ense a.a!ns proper , bu as an o((ense a.a!ns publ!c order. Recen s a !s !cs s$o& $a one $!rd o( $e en !re 'one, suppl, o( $e coun r, cons!s s o( currenc, !n c!rcula !on. T$ese de'and depos! s !n $e ban4s cons ! u e $e (unds a.a!ns &$!c$ co''erc!al papers are dra&n. T$e a'oun concerned +us !(!es $e le.! !'a e concern o( $e s a e !n preser"!n. $e !n e.r! , o( $e ban4!n. s,s e'. >. Ac s &$!c$ &$en done &ere !nnocen Art. III, S !. >>. No e, post #a"to l%* or &ill of %tt%i$' r sh%ll & $%!t '.

An 2e; pos (ac o la&2 !s a la& $a see4s o pun!s$ an ac &$!c$# &$en co''! ed# &as no ,e a cr!'e or &as no as $ea"!l, pun!s$ed. I !s a la& $a re roac s o $e da, o( $e ac so as o cause pre+ud!ce o $e person per(or'!n. $e ac . I s un(a!rness cons!s s !n $e (ac $a $e person could no $a"e 4no&n $e ac &as cr!'!nal# and $us could no $a"e a"o!ded $e cr!'e. 3$en a la& !s 'ore (a"orable o $e accused# $o&e"er# ! !s allo&ed o re roac . In re Ca, V!lle.as Ca'!# Inc.# >F S%RA ?7B F* T$!s pe ! !on (or declara or, &as (!led b, Ca, V!lle.as Ca'! Inc.# cla!'!n. o be a dul, reco.n!@ed non-s oc4 and non-pro(! corpora !on crea ed under $e la&s o( $e land# and pra,!n. (or $e de re'!na !on o( $e "al!d! , o( Sec. B# RA 69>7 and a declara !on o( pe ! !oner5s r!.$ s and du !es $ereunder. Pe ! !oner cla!'s $a $e c$allen.ed pro"!s!on cons ! u es an e; pos (ac o la&. ISS:E* 3=N ! !s an e; pos (ac o la&. 8ELD* NO An ex post facto la& !s one &$!c$* 9. Ma4es cr!'!nal an ac done be(ore $e passa.e o( $e la& &$!c$ &as !nnocen &$en done# and pun!s$es suc$ an ac D 7. A..ra"a es a cr!'e # or 'a4es ! .rea er $an ! &as# &$en co''! edD >. %$an.es $e pun!s$'en and !n(l!c s a .rea er pun!s$'en $an $e la& anne;ed o $e cr!'e &$en co''! edD ?. Al ers $e le.al rules o( e"!dence# and au $or!@es con"!c !on upon less or d!((eren es !'on, $an $e la& re0u!red a $e !'e o( $e co''!ss!on o( $e o((enseD F. Assu'!n. o re.ula e c!"!l r!.$ s and re'ed!es onl,# !n e((ec !'poses penal , or depr!"a !on o( a r!.$ (or so'e $!n. &$!c$ &$en done &as la&(ulD and 6. Depr!"es a person accused o( a cr!'e o( so'e la&(ul pro ec !on o &$!c$ $e $as beco'e en ! led# suc$ as $e pro ec !on o( a (or'er con"!c !on or ac0u! al# or a procla'a !on o( a'nes ,. QLuo !n. Me4!n ". 3ol(e# 7 P$!l. <? /9AE71R T$!s cons ! u !onal pro$!b! !on re(ers onl, o cr!'!nal la&s &$!c$ are .!"en re roac !"e e((ec . 3$!le ! !s rue $a Sec. 9B penal!@es a "!ola !on o( an, pro"!s!n o( RA 69>7 !nclud!n. Sec. B/a1 $ereo(# $e penal , !s !'posed onl, (or ac s co''! ed a( er $e appro"al o( $e la& and no $ose perpe ra ed pr!or $ere o. T$ere !s

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
no $!n. !n $e la& $a re'o el, !ns!nua es $a ! s pro"!s!ons s$all appl, o ac s carr!ed ou pr!or o ! s appro"al. B. Wh%t #+$ish. $ts !%$$ot & i.#os ' 9. In"olun ar, ser"! ude Art. III, S !. "1 5>7 No i$(ol+$t%r) s (it+' s i$ %$) for. sh%ll Cist, C! #t %s % #+$ish. $t for % !ri. *h r of th #%rt) sh%ll h%( & $ !o$(i!t '. 7. E;cess!"e (!nes Art. III, S !. "4. 5"7 EC! ssi( fi$ s sh%ll $ot & i.#os '. $or !r+ l, ' gr%'i$g or i$h+.%$ #+$ish. $t i$fli!t '. N ith r sh%ll th ' %th # $%lt) & i.#os ', +$l ss for !o.# lli$g r %so$s i$(ol(i$g h i$o+s !ri. s, th Co$gr ss h r %ft r #ro(i' s for it. A$) ' %th # $%lt) %lr %') i.#os ' sh%ll & r '+! ' to re"l!sion perpet!a. @. Cr+ l, ' gr%'i$g %$' i$h+.%$ #+$ish. $ts Art. III, S !. "4. 5"7 EC! ssi( fi$ s sh%ll $ot & i.#os '. $or !r+ l, ' gr%'i$g or i$h+.%$ #+$ish. $t i$fli!t '. N ith r sh%ll th ' %th # $%lt) & i.#os ', +$l ss for !o.# lli$g r %so$s i$(ol(i$g h i$o+s !ri. s, th Co$gr ss h r %ft r #ro(i' s for it. A$) ' %th # $%lt) %lr %') i.#os ' sh%ll & r '+! ' to r !l+sio$ # r# t+%. I'., S !. ">. CCC 5>7 No tort+r , for! , (iol $! , thr %t, i$ti.i'%tio$, or %$) oth r . %$s *hi!h (iti%t th fr *ill sh%ll & +s ' %g%i$st hi.. S !r t ' t $tio$ #l%! s, solit%r), in"o%%!ni"ado, or oth r si.il%r for.s of ' t $tio$ %r #rohi&it '. Assu'!n. $a +ud.'en $as been rendered and $e accused $as been con"!c ed $e %ons ! u !on no& (ur $er prescr!bes cer a!n s andards as o $e pun!s$'en $a can be 'e ed ou . A( er all# due process pro$!b! s barbar!c and d!spropor !ona e penal !es. T$e e'plo,'en o( p$,s!cal# ps,c$olo.!cal or de.rad!n. pun!s$'en a.a!ns an, pr!soner or de a!nee# or $e use o( subs andard or !nade0ua e penal (ac!l! !es under sub$u'an cond! !ons# s$all be deal &! $ b, la&. QAr . III# Sec. 9A /71.R In 9A>F# $e pro$!b! !on &as a.a!ns 2cruel and unusual2 penal ,# !n 9A<>D ! &as a.a!ns 2cruel or unusual 2 penal ,D !n 9AB<# $e pro$!b! !on !s a.a!ns 2cruel# de.rad!n. or !n$u'an2 pun!s$'en . T$e purpose !n c$an.!n. $e p$raseolo., !s o allo& (or e;per!'en a !on# and no o (!; $e concep o( &$a !s cruel o $e s andards o( $e presen c!"!l!@a !on# or $ose o( an !0u! ,. T$!s no !on !s supposed o e;pand and .ro&# so $a &$a oda, !s cons!dered as accep able 'a, !n $e ne; .enera !on be dee'ed as cruel penal ,. 3$e $er $e cruel , o( a pun!s$'en depends on ! s (or' or &$e $er ! depends on ! s se"er! , $as been a'b!"alen l, ans&ered b, $e S%* In People ". dela %ru@# A7 P$!l. AEE /9AF>1 $e S% ruled $a ! &as $e (or' o( pun!s$'en as (!;ed !n an !0u! , /p!llor, dese'bo&el'en # e c.1 and no ! s se"er! ,# $a cons ! u ed 2cruel and unusual2 penal , under $e 9A>F %ons ! u !on. T$us a d!spropor !ona e penal , /9E ,ears !'pr!son'en (or $e( 1 !s no cruel or unusual because ! !s

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


onl, a 'a er o( se"er! , o( an accep able (or' o( pun!s$'en /!'pr!son'en 1. T$e S% spo4e !n a d!((eren &a, !n People ". )or+a A9 S%RA >?E /9A<A1# )or+a &as sen enced and $e ser"ed a $e na !onal pen! en !ar, (or 7E ,ears be(ore $e case ca'e o $e S%. T$e %our sa!d $a )or+a $ad been l!"!n. !n $e s$ado& o( dea $. Al $ou.$ $e sen ence &as !n! !all, "al!d# ! $ad beco'e cruel b, $e lapse o( !'e. And ,e # $!s &as a (or' o( penal , $a &as ne! $er cruel nor unusual. People ". Muno@# 9<E S%RA 9E< /9ABA1 F* T$e accused are (our o( $e 99 bod,.uards o( a 'a,or &$o 4!lled $ree persons on susp!c!on $a $e, &ere ca le rus lers. T$e, &ere (ound .u!l , o( 'urder. T$ree appealed o $e S% &$!c$ (ound $e' e0uall, l!able (or $e 4!ll!n.. T$e penal , (or 'urder under $e RP% !s reclusion temporal o dea $. T$e 0ues !on concerns $e penal , o be !'posed !n "!e& o( Ar . III# sec. 9A &$!c$ pro"!des $a 2Ne! $er s$all $e dea $ penal , be !'posed# unless (or co'pell!n. reasons !n"ol"!n. $e!nous cr!'es# %on.ress pro"!des (or ! . An, dea $ penal , alread, !'posed s$all be reduced o reclus!on perpe ua.2 8ELD* Ar . III# sec !on 9A does no c$an.e $e per!ods o( $e penal , prescr!bed b, Ar . 7?B o( $e RP% e;cep !nso(ar as ! pro$!b! s $e !'pos! !on o( $e dea $ penal , adn reduces ! o reclusion perpetua. T$e ran.e o( 'ed!u' and '!n!'u' penal !es re'a!n $e sa'e. 88. People ". Lubreo# 7EE S%RA 99 /9AA91 F* A co'pla!n (or $o'!c!de &as (!led &! $ MT% o( Del %ar'en# Sur!.ao del Nor e# c$ar.!n. Re'el! o Lubreo alon. &! $ cr!'e o( 8o'!c!de !n connec !on &! $ $e 4!ll!n. o( Ma'er o San!co. -ud.e Gor.olon o( sa!d cour conduc ed bo $ $e prel!'!nar, !n"es !.a !on and prel!'!nar, e;a'!na !on. T$erea( er# $e (or&arded $e records o( $e case o $e O((!ce o( Pro"!nc!al F!scal. T$e (!scal conduc ed $!s o&n PI and on $e bas!s $ereo(# $e (!led an !n(or'a !on (or 'urder no onl, a.a!ns re'el! o bu also a.a!ns Lucres!o Lubreo. Tr!al %our (!nd $e' .u!l , o( $e cr!'e c$ar.ed. ISS:E* 3=N $e cons ! u!onal presu'p !on o( !nnocence !n (a"or o( Lucrec!o $as been o"er urned b, $e prosecu !on 8ELD* NO. An accused !s presu'ed !nnocen un !l $e con rar, !s pro"ed. T$e burden o( proo( !s upon $e prosecu !on and un !l suc$ burden !s su((!c!en l, d!sc$ar.ed # $e accused con !nues o en+o, $e presu'p !on o( !nnocence. In $e !ns an case# $e lo&er cour con"!c ed Lucrec!o on $e bas!s o( ! s conclus!on $a $e &as pos! !"el, !den !(!ed b, &! nesses Nen! a Mon er and Ep!(an!o Pan.a un.an as one o( $e assa!lan s# and $a $ere(ore# $!s de(ense o( al!b! &ould no prosper. :n(or una el,# $e es !'on!es o( $e abo"e'en !oned &! nesses d!d no ca e.or!call, s a ed or pro"ed $a Lucrec!o oo4 par !n $ac4!n. $e "!c !'. T$ou.$ Mon er ca e.or!call, s a ed !n $er d!rec e;a'!na !on $a s$e sa& $e accused Lucres!o $ac4!n. $e "!c !'# !n $e 2re-enac ''en 2# s$e $o&e"er cand!dl, !n(or'ed $e cour Lucres!o &as +us s and!n. b, and s$e could no re''enber as o &$o ac uall, $ac4ed $e "!c !'. Fro' $er "ers!on# $e par !c!pa !on o( Lucrec!o !s a one en"eloped !nser!ous doub . I !s &orse !n $e case o( Pan.a un.an. 3$!le $e s a ed $a 2Lucrec!o abe ed !n $ac4!n. as !( $e, &!ll co'e one a( er $e o $er !n $ac4!n. $!s '!nd /s!c1 and $e nec42# $e ne"er elabora ed as o &$a

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
2abe ed !n $ac4!n. 2 'eans. 8e could no e"en spec!(, $e par o( $e bod, o( Ma'er o &$!c$ &as $! b, Lucrec!o. T$ere !s e"!den l, !nsu((!c!en e"!dence o s$o& $e ac ual par !c!pa !on o( Lucres!o !n e$ cr!'e. T$ere be!n. no e"!dence o( consp!rac,# $e canno be $eld (or $e ac s o( $!s co- appellan . 0. S !r t ' t $tio$ #l%! s, solit%r), i$!o..+$i!%'o %$' oth r for.s of ' t $tio$ %$' th +s of s+&st%$'%r' or i$%' ,+%t # $%l f%!iliti s Art. III, S !. ">. CCC 5>7 No tort+r , for! , (iol $! , thr %t, i$ti.i'%tio$, or %$) oth r . %$s *hi!h (iti%t th fr *ill sh%ll & +s ' %g%i$st hi.. S !r t ' t $tio$ #l%! s, solit%r), in"o%%!ni"ado, or oth r si.il%r for.s of ' t $tio$ %r #rohi&it '. I'., S !. "4. CCC 5>7 Th .#lo). $t of #h)si!%l, #s)!hologi!%l, or ' gr%'i$g #+$ish. $t %g%i$st %$) #riso$ r or ' t%i$ or th +s of s+&st%$'%r' or i$%' ,+%t # $%l f%!iliti s +$' r s+&h+.%$ !o$'itio$s sh%ll & ' %lt *ith &) l%*. 3. I$' fi$it I.#riso$. $ts People ". Dacu,cu,# 9<> S%RA AE /9ABA1# supra. C. Th #rot !tio$ %g%i$st 'o+&l < o#%r') Art. III, S !. >". No # rso$ sh%ll & t*i! #+t i$ < o#%r') of #+$ish. $t for th s%. off $s . If %$ %!t is #+$ish ' &) % l%* %$' %$ or'i$%$! , !o$(i!tio$ or %!,+itt%l +$' r ith r sh%ll !o$stit+t % &%r to %$oth r #ros !+tio$ for th s%. %!t. Ele'en s o( double +eopard,# /Rule 99<# Sec <D People ". Obsan!a# 7> S%RA 7?A /9A6B1* /91 %our o( co'pe en +ur!sd!c !onD /71 A %o'pla!n or In(or'a !on su((!c!en !n (or' and subs ance o sus a!n a con"!c !onD />1 Arra!.n'en and plea b, $e AccusedD /?1 %on"!c !on# ac0u! al# or d!s'!ssal o( $e case &! $ou $e e;press consen # o( $e accused. Subse0uen prosecu !on !s barred (or $e (ollo&!n.* /91 Sa'e o((ense /71 A e'p o( $e sa'e o((ense />1 Frus ra !on o( $e sa'e o((ense /?1 O((ense necessar!l, !ncluded !n $e 9s o((ense /All $e ele'en s o( $e 7nd cons ! u e so'e o( $e ele'en s o( $e 9s o((ense1 /F1 O((ense $a necessar!l, !ncludes $e 9s o((ense /All $e ele'en s o( $e 9s cons ! u e so'e o( $e ele'en s o( $e 7nd o((ense1 E;cep !ons o no. F* /91 T$e .ra"er o((ense de"eloped d!e o 2super"en!n. (ac s2 ar!s!n. (ro' $e sa'e ac or o'!ss!on cons ! u !n. $e (or'er c$ar.ed. T$us# !n Melo ". People# BF P$!ls. <66 /9AFE1# $e S% allo&ed $e a'ned'en o( $e !n(or'a !on (ro' ! s or!.!nal ca$r.e o( (rus ra ed $o'!c!de# because a( er $e (!l!n. o( $e !n(or'a !on# $e "!c !' d!ed.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


/71 T$e (ac s cons ! u !n. $e .ra"er c$ar.e beca'e 4no&n or &ere d!sco"ered onl, a( er $e (!l!n. o( $e (or'er co'pla!n or !n(or'a !on. T$!s o"errules People ". Yorac# &$ere $e S% d!sallo&ed $e a'end'en o( $e !n(or'a !on (ro' sl!.$ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es o (rus ra ed 'urder a( er $e prosecu !on sub+ec ed $e "!c !' o ano $er 'ed!cal e;a'!na !on and (ound a &ound# $a ! &as $e (aul o( $e prosecu !on !( $e, $ad an !nco'pe en 'ed!cal e;a'!na !on. />1 T$e plea o( .u!l , o $e lesser o((ense &as 'ade &! $ou $e consen o( $e (!scal and $e o((ended par ,. Iden ! , o( o((enses and !den ! , o( ac 3$en an ac .!"es r!se o &o or 'ore o((ense &$!c$ are pun!s$ed b, $e sa'e au $or! ,# and an !nd!"!dual !s con"!c ed# ac0u! ed# or $e case d!s'!ssed &! $ou $!s consen # o( one o( $ese o((ense /%r!'e A1# $ere !s no double +eopard, !( $e !s c$ar.ed o( ano $er o(((ense /%r!'e )1 (lo&!n. (ro' $e sa'e ac . Double +eopard, ar!ses onl, &$en $e !s a.a!n c$ar.ed o( $a sa'e o((ense /%r!'e A1. T$us# $!s !s called double +eopard, b, 2!den ! , o( o((enses2. )u &$en an ac &$!c$ .!"e r!se o &o or 'ore o((enses !s pun!s$ed b, &o d!((eren au $or! !es /a la& and an ord!nance1# $en !( an !nd!"!dual !s con"!c ed# ac0u! ed# or $e case d!s'!ssed &! $ou $!s consen # o( an, o( $ese o((enses pun!s$ed b, one au $or! , /%r!'e A b, la&1# e"en !( $e !s c$ar.ed o( ano $er o((ense &$!c$ !s pun!s$ed b, $e o $er au$ or! , /%r!'e ) b, ord!nance1# $ere !s double +eopard,# because bo $ o((enses# one pun!s$ed b, a la& and $e o $er pun!s$ed b, an ord!nance# (lo&ed (ro' $e sa'e ac . T$us# $!s !s called double +eopard, b, 2!den ! , o( ac .2 Su'* I( onl, a la& !n !n"ol"ed# $ere !s double +eopard, onl, &$en $ere !s an !den ! , o( o((enses. )u !s a la& and an ord!nance are !n"ol"ed# $ere !s double +eopard, &$en $ere !s an !den ! , o( ac . Iden ! , o( O((enses* I( a 'arr!ed 'an 'a!n a!ns as concub!ne a 'arr!ed &o'an no $!s &!(e# $e 'an !s .u!l , o( bo $ concub!na.e and adul er,. Fro' $e sa'e ac /co$ab! !n. &! $ $e 'arr!ed &o'an1# &o o((enses ar!se. And ,e $e can be prosecu ed (or bo $ because# $e &o o((enses co'!n. (ro' $e sa'e au $or! ,# $ere !s no !den ! , o( o((enses. Iden ! , o( Ac * People ". Relo"a# ?B S%RA 7A7 /9AB<1# Relo"a &as prosecu ed under an ord!nance o( )a an.as %! , (or $e use o( &!r!n. o ap elec r!c! , &! $ou per'!ss!on (ro' $e local au $or! !es# bu $e case &as d!s'!ssed because $e cr!'e $as prescr!bed. So $e (!scal (!led a case (or $e( o( elec r!c! , under $e RP%. T$e S% ruled $ere &as double +eopard, alread,# and so $e second case could no lon.er be (!led. For al $ou.$ $e o((enses &ere d!((eren # bo $ (lo&ed (ro' $e sa'e ac . And !n $!s case# $e ac &as pun!s$ed b, a la& and an ord!nance. Loss o( -ur!sd!c !on* No double +eopard, I( $e cour $as no +ur!sd!c !on# or &as ous ed o( ! s +ur!sd!c !on beccause ! "!ola ed $e r!.$ o due process o( $e par !es# $e dec!s!on !s null and "o!d# $e accused 'a, a.a!n be c$ar.ed.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
In People ". )ocar# 9>B S%RA 966 /9ABF1# $e S%# $eld $a $e 'o"e b, $e r!al cour o( su''ar!l, d!s'!ss!n. a cr!'!nal case (or $e( on $e .round $a ! 'erel, !n"ol"ed a 0ues !on o( o&ners$!p depr!"ed $e prosecu !on o( due process b, den,!n. ! $e c$ance o !n roduce ! s e"!dence. T$!s ous ed $e cour o( ! s +ur!ds!c !on. In Gal'an ". Sand!.anba,an# 9?? S%RA ?> /9AB61# $e S% declared $e cr!'!nal prosecu !on o( $e 76 accused !n $e A0u!no-Gal'an double 'urder case a 2'!s r!al2 a( er $e S% co''!ss!on (ound $a $e Sand!.anba,an +us !ces and $e Tanodba,an prosecu ors $ad been su''oned b, $e Pres!den and !ns ruc ed on $o& o conduc $e r!al. Due process !s a r!.$ no onl, o( $e accused bu also o( $e S a e. Once $e cour depr!"es e! $er par ,# &$!c$ !n $!s case !s $e S a e# o( a (!.$ !n. c$ance# $en ! !s ous ed (ro' ! s +ur!sd!c !on# and double +eopard, &ould no appl,. T$us# $e accused &ere ordered re r!ed. ". T*o sit+%tio$s !o$t .#l%t ' People ". Relo"a 9?B S%RA 7A7 /9AB<1 F* Manuel Opulenc!a &as c$ar.ed &!$ "!ola !on o( Ord!nance No. 9 ser!es o( 9A<? o( )a an.as %! , pro$!b! !n. $e !ns alla !on o( elec r!c &!r!n. de"!ces &! $ou au $or! , (ro' $e c! , .o"ern'en . 8e ad'! ed !ns all!n. $e elec r!c &!r!n. de"!ces (ound b, $e pol!ce !n order o decrease $e read!n.s o( elec r!c curren . T$e case &as $o&e"er d!s'!ssed on $e .round $a $e o((ense $ad prescr!bed. Four een da,s la er# $e %! , F!scal (!led ano $er case (or $e( a.a!ns $!'. T$e cour also d!s'!ssed $!s case on $e .round o( double +eopard,. T$e prosecu !on appealed con end!n. $e o((ense &as d!((eren . 8ELD* T$e con en !on $as no 'er! . T$e (!rs sen ence o( Ar . III# sec. 79 s a es $e .eneral rule* $e cons ! u !onal pro ec !on a.a!ns double +eopard, !s no a"a!lable &$ere $e second prosecu !on !s (or an o((ense $a !s d!((eren (ro' $e o((ense c$ar.ed !n $e (!rs or pr!or prosecu !on# al $ou.$ bo $ 'a, be based (ro' $e sa'e (ac s. T$e second sen ence pro"!des an e;cep !on* $a $e pro ec !on a.a!ns double +eopard, !s a"a!lable al $ou.$ $e pr!or o((ense c$ar.ed under an ord!nance be d!((eren (ro' $e o((ense c$ar.ed subse0uen l, under $e na !onal s a u e suc$ as $e RP% pro"!ded $a bo $ o((enses spr!n. (ro' $e sa'e ac or se o( ac s. 88. People ". %! , %our o( Man!la# )ranc$ VI# 9F? S%RA 9<F /9AB<1 F* A.ap! o Gon@ales# o.e $er &! $ Rober o Pan.!l!nan# &as accused o( "!ola !n. Sec.<# !n rela !on o Sec. 99 RA >E6E and Ar . 7E9/>1 o( $e RP%# !n &o separa e !n(or'a !ons (!led &! $ $e %! , %our o( Man!la. :pon arra!.n'en # accused Gon@ales pleaded no .u!l , o bo $ c$ar.es. T$e o $er accused# Pan.!l!nan# &as no arra!.ned as $e !s s !ll a lar.e. Gon@ales (!led a 'o !on o 0uas$ $e !n(or'a !ons !n $e 7 cases on $e .round $a sa!d !n(or'a !ons d!d no c$ar.e an o((ense. Mo !on den!ed. La er# $e a.a!n 'o"ed o 0uas$ $e !n(or'a !on !n one o( $e %r!'!nal case on $e .round o( duble +eopard,# as $ere &as accord!n. o $!'# also pend!n. a.!ns $!' ano $er cr!'!nal case# &$ere $e !n(or'a !n alle.edl, con a!n $e sa'e alle.a !ons as $e !n(or'a !on !n $e (!rs cr!'!nal case. %our .ran ed $e 'o !on. ISS:E* 3=N $ere !s double +eopard,. Melo ". People# BF P <<6 /9AFE1 8ELD* NO I !s a se led rule $a o ra!se $e de(ense o( double +eopard,# > re0u!s! es 'us be presen * /91 a (!rs +eopard,

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


'us $a"e a ac$ed pr!or o $e secondD /71 $e (!rs +eopard, 'us $a"e been "al!dl, er'!na edD and />1 $e second +eopard, 'us be (or e$ sa'e o((ense# or $e second o((ense !ncludes or !s necessar!l, !ncluded !n $e o((ense c$ar.ed !n $e (!rs !n(or'a !on# or !s an a e'p o co''! $e sa'e or a (rus ra !on $ereo(. All $ese re0u!s! es do no e;!s !n $!s case# T$e 7 !n(or'a !ons &! $ &$!c$ $e accused &as c$ar.ed # do no 'a4e onl, one o((ense# con rar, o pr!"a e reponden 5s alle.a !on. In o $er &ords# $e o((ense de(!ned !n Sec. < o( $e RA >E6E pun!s$!n. $e e;$!b! !on o( 'o !on p!c ures no dul, passed b, $e )oard o( %ensors (or Mo !on P!c ures does no !nclude or !s no !ncluded !n $e o((ense de(!ned !n Ar 7E9 />1 o( $e RP% pun!s$!n. $e e;$!b! !on o( !ndecen and !''oral 'o !n p!c ures. T$e ele'en s o( $e 7 o((enses are d!((eren . T$e .ra"a'en o( $e o((ense de(!ned !n RA >E6E !s $e publ!c e;$!b! !on o( an, 'o !on p!c ures &$!c$ $as no been pre"!ousl, passed b, $e )oard o( %ensors (or Mo !on P!c ures. T$e 'o !on p!c ure 'a, be !ndecen or !''oral bu !( ! $as no been pre"!ousl, appro"ed b, $e )oard# ! s publ!c s$o&!n. cons ! u es a cr!'nal o((ense. On $e o $er $and# $e o((ense pun!s$ed !n Ar 7E9/>1 o( $e RP% !s $e publ!c s$o&!n. os !ndecen or !''oral pla,s# scenes# ac s# or s$o&s# no +us 'o !on p!c ures. T$e na ure o( bo $ o((enses also d!((ers. T$e cr!'e pun!s$ed !n RA >E6E !s 'alu' pro$!b! u' !n &$ cr!'!nal !n en need no ber pro"ed because ! !s presu'ed# &$!le $e o((ense pun!s$ed !n Ar . 7E9/>1 o( $e RP% !s 'alu' !n se# &$!c$ cr!'!nal !n en !s an !nd!spensable !n.red!en . S+: tt . 7. Rules o( %our pro"!s!ons R+l ""6, S !. 6. *or%er "on'i"tion o# a" !ittal1 do!ble ?eopardy-.. Wh $ %$ %!!+s ' h%s & $ !o$(i!t ' or %!,+itt ', or th !%s %g%i$st hi. 'is.iss ' or oth r*is t r.i$%t ' *itho+t his C#r ss !o$s $t &) % !o+rt of !o.# $t $t <+ris'i!tio$, +#o$ % (%li' !o.#l%i$t or i$for.%tio$ or oth r for.%l !h%rg s+ffi!i $t i$ for. %$' s+&st%$! to s+st%i$ % !o$(i!tio$ %$' %ft r th %!!+s ' h%' #l %' ' to th !h%rg , th !o$(i!tio$ or %!,+itt%l of th %!!+s ' or th 'is.iss%l of th !%s sh%ll & % &%r to %$oth r #ros !+tio$ for th off $s !h%rg ', or for %$) %tt .#t to !o..it th s%. or fr+str%tio$ th r of, or for %$) off $s *hi!h $ ! ss%ril) i$!l+' s or is $ ! ss%ril) i$!l+' ' i$ th off $s i$ th for. r !o.#l%i$t of i$for.%tio$. Ho* ( r, th !o$(i!tio$ of th %!!+s ' sh%ll $ot & % &%r to %$oth r #ros !+tio$ for %$ off $s *hi!h $ ! ss%ril) i$!l+' s th off $s !h%rg ' i$ th for. r !o.#l%i$t or i$for.%tio$ +$' r %$) of th follo*i$g i$st%$! sF 5%7 th gr%( r off $s ' ( lo# ' '+ to s+# r( $i$g f%!ts %risi$g fro. th s%. %!t or o.issio$ !o$sit+ti$g th for. r !h%rg H 5&7 th f%!ts !o$stit+ti$g th gr%( r !h%rg & !%. ;$o*$ or * r 'is!o( r ' o$l) %ft r th fili$g of th for. r !o.#l%i$t or i$for.%tio$H or 5!7 th #l % of g+ilt) to th l ss r off $s *%s .%' *itho+t th !o$s $t of th fis!%l %$' of th off $' ' #%rt). I$ %$) of th for goi$g !%s s, *h r th %!!+s ' s%tisfi ' or s r( s i$ *hol or i$ #%rt th <+'g . $t, h sh%ll & !r 'it ' *ith th s%. i$ th ( $t of !o$(i!tio$ for th gr%( r off $s .

F* %onrado Melo &as c$ar.ed !n $e %FI# R!@al &! $ (rus ra ed $o'!c!de # (or $a"!n. alle.edl, !n(l!c ed upon

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
Ob!llo# &! $ a 4! c$en 4n!(e and &! $ !n en o 4!ll# se"eral ser!ous &ounds on d!((eren par s o( $e bod,# re0u!r!n. 'ed!cal a endance (or a per!od o( 'ore $an >E da,s# and !ncapac! a !n. $!' (ro' per(or'!n. $!s $ab! ual labor (or $e sa'e per!od o( !'e. On Dec. 7A# 9A?A# a B a'# accused pleaded no .u!l , o $e o((ense c$ar.de. A 9E*9F a' o( $e sa'e da,# Ob!llo d!ed (ro' $!s &ounds. An a'ended !n(or'a !on &as (!led c$ar.!n. accused &! $ consu''a ed $o'!c!de. Accused (!led a 'o !on o 0uas$ $e a'ended !n(or'a !on alle.!n. double +eopard,. Mo !on den!ed. ISS:E* 3=N $ere !s double +eopard,. 8ELD* NO Double +eopard, 'eans $a &$en a person !s c$ar.ed &! $ an o((ense and $e case !s er'!na ed e! $er b, ac0u! al or con"!c !on or !n an, o $er 'anner &! $ou $e consen o( $e accused# $e la er canno a.a!n be c$ar.ed &! $ $e sa'e or !den !cal o((ense. T$e p$rase 2 $e sa'e o((ense2 $as al&a,s been cons rued o 'ean no onl, $a $e second o((ense c$ar.ed !s e;ac l, $e sa'e as $e one alle.ed !n $e (!rs !n(or'a !on# bu also $a $e &o o((enses are !den !cal. T$ere !s !den ! , be &een $e &o o((enses &$en $e e"!dence o suppor a con"!c !on (or one o((ense &ould be su((!c!en o &arran a con"!c !on (or $e o $er. T$!s rule o( !den ! , $o&e"er does no appl,# $o&e"er# &$en $e second o((ense &as no !n e;!s ence a $e !'e o( $e (!rs prosecu !on# (or $e s!'ple reason $a !n suc$ case $ere !s no poss!b!l! , (or $e accused# dur!n. $e (!rs prosecu !on# o be con"!c ed (or an o((ense $a &as $en !nes!s en . T$us# &$ere $e accused &as c$ar.ed &! $ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es and a( er con"!c !on $e accused d!es# $e c$ar.e (or $o'!c!de a.a!ns $e sa'e accused does no pu $!' &!ce !n +eopard,. Accord!n.l,# an o((ense 'a, be sa!d o necessar!l, !nclude or o be necessar!l, !ncluded !n ano $er o((ense# (or $e purpose o( de re'!n!n. $e e;!s ence o( double +eopard,# &$en bo $ o((enses &ere !n e;!s ence dur!n. $e pendenc, o( $e (!rs prosecu !on# (or o $er&!se# !( $e second o((ense &as $en !ne;!s en # no +eopard, could a ac$ $ere(or dur!n. $e (!rs prosecu !on# and conse0uen l, a subse0uen c$ar.e (or $e sa'e canno cons ! u e a second +eopard,. S+: tt . People ". %! , %our o( Man!la# )ranc$ JI# 979 S%RA 6>< /9AB>1 F* T$!s !s a pe ! !on o re"!e& $e order o( $e %! , %our o( Man!la )ranc$ JI# d!s'!ss!n. $e !n(or'a !on (or $o'!c!de $ru rec4less !'prudence (!led a.a!ns Gapa,# !n a cr!'!nal case on $e .round o( double +eopard,. Responden cour $eld $a $e accused $a"!n. been pre"!ousl, r!ed and con"!c ed o( ser!ous p$,s!cal !n+ur!es $ru rec4less !'prudence (or $e resul !n. dea $ o( $e "!c !' &ould place $e accused !n double +eopard,. ISS:E* 3=N a person &$o $as been prosecu ed (or ser!ous p$,s!cal !n+ur!es $ru rec4less !'prudence and con"!c ed $ereo( 'a, be prosecu ed subse0uen l, (or $o'!c!de $ru rec4less !'prudence !( $e o((ended par , d!es as a resul o( $e sa'e !n+ur!es. 8ELD* YES 3ell se led !s $e rule $a one &$o $as been c$ar.ed &! $ an o((ense canno be c$ar.ed a.a!n &! $ $e sa'e or !den !cal o((ense $ou.$ $e la er be lesser or .rea er $an $e (or'er. 8o&e"er as $eld !n $e MELO case# $e rule o( !den ! , does no appl, &$en $e second o((ense &as no !n e;!s ence a $e !'e o( e$ (!rs prosecu !on # (or $e reason $a !n suc$ case $ere !s no poss!b!l! , (or $e accused dur!n.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


$e (!rs prosecu !on# o be con"!c ed (or an o((ense $a &as !ne;!s en . T$e "!c !' D!ol! o de la %ru@ d!ed on $e da, $e !n(or'a !on &as (!led # and $e accused &as arra!.ned 7 da,s a( er or on Oc ober 7E# 9A<7 . 3$en $e !n(or'a !on (or $o'!c!de $ru rec4less !'prudence &as# $ere(ore# (!led on Oc ober 7?# 9A<7# $e accused &as alread, !n doubl, +eopard,. S+: tt . People ". Yorac# ?7 S%RA 7>E /9A<91 F* Accused Yorac &as c$ar.ed &! $ sl!.$ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es be(ore $e %! , %our o( )acolod# $e o((ended par , be!n. La' 8oc4 &$o# accord!n. o $e 'ed!cal cer!(!ca e !ssued b, Dr. Ro.el!o Iulue a# &as con(!ned s!nce Apr!l B 9A6B up o $e presen !'e (or $ead !n+ur, !n Occ!den al Ne.ros Pro"!nc!al 8sp! al. Accused pleaded .u!l , on Apr!l 96# 9A6B resul !n. !n $!s be!n. penal!@ed o su((er 9E da,s (or arres o 'enor. On Apr!l 9B# 9A6B# $e pro"!nc!al (!scal (!led an !n(or'a !on c$ar.!n. $e sa'e de(endan &! $ (rus ra ed 'urder ar!s!n. (ro' $e sa'e ac a.a!ns $e a(oresa!d "!c !' La' 8oc4 (or upon (ur $er d!a.nos!s# $e $eal!n. per!od (or $e !n+ur!es caused o accused &as (ound o be lon.er. A 'o !on o 0uas$ &as (!led b, $e accused on $e .round o( double +eopard,. ISS:E* 3=N $e de(endan # &$o $ad alread, been con"!c ed o( sl!.$ p$,s!cal !n+ur!es (or !n+ur!es !n(l!c ed on La' 8oc4 # and $ad ser"ed sen ence $ere(or# 'a, be prosecu ed ane& (or (rus ra ed 'urder (or $e sa'e ac co''! ed a.a!ns $e sa'e person 8ELD* NO. In order no o "!ola e $e cons ! u !onal pro$!b! !on on double +eopard,# $ere !s $e !nd!spensable re0u!re'en o( $e e;!s ence o( a ne& (ac &$!c$ super"enes (or &$!c$ $e de(endan !s respons!ble c$an.!n. $e c$arac er o( $e cr!'e !'pu ed o $!' and o.e $er &! $ $e (ac s e;!s !n. pre"!ousl, cons ! u !n. a ne& and d!s !nc o((ense. In $!s case# $ere !s no super"en!n. (ac &$!c$ occurred o +us !(, $e non-e;!s ence o( double +eopard,. T$e &ound caus!n. $e dela, !n $e $eal!n. o( $e !n+ur!es caused o $e "!c !' &as alread, !n e;!s ence a $e !'e o( $e (!rs e;a'!na !on o( $e doc or. Sa!d dela, &as caused b, $e "er, super(!c!al and !nconclus!"e e;a'!na !on $en 'ade resul !n. o a la er (!nd!n. o( (rac ure. S+: tt . )arlon.a,* Wh $ ' f $s of 'o+&l < o#%r') %(%il%&l .BB /91 D!s'!ssal based on !su((!c!enc, o( e"!denceD /71 d!s'!ssal bec. o( den!al o( accused5s r!.$ o speed, r!alD />1 accused !s d!sc$ar.ed o be a s a e &! ness. Wh $ ' f $s of 'o+&l < o#%r') $ot %(%il%&l .BB 3$en $e case !s d!s'!ssed o $er $an on $e 'er! s upon 'o !on o( $e accused personall,# or $rou.$ counsel# suc$ d!s'!ssal !s re.arded as &= e;press consen o( $e accused# &$o !s $ere(ore dee'ed o $a"e &a!"ed $e r!.$ o plea double +eopard,. Yap ". Lu ero# Apr!l >E# 9AFA F* Yap &as c$ar.ed &! $ rec4less dr!"!n. !n "!ola !on o( a c! , ord!nance. La er $e &as c$ar.ed a.a!n !n ano $er cr!'!nal case !n $e sa'e cour &! $ ser!ous p$,s!cal !n+ur!es $rou.$ rec4less !'prudence. Yap 'o"ed o 0uas$ $e la er !n(or'a !on. Mean&$!le# pe ! !oner &as ac0u! ed !n $e (!rs case. ISS:E* 3=N $ere &as double +eopard,.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
R:LING* YES. Fro' $e "!e&po!n o( %r!'!nal La&# as d!s !n.u!s$ed (ro' %ons ! u !onal or Pol! !cal La& - $e o((enses &! $ &$!c$ pe ! !oner &as c$ar.ed cons ! u e# s r!c l, d!((eren o((enses# al $ou.$# under cer a!n cond! !ons# one o((ense 'a, !nclude $e o $er# and accord!n.l,# once placed !n +eopard, (or one# $e plea o( double +eopard, 'a, be !n order as re.ards $e o $er. T$us# !( $e !n+ur!es 'en !oned !n $e second !n(or'a !on &ere no es abl!s$ed b, $e e"!dence# pe ! !oner could be con"!c ed !n $e (!rs case o( $e "er, sa'e "!ola !on o( 'un!c!pal ord!nance c$ar.ed !n $e (!rs case# unless $e pleaded double +eopard,. Ch%ro. Gal'an ". Sand!.anba,an# 9?? S%RA ?> F* T$e pe ! !oners (!led an ac !on o null!(, $e proceed!n.s on $e r!al o( $e A0u!no-Gal'an duble 'urder case alle.!n. $a responden s Tanodba,an and Sand!.anba,an co''! ed ser!ous !rre.ular! !es cons ! u !n. '!s r!al and resul !n. !n '!scarr!a.e o( +us !ce and .ross "!ola !on o( $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ s o( $e pe ! !oners and $e so"ere!.n people o( $e P$!l!pp!nes o due process o( la&. T$e S% d!s'!ssed. Mean&$!le# $e Sand!.anba,an rendered ! s dec!s!on ac0u! !n. all $e accused o( $e cr!'e c$ar.ed. Responden s sub'! ed $a !n "!e& o( $e S) dec!s!on# $e case $as beco'e 'oo and acade'!c. Pe ! !oners (!led a 'o !on (or recons!dera !on o( $e S% rul!n.. T$e S% crea ed $e Vas0ue@ %o''!sss!on o loo4 !n o pe ! !oners5 alle.a !ons. R:LING* T$e repor o( $e %o''!ss!on re"ealed $a Pres. Marcos used $e o"er&$el'!n. resources o( $e Go"ern'en and $!s au $or! ar!an po&ers o corrup and 'a4e a 'oc4er, o( $e +ud!c!al process !n $!s case. T$e un&$oll, scenar!o (or $e ac0u! al o( $e accused a( er $e r!..ed r!al &ould acco'pl!s$ $e &o pr!nc!pal ob+ec !"es o( sa !s(,!n. $e publ!c cla'or (or $e suspec ed 4!llers o be c$ar.ed !n cour and o( .!"!!n. $e'# $rou.$ $e!r ac0u! al# $e le.al s$!eld o( double +epard,. 8o&e"er# double +eopard, does no a ac$ &$ere a cr!'!nal r!al &as a s$a'. A d!c a ed# coerced and scr!p ed "erd!c o( ac0u! al suc$ as !n $!s case !s a "o!d +ud.'en . In le.al con e'pla !on# ! !s no +ud.'en . I ne! $er b!nds nor bars an,one. T$e cr!'!nal collus!on as o $e $andl!n. and rea 'en o( $e cases b, publ!c responden s co'ple el, d!s0ual!(!ed $e' and "o!ded ab initio $e S) "erd!c . Dcanno be !n"o4ed &$ere $e prosecu !on# &$!c$ represen s $e so"ere!.n people !n cr!'nal cases !s den!ed due process. People ". Obsan!a# 7> S%RA 7?A F* T$e !n(or'a !on (!led b, $e (!scal alle.ed $a $rou.$ "!olence and !n !'!da !on# Obsan!a $ad carnal 4no&led.e o( one Erl!nda Dollen e a.a!ns $e la er5s &!ll. La er# $e (!scal a'ended $e co'pla!n o alle.e $ere!n $a $e o((ense &as co''! ed &! $ le&d des!.ns. T$e accused a( er plead!n. no .u!l , 'o"ed (or $e d!s'!ssal o( $e case on $e .round $a $e (!rs !n(or'a !on &as (a all, de(ec !"e (or (a!l!n. o alle.e 2le&d des!!.ns#2 and $a $e a'ended !n(or'a !on d!d no cure $e +ur!sd!c !onal !n(!r'! ,. T$e 'o !on o( $e de(ense &as sus a!ned b, $e +ud.e. 8ence $!s appeal b, $e (!scal. R:LING* T$e (a!lure o( $e prosecu !on o alle.e 2le&d des!.ns2 !n $e (!rs !n(or'a !on does no a((ec $e su((!c!enc, !n subs ance o( $e !n(or'a !on# (or unc$as e 'o !"es are dee'ed !n$eren !n $e "er, ac o( rape ! sel(. In an, case# $e lo&er cour erred !n d!s'!ss!n. $e case b, (a!l!n. o d!s !n.u!s$ be &een $e concep o( +ur!sd!c !on and !nsu((!c!enc, !n subs ance o( an !nd!c 'en .

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


As o $e 0ues !on o( double +eopard,# $e (ollo&!n. re0u!s! es 'us $a"e been ob a!ned o !n"o4e $e cons ! u !onal pro ec !on a.a!ns ! * /91 a "al!d co'pla!n or !n(or'a !onD /71 a cour o( co'pe en +ur!sd!c !onD />1 $e de(endan $ad pleaded o $e c$ar.eD and /?1 $e de(endan &as ac0u! ed# or con"!c ed# or $e case a.a!ns $!' &as d!s'!ssed or o $er&!se er'!na ed &! $ou $!s e;press consen . T$e onl, re'a!n!n. and dec!s!"e !ssue !n $!s case see's o be as o &$e $er or no $e case &as d!s'!ssed &! $ou $e pr!or consen o( $e accused. T$e S% ruled $a as a .eneral rule# &$en $e case !s d!s'!ssed# o $er $an on $e 'er! s# upon 'o !on o( $e accused# suc$ d!s'!ssal !s o be ra.arded as &! $ $e e;press consen o( $e accused and conse0uen l, $e !s dee'ed o $a"e &a!"ed $!s r!.$ o plead double +eopard, and=or $e !s es opped (ro' cla!'!n. suc$ de(ense on appeal b, $e Go"ern'en or !n ano $er !nd!c 'en (or $e sa'e o((ense. T$e e;cep !on o $!s !s &$ere $e d!s'!ssal !s sou.$ b, $e accused on $e .round $a $e, &ere den!ed $e!r r!.$ o a speed, r!al and $a $e .o"ern'en (a!led o prosecu eD !n &$!c$ case double +eopard, &!ll se !n. T$e case o( $ere!n accused (alls under $e .eneral rule. D. Th #ri(il g of th *rit of habeas "orp!s Art. III, S !. "3. Th #ri(il g of th *rit of habeas "orp!s sh%ll $ot & s+s# $' ' C! #t i$ !%s s of i$(%sio$ or r & llio$, *h $ th #+&li! s%f t) r ,+ir s it. In case o( !n"as!on or rebell!on# &$en $e publ!c sa(e , re0u!res ! # $e Pres!den 'a,# (or a per!od no e;ceed!n. 6E da,s# suspend $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! o( $abeas corpus... T$e suspens!on o( $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! s$all appl, onl, o persons +ud!c!all, c$ar.ed (or rebell!on or o((enses !n$eren !n or d!rec l, connec ed &! $ !n"as!on. Dur!n. $e suspens!on o( $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! # an, person $us arres ed or de a!ned s$all be +ud!c!all, c$ar.ed &! $!n > da,s# o $er&!se $e s$all be released. /Ar . VII# Sec. 9B.1 A 2&r! o( heabeas corpus2 !s a &r! d!rec ed o $e person de a!n!n. ano $er# co''and!n. $!' o produce $e bod, o( $e de a!nee a a des!.na ed !'e and place# and o s$o& cause &$, $e s$ould con !nue o be de a!ned. T$e 2pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! 2 !s $e r!.$ o $a"e $e !''ed!a e de er'!na !on o( $e le.al! , o( $e depr!"a !on o( p$,s!cal l!ber ,. 3$a !s suspended !s $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! # and no $e &r! ! sel(. T$e &r! &!ll al&a,s !ssue as a 'a er o( course. )u &$en $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! !s suspended# all $e de a!n!n. o((!ce needs o do &$en $e rece!"es $e &r! o( habeas corpus !s o s$o& o $e cour $a $e de a!nee !s be!n. de a!ned (or an o((ense co"ered b, $e suspens!on# and $e cour canno !n0u!re an, (ur $er o (!nd ou !( $e de en !on !s le.al. :nder $e %on's ! u !on# $!s !s so onl, (or > da,s. A( er > da,s# $e %our can no& re0u!re $e de a!n!n. o((!cer o produce $e bod, o( $e de a!nees and s$o& cause &$, $e s$ould no be released. T$e suspens!on o( $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! appl!ed onl, o cr!'es rela ed o !n"as!on or rebell!on. An e; ens!"e d!scuss!on &as 'ade under $e %o''ander-!n- %$!e( clause

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
o( $e Pres!den # supra. T$!s res o( $e sec !on &!ll be con(!ned o habeas corpus as a re'ed, !n all o $er o((enses. In .eneral as alread, no ed abo"e# $e pr!"!le.e o( $e &r! !s an e; raord!nar, re'ed, o 0ues !on $e !lle.al! , o( $e arres or de en !on# or an, o $er res ra!n o l!ber ,. 3$en all else !s los # ! !s $e las recourse o .e so'eone ou o( $!s !lle.al de en !on. ". D+$!tio$s of th *rit V!lla"!cenc!o ". Lu4ban# >A P <<B /9A9A1 'abeas corpus !s a"a!lable no onl, (or $ose &$o are !n ac ual de en !on bu e"en (or $ose &$ose l!ber , !s 'erel, res ra!ned. T$us# !n Moncupa ". Enr!le# 9?9 S%RA 7>> /9AB61# $e S% .ran ed $abeas corpus o pe ! !oner &$o# $ou.$ e'porar!l, released# could no ra"el ou s!de Me ro Man!la# could no c$an.e $!s res!dence# could no be !n er"!e&ed b, 'ed!a# and $ad o repor o $e '!l! ar,. >. Th *rit of h%& %s !or#+s %s % #ostB!o$(i!tio$ r . ') Free Mar4e Place o( Ideas In %$a"e@ ". %our o( Appeals# supra# habeas corpus &as $e re'ed, o( one &$ose con(!ne'en &as $e resul o( a "o!d +ud.n'en o( con"!c !on arr!"ed a a( er $e +ud.e "!ola ed due process b, co'pell!n. $!' o a4e $e s and and es !(, a.a!ns $!'sel(. %$a"e@ ". %our o( Appeals# 7? S%RA 6>> /9AB61, supra. In Gu'abon ". D!rec or o( Pr!son# >< S%RA ?7E /9A<91# so'e persons &$o &ere c$ar.ed &! $ $e co'ple; cr!'e o( rebell!on &! $ $o'!c!de# rape# or o $er co''on cr!'es# d!d no appeal $e!r con"!c !on and so &ere sen enced accord!n.l,. T$e o $er accused# $o&e"er# appealed $e!r con"!c !on# resul !n. !n a ne& rul!n. !n People ". 8ernande@ o $e e((ec $a $ere can be no co'ple; cr!' o( rebell!on &! $ $o'!c!de# rape# e c.# (or $ese co''on cr!'es are absorbed b, rebell!on. As a resul # &$!le $ose &$o appealed &ere no& (ree# $ose &$o d!d no re'a!ned !n +a!l. T$e S% ruled $a $ose &$o conr !nued o lan.u!s$ !n +a!l could a"a!l o( $abeas corpus o 0ues !on $e le.al! , o( $e!r con !nued de en !on pursuan o $e rul!n. !n People ". 8ernande@. @. S+s# $sio$ of th #ri(il g Art. 8II, S !. "1. Lansan. ". Garc!a# ?7 S%RA ?BB /9A<91 E. Affir.%ti( rights 9. Free access o $e cour s Art. III, S !. "". Dr %!! ss to th !o+rts %$' ,+%siB<+'i!i%l &o'i s %$' %' ,+%t l g%l %ssist%$! sh%ll $ot & ' $i ' to %$) # rso$ &) r %so$ of #o( rt). 7. Pro ec !on and en(orce'en o( cons ! u !onal r!.$ s Art. III, S th fr 'o. of s# right of th # o#l =o( r$. $t for r

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


Art. III, S !. ">. CCC 507 Th l%* sh%ll #ro(i' for # $%l %$' !i(il s%$!tio$s for (iol%tio$s of this s !tio$ %s * ll %s !o.# $s%tio$ to %$' r h%&ilit%tio$ of (i!ti.s of tort+r or si.il%r #r%!ti! s, %$' th ir f%.ili s.

I8. DREEDOM OD EXPRESSION !. 0. No l%* sh%ll & #%ss ' %&ri'gi$g !h, of C#r ssio$, or of th #r ss, or th # %! %&l) to %ss .&l %$' # titio$ th 'r ss of gri (%$! .

I'., S !. "1. 5"7 No # rso$ sh%ll & ' t%i$ ' sol l) &) r %so$ of his #oliti!%l & li fs %$' %s#ir%tio$s. CCC A. Philoso#hi!%l B%sis of =+%r%$t s

9. For $e d!sco"er, o( pol! !cal ru $ 3$en 'en $a"e real!@ed $a !'e $as upse 'an, (!.$ !n. (a! $s# $e, 'a, co'e o bel!e"e e"en 'ore $an $e, bel!e"e $e "er, (ounda !ons o( $e!r o&n conduc $a $e ul !'a e .ood des!red !s be er reac$ed b, (ree rade !n !deas-$a $e bes es o( ru $ !s $e po&er o( $e $ou.$ o .e ! sel( accep ed !n $e co'pe ! !on o( $e 'ar4e # and $e ru $ !s $e onl, .round upon &$!c$ $e!r &!s$es sa(el, can be carr!ed ou . /-us !ce 8ol'es# Abra's ". :n! ed S a es# 7FE :.S. 696. /9A9A1 T$e $eor, be$!nd (reedo' o( e;press!on !s $e pr!nc!ple $a ours !s a de'ocra !c soc!e ,# and so $e onl, &a, o rule ul !'a el, !s b,# 'eans o( publ!c op!n!on# &$!c$ !s poss!ble onl, &$en e"er,one can spea4 $e!r '!nds ou and co'pe e !n $e (ree 'ar4e place o( !deas. 7. For sel( .o"ern'en :n! ed S a es ". )us os# >< P <>9 /9A9B1 )ur.os ". %$!e( o( S a((# 9>> S%RA BEE /9AB?1# supra 8ELD* As a conse0uence o( $e searc$ and se!@ure# $e pre'!ses o( $e 2Me ropol! an Ma!l2 and 23e Foru'2 &ere padloc4ed and sealed# &! $ $e (ur $er resul $a $e pr!n !n. and publ!ca !on o( sa!d ne&spapers &ere d!scon !nued. Suc$ closure !s !n $e na ure o( pre"!ous res ra!n or censors$!p ab$orren o $e (reedo' o( $e press .uaran eed under $e (unda'en al la& and cons ! u es a "!r ual den!al o( pe ! !oner5s (reedo' o e;press $e'sel"es !n pr!n . T$!s s a e o( be!n. !s pa enl, ana $e'a !c o a de'ocra !c (ra'e&or4 &$ere a (ree# aler and e"en '!l! an press !s essen !al (or $e pol! !cal enl!.$ en'en and .ro& $ o( $e c! !@enr,. Ne& Yor4 T!'es ". Sull!"an# >BE :S F9 /9A6?1

Art. III, S !. ">. CCC 507 Th l%* sh%ll #ro(i' for # $%l %$' !i(il s%$!tio$sfor (iol%tio$s of this s !tio$ %s * ll %s !o.# $s%tio$ to %$' r h%&ilit%tio$ of (i!ti.s of tort+r or si.il%r #r%!ti! s, %$' th ir f%.ili s. >. %o'pensa !on o# and re$ab!l! a !on o(# "!c !'s o( or ures

>. For !nd!"!dual pro ec !on B. Prior R str%i$ts T$us an, s,s e' o( pr!or res ra!n s o( e;press!on co'es o $e %our bear!n. a $ea", presu'p !on a.a!ns ! s cons ! u !onal! ,# .!"!n. $e .o"ern'en a $ea", burden o

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
s$o& +us !(!ca !on (or $e !'pos! !on o( suc$ res ra!n . /Ne& Yor4 ". :n! ed S a es /9A<91D also !n Ne& Yor4 T!'es ". Pen a.on and )an a' )oo4s ". Publ!ca !on o( Pen a.on Papers1. San!dad ". %OMELE%# 9B9 S%RA F7A /9AAE1 Subse0uen Pun!s$'en And e"en subse0uen pun!s$'en !s e'pered b, $e .rea er !n eres o( pro'o !n. (ree publ!c op!n!on. T$e 'os s!.n!(!can e;press!on !s $e la& on l!bel. 3e cons!der $!s case a.a!ns $e bac4.round o( a pro(ound na !onal co''! 'en o deba e on publ!c !ssues be!n. un!n$!b! ed# robus and &!de-open# and $a ! 'a, &ell !nclude "e$e'en # caus !c# and so'e !'es unpleasan l, s$arp a ac4s on .o"ern'en and publ!c o((!c!als. T$e (als! , o( so'e o( $e (ac ual s a e'en s and alle.ed de(a'a !ons do no 0ual!(, $e role. And +us as (ac ual error a((orded no &arran (or repress!n. speec$ $a &ould o $er&!se be (ree# $e sa'e !s rue o( !n+ur, o o((!c!al repu a !on. /Ne& Yor4 T!'es ". Sull!"an# >BE :.S. F9 /9A6?1 T$e !n eres o( soc!e , and .ood .o"ern'en de'ands a (ull d!scuss!on o( publ!c a((a!rs. 3$e $er $e la& !s &!sel, or badl, en(orced !s a (! sub+ec (or proper co''en . Publ!c pol!c,# &el(are o( soc!e ,# and $e orderl, ad'!n!s ra !on o( .o"ern'en $a"e de'anded pro ec !on (or publ!c op!n!on. T$e !ne"! able and !ncon es able resul $as been $e de"elop'en and adop !on o( $e doc r!ne o( pr!"!le.e. Q-us !ce Malco'# :n! ed S a es ". )us os# <>9 /9A9B1.R 3$!le# uncer $e Re"!sed Penal %ode# an, de(a'a or, s a e'en !s presu'ed o be 'al!c!ous /'al!ce-!n-la&1# &$en $e de(ense pro"es $a $e co''un!ca !on !s pr!"!le.ed# suc$ a presu'p !on o( 'al!ce does no ar!se because o( $e .rea er publ!c !n eres !n"ol"ed. I( $e co''un!ca !on !s absolu el, pr!"!le.ed /as !n parl!a'en ar, (reedo' o( speec$1# $e prosecu !on canno e"en pro"e 'al!ce-!n-(ac . I( $e co''un!ca !on !s onl, 0ual!(!edl, pr!"!le.ed /Ar . >F? enu'era es $e 7 !ns ances* (a!r and rue repor !n. o( an o((!c!al proceed!n.D le.al 'oral or soc!al du ,1# $e burden !s s$!( ed on $e prosecu !on o pro"e 'al!ce-!n-(ac # &$!c$ $e de(ense can o"erco'e b, pro"!n. $e ru $ o( $e de(a'a or, s a e'en /&$!c$ !n $e case o( publ!c o((!c!als 'a, or 'a, no cons ! u e a cr!'e# so lon. as rela ed o $e conduc o( $!s o((!ce1 and .ood 'o !"e. C. Co$t $tBB%s ' R stri!tio$s 9. Tes o( "al!d! , o( con en -based res r!c !ons T$e :.S. Supre'e %our and# b, $ap$a@ard !'! a !on# $e P$!l!pp!ne Supre'e %our # $a"e e"ol"ed cer a!n es s o re.ula e $e con en s o( speec$. 2angerous Tendency Test* 3$en $e le.!sla !"e bod, $as de er'!ned .enerall,# !n $e e;erc!se o( ! s d!scre !on# $a u erances o( a cer a!n 4!nd !n"ol"e suc$ dan.er o( a subs an !"e e"!l $a $e, 'a, be pun!s$ed# $e 0ues !on &$e $er an, spec!(!c u erance co'!n. &! $!n $e pro$!b! ed class !s l!4el,# !n and ! sel(# o br!n. $e subs an !"e e"!ls# !s no open o cons!dera !on. In suc$ cases# $e .eneral pro"!s!on o( $e s a u e 'a, be cons ! u !onall, appl!ed o $e spec!(!c u erance !( ! s na ural and probable e((ec &as o br!n. abou

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


$e subs an !"e e"!l &$!c$ $e le.!sla !"e bod, '!.$ pro$!b! . QG! lo& ". Ne& Yor4# 76B :S 6F7 /9A7F1.R E;a'ple* Ar . 9?7. Inc! !n. o sed! !on. 3$en $e le.!sla ure $as dec!ded $a one &$o ad"oca es a cer a!n conduc !s .u!l , o( a cr!'e# $e cour canno !n rude. As ! e"ol"ed# $!s es &as supposed o appl, &$en $ere !s a s a u e# !n con ras o $e clear and presen dan.er rule &$!c$ appl!es &$en $e speec$ !s no pro$!b! ed b, s a u e. Clear and *resent 2anger Test* T$e 0ues !on !n e"er, case !s &$e $er $e &ords used are used !n suc$ c!rcu's ances and are o( suc$ a na ure as o crea e a clear and presen dan.er $a $e, &!ll br!n. abou $e subs an !"e e"!ls $a %on.ress $as a r!.$ o pre"en . I !s a 0ues !on o( pro;!'! , and de.ree. QSc$enc4 ". :n! ed S a es# 7?A :S ?< /9A9A1.R T$e e'p$as!s o( $e es !s $e na ure o( $e c!rcu's ances under &$!c$ ! !s u ered. T$e speec$ ! sel( 'a, no be dan.erous. As 8ol'es sa!d* 2Man, $!n.s $a '!.$ be sa!d !n !'e o( peace are suc$ a $!ndrance o ! s e((or $a $e!r u erance &!ll no be endured so lon. as 'en (!.$ .2 Or sa,!n. 2F!re2 !n a cro&ded 'o"!e $ouse. =rave but improbable danger? 3$e $er $e .ra"! , o( $e e"!l# d!scoun ed b, ! s !'probab!l! ,# +us !(!es suc$ an !n"as!on o( (ree speec$ as !s necessar, o a"o!d $e dan.er. QDenn!s ". :n! ed S a es# >?9 :S ?A? /9AF91# 0uo !n. -ud.e Learned 8and.R T$!s es &as 'ean o supplan $e clear and presen dan.er. T$e, bo $ e'p$as!@e $e c!rcu's ances o( $e speec$# bu $!s la er es cons!der $e &e!.$!n. o( "alues. 2irect Incitement Test* T$e cons! u !onal .uaran ees o( (ree speec$ and press do no per'! a S a e o (orb!d or proscr!be ad"ocac, o( $e use o( (orce or o( la& "!ola !on# e;cep &$ere suc$ ad"ocac, or peec$ !s d!rec ed o !nc! !n. or produc!n. !''!nen la&less ac !on# and !s l!4el, o !nc! e or produce suc$ ac !on. Q)randenbur. ". O$!o# >AF :.S. ??? /9A6A1# c! ed !n Salon.a ". %ru@ Pano# 9>? S%RA ?>B /9ABF1.R T$e es e'p$as!@es $e "er, &ords u ered* /a1 3$a &ords d!d $e u erH /b1 3$a !s $e l!4el, resul o( suc$ u eranceH I cr! !c!@es $e clear and presen dan.er es (or be!n. op dependen on $e c!rcu's ances. Spea4er 'a,# &$en es ed s$o& no !nc! e'en bu ,ou 4no& $e spea4er !s !nc! !n. o sed! !on. Balancing of Interest Test* T$e cour 'us under a4e $e del!ca e and d!((!cul as4 o( &e!.$!n. $e c!rcu's ances and appra!s!n. $e subs an !al! , o( $e reasons ad"anced !n suppor o( $e re.ula !on o( $e (ree en+o,'en o( r!.$ s. QA'er!can %o''un!ca !on Ass5n ". Douds# >>A :S >B> c! ed !n Gon@ales ". %OMELE%# 7< S%RA B>F /9A6AA1R T$e es appl!ed &$en &o le.! !'a e "alues no !n"ol"!n. na !onal secu!r , cr!'es co'pe e. In"ol"es an appo!n o( $e co'pe !n. !n eres . /Gon@ales ". %o'elec1 In A"er ". %apulon. and Enr!le# (or !ns ance# ! !s a 0ues !on o( balanc!n. $e (reedo' o( e;press!on o( $e producer and $e r!.$ o pr!"ac, o( Enr!le. /no !n VV5s re"!sed ou l!ne1 Balancing of /actors Test? T$e ru $ !s $ea $e clearand-presen dan.er es !s o"er- s!'pl!(!ed +ud.e'en unless ! a4es !n o accoun also a nu'ber o( o $er (ac ors* /91 $e rela !"e ser!ousness o( $e dan.er !n co'par!son &! $ $e "alue o( $e occas!on (or speec$ or pol! !cal ac !"! ,# /71 $e a"a!lab!l! , o( 'ore 'odera e con rols $an $ose $e S a e $as

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
!'posed# and per$aps />1 $e spec!(!c !n en &! $ &$!c$ $e speec$ !s launc$ed. /Freund# 0uo ed !n Denn!s ". :n! ed S a es !n $e concurr!n. op!n!on o( -us !ce Fran4(ur er1. >. A##li!%tio$s of t sts i$ (%rio+s !o$t Cts a. Freedo' o( e;press!on and na !onal secur! , )abs ". Na !onal In ell!.ence )oard 9>7 S%RA >96 /9AB?1 F* Pe ! !oners are +ournal!s s and colu'n!s s. On d!((eren da es !n -ul, 9ABE# $e, &ere su''oned b, '!l! ar, au $or! !es (or !n erro.a !on re.ard!n. $e!r &or4# (eel!n.s# sen !'en s# bel!e(s# assoc!a !ons and e"en pr!"a e l!"es. In add! !on# one o( $e' &as c$ar.ed &! $ l!bel b, a General &$o sou.$ o reco"er P9E '!ll!on !n da'a.es. T$e, brou.$ an ac !on (or pro$!b! !on o s op $e NI) (ro' 0ues !on!n. $e' and (ro' (!l!n. l!bel su! s on 'a ers $a $ad been $e sub+ec o( !n0u!r, b, $e NI). 8ELD* T$e pe ! !on $as beco'e 'oo and acade'!c. )e $a as ! 'a,# ! !s no !dle o no e $a # &$!le ord!nar!l,# an !n"! a !on o a end a $ear!n. and ans&er so'e 0ues !ons !s no !lle.al or cons ! u !onall, ob+ec !onable# under cer a!n c!rcu's ances# $o&e"er# suc$ an !n"! a !on can eas!l, assu'e a d!((eren appearance as &$en ! co'es (ro' a po&er(ul .roup co'posed predo'!nan l, o( ran4!n. '!l! ar, o((!cers and $e des!.na e !n erro.a !on s! e !s a '!l! ar, ca'p. b. Freedo' o( e;press!on and cr! !c!s' o( o((!c!al conduc * T$e Tes o( 2Ac ual Mal!ce2 Read Re"!sed Penal %ode# Ar !cles >F>->F? and >69>67

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


Manuel ". %ru@-Pano# 9<7 S%RA 77F /9ABA1 8ibel suits based on official criticisms should be dismissed outright unless made in bad faith F* Pe ! !oner &ro e $e %$a!r'an o( $e An !-S'u..l!n. Ac !on %en er denounc!n. abuses alle.edl, co''! ed b, ASA% a.en s a.a!ns pe ! !oner5s cl!en s. Pe ! !oner sa!d $e a.en s sub+ec ed N. 3oo 8a, o !nd!.n! !es and oo4 $er nec4lace and bracele and $er son5s &r!s &a c$ plus 8CS <E. )u $e a.en s &ere e;onera ed so pe ! !oner (!led cr!'!nal c$ar.es o( robber,. Pe ! !oner (ound prosecu ors uns,'pa $e !c so $e (!led a c!"!l ac !on (or da'a.es a.a!ns $e a.en s. La er# $e )ulle !n Toda, publ!s$ed a ne&s ! e' based on pe ! !oner5s le er o ASA%. T$!s beca'e $e bas!s o( an ac !on (or l!bel brou.$ a.a!ns pe ! !oner and $!s cl!en s. Pe ! !oner 'o"ed o 0uas$ $e case bu $!s 'o !on &as den!ed. 8ELD* Fro' $e "!e&po!n o( procedural and subs an !"e la&# $e c$ar.e !s de(ec !"e. T$e le er cons ! u es pr!"!le.ed co''un!ca !on. I &as sen b, pe ! !oner !n $!s capac! , as la&,er !n $e d!sc$ar.e o( $!s le.al du , o $!s cl!en s. 8e could also !n"4e $!s c!"!c du , as a pr!"a e !nd!"!dual o e;pose ano'al!es !n $e publ!c ser"!ce. T$e co'pla!n &as addressed o $e o((!c!al &$o $ad au $or! , o"er $e' and could !'pose proper d!sc!pl!nar, sanc !ons. As an !nde; o( .ood (a! $# $e le er &as sen pr!"a el,# d!rec l, o $e addressee &! $ou an, (un(are nor publ!c! ,. As (or $e ne&s repor # ! !s d!((!cul o bel!e"e $a $e pe ! !oner# an ord!nar, c! !@en &! $ou 4no&n !es o ne&spaper# could $a"e b, $!'sel( caused $e publ!ca !on. I does no appear e! $er $a $e repor &as pa!d (or l!4e an ad"er !se'en . A an, ra e# $e ne&s ! e' !s a rue and (a!r repor o( a +ud!c!al proceed!n.# 'ade !n .ood (a! $ and &! $ou co''en s or re'ar4s. 88. Ne&s&ee4 Inc. ". IA% 9?7 S%RA 9<9 /9AB61

Dr 'o. of C#r ssio$ %$' li& l Freedo' o( speec$ "ersus r!.$ o repu a !on. L!bel !s $e 'os co''on (or' o( subse0uen pun!s$'en . Al $ou.$ one canno be pre"en ed (ro' sa,!n. so'e $!n. be(ore $e ac uall, sa,s ! # one can be $eld l!able (or &$a one $as sa!d !( ! causes da'a.e o $e r!.$ s o( o $ers. Sol!"en ". Ma4as!arD )el ran ". Ma4as!ar# 96< S%RA >A> /9ABB1 F* T$e Pres!den o( $e P$!l!pp!nes (!led a co'pla!n (or l!bel a.a!ns $e pe ! !oners# &$o &ere $e publ!s$er and colu'n!s o( $e P$!l!pp!ne S ar# based on $e (ollo&!n. s a e'en !n )el ran5s colu'n o( Oc . 97# 9AB< o le 2T$e Ner"ous O((!c!als o( $e A0u!no Ad'!n!s ra !on2* 2I( ,ou recall# dur!n. $e Au.us 7A coup a e'p # $e Pres!den $!d under $er bed &$!le $e (!r!n. &as .o!n. on - per$aps $e (!rs %o''ander-!n-%$!e( o do so.2 )el ran d!d no sub'! a coun er a((!da"! and !ns ead# 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e co'pla!n . T$e (!scal den!ed $!s 'o !on. T$us# $!s pe ! !on (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* ;;; />1 As re.ards $e con en !on o( pe ! !oner )el ran $a $e could no be $eld l!able (or l!bel bec. o( $e pr!"!le.ed c$arac er o( $e publ!ca !on# $e %our re! era es $a ! !s no a r!er o( (ac s and $a suc$ a de(ense !s bes le( o $e r!al cour o apprec!a e a( er rece!"!n. $e e"!dence o( $e par !es. As o pe ! !oner )el ran5s cla!' $a o allo& $e l!bel case o proceed &ould produce a 2c$!ll!n. e((ec 2 on $e press (reedo'# $e %our (!nds no bas!s a $!s s a.e o rule on $e po!n . 88. F* Pe ! !oner &as sued (or l!bel !n connec !on &! $ $e publ!ca !on !n $e Feb. 7># 9AB9 !ssue o( Ne&s&ee4 o( $e ar !cle 2An Island o( Fear.2 T$e pla!n !((s# su.ar plan ers o( )acolod# co'pla!ned $a $e ar !cle por ra,ed $e' as e;plo! ers o( su.ar &or4ers. Pe ! !oner 'o"ed o d!s'!ss $e co'pla!n on $e .round $a $e ar !cle &as no l!belous s!nce ! d!d no s!n.le an, par !cular !nd!"!dual. T$e r!al cour den!ed $e 'o !on and pe ! !oner (!led a pe ! !on (or certiorari !n $e IA% &$!c$ &as d!s'!ssed. T$us# $!s appeal o $e S%. 8ELD* 3$ere $e de(a'a !on !s alle.ed o $a"e been d!rec ed a a .roup or class# ! !s essen !al $a $e s a e'en 'us be so s&eep!n. or all-e'brac!n. as o appl, o e"er, !nd!"!dual !n $a .roup or class# or su((!c!en l, spec!(!c so $a eac$ !nd!"!dual !n $e class or .roup can pro"e $a $e de(a'a or, s a e'en spec!(!call, po!n ed o $!'# so $a $e can br!n. $e ac !on separa el, !( need be. T$e d!spu ed por !on &$!c$ re(ers o pla!n !(( Sola ne"er s!n.led ou Sola. T$e ne&s repor 'erel, s a ed $a $e "!c !' $ad been arres ed b, 'e'bers o( a spec!al pol!ce un! brou.$ !n o $e area b, Sola# $e 'a,or. 8ence# $e repor re(err!n. as ! does o an o((!c!al ac !s &! $!n $e real' o( pr!"!le.ed and !s pro ec ed b, $e cons ! u !onal .uaran ees o( (ree speec$ and press. 88. No es* S!nce $e Ne&s&ee4 ar c!les 2Island o( (ear !n $e V!sa,as2 d!d no spec!(, an, !nd!"!dual# ! canno be l!belous. An ar !cle 'us be su((!c!en l,# spec!(!c or a leas s&eep!n. as o appl, o all 'e'bers o( a .roup# !n order o be dee'ed l!belous. Lope@ ". %our o( Appeals# >? S%RA 996 /9A<E1

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e p!c ures o( a (or'er 'a,or &as !nad"er en l, publ!s$ed and '!s a4en (or ano $er 'an &$o &as a san! ar, !nspec or and (ooled $e au $or! !es abou $e )abu,an Islands# cla!'!n. o( 'urders $ere# so $e, could .o and $e could be rescued. An erra u' &as publ!s$ed b, $e T$!s 3ee4 'a.a@!ne. T$e S%# 0uo !n. Lu!su'b!n. ". Lope@# $o&e"er# (ound (or pla!n !((# bu &! $ reduced da'a.es# s!nce $e error !n !n $!s case could $a"e been c$ec4ed cons!der!n.!n. $a $!s &as a &ee4l, 'a.a@!ne and no a da!l,. Lu!su'b!n. ". Fernando# A6 P$!l F9E /9AFF1 Ne&spapers s$ould be .!"en lee&a, and olerance o enable $e' o coura.eousl, and e((ec !"el, per(or' $e!r !'por an role !n our de'ocrac,. In $e prepara !on o( s or!es# press repor ers and ed! ors usuall, $a"e o race o $e!r deadl!nesD and cons!s en l, &! $ .ood (a! $ and reasonable care# $e, s$ould no be $eld o accoun # o a po!n o( suppress!on# (or $ones '!s a4es or !'per(ec !on !n $e c$o!ce o( &ords. . Mercado ". %FI o( R!@al 996 S%RA A> /9AB71 F* Pe ! !oner &as accused o( l!bel on $e bas!s o( a ele.ra' &$!c$ $e sen o $e Secre ar, o( Publ!c 3or4s re0ues !n. !n"es !.a !on o( Mrs. V!r.!n!a Mercado o( $e Publ!c Ser"!ce %o''!ss!on 2as &e $a"e reason o bel!e"e $a s$e $as enr!c$ed $ersel( $ru corrup prac !ces ;;;.2 8e (!led a 'o !on o d!s'!ss on $e .round $a $!s co''un!ca !on &as pr!"!le.ed# bu $!s 'o !on &as den!ed. 8e (!led ano $er 'o !on &$!c$ &as also den!ed. T$us# $!s pe ! !on (or certiorari# mandamus and pro$!b! !on !n $e S%. 8ELD* :S ". )us os !s a land'ar4 dec!s!on an eda !n. b, (or , ,ears a s!'!lar dec!s!on o( $e :S Supre'e %our o $e e((ec $a a l!bel prosecu !on 'us sur"!"e $e es o( &$e $er or no $e o((end!n. publ!ca !on !s &! $!n $e .uaran ees o( (ree speec$ and (ree press. 8o&e"er# -us !ce Malcol' !n :S ". )us os &as care(ul o po!n ou $a 0ual!(!ed pr!"!le.e and $!s !s one !ns ance 'a, be 2los b, proo( o( 'al!ce.2 3$a cas s doub on $e .ood (a! $ o( pe ! !oner !s $!s conduc # "!s-T-"!s pr!"a e responden . T$e enac! , &! $ &$!c$ pe ! !oner $ad pursued a course o( conduc on ! s (ace &ould see' o !nd!ca e $a a doub could reasonabl, be en er a!ned as $e bona (!des o( pe ! !oner. T$e prosecu !on s$ould be .!"en a c$ance o pro"e 'al!ce. !. Dr 'o. of C#r ssio$ %$' th right to #ri(%!) La.un@ad ". Gon@ales# A7 S%RA ?<6 /9A<A1 F* La.un@ad (!l'ed $e Mo!ses Pad!lla s or, based on a boo4 &r! en b, Rodr!.ue@. ;;; Nell, A'ane &$o &as a $al(-s!s er o( Pad!lla ob+ec ed o $e 'o"!e on $e .round $a ! con a!ned a por ra,al o( Pad!lla5s pr!"a e and (a'!l, l!(e# !nclud!n. scenes abou $!s 'o $er# Mar!a So o "da. de Gon@ales# and a cer a!n 2Aur!n.2 as Pad!lla5s .!rl (r!end. Subse0uen l,# Nell, A'an e# o.e $er &= $er s!s er and 'o $er# a.reed o allo& pe ! !oner o 2e;plo! # use and de"elope $e l!(e s or, o( Mo!ses Pad!lla (or purposes o( produc!n. $e p!c ures#2 !n cons!dera !on o( P7E#EEE. Pe ! !oner pa!d PF#EEE bu as $e (a!led o pa, $e balance a.reed upon# $e &as sued. -ud.e'en &as rendered a.a!ns $!' b, $e r!al cour # &=c &as a((!r'ed b, $e %A. Pe ! !oner appealed o $e S% con end!n. $a $e &as (orced o en er !n o $e a.ree'en onl, o a"o!d (!nanc!al loss caused b, dela, !n $e s$o&!n. o( $e 'o"!e and $e rela !"es o( Pad!lla d!d no $a"e a proper , r!.$ !n $e l!(e o( M. Pad!lla s!nce Pad!lla &as a publ!c (!.ure.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


8ELD* Pe ! !oner5s a"er'en !s no &ell a4en. )e!n. a publ!c (!.ure does no au o'a !call, des ro, in toto a person5s r!.$ o pr!"ac,. T$e r!.$ o !n"ade a person5s pr!"ac, o d!sse'!na e publ!c !n(or'a !on does no e; end o (!c !onal or no"el!@ed represen a !on o( a person# no 'a er $o& a publ!c (!.ure $e or s$e 'a, be. In $e case a bar# &$!le ! !s rue $a pe ! !oner e;er ed e((or s o presen $e rue- o-l!(e s or, o( Mo!ses Pad!lla# pe ! !oner ad'! s $a $e !ncluded a l! le ro'ance !n $e (!l' bec. &=o ! # ! &ould be a drab s or, o( or ure and bru al! ,. Freedo' o( e;press!on# !ndeed# occup!es a pre(erred pos! !on !n $e $!erarc$, o( c!"!l l!ber !es. I !s no # $o&e"er# &=o l!'! a !ons. In $e par !cular c!rcu's ances presen ed and cons!der!n. $e obl!.a !ons assu'ed b, pe ! !oner under $e a.ree'en # $e "al!d! , o( suc$ a.ree'en &!ll $a"e o be up$eld par !cular bec. $e l!'! s o( (reedo' o( e;press!on are reac$ed &$en e;press!on ouc$es upon 'a ers o( pr!"a e concern. QIn $e a.ree'en s!.ned b, $!'# pe ! !oner ad'! ed $a !n $e p!c ure produced# $e $ad 2e;plo! ed $e l!(e s or, o( Mo!ses Pad!lla (or pecun!ar, .a!n# and o $er pro(! 'o !"es# and /$ad1 encroac$ed upon $e pr!"ac, o( Mo!ses Pad!lla5s !''ed!a e (a'!l,# and /$ad1 !n (ac !ncluded# !n $e PI%T:RE5s case# persons por ra,!n. so'e o( MOISES PADILLA5s 4!n...2R A,er Produc !ons P ,. L d. ". %apulon. Apr!l 7A# 9ABB F* P!"a e responden -uan Ponce Enr!le (!led an ac !on !n $e RT% o( Ma4a ! o en+o!n $e pe ! !oners (ro' produc!n. $e 'o"!e 2T$e Four Da, Re"olu !on#2 a docu'en ar, o( $e EDSA Re"olu !on !n 9AB6 on $e .round $a ! "!ola ed $!s r!.$ o pr!"ac,. Pe ! !oners con ended $a $e 'o"!e &ould no !n"ol"e $!s pr!"a e l!(e no $a o( $!s (a'!l,. )u $e r!al cour !ssued a &r! o( prel!'!nar, !n+unc !on and ordered pe ! !oners o des!s (ro' 'a4!n. $e 'o"!e 'a4!n. re(erence &$a soe"er o Ponce Enr!le. T$!s# $!s ac !on (or cer !orar!. 8ELD* Freedo' o( speec$ and e;press!on !ncludes (reedo' o produce 'o !on p!c ures and o e;$!b! $e'. 3$a !s !n"ol"ed !s a pr!or res ra!n b, $e -ud.e upon $e e;erc!se o( speec$ and o( e;press!on b, pe ! !oners. )ecause o( $e pre(erred c$arac er o( speec$ and o( e;press!on# a &e!.$ , presu'p !on o( !n"al!d! , "! !a es 'easures o( pr!or res ra!n . T$e -ud.e s$ould $a"e s a,ed $!s $and cons!der!n. $a $e 'o"!e &as ,e unco'ple ed and $ere(ore $ere &as no 2clear and presen dan.er.2 T$e sub+ec 'a er o( $e 'o"!e does no rela e o $e pr!"a e l!(e o( Ponce Enr!le. T$e !n rus!on !s no 'ore $an necessar, o 4eep $e (!l' a ru $(ul $!s or!cal accoun . 8e !s# a( er all# a publ!c (!.ure. T$e l!ne o( e0u!l!br!u' !n $e spec!(!c con e; o( $e !ns an case be &een (reedo' o( speec$ and o( e;press!on and $e r!.$ o( pr!"ac, 'a, be 'ar4ed ou !n er's o( a re0u!re'en $a $e proposed 'o !on p!c ure 'us be (a!rl, ru $(ul and $!s or!cal !n ! s presen a !on o( (ac s. T$ere 'us be no s$o&!n. o( a rec4less d!sre.ard o( ru $. No es* A,er sou.$ o produce a 'o"!e on $e ?-da, re"olu !on. Enr!le# &$o $ad pre"!ousl, been as4ed (or $e use o( $!s c$arac er !n $e 'o"!e and $ad re(used $e o((er# sued o en+o!n $e (!l'!n. because $e d!d no &an an, 'en !on o( $!s and $!s (a'!l,5s na'e. T$e S% l!( ed $e !n+unc !on !ssued b, $e lo&er cour on $e .round $a ! a'oun ed o pr!or res ra!n # &$!c$ !s no be er !( !'posed b, $e cour s $an !( !'posed b, ad'!n!s ra !"e bod!es or b, eccles!a !cal o((!c!als. In A,er# $e re(erence o Enr!le !s una"o!dable because $!s na'e !s par o( $!s or, and $!s canno be c$an.ed or al eredD $us $!s na'e can be used so lon. as onl, $!s publ!c l!(e !s d&elled onl,. )u !n La.un@ad# al $ou.$ Mo!ses

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
Pad!lla &as also a publ!c (!.ure# $e 'o"!e deal $ &! $ bo $ $e publ!c and pr!"a e l!"es o( Mo!ses Pad!lla. d. Freedo' o( e;press!on and ad'!n!s ra !on o( +us !ce /con e'p o( cour 1 In re Ra'on Tul(o# AM NO. AE-?-9F?F-E# Apr!l 9<. 9AAE Iald!"ar ". Sand!.anba,an# 9<E S%RA 9 /9ABA1 %abansa. ". Fernande@# 9E7 P$!l 9F7 /9AF<1 A con e'p !'posed b, $e cour on $e par , &$o sen a le er o $e Pres!den !al Ac !on %o''! ee co'pla!n!n. abou $e dela, !n $e d!spos! !on o( $e a.rar!an case# &as l!( ed b, $e S%. I $eld $a al $ou.$ suc$ a le er s$ould $a"e been sen o $e S% and no $e PA%# ! &as ne"er $eless a "al!d e;erc!se o( speec$ &$!c$ d!d no s!.n!(!can l, des ro,# $e orderl, ad'!n!s ra !on o( +us !ce. People ". Alarcon# 6E P$!l 76F /9A>A1 A person can be $eld l!able (or 'a4!n. co''en s on a pend!n. case /sub ,udice1 &$!c$ $a"e $e endenc, o !'pa!r or obs ruc $e orderl, ad'!n!s ra !on o( +us !s !ce. )u !( $e case !s no pend!n.# suc$ co''en !s a "al!d e;erc!se o( $e (reedo' o( e;press!on. . S).&oli! EC#r ssio$BB Th Dl%gB&+r$i$g !%s *la( b!rnin( $hen done to e,press dissent is prote"ted spee"hF* Responden -o$nson par !c!pa ed !n a pol! !cal de'ons ra !on &$ere $e burned an A'er!can (la. &$!le pro es ers c$an ed. No one &as p$,s!call, !n+ured or $rea ened &! $ !n+ur,# al $ou.$ se"eral &! nesses &ere ser!ousl, o((ended b, $e (la. burn!n.. -o$nson &as con"!c ed o( desecra !on o( a "enera ed ob+ec !n "!ola !on o( a Te;as s a u e &$!c$ /91 pro$!b! ed $e desecra !on o(# a'on. o $er $!n.s# a s a e or na !onal (la.# and /71 de(!ned desecra !on as $e p$,s!cal '!s rea 'en o( suc$ ob+ec s !n a &a, &$!c$ $e ac or 4no&s &!ll ser!ousl, o((end one or 'ore persons l!4el, o obser"e or d!sco"er $e ac . A s a e cour o( appeals a((!r'ed. T$e %our o( %r!'!nal Appeals o( Te;as re"ersed# $old!n. $a $e desecra !on s a u e as appl!ed "!ola ed $e de(endan 5s r!.$ o (reedo' o( speec$ under $e Federal %ons ! u !on5s F!rs A'end'en # because $e s a u e /91 &as oo broad (or F!rs A'end'en purposes as ! rela ed o breac$es o( $e peace# and /71 &as no ade0ua el, suppor ed b, $e s a e5s purpor ed !n eres !n preser"!n. a s,'bol o( un! ,. ISS:E* 3$e $er uncons ! u !onal $e (la. desecra !on saue !s

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


o re al!a !on and $ereb, cause a breac$ o( $e peaceD and />1 $e s a e5s asser ed !n eres !n preser"!n. $e (la. as a s,'bol o( na !on$ood and na !onal un! , does no +us !(, $e con"!c !on# s!nce /a1 $e a e'p ed res r!c !on on e;press!on !s con en -based# and $us sub+ec o $e 'os e;ac !n. scru !n,# .!"en $a $e (la. desecra !on s a u e !s a!'ed no a pro ec !n. $e p$,s!cal !n e.r! , o( $e (la. !n all c!rcu's ances# bu onl, a.a!ns !'pa!r'en s $a &ould cause ser!ous o((enses o o $ers and !s a!'ed a pro ec !n. onloo4ers (ro' be!n. o((ended b, $e !deas e;pressed b, $e pro$!b! ed ac !"! ,# and /b1 al $ou.$ $e s a e $as a le.! !'a e !n eres !n encoura.!n. proper rea 'en o( $e (la.# ! 'a, no (os er ! s o&n "!e& o( $e (la. b, pro$!b! !n. e;press!"e conduc rela !n. o ! and b, cr!'!nall, pun!s$!n. a person (or burn!n. $e (la. as a 'eans o( pol! !cal pro es . f. Mo(i s C $sorshi# 3$!le pr!or res ra!n !s $e .eneral rule# censors$!p !n $e 'o"!es !s olera ed because b, $e na ure o( $e 'ed!u'# ! $as a .rea er !'pac on $e aud!ence and produces !ns an reac !on (or $e !deas ! presen s# unl!4e ne&spapers &$!c$ are read b, people separa ed b, &alls. Gon@ales ". Ca !.ba4# 9>< S%RA >F6 /9ABF1 F* Pe ! !oner &as $e producer o( $e 'o"!e Cap! sa Pa al!' &$!c$ $e )oard o( Re"!e& (or Mo !on P!c ures and Tele"!s!ons allo&ed on cond! !on $a cer a!n dele !ons &ere 'ade and $a ! &as s$o&n on adul s onl,. T$e pe ! !oner brou.$ an ac !on# cla!'!n. "!ola !on o( $e!r (reedo' o( e;press!on. 8ELD* Mo !on p!c ures are !'por an bo $ as a 'e $od (or $e co''un!ca !on o( !deas and $e e;press!on o( $e ar !s !c !'pulse. T$e po&er o( $e )oard !s l!'! ed o $e class!(!ca !on o( (!l's. For (reedo' o( e;press!on !s $e rule and res r!c !ons $e e;cep !on. T$e po&er o !'pose pr!or res ra!n !s no o be presu'ed# ra $er $e presu'p !on !s a.a!ns ! s "al!d! ,. %ensors$!p !s allo&able onl, under $e cleares proo( o( a clear and presen dan.er o( a subs an !"e e"!l o publ!c sa(e ,# publ!c 'orals# publ!c $eal $ or an, o $er le.! !'a e publ!c !n eres . T$e )oard co''! ed an abuse o( d!scre !on !n sub+ec !n. pe ! !oner o d!((!cul , and ra"a!l be(ore $e 'o"!e &as class!(!ed as 2For adul s onl,2 &! $ou dele !on. 8o&e"er $ere !s no enou.$ "o es o cons!der $e abuse o( d!scre !on .ra"e as ! e;pla!ned $a $ere &ere reasons (or ! s ac !on because o( $e scenes s$o&!n. &o'en ero !call, danc!n. na4ed and 4!ss!n. and caress!n. eac$ o $er l!4e lesb!ans. 88. No es* T$e 'o"!e !n"ol"ed !n $!s case &as 2Cap! sa Pa al!'2 &$!c$ $e censors &an ed o cu !n so'e par and o label 2For Adul s2. T$e S% rules $a 'o"!es are &! $!n $e cons ! u !onal pro ec !on o( (reedo' o( e;press!on# so $a censors$!p !s presu'ed o be "al!d as cons ! u !n. pr!or res ra!n . T$e onl, case &$e $e )oard o( %ensors can order a dele !on !s &$en $ere !s a clear and presen dan.er o( a subs an !"e e"!l a.a!ns na !onal secur! , or publ!c 'orals or o $er publ!c !n eres . In all o $er cases# $e )oard can onl, class!(,. )u a d!((eren s andard 'us be (ollo&ed !n ele"!s!on because o( $e per"as!"e and !n rus!"e !n(luence o( $e 'ed!u' on people &$o &a c$ ! s pro.ra's &! $ou $a"!n. o pa, an, $!n.. On $e !ssue o( obscen! ,# $e S% $eld $a se; alon. !s no necessar!l, obscen! ,# $e es be!n. &$e $er# us!n.

8ELD* YES. Dec!s!on A((!r'ed. -o$nson5s con"!c !on &as !ncons!s en &! $ $e F!rs A'end'en under $e par !cular c!rcu's ances because /91 -o$nson5s conduc &as su((!c!en l, !'bued &! $ ele'en s o( co''un!ca !on o !'pl!ca e $e F!rs A'end'en # .!"en $a $!s (la. burn!n. &as $e cul'!na !on o( a pol! !cal de'ons ra !on and $a $e s a e conceded $a $e pro es er5s conduc &as e;press!"eD /71 $e s a e5s !n eres !n pre"en !n. breac$es o( $e peace &as no !'pl!ca ed on $e record !n $!s case# s!nce /a1 no d!s urbance o( $e peace ac uall, occurred or $rea ened o occur because o( $e (la. burn!n.# /b1 ! canno be presu'ed $a an aud!ence &$!c$ a4es ser!ous o((ense a a par !cular e;press!on !s necessar!l, l!4el, o d!s urb $e peace# and /c1 $e (la. burn!n. does no (all &! $!n $e s'all class o( 2(!.$ !n. &ords2 $a are l!4el, o pro"o4e $e a"era.e person

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
con e'porar, co''un! , s andards# $e do'!nan appeal us o $e prur!en !n eres . /M!ller ". %al!(orn!a1. T$us on $!s score# ! (ound abuse o( d!scre !on o( $e par o( $e )oard (or sub+ec !n. $e producer o d!((!cul , and (or en er a!n!n. a narro& "!e& o( obscen! ,# bu ! lac4ed $e "o es o rules $a $e abuse &as .ra"e. T sts of o&s! $it)F /91 3$e $er $e a"era.e person# appl,!n. con e'porar, co''un! , s andards# &ould (!nd $a $e &or4# a4en as a &$ole# appeals o $e prur!en !n eres . /71 3$e $er $e &or4 dep!c s or descr!bes# !n a pa en l, o((ens!"e &a,# se;ual conduc spec!(!call, de(!ned b, $e appl!cable la&. />1 3$e $er $e &or4# a4en as a &$ole# lac4s ser!ous l! erar,# ar !s !c# pol! !cal or sc!en !(!c "alue. /M!ller ". %al!(orn!a# >< L. Ed. 7d ?9A.1 g. R%'io Bro%'!%st In Eas ern )roadcas !n. %orp. ". Dans# 9>< S%RA 6?<# $e S% $eld $a rad!o broadcas also en+o,s $e pro ec !on o( $e (reedo' o( e;press!on. I( closed do&n# $e o&ners en+o, $e r!.$ s o due process accord!n. o $e s andards se !n An. T!ba, ". %IR. )u rad!o deser"es .rea er re.ula !on $an ne&spapers because ! could !n"ade $e pr!"ac, o( e"er,one (or no (ee# and ! !s suc$ $a one !s l!4el, o l!s en o &$a !s be!n. sa!d. Eas ern )roadcas !n. %orp. /DYRE1 V. Dans# 9>< S%RA 6?< /9ABF1 F* T$e pe ! !oners (!led $!s ac !on o co'pel responden .o"ern'en o((!c!als o allo& $e reopen!n. o( Rad!o S a !on DYRE a( er ! $ad been closed (or alle.edl, $a"!n. been used o !nc! e $e people o sed! !on. T$e pe ! !oner con ended $a ! &as den!ed due process because no $ear!n. &as $eld and no proo( &as sub'! ed o es abl!s$ a (ac ual bas!s (or $e closure. 8o&e"er# be(ore $e %our could pro'ul.a e ! s dec!s!on $e pe ! !oner (!led a 'o !on o &! $dra& ! s ac !on on $e .round $a ! $ad sold $e rad!o s a !on o Manuel Pas rana and $a $e Na !onal Teleco''un!ca !ons %o''!ss!on $ad e;pressed ! s &!ll!n.ness o .ran $e re0u!s! e l!cense. 8ELD* T$e case $as been 'oo and acade'!c. 8o&e"er# (or $e .u!dance o( $e !n(er!or cour s and ad'!n!s ra !"e bod!es# $e (ollo&!n. .u!del!nes 'us be obser"ed* 91 T$e card!nal pr!'ar, re0u!re'en s !n ad'!n!s ra !"e proceed!n.s as la!d do&n !n An. T!ba, ". %IR s$ould be (ollo&ed be(ore a broadcas s a !on 'a, be closedD 71 All (or's o( co''un!ca !on are en ! led o $e broad pro ec !on o( $e (reedo' o( e;press!on clause. Necessar!l,# $e (reedo' o( ele"!s!on and rad!o broadcas !n. !s so'e&$a lesser !n scope $an $e (reedo' accorded o ne&spapers and pr!n 'ed!a. T$!s l!'! a !on der!"es (ro' $e (ac $e broadcas 'ed!a $a"e a un!0uel, per"as!"e presence !n $e l!"es o( all F!l!p!nosD >1 T$e .o"ern'en $as a r!.$ o be pro ec ed a.a!ns broadcas s &$!c$ !nc! e l!s eners o "!olen l, o"er $ro& ! D and ?1 )roadcas s a !ons deser"e $e spec!al pro ec !on .!"en o all (or's o( 'ed!a b, $e due process and (reedo' o( e;press!on clauses o( $e %ons ! u !on. h. Dr 'o. of I$for.%tio$ Art. III, S !. 6. Th right of th # o#l to i$for.%tio$ o$ .%tt rs of #+&li! !o$! r$ sh%ll & r !og$i: '. A!! ss to offi!i%l r !or's, %$' to 'o!+. $ts %$' #%# rs # rt%i$i$g to, offi!i%l %!ts, tr%$s%!tio$s, or ' !isio$s, %s * ll %s to go( r$. $t r s %r!h '%t% +s ' %s

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


&%sis for #oli!) ' ( lo#. $t, sh%ll & %ffor' ' th !iti: $, s+&< !t to s+!h li.it%tio$s %s .%) & #ro(i' ' &) l%*. )aldo@a ". D!'aano# <9 S%RA 9? /9A<61 Access o( o((!c!al records / $e doc4e boo41 (or an, la&(ul purpose / o loo4 !n o $e cr!'!nal cases (or a repor on $e peace and order s! ua !on o( $e 'un!c!pal! ,1 !s .uaran eed. )u ! !s sub+ec o reasonable cond! !ons b, $e cus od!an o( $e records. Garc!a ". )OI# 9<< S%RA ><? /9ABA1 D. %on en -Neu ral Res r!c !ons #7brien test? A .o"ern'en re.ula !on !s su((!c!en l, +us !(!ed !( ! !s &! $!n $e cons ! u !onal po&er o( $e .o"ern'en D !( ! (ur $ers an !'por an or subs an !al .o"ern'en al !n eres D !( $e .o"ern'en al !n eres !s unrela ed o $e suppress!on o( (ree e;press!onD and !( $e !nc!den al res r!c !on on alle.ed (reedo' o( e;press!on !s no .rea er $an !s essen !al o $e (ur $erance o( $a !n eres . Q:S ". O5br!en# >A9 :S >6< /9A6B1# adop ed !n Ad!on. ". %OMELE%# 7E< S%RA <97 /9AA71R ". R g+l%tio$ of #oliti!%l !%.#%ig$ Na !onal Press %lub ". %OMELE%# 7E< S%RA 9 /9AA71 F* Pe ! !oners $ere!n &ere represen a !"es o( 'ass 'ed!a &$!c$ &ere pre"en ed (ro' sell!n. and dona !n. space or a!r !'e (or pol! !cal ad"er !se'en s under RA 66?6. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no RA 66?6 cons ! u es a "!ola !on o( $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ o (reedo' o( e;press!on. R:LING* NO. T$e %o'elec $as been e;pressl, au $or!@ed b, $e %ons ! u !on o super"!se or re.ula e $e en+o,'en or u !l!@a !on o( $e (ranc$!ses or per'! s (or $e opera !on ( 'ed!a o( co''un!ca !on and !n(or'a !on. T$e (unda'en al purposes o( suc$ po&er are o ensure 2e0ual oppor un! ,# !'e# and space# and $e r!.$ o repl,#2 as &ell as un!(or' and reasonable ra es o( c$ar.es (or $e use o( suc$ 'ed!a (ac!l! !es# !n connec !on &! $ 2publ!c !n(or'a !on ca'pa!.ns and (oru's a'on. cand!da es.2 O( course# $e la& l!'! s $e r!.$ o( (ree speec$ and o( access o 'ass 'ed!a o( $e cand!da es $e'sel"es. T$e l!'! a !on $o&e"er# bears a clear and reasonable connec !on &! $ $e ob+ec !"e se ou !n $e %ons ! u !on. For ! !s prec!sel, !n $e unl!'! ed purc$ase o( pr!n space and rad!o and ele"!s!on !'e $a $e resources o( $e (!nanc!all, a((luen cand!da es are l!4el, o 'a4e a cruc!al d!((erence. Ad!on. ". %OMELE%# 7E< S%RA <97 /9AA71 F* Pe ! oner# Ad!on.# a 9AA7 sena or!al cand!da e# assa!ls %o'elec Resolu !on No. 7>?< !nso(ar as ! pro$!b! s $e pos !n. o( decals and s !c4ers on 'ob!le places# publ!c or pr!"a e# and l!'! s $e!r loca !on or publ!ca !on o au $or!@ed pos !n. areas. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e resolu !on !s cons ! u !onal. R:LING* NO. T$e pro$!b! !on undul, !n(r!n.es on $e c! !@en5s (unda'en al r!.$ o( (ree speec$. T$ere !s no publ!c !n eres subs an !al enou.$ o &arran $e 4!nd o( res r!c !on !n"ol"ed !n $!s case. T$e pos !n. o( decals a'd s !c4ers !n 'ob!le places does no endan.er an, subs an !al .o"ern'en or publ!c !n eres . :nder $e clear and presen dan.er rule# no

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
onl, 'us $e dan.er be pa en l, clear and press!n.l, presen bu $e e"!l sou.$ o be a"o!ded# 'us be so subs an !"e as o +us !(, a cla'p o"er one5s 'ou $ or a &r! !n. !ns ru'en o be s !lled. S!.n!(!can l,# $e (reedo' o( e;press!on cur a!led b, $e pro$!b! !on !s no so 'uc$ $a o( $e cand!da e or $e pol! !cal par ,. T$e re.ula !on s r!4es a $e (reedoo' o( an !nd!"!dual o e;press $!s pre(erence and# b, d!spla,!n. ! on $!s car# o con"!nce o $ers o a.ree &! $ $!'. A s !c4er 'a, be (urn!s$ed b, a cand!da e bu once $e car o&ner a.rees o $a"e ! placed on $!s pr!"a e "e$!c$le# $e e;press!on beco'es a s a e'en b, $e o&ner# pr!'ar!l, $!s o&n and no o( an,bod, else. More"er# T$e res r!c !on !s so broad $a ! enco'passes e"en $e c! !@en5s pr!"a e proper ,# &$!c$ !n $!s case !s a pr!"a el, o&ned "e$!cle. In conse0uence o( $!s pro$!b! !on# ano $er card!nal r!.$ .uaran eed under $e %ons ! u !on !s "!ola ed &$!c$ !s $a no person s$all be depr!"ed o( $!s proper , &! $ou due proocess o( la&. >. Dr 'o. of Ass .&l) Publ!c Asse'bl, Ac o( 9ABF /)a as )l.. FBE1 A per'! o $old a rall, 'us be (!led &! $ $e O((!ce o( $e Ma,or a leas # (!"e &or4!n. da,s be(ore $e da, o( $e rall,. )u no per'! (ro' $e 'a,or !s re0u!red !n case $e rall, !s .o!n. o be $eld !n /!1 (reedo' par4s# /!!1 !ns!de a pr!"a e proper , /pro"!de &! $ consen o( $e o&ner1# and /!!!1 ca'puses o( s a e un!"ers! !es /&$!c$ are le( o un!"ers! , au $or! !es1 T$e appl!ca !on 'us be !n &r! !n. and 'us !nclude* /91 na'es o( $e or.an!@ers and leaders# /71 da e and !'e# place and s ree # />1 s!@e /?1'anner o( $e use o( $e s ree # /F1 sound s,s e' o be used /61purpose. I 'us also $a"e a s a e'en o( $e du !es o( $e rall,!s s. T$e &r! en appl!ca !on !s (!led &! $ $e O((!ce o( $e Ma,or. Ac4no&led.e'e !s .!"en o( ! s rece!p . I( $e Ma,or re(uses o accep $e appl!ca !on# $en ! !s enou.$ (or (!l!n. purposes !( a cop, !s pos ed !n $e pre'!ses. T$e Ma,or $as 7 &or4!n. da,s o ac on $e appl!ca !on. I( $e does no ac # ! !s dee'ed .ran ed. )u !( $e $!n4s $a $e rall, crea es a 2clear and presen dan.er2 o publ!c peace# order# $eal $# e c.# and $e $as proo( o( $!s# $e s$ould no den, $e appl!ca !on r!.$ a&a,. 8e s$ould $old a $ear!n. dur!n. &$!c$ $e appl!can can be $eard. I( a( er $ear!n. $e !s s !ll no sa !s(!ed $a no dan.er e;!s s# $en $e can den, $e appl!ca !on. T$e appl!can can $en .o o an, cour o $er $an $e Supre'e %our (or $e re"!e& o( $e dec!s!on o( den!al o( $e 'a,or. T$e cour s $a"e 7? $ours o ac on $e pe ! !on. I( $e +ud.'en !s a re"ersal o( $e den!al# or !n an, case !( $e appl!can !s sa !s(!ed &! $ $e dec!s!on# $e +ud.'en beco'es (!nal and e;ecu or, !''ed!a el,# and no appeal can be a4en b, $e local au $or! !es an,'ore. )u !( $e dec!s!on !s no sa !s(ac or, o $e appl!can # $en $e $as ?B $ours (ro' rece!p o appeal o $e S%. Dur!n. $e rall,# $e pol!ce 'us be l!'! ed o 'a!n a!n!n. peace and order and so 'us s a, a&a, b, 9EE 'e ers (ro' $e rall,!s s. T$e, 'us be !n (ull un!(or'# &! $ $e!r na'es "!s!bl, &r! en. T$e, can carr, no (!rear' e;cep a n!.$s !c4# bu $e, are allo&ed pro ec !"e de"!ces.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


I( $e, an !c!pa e rouble# $e pol!ce 'us call $e a en !on o( $e leader o( $e rall,!s s. 3$en rouble ac uall, erup s# $e pol!ce 'us no d!sperse $e cro&d r!.$ a&a, bu (!rs .!"e a &arn!n.. I( "!olence pers!s s# $e, 'us .!"e a second &arn!n.. I( s !ll "!olence con !nues# onl, $en can $e, (!.$ bac4. I( a rall, does no $a"e a per'! # $e pol!ce can d!sperse $e cro&d# bu $e, canno use "!olence. Penal , !s !'posed onl, on $e leaders and or.an!@ers. A'on. $e du !es o( $e rall,!s s are* /a1 o !n(or' $e 'e'bers o( $e!r du , under $e la&# /b1 o pol!ce $e!r o&n ran4# and /c1 o coopera e &! $ local au $or! !es !n 'a!n a!n!n. peace and order. No es* T$e (reedo' o use publ!c places o peaceabl, asse'ble !s bes e;pressed $us* 23$ere"er $e ! le or s ee s and par4s 'a, res # $e, $a"e !''e'or!all, been $eld !n rus (or $e use o( $e publ!c and# !'e ou o( !'e $a"e been used (or purposes o( asse'bl,# co''un!ca !n. $ou.$ be &ee c! !@ens# and d!scuss!n. publ!c 0ues !ons.2 /-us !ce Rober s. 8a.ue ". %IO1 Al $ou.$ under a 2per'! s,s e'2# be(ore one can use a publ!c place# one 'us (!rs ob a!n pr!or per'! (ro' $e proper au $or! !es# $e pr!nc!ple $as al&a,s been $a one $as $e r!.$ o a per'! # sub+ec onl, o reasonable re.ula !on. T$e "al!d! , o( $e per'! s,s e' $as been up$eld b, $e %our # pro"!ded# /a1 ! !s concered onl, &! $ $e !'e# place and 'anner o( asse'bl, ad /b1 ! does no "es on $e l!cens!n. au $or! , un(e ered d!scre !on !n c$oos!n. $e .roups &$!c$ could use $e publ!c place and d!scr!'!na e o $ers. As $eld b, $e S% !n Pr!'!c!as "s Fu.oso# BE P$!l. <9# $e %! , Ord!nance o( Man!la .!"!n. au $or! , o $e Ma,or o !ssue per'! s (or parades s$ould be cons rued o be l!'! ed o $e !'e# place# and 'anner o( $e parades soc!all, o secure publ!c order# con"en!ence and &el(are. T$us# den,!n. $e Nac!onal!s a Par , a per'! o $old a rall, a $e Pla@a M!randa on $e .round $a pass!ons ra!sed b, $e recen na !onal elec !on &ere s !ll $!.$ and a rall, o pro es elec !on ano'al!es could onl, e;acerba e $e 'a er# &as o"er urned b, $e cour . Pr!'!c!as "s Fu.oso# BE P$!l. <9 F* T$!s !s an ac !on (or 'anda'us !ns ! u ed b, pe ! !oner Pr!'!c!as# ca'pa!.n 'ana.er o( $e %oalesced M!nor! , Par !es# o co'pel Ma,or Fu.oso o( $e %! , o( Man!la o !ssue a per'! (or $e $old!n. o( a peace(ul publ!c 'ee !n. a Pla@a M!randa (or $e purpose o( pe ! !on!n. $e .o"ern'en (or redress o( .r!e"ances. T$e Ma,or den!ed $e appl!ca !on on $e .round $a pass!ons s !ll run $!.$ due o $e recen elec !on# and a rall, o pro es elec !on ano'al!es '!.$ $rea en breac$es o( $e peace and d!srup !on o( publ!c order. ISS:E* 3=n $e Ma,or can re(use o .ran $e per'! . R:LING* NO. T$e pol!ce po&er .ran ed o $e Ma,or under $e Ord!nance enac ed b, $e Mun!c!pal )oard pursuan o ! s au $or! , under $e Re"!sed Ad'!n!s ra !"e %ode &$!c$ per a!ns o $e use o( s ree s and publ!c places# can be cons rued onl, o 'ean $e po&er o re.ula e# &$!c$ 'eans and !ncludes $e po&er o con rol# .o"ern# and o res ra!n bu canno be cons rued as s,non,'ous &! $ 2suppress2 or 2pro$!b! .2

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e %our 0uo ed &! $ appro"al $e dec!s!on !n $e A'er!can case %o; ". S a e o( Ne& 8a'ps$!re# 2 a s a u e re0u!r!n. persons us!n. publ!c s ree s (or a parade or process!on o procure a spec!al l!cense $ere(or (ro' $e local au $or! !es !s no an uncons ! u !onal abr!d.e'en o( $e r!.$ s o( asse'bl, or o( (reedo' o( speec$ and press# &$ere# as $e s a u e !s cons rued b, $e s a e cour s# $e l!cens!n. au $or! !es are s r!c l, l!'! ed# !n $e !ssuance o( l!censes# o a cons!dera !on o( $e !'e# place# and 'anner o( $e parade or process!on# &! $ a "!e& o conser"!n. $e publ!c con"en!ence and o( a((ord!n. an oppor un! , o pro"!de proper pol!c!n.# and are no !n"es ed &! $ arb! rar, d!scre !on o !ssue or re(use l!cense...2 )u under $e sa'e ord!nance# $e S%# !n Na"arro ". V!lle.as# >9 S%RA <>E /9A<E1# up$eld $e 'a,or5s re(usal o .ran per'! o a .roup dur!n. &ee4da,s# on a (!nd!n. $a e"er, !'e $ere &as an announced rall,# s ores closed and bus!ness &as .ra"el, a((ec ed because o( "!olen !nc!den s. I (ound $e pol!c, o( $e 'a,or o allo& rall!es onl, dur!n. &ee4ends o be reasonable. Na"arro ". V!lle.as# >9 S%RA <>E /9A<E1 F* T$e pe ! !oner# ac !n. !n be$al( o( $e Mo"e'en (or a De'ocra !c P$!l!pp!nes /MDP1# an assoc!a !on o( s uden s# &or4ers and peasan s# appl!ed (or a per'! (ro' $e Ma,or o( Man!la o $old a rall, a Pla@a M!randa. Responden Ma,or den!ed $e appl!ca !on o $old $e rall, on $e da e and !'e spec!(!ed b, pe ! !oners !n "!e& o( $e e"en s $a ransp!red dur!n. $e las de'ons ra !on $eld b, $e' &$!c$ ended !n $e des ruc !on o( publ!c and pr!"a e proper ,# loss o( a (e& l!"es# !n+ur!es o a score o( o $er persons and $e clos!n. do&n o( sc$ools# o((!ces and 'an, s ores. T$e Ma,or su..es ed $a $e MDP u !l!@e $e Sun4en Gardens near In ra'uros (or ! s rall, and $a $e rall, be $eld dur!n. &ee4ends and earl!er dur!n. $e da, so $a ! 'a, end be(ore dar4. Pe ! !oner c$allen.ed $e ac !on o( $e Ma,or on $e .round $a $e sa'e cons ! u es a "!ola !on o( $e!r r!.$ o (reedo' o( asse'bl,. Pe ! !oner con ended $a $e r!.$ o( $e people o peace(ul asse'bl, and o pe ! !on $e .o"ern'en (or redress o( .r!e"ances 'a, be e;erc!sed &! $ou $e pr!or necess! , o( secur!n. a per'! (ro' $e .o"ern'en and $a suc$ r!.$ canno be (ull, en+o,ed &! $ou $e correspond!n. r!.$ o use publ!c places (or $a purpose. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e Ma,orUs den!al o !ssue a per'! a'oun ed o a "!ola !on o( pe ! !onerUs r!.$ o (reedo' o( asse'bl,. 8ELD* NO. T$e responden Ma,or $as no den!ed nor absolu el, re(used $e per'! sou.$ b, pe ! !oner. 8e $as e;pressed &!ll!n.ness o .ran $e per'! (or $e peace(ul asse'bl, dur!n. cer a!n da,s and !'e# and a a place &$en $e, &ould no d!srup $e nor'al ac !"! !es o( $e co''un! ,. T$e responden 'a,or possesses reasonable d!scre !on o de er'!ne or spec!(, $e s ree s or publ!c places o be used (or $e asse'bl, !n order o secure con"en!en use $ereo( b, o $ers and pro"!de ade0ua e and proper pol!c!n. o '!n!'!@e $e r!s4s o( d!sorder and 'a!n a!n publ!c sa(e , and order. Pe ! !oner $as (a!led o s$o& a clear spec!(!c le.al du , on $e par o( responden Ma,or o .ran $e!r appl!ca !on (or a per'! uncond! !onall,. E;per!ence !n connec !on &! $ presen asse'bl!es and de'ons ra !ons $a"e s$o&n $a $e, pose a clear and !''!nen dan.er o( publ!c d!sorders# breac$es o( $e peace# cr!'!nal ac s# and e"en bloods$ed as an a( er'a $ o( suc$ asse'bl!es# &$!c$# pe ! !oner $as 'an!(es ed# ! $as no 'eans o( pre"en !n.. Ch%ro.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

In I.nac!o ". Ela# AA P$!l. >?6 /9AF61# $e 'a+or! , up$eld $e 'a,or5s den!al o( per'! o 'e'bers o( $e -e$o"a$5s 3! nesses sec (or $e use o( a 4los4 &! $!n $e o&n pla@a !n order o a"o!d an, un o&ard !nc!den &! $ 'e'bers o( $e Ro'an %a $ol!c %$urc$# &$ose ene s are opposed o $ose o( $e pe ! !oners# and &$ose c$urc$ !s "er, near $e 4los4.

I.nac!o ". Ela# AA P$!l. >?6 /9AF61 F* T$e Ma,or den!ed a per'! o $e 'e'bers o( $e -e$o"a$5s 3! nesses o use $e 4!os4 !n $e o&n pla@a (or $e purpose o( $old!n. a publ!c lec ure on $e .round $a $e per'! # !( .ran ed# 'a, .!"e r!se o d!s urbance o( $e rel!.!ous cere'on!es be!n. per(or'ed b, $e %a $ol!c %$urc$ &$!c$ &as sa!d o be &! $!n $ear!n. d!s ance (ro' $e 4!os4 and &$!c$ '!.$ lead o an, un o&ard !nc!den &! $ 'e'bers o( $e r!"al deno'!na !on. ISS:E* 3=N $e den!al !s "al!d. In -.).L. Re,es ". )a.a s!n.# 97F S%RA FF> /9AB>1# $e S% (ound no bas!s (or $e den!al o( per'! o $e An !)ases %oal! !on o $old a 'arc$ (ro' Lune a o $e s ree (ron !n. $e :.S. E'bass,. I a((!r'ed $e .eneral rule $a $e use o( s ree s !s (ree o all. I (ound $e (ear en er a!ned b, c! , au $or! !es $a $e rall,!s s '!.$ be a.!ra ed b, pro"oca eurs o be un(ounded# .!"en $e repor o( $e NPD $a ade0ua e secur! , 'easures &ere pro"!ded b, $e pol!ce. T$e %our d!d no rule on $e "al!d! , o( $e ord!nance o( Man!la pro$!b! !n. an, rall, &! $!n 7EE 'e ers (ro' an, (ore!.n e'bass, as a 'eans o( co'pl,!n. &! $ $e Gene"a %on"en !on $a re0u!res $e $os coun r, o pro ec $e pre'!ses and personnel o( $e e'bass,. T$en ! .a"e .u!del!nes (or $e !ssuance o( per'! s /no& !n )P ABE9 /!1 an, .roup &$!c$ appl!es 'us do so &! $!n a su((!c!en !'e so $e au $or! , can $a"e !'e o ac * /!!1 !( a d!sa.ree'en ar!ses o"er a den!al o( a per'! # $e appl!can can 0ues !on $e den!al !n $e lo&er cour # &$!c$ can r, 0ues !ons o( (ac and la&# and /!!!1 appeal can be 'ade o $e S% on an e;ped! ed procedure. -.).L. Re,es ". )a.a s!n.# 97F S%RA FF> /9AB>1 F* Re !red -us !ce -)L Re,es# on be$al( o( $e An !-)ases %oal! !on# sou.$ a per'! (ro' $e %! , o( Man!la o $old a peace(ul 'arc$ and rall, on Oc . 76# 9AB> s ar !n. 7 p.'. (ro' Lune a o $e .a es o( $e :S E'bass,. 8e (!led $!s pe ! !on because as o( Oc . 7E# $ere &as ,e no ac !on on $!s re0ues o $old a rall,. 8ELD* Free speec$# l!4e (ree press# 'a, be !den !(!ed &! $ $e l!ber , o d!scuss publ!cl, and ru $(ull, an, 'a er o( publ!c concern &! $ou censors$!p or pun!s$'en . T$ere !s o be no pre"!ous re ra!n &$e $er !n $e (or' o( l!bel su! s# prosecu !on (or da'a.es# or con e'p proceed!n.s unless $ere !s a 2clear and presen dan.er o( a subs an !"e e"!l $a $e S a e $as a r!.$ o pre"en .2 T$ere can be no le.al ob+ec !on# absen $e e;!s ence o( a clear and presen dan.er o( a subs an !"e e"!l o $e $old!n. o( a peace(ul rall, a Lune a. Ne! $er can $ere be ob+ec !on o $e use o( $e s ree s up o .a es o( $e :S E'bass,. A s a u e re0u!r!n. persons o secure a spec!al l!cense o use publ!c s ree s (or a process!on !s no uncons ! u !onal. T$e l!cens!n. o( au $or! !es are s r!c l, l!'! ed o $e cons!dera !on o( $e !'e# place and 'anner and

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
$e au $or! !es are no !n"es ed &! $ arb! rar, d!scre !on o !ssue or re(use a per'! . In Ger'an ". )aran.an# 9>F S%RA F9? /9ABF1# $e S% up$eld $e po&er o( $e c! , au $or! !es o close -P Laurel S ree (ron !n. Malacanan. (ro' all rall!es as a (or' o( 2area res r!c !on2# !n order o pro ec $e Pres!den and $!s (a'!l,# based on $e !nc!den !n $e earl, <Es &$en $e .a es o( $e palace &ere al'os s or'ed. T$e rall,!s s !n $!s case purpor ed o 'erel, &ors$!p a S . -ude5s. In case a rall, !s $eld !n a pr!"a e place# no per'! (ro' $e 'a,or !s re0u!red. 8o&e"er# $e consen o( $e o&ner o( $e place 'us be ac0u!red. Ger'an ". )aran.an >F S%RA F9? /9ABF1 F* On Oc . 7# 9AB? $e pe ! !oners &$o &ere bus!ness'en# s uden s and e'plo,ees# 'e on -P Laurel S ree !n Man!la (or $e os ens!ble purpose o( $ear!n. 'ass a $e S . -ude %$apel &$!c$ ad+o!ns $e MalacaMan. .rounds. T$e, &ore ,ello& T-s$!r s and# &! $ clenc$ed (!s s# 'arc$ed on $e s ree and s$ou ed an !-.o"ern'en !n"ec !"es. T$e, &ere s opped (ro' proceed!n. o $e c$apel b, $e Pres!den !al Secur! , %o''and. T$e, brou.$ an ac !on (or mandamus. 8ELD* T$e ,ello& T-s$!r s &orn b, so'e o( $e 'arc$ers# $e!r (!s s clenc$ed and c$an s o( an !-.o"ern'en !n"es !"es suppor $e .o"ern'en 5s cla!' $a $e pe ! !oners purpose &as no reall, o &ors$!p a $e c$apel bu o $old an an !.o"ern'en de'ons ra !on close o $e res!dence o( $e Pres!den . T$e res r!c ed use o( -P Laurel S ree !s +us !(!ed. T$e need o secure $e sa(e , o( $eads o( s a es canno be o"ere'p$as!@ed. T$e $rea o $e!r l!"es !s cons an and (el $rou.$ou $e &orld. T$e pe ! !oners &ere no res ra!ned !n $e!r (reedo' o( rel!.!on bu onl, !n $e 'anner b, &$!c$ $e, $ad a e'p ed o ransla e $e sa'e !n o ac !on. In Malabanan ". Ra'en o# 97A S%RA >FA /9AB?1 and Arre@a ". GA:P# 9> S%RA A? /9ABF1# $e S% up$eld $e r!.$ o e;press!on o( s uden s &$o $eld a rall, !n a pr!"a e un!"ers! ,. )u s!nce $e, $eld ! be,ond $e !'e .ran ed !n a place o $er $an $e one allo&ed b, $e ad'!n!s ra !on# $e!r suspens!on &as condoned. Malabanan ". Ra'en o# 97A S%RA >FA /9AB?1 F* Pe ! !oners &ere o((!cers o( $e Supre'e S uden %ounc!l o( $e Gre.or!o Arane a :n!"ers! , Founda !on. T$e, &ere .ran ed a per'! o $old a 'ee !n. o pro es $e 'er.er o( &o un! s o( $e un!"ers! ,. On $e sc$eduled da e# $e s uden s con !nued $e!r 'ee !n. be,ond $e sc$eduled !'e and $eld ! !n a d!((eren place (ro' $a !nd!ca ed !n $e per'! . T$e, e;pressed !n a "e$e'en lan.ua.e $e!r oppos! !on o $e 'er.er and as a resul # classes and o((!ce &or4 &as d!s urbed. Pe ! !oners &ere placed under pre"en !"e suspens!on. On appeal# $e, &ere (ound .u!l o( $old!n. an !lle.al asse'bl, and oral de(a'a !on. T$e, &ere suspended (or one acade'!c ,ear. T$e, (!led a pe ! !on (or certiorari !n $e S%. 8ELD* T$e pe ! ! on 'a, be cons!dered 'oo and acade'!c cons!der!n. $a $e TRO !ssued b, $e S% allo&ed $e s uden s o enroll. )u $ere !s a need o pass s0uarel, on $e cons ! u !onal 0ues !on. Respec (or $e cons ! u !onal r!.$ s o( peaceable asse'bl, and (ree speec$ calls (or $e se !n. as!de o( $e order o( suspens!on. Suspend!n. $e' (or one ,ear !s ou o( propor !on cons!der!n. $a $e "!.orous presen a !on o( "!e&s &as e;pec ed. T$e e;c! e'en o( $e occas!on# $e propens! , o( spea4ers o e;a..era e and $e e;uberance o( $e ,ou $ s$ould be a4en !n o cons!dera !on.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


Arre@a ". GA:P# 9> S%RA A? /9ABF1 F* Pe ! !oners &ere o((!cers and 'e'bers o( $e S uden %ounc!l o( $e Gre.or!o Arane a :n!"ers! , Founda !on. T$e, &ere re(used enroll'en (or $a"!n. led a rall, on Sep . 7B# 9AB7. 8ELD* As $eld !n Malabanan ". Ra'en o* 2I( !n $e course o( suc$ de'ons ra !on# &! $ an en $us!as !c aud!ence .oad!n. $e' on# u erances# e; re'el, cr! !cal# a !'es e"en "! r!ol!c# &ere le loose# $a !s 0u! e unders andable. T$e, &ould be !ne((ec !"e !( dur!n. $e rall, $e, spea4 !n $e .uarded and +ud!c!ous lan.ua.e o( $e acade'e. A an, ra e# e"en a s,'pa $e !c aud!ence !s no d!sposed o accord (ull credence o $e!r (!er, e;$or a !ons. T$e, a4e !n o accoun $e e;c! e'en o( $e occas!on# $e propens! , o( spea4ers o e;a..era e# $e e;uberance o( ,ou $. ;;;2 T$e re(usal o( $e un!"ers! , o enroll $e s uden s !s a $!.$l, d!spropor !ona e penal ,. No es* No e $a &$!le $e per'! s,s e' !s no allo&ed !n $e case o( publ!ca !on# ! !s allo&ed !n $e case o( asse'bl,. In publ!ca !on# censors$!p !s presu'p !"el, uncons ! u !onal. T$ere !s "er, l! le poss!b!l! , or +us !(!ca !on (or $e re.ula !on o( ne&s. T$e re'ed, !n $!s case !s prosecu !on or subse0uen pun!s$'en . )u !n asse'bl, re.ula !on !s allo&ed because ! !s needed b, $e "er, na ure o( $e e;press!on# &$en people use s ree s# $e, 'a, depr!"e o $er .roups &$!c$ &an o use $e s ree s oo. So as lon. as onl, $e !nc!den s o( speec$ are re.ula ed# $e 'easure !s cons ! u !onall, accep able. Nes le P$!ls. Inc. ". Sanc$e@ 9F? S%RA F?9 /9AB<1 F* 3$!le $ese cases &ere pend!n. !n $e S%# $e labor un!ons !n"ol"ed !n ens!(!ed $e p!c4e s $e, $ad been conduc !n. !n (ron o( $e Padre Faura .a e o( $e %our and se up p!c4e 0uar ers# a !'es obs ruc !n. access o and e.ress (ro' $e %our 5s pre'!ses. 3$en re0u!red o s$o& cause &$, $e, s$ould no be $eld !n con e'p o( cour # $e!r la&,er apolo.!@ed and assured $a $e abo"e !nc!den &ould no be repea ed. 8ELD* T$e %our &!ll no $es! a e !n (u ure s!'!lar s! ua !ons o appl, $e (ull (orce o( $e la& and pun!s$ (or con e'p $ose &$o a e'p o pressure $e %our !n o ac !n. one &a, or $e o $er !n an, case pend!n. be(ore ! . Gr!e"ances 'us be "en !la ed !n $e proper c$annels# !.e. $rou.$ appropr!a e pe ! !ons or plead!n.s !n 4eep!n. &! $ $e respec due $e cour s as !'par !al ad'!n!s ra ors o( +us !ce. Moreo"er# 2par !es $a"e a cons ! u !onal r!.$ o $a"e $e causes r!ed (a!rl, !n cour b, an !'par !al r!bunal# un!n(luenced b, publ!ca !on or publ!c cla'or ;;;2 T$e ac s o( responden s are no onl, an a((ron o $e d!.n! , o( $!s %our bu e0uall, a "!ola !on o( $e abo"e-s a ed r!.$ o( $e ad"erse par !es and $e c! !@enr, a lar.e. >. Freedo' o( Assoc!a !on and $e r!.$ o s r!4e !n $e publ!c sec or Art. III, S !. 1. Th right of th # o#l , i$!l+'i$g thos .#lo) ' i$ th #+&li! %$' #ri(%t s !tors, to for. +$io$s, %sso!i%tio$s, or so!i ti s for #+r#os s $ot !o$tr%r) to l%* sh%ll $ot & %&ri'g '. T$e !nclus!on o( $e r!.$ o un!on!@e !n $!s ar !cle !s !ll-ad"!sed because &$!le $e r!.$ o un!on!@e !s an econo'!c and labor r!.$ # $e r!.$ o assoc!a !on !n .eneral !s a c!"!lpol! !cal r!.$ .

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
D!scussed else&$ere !s $e ar.u'en &$, publ!c e'plo,ees canno en.a.e !n collec !"e bar.a!n!n. and s r!4e. SSS E'plo,ees Assn "s %A# 9<F S%RA 6B6 /9ABA1 F* SSS (!led &= $e RT%-L% a co'pla!n (or da'a.es &= a pra,er (or a &r! o( prel !n+. a.a!ns pe ! !oners SSSEA# alle.!n. $a $e o((!cers and 'e'bers o( $e la er s a.ed an !lle.al s r!4e and barr!caded $e en rances o $e SSS bu!ld!n. pre"en !n. non-s r!4!n. e'plo,ees (ro' repor !n. o &or4 and SSS 'e'bers (ro' ransac !n. bus!ness &= SSS. T$e Publ!c Sec or Labor-Mana.e'en %ounc!l ordered $e s r!4ers o re urn o &or4 bu $e s r!4ers re(used o do so. T$e SSSEA &en on s r!4e bec. SSS (a!led o ac on $e un!on5s de'ands. Pe ! !oners (!led a 'o !on o d!s'!ss $e co'pla!n (or lac4 o( +ur!sd!c !on# &=c 'o !on &as den!ed. T$e res ra!n!n. order &=c &as pre"!ousl, !ssued &as con"er ed !n o an !n+unc !on a( er (!nd!n. $e s r!4e !lle.al. Pe ! !oners appealed $e case o $e %A. T$e la er $eld $a s!nce $e e'plo,ees o( SSS are .o" e'plo,ees# $e, are no allo&ed o s r!4e. 8ELD* E'plo,ees !n $e %!"!l Ser"!ce 'a, no resor o s r!4es# &al4ou s and o $er e'porar, &or4 s oppa.es# l!4e &or4ers !n $e pr!"a e sec or# !n order o pressure $e Go" . o accede o $e!r de'ands. As no& pro"!ded under Sec. ?# Rule III o( $e Rules and Re.ula !ons o Go"ern $e E;erc!se o( $e R!.$ o( Go" . EEs o Sel(-Or.an!@a !on &$!c$ oo4 e((ec a( er $e !n! !al d!spu e arose# $e er's and cond! !ons o( e'plo,'en !n $e Go" # !nclud!n. an, pol! !cal subd!"!s!on or !ns ru'en al! , $ereo( and .o" . o&ned and con rolled corpora !ons &! $ or!.!nal c$ar ers# are .o"erned b, la& and e'plo,ees $ere!n s$all no s r!4e (or $e purpose o( secur!n. c$an.es $ereo(. T$e s a e'en o( $e cour !n All!ance o( Go" 3or4ers ". M!n!s er o( Labor and E'plo,'en /97? S%RA 91 !s rele"an as ! (urn!s$es $e ra !onale (or d!s !n.u!s$!n. be . &or4ers !n $e pr!"a e sec or and .o" e'plo,ees &= re.ard o $e r!.$ o s r!4eH !ince the terms and conditions of govt. employment are fixed by law, govt. wor%ers cannot use the same weapons employed by wor%ers in the private sector to secure concessions from their employers. T$e pr!nc!ple be$!nd labor un!on!s' !n pr!"a e !ndus r, !s $a !ndus r!al peace canno be secured $rou.$ co'puls!on o( la&. Rela !ons be . pr!"a e e'plo,ers and $e!r e'plo,ees res on an essen !all, "olun ar, bas!s. Sub+ec o $e '!n!'u' re0u!re'en s o( &a.e la&s and o $er labor and &el(are le.!sla !on# $e er's and cond! !ons o( e'plo,'en !n $e un!on!@ed pr!"a e sec or are se led $rou.$ $e process o( collec !"e bar.a!n!n.. In .o" e'plo,'en # $o&e"er# ! !s $e le.!sla ure and# &$ere properl, .!"en dele.a ed po&er# $e ad'!n!s ra !"e $eads o( .o" &=c (!; $e er's and cond! !ons o( e'plo,'en . And $!s !s e((ec ed $rou.$ s a u es or ad'!n!s ra !"e c!rculars# rules# and re.ula !ons# no $rou.$ %)A5s E. A!%' .i! Dr 'o. Garc!a ". Facul , o( Ad'!ss!on# 6B S%RA 7<< /9A<F1 F* T$e FA% o( $e Lo,ola Sc$ool o( T$eolo., re(used o read'! pe ! !oner# Garc!a# !n ! s M.A. pro.ra' because $e,

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


(el $a 2$er (re0uen 0ues !ons and d!((!cul !es &ere no al&a,s per !nen and $ad $e e((ec o( slo&!n. do&n $e pro.ress o( $e classD2 $a ! &ould be 2 o $e bes !n eres /o( $e pe ! !oner1 o &or4 &! $ a (acul , $a !s 'ore co'pa !ble &! $ $er or!en a !on. Garc!a assa!lled $er e;puls!on (or be!n. unreasonableD $a $e reasons .!"en $ere(or &ere !n"al!d (or no&$ere d!d ! appear $a $er conduc cons ! u ed a "!ola !on o( $e sc$ool5s re.ula !ons and .ra"e '!sconduc . ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e FA% can be co'pelled b, mandamus o read'! pe ! !oner. R:LING* NO. T$e %ons ! u !on reco.n!@es $e en+o,'en b, !ns ! u !ons o( $!.$er learn!n. o( $e r!.$ o acade'!c (reedo'. T$e sc$ool dec!des (or ! sel( ! s a!'s and ob+ec !"es and $o& bes o a a!n $e'. I !s (ree (ro' ou s!de coerc!on or !n er(erence sa"e poss!bl, &$en $e o"err!d!n. publ!c &el(are calls (or so'e res ra!n . I $as a &!de sp$ere o( au ono', cer a!nl, e; end!n. o $e c$o!ce o( $e s uden s. T$e collec !"e l!ber , o( an or.an!@a !on !s b, no 'eans $e sa'e $!n. as $e (reedo' o( $e !nd!"!dual 'e'bers &! $!n ! . In cons!der!n. $e proble's o( acade'!c (reedo'# one 'us d!s !n.u!s$ be &een au ono', o( $e un!"ers! ,# as a corpora e bod,# and $e (reedo' o( $e !nd!"!dual un!"ers! , eac$er. T$e personal aspec o( $e (reedo' cons!s s o( $e r!.$ o( eac$ un!"ers! , eac$er o see4 and e;press $e ru $ as $e personall, sees ! # bo $ !n $!s acade'!c &or4 and !n $!s capac! , as a pr!"a e c! !@en. T$!s s a us o( $e !nd!"!dual eac$er !s as !'por an as $e s a us o( $e !ns ! u !on o &$!c$ $e belon.s and $rou.$ &$!c$ $e d!sse'!na es learn!n.. On o $er $and# $e !n ernal cond! !ons (or acade'!c (reedo' !n a un!"ers! , are $a $e acade'!c s a(( s$ould $a"e de facto con rol o( $e (ollo&!n. (unc !ons* /a1 ad'!ss!on and e;a'!na !on o( s uden sD /b1 curr!cula (or courses o( s ud,D /c1 appo!n 'en and enure o( o((!ce o( acade'!c s a((D and /d1 alloca !on o( !nco'e a'on. $e d!((eren ca e.or!es o( e;pend! ure. I !s $e bus!ness o( a un!"ers! , o pro"!!de $a a 'osp$ere &$!c$ !s 'os conduc!"e o specula !on# e;per!'en and crea !on. I !s an a 'osp$ere !n &$!c$ $e (our essen !al (reedo's o( a un!"ers! , pre"a!l - o de er'!ne (or ! sel( &$o 'a, eac$# &$a 'a, be au.$ # $o& ! s$all be au.$ # and &$o 'a, be ad'! ed o s ud,. For $e abo"e reason# mandamus !s no a"a!lable (or $e pe ! !oner. T$ere !s no du , on $e par o( $e Sc$ool o ad'! $er o s ud, s!nce $e Sc$ool clearl, $as $e d!scre !on o urn do&n e"en 0ual!(!ed appl!can s due o l!'! a !ons o( space# (ac!l! !es# pro(essors and op !'u' classroo' s!@e and co'ponen cons!dera !ons. T$ere are s andards o 'ee and pol!c!es o pursue. 3$a a s uden possesses !s a pr!"!le.e ra $er $an a r!.$ . :P ". A,son# 9<6 S%RA 6?< /9ABA1 F* In 9A<7# $e :P )OR appro"ed $e es abl!s$'en o( $e :P%) 8!.$s$ool o ser"e# a'on. o $ers# 2as a labora or, and de'ons ra !on sc$ool (or prospec !"e eac$ers - pro"!ded $a :P%)8S 'us be sel(-suppor !n..2 8o&e"er# $e Dep o( Pro(ess!onal Educa !on !n )a.u!o &as ne"er or.an!@ed. So# $e )OR dec!ded o p$ase ou :P%)8S (or (a!l!n. o a a!n $e cond! !ons (or ! s crea !on. T$e :P%)8S Founda !on Inc. sou.$ o res ra!n $e :n!"ers! , (ro' p$as!n. ou $e :P%)8S. ISS:E* Is secondar, publ!c educa !on de'andable !n an !ns ! u !on o( $!.$er learn!n. suc$ as $e :PH R:LING* NO. :P !n"o4es ! s e;erc!se o( acade'!c (reedo'. Pr!"a e responden !n"o4es $e r!.$ o 0ual! , educa !on and o (ree secondar, educa !on.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e r!.$ s !n"o4ed b, pr!"a e responden 'a, be asser ed onl, as a.a!ns $e Go"ern'en $rou.$ $e DE%S. :P &as crea ed under ! s c$ar er o pro"!de ad"anced er !ar, educa !on. An !ns ! u e o( $!.$er learn!n. canno be co'pelled o pro"!de (or secondar, educa !on. I !s be,ond ca"!l $a :P as an !ns ! u !on o( $!.$er learn!n. en+o,s acade'!c (reedo'. :P%)8S &as es abl!s$ed sub+ec o a nu'ber o( cond! !onal! !es. Fa!l!n. on suc$ cond! !ons# :P can order ! s abol! !on on acade'!c .rounds. Ch%ro. :P ". %A# Feb. A# 9AA> F* For'er PANAMIN M!n!s er Manuel El!@alde and $e Tasada, represen a !"e (!led a co'pla!n (or da'a.es and declara or, rel!e( a.a!ns :P Pro(essors -ero'e )a!len and Ieus Sala@ar &$o d!spu ed $e au $en !c! , o( $e Tasada, (!nd and 'ade a propos! !on !n "ar!ous con(erences a ended b, $e' $a El!@alde 'erel, (abr!ca ed $e d!sco"er, o( $e Tasada,s. :P !n er"ened# aaser !n. ! s du , o pro ec $e responden s as (acul , 'e'bers (or ac s and u erances 'ade !n $e e;erc!se o( acade'!c (reedo'. T$e lo&er cour den!ed :P5s 'o !on o d!s'!ss (or (a!lure o s a e a cause o( ac !on. 8ence $!s pe ! !on. R:LING* 3! $ respec o $e pra,er o( $e co'pla!n (or 2+ud.'en declar!n. $e Tasada,s o be a d!s !nc e $n!c co''un! ,# $e lo&er cour !s cau !oned $a $e sa'e !s a4!n o a pra,er (or a +ud!c!al declara !on o( P$!l!pp!ne c! !@ens$!p &$!c$ 'a, no be .ran ed !n a pe ! !on (or declara or, rel!e(. T$e co'pla!n &as (!led 'a!nl, o "!nd!ca e pla!n !((5s d!.n! , and $onor. Indeed# ! !s be,ond $e pro"!nce o( $e cour o 'a4e pronounce'en s on 'a ers be,ond ! s 4en and e;per !se. To be sure# !n resol"!n. $e co'pla!n (or da'a.es# $e cour 'a, (!nd con.ruence !n &$a !s +us !c!able and &$a (alls &! $!n $e (!eld o( $e sc!ences. S !ll# ! !s bes o 4eep !n '!nd $a ! s proper role and (unc !on !s $e de er'!na !on o( le.al !ssues. 8. DREEDOM OD RELI=ION Art. III, S !. 3. No l%* sh%ll & .%' r s# !ti$g %$ st%&lish. $t of r ligio$H or #rohi&iti$g th fr C r!is th r of. Th fr C r!is %$' $<o). $t of r ligio+s #rof ssio$ %$' *orshi#, *itho+t 'is!ri.i$%tio$ or #r f r $! , sh%ll for ( r & %llo* '. No r ligio+s t st sh%ll & r ,+ir ' for th C r!is of !i(il or #oliti!%l rights. A. Non-Es abl!s$'en %lause T$e clause pro$!b! s e;cess!"e .o"ern'en en an.le'en &! $# endorse'en or d!sappro"al o( rel!.!on QV!cor!ano ". El!@alde Rope 3or4ers :n!on# FA S%RA F? /9A<?1D L,nc$ ". Donnell,# ?6F :S 66B /9AB?1 /O5%onnor# -.# concurr!n.1D Alle.$en, %oun , ". Grea er P! sbur. A%L:# ?A7 :S F<? /9ABA1.R T$e clause pro$!b! s $e S a e (ro' es abl!s$!n. a rel!.!on. In assess!n. $e "al!d! , o( $e la&# $e 0ues !ons o be as4ed are* a. Is $e purpose o( $e la& rel!.!ous# or !s ! secularH b. Does ! or does ! no !n$!b! or ad"ance rel!.!onH c. Is ! s e((ec o pro'o e or o a"o!d an e;cess!"e en a.le'en be &een $e S a e and rel!.!ous 'a ers !n rel!.!onH T$e Non-Es abl!s$'en clause !s "!ola ed &$en $e S a e .!"es an, 'an!(es suppor o an, one rel!.!on# e"en !( no $!n. !s done a.a!ns $e !nd!"!dual.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


I !s l!4e&!se "!ola ed !( $e S a e (a"ors all rel!.!ons# (or $ere 'a, be a $e!s s &$o are no so (a"ored. 9. Opera !on o( sec ar!an sc$ools 3$!le $e o&ners$!p# crea !on and 'ana.e'en o( educa !onal !ns ! u !ons 'us be !n $e $ands o( F!l!p!nos or 6EG F!l!p!no-o&ned corpora !ons# sec ar!an sc$ools and $ose run b, rel!.!ous .roups and '!ss!ons board are e;e'p ed (ro' $ese re0u!re'en s# pro"!ded $e ad'!n!s ra !on !s !n $e $ands o( F!l!p!nos# &$o could be sec ar!an. QAr . JIV# Sec. ?/71.R 7. Rel!.!ous !ns ruc !on !n publ!c sc$ools Pro"!ded ! !s upon $e &r! en pe ! !on o( $e paren s and ! !s a no cos o $e S a e /al $ou.$ $!s !s no en !rel, poss!ble# because $e use o( classroo's and elec r!c! , are cos s !n $e S a e1# rel!.!ous !ns ruc !on !n publ!c ele'en ar, and secondar, sc$ools dur!n. class $ours# b, one appro"ed b, $e au $or! !es o( $e rel!.!on o( $e c$!ld or &ard !s allo&ed. QAr . JIV# Sec. >/>1.R Rel!.!on can e"en be !n e.ra ed !n $e sc$ool curr!culu'. Q%!". %ode# >FA /91.R >. An !-e"olu !on la&s In Epperson ". Ar4ansas# >A> :.S. A< /9A6B1# $e S% $eld $a $e eac$!n. o( $e Dar&!n!an $eor, o( e"olu !on canno be pro$!b! ed (ro' publ!c s$ools b, paren s &$ose rel!.!ons (!nds $e $eor, o((ens!"e. ?. Pra,er and )!ble-read!n. !n publ!c sc$ools In En.el ". V! ale# ><E :.S. ?79 /9A6<1# $e S% d!sallo&ed $e conduc !n. o( an !n erdeno'!na !onal pra,er be(ore $e s ar o( classes !n publ!c sc$ools as# "!ola !"e o( $e Non- Es abl!s$'en clause. En.el ". V! ale# ><E :.S. ?79 /9A6<1 F* T$e responden )oard o( Educa !on upon $e reco''enda !on o( $e S a e )oard o( Re.en s# d!rec ed $e Sc$ool5s D!s r!c pr!nc!pal o cause $e rec! a !on !n publ!c sc$ools o( a br!e(# deno'!na !onall, neu ral pra,er. I s obser"ance on $e par o( $e s uden s &as "olun ar,. R:LING* T$e %our ruled $a $e S a e o( Ne& Yor4# b, us!n. ! s publ!c sc$ool s,s e' o encoura.e $e rec! a !on o( $e Re.en 5s pra,er $as adop ed a prac !ce &$oll, !ncons!s en &! $ $e Es abl!s$'en %lause. T$e pra,er &as co'posed b, .o" o((!c!als as par o( a .o"ern'en al pro.ra' o (ur $er rel!.!ous bel!e(s. T$e cons ! u !onal pro$!b! !on a.a!ns la&s respec !n. an es abl!s$'en o( rel!.!on 'eans a leas $a ! !s no par o( $e bus!ness o( $e .o"ern'en o co'pose o((!c!al pra,ers (or an, .roup o rec! e as par o( a rel!.!ous pro.ra' carr!ed on b, $e .o" . T$e clauses o( $e 9s A'end'en &$!c$ pro$!b! la&s respec !n. an es abl!s$'en o( rel!.!on and abr!d.!n. $e (ree e;erc!se $ereo(# al $ou.$ o"erlapp!n. !n cer a!n !ns ances# (orb!ds &o d!(( 4!nds o( .o"ern'en al encroac$'en upon rel!.!ous (reedo'. T$e s abl!s$'en clause# unl!4e $e (ree e;erc!se clause# does no depend upon an, s$o&!n. o( d!rec .o"ern'en al co'puls!on and !s "!ola ed b, $e enac 'en o( la&s &$!c$ es abl!s$ an o((!c!al rel!.!on# &$e $er or no $ose la&s opera e d!rec l, o coerce non-obser"!n. !nd!"!duals. I res s on $e bel!e( $a a un!on o( .o" and rel!.!on ends o des ro, .o" and o de.rade rel!.!on# and upon an a&areness o( $e $!s or!cal (ac $a .o"ern'en all, es abl!s$ed rel!.!on and rel!.!ous persecu !ons .o $and !n $and.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
In Ab!n. on Sc$ool D!s r!c ". Sc$e'p# ><? :.S. 7E> /9A6>1# ! l!4e&!se d!sallo&ed $e read!n. o( a passa.e (ro' $e b!ble &! $ou co''en !n publ!c sc$ools as con rar, o $e Non- Es abl!s$'en clause. Ab!n. on Sc$ool D!s r!c ". Sc$e'p# ><? :.S. 7E> /9A6>1 T$e !ssue &as &$e $er $e es abl!s$'en clause &as "!ola ed b, a Penns,l"an!a S a u e or a rule o( $e )oard o( %o''!ss!oners o( )al !'ore adop ed pursuan o s a u or, au $or! , re0u!r!n. $e read!n. &! $ou co''en # a $e open!n. o( eac$ sc$ool da,# o( "erses (ro' $e )!ble and $e rec! a !on o( $e Lord5s pra,er b, $e s uden s !n un!son. T$e s uden s and paren s 'a, re(use o par !c!pa e !n $e sc$ool e;erc!ses. T$ese e;erc!ses &ere prescr!bed as par o( $e curr!cular ac !"! !es o( s uden s &$o are re0u!red b, la& o a end sc$ool and $eld !n sc$ool bu!ld!n.s under $e super"!s!on and par !c!pa !on o( eac$ers e'plo,ed !n $ose sc$ools. R:LING* YES# $e es abl!s$'en clause &as "!ola ed. T$e es abl!s$'en clause pro$!b! s a s a e (ro' plac!n. o((!c!al suppor be$!nd $e ene s o( one or all or $odo;!es and $e (ree e;erc!se clause .uaran ees $e r!.$ o( e"er, person o (reel, c$oose $!s o&n course &! $ re(erence o rel!.!ous ra!n!n.# eac$!n. and obser"ance# (ree (ro' an, co'puls!on (ro' $e S a e. T$e es !n de er'!n!n. &$e $er a le.!sla !"e enac 'en "!ola es $e Es abl!s$'en clause &$!c$ &! $dra&s all le.!sla !"e po&er respec !n. rel!.!ous bel!e( or $e e;press!on $ereo(# !s $e P:RPOSE and $e PRIMARY EFFE%T o( $e enac 'en . I( e! $er !s $e ad"ance'en or !n$!b! !on o( rel!.!on# $en $e enac 'en e;ceeds $e scope o( le.!sla !"e po&er as c!rcu'scr!bed b, $e F!rs A'end'en . To &! $s and $e s r!c ures o( $e es abl!s$'en clause# $ere 'us be a secular le.!sla !"e purpose and a pr!'ar, e((ec $a ne! $er ad"ances nor !n$!b! s rel!.!on. T$e place o( $e )!ble as an !ns ru'en o( rel!.!on canno be .a!nsa!d. T$!s !s par !cularl, so &$ere $e S a e5s reco.n! !on o( $e per"ad!n. rel!.!ous c$arac er o( $e e;erc!se !s e"!den (ro' $e rule5s spec!(!c per'!ss!on o( $e al erna !"e use o( $e %a $ol!c Doua, "ers!on o( $e )!ble as &ell as (ro' a recen a'end'en per'! !n. non-a endance a $e e;erc!ses# none o( $ose (ac ors be!n. cons!s en &! $ $e con en !on $a $e )!ble !s used e! $er as an !ns ru'en (or non-rel!.!ous 'oral !nsp!ra !on or as a re(erence (or $e eac$!n. o( secular sub+ec s. F. Ta; e;e'p !on Art. 8I, S !. >1. CCC 5@7 Ch%rit%&l i$stit+tio$s, !h+r!h s, #%rso$%g s or !o$( $ts %##+rt $%$t th r to, .os,+ s, $o$B#rofit ! . t ri s, %$' %ll l%$'s, &+il'i$gs %$' i.#ro( . $ts, %!t+%ll), 'ir !tl), %$' C!l+si( l) +s ' for r ligio+s, !h%rit%&l or '+!%tio$%l #+r#os s sh%ll & C .#t fro. t%C%tio$. T$e rul!n. !n )!s$op o( Nue"a Se.o"!a ". Pro"!nc!al )oard# F9 P$!l. >F7 /9A7<1 !s 'od!(!ed o $e e; en no& $a $e proper , 'us be 2ac uall,# d!rec l, and e;clus!"el,2 used (or rel!.!ous purposes o be e;e'p . I( no (or rel!.!ous purposes# educa !onal purposes. )!s$op o( Nue"a Se.o"!a ". Pro"!nc!al )oard# F9 P$!l. >F7 /9A7<1 A.l!pa, ". Ru!@# 6? P$!l. 7E9 /9A><1

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


F* T$e pla!n !((# $e Ro'an %a $ol!c Apos ol!c %$urc$# represen ed b, $e )!s$op o( Nue"a Se.o"!a# !s $e o&ner and occupan o( a parcel o( land !n San N!colas# Ilocos Nor e. On $e sou $ s!!de !s a par o( $e c$urc$ ,ard# $e con"en and an ad+acen lo used as "e.e able .arden. In $e cen er !s $e re'a!nder o( $e c$urc$,ard and $e c$urc$. On $e nor $ s!de !s an old ce'e er, and $e base o( &$a &as once a o&er. T$e Pro". )oard !'posed a a; on $e &$ole land. ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e a;a !on !s le.al. R:LING* NO. T$e e;e'p !on !n $e pa,'en o( $e land a; 'anda ed !n $e %ons ! u !on !n (a"or o( $e rel!.!ous en ! !es re(ers o $e $o'e o( $e pr!es &$o pres!des o"er $e c$urc$ and &$o $as o a4e care o( $!'sel( !n order o d!sc$ar.e $!s du !es. I $ere(ore 'us !nclude no onl, $e land ac uall, occup!ed b, $e c$urc$ bu also $e ad+acen .round des !ned (or $e ord!nar, !nc!den al uses o( 'an. E;cep !n lar.e c! !es &$ere $e dens! , o( $e popula !on and $e de"elop'en o( co''erce re0u!re $e use o( lar.e rac s o( land (or bu!ld!n.s# a "e.e able .arden belon.s o a $ouse and# !n $e case o( a con"en # ! s use !s l!'! ed o $e necess! !es o( $e pr!es . T$ere(ore# &$!c$ co'es under $e a; e;e'p !on. As o $e lo &$!c$ &as (or'erl, $e ce'e er,# &$!le ! !s no lon.er used as suc$# ne! $er !s ! used (or co''erc!al purposes and# accd. o $e e"!dence# !s no& be!n. used as a lod.!n. $ouse b, $e people &$o par !c!pa e !n rel!.!ous (es !"! !es. T$e sa'e cons ! u es an !nc!den al use !n rel!.!ous (unc !ons. I also co'es &! $!n $e e;e'p !on. 6. Publ!c a!d o rel!.!on T$e pa,'en or use o( publ!c 'one, or proper , (or an, rel!.!ous !ns ! u !on or cler., !s no allo&edD e;cep !n $ose cases pro"!ded !n $e %ons ! u !on* pr!es s ass!.ned !n $e AFP# penal !ns ! u !on# .o"ern'en orp$ana.e# or leprosar!u'. QAr . VI# Sec. 7A /71R )u !n A.l!pa, ". Ru!@# 6? P$!l. 7E9 /9A><1# $e S% $eld $a $e s a'p pr!n ed b, $e .o"ern'en s$o&!n. $e 'ap o( $e P$!l!pp!nes &! $ a rosar, o co''e'ora e $e >>rd In erna !onal Euc$ar!s !c %on.ress o be $eld !n Man!la d!d no "!ola e $e Non-Es abl!s$'en clause because ! s 'a!n purpose# &as o call $e &orld5s a en !on o Man!la as $e s! e o( an !n erna !onal con.ress# and &$a e"er bene(! ! .a"e $e %a $ol!c %$urc$ &as onl, !nc!den al.

F* T$e pe ! !oner# Mons. A.l!pa,# 8ead o( $e P$!l. Ind. %$urc$# sou.$ o res ra!n responden D!rec or o( Pos s (ro' !ssu!n. and sell!n. pos a.e s a'ps co''e'ora !"e o( $e >>rd In erna !onal Euc$ar!s !c %on.ress. T$e D!rec or !ssued $e s a'ps under $e pro"!s!ons o( Ac ?EF7 &$!c$ appropr!a es publ!c (unds (or $e cos o( $e pla es and pr!n !n. o( $e s a'ps. Pe ! !oner alle.ed $a $e !ssuance o( $e s a'ps &as done !n "!ola !on o( $e %ons ! u !onal pro"!s!on $a no publ!c 'one, or proper , s$all be appropr!a ed (or $e use# bene(! or suppor o( an, sec or rel!.!on. ISS:E* 3=N pe ! !oner5s con en !on !s enable. R:LING* NO. Ac ?EF7 con e'pla ed no rel!.!ous purpose !n "!e&. 3$a ! .a"e $e D!rec or o( Pos s &as $e d!scre !onar, po&er o de er'!ne &$en $e !ssuance o( spec!al pos a.e s a'ps &ould be ad"an a.eous o $e .o"ern'en .

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
T$e purpose !n !ssu!n. $e s a'ps &as o ad"er !se $e P$!l!pp!nes and a rac 'ore our!s s o $!s coun r,. T$e o((!c!als concerned 'erel, oo4 ad"an a.e o( an e"en cons!dered o( !n erna !onal !'por ance o .!"e publ!c! , o $e coun r, and ! s people. T$e s a'p con a!ned a 'ap o( $e P$!l!pp!nes and $e loca !on o( Man!la# and an !nscr!p !on as (ollo&s* 2Sea JJJIII In erna !onal Euc$ar!s !c %rusade.2 3$a &as e'p$as!@ed &as no $e e"en bu Man!la. I &as ob"!ous $a &$!le $e s a'ps 'a, be sa!d o be !nseparabl, l!n4ed &! $ an e"en o( a rel!.!ous c$arac er# $e resul !n. propa.anda rece!"ed b, $e Ro'an %a $ol!c %$urc$ &as 'erel, !nc!den al and &as no $e a!' and purpose o( $e .o"ern'en . In I.nac!o ". Ela# supra# $e d!ssen !n. op!n!on o( -us !ce %oncepc!on po!n ed ou $a $e 'a,or d!sappro"ed $e appl!ca !on (or a per'! no so 'uc$ because $e &as a(ra!d $a breac$ o( peace &ould ensue bu because $e &ron.l, $ou.$ $e 4!os4 s$ould be used (or publ!c purposes onl, and no (or rel!.!ous purposes. 3$en $e -e$o"a$5s 3! ness 'e'bers use $e publ!c s0uares# $e, are no d!((eren (ro' ord!nar, pedes r!ans or pro'enaders &$o use $e s ree * $a $e, are per(or'!n. rel!.!ous ac s !s onl, !nc!den al. So lon. as $e use o( publ!c proper , !s onl, !nc!den alall, and e'porar!ll, (or rel!.!ous purposes and so lon. as $e use !s suc$ as o be reasonabl, co'pa !ble &! $ $e use o &$!c$ o $er 'e'bers o( $e co''un! , are s!'!larl, en ! led# $en $e non-es abl!s$'en clause !s no "!ola ed. T$e es s $en are /91 Is $e use o( $e publ!c (ac!l! , co'pa !ble &! $ .eneral useH /71 Is $e resul !n. bene(! o $e rel!.!ous .roup onl, !nc!den al. B. Dr EC r!is Cl%+s

ZPG & ASSOCIATES


T$e sole +us !(!ca !on (or a pr!or res ra!n or l!'! a !on on $e e;erc!se o( rel!.!ous (reedo' !s $e e;!s ence o( a .ra"e and presen dan.er o( a c$arac er bo $ .ra"e and !''!nen # o( a ser!ous e"!l o publ!c sa(e ,# 'oral# $eal $ or an, o $er le.! !'a e publ!c !n eres # $a $e s a e $as a r!.$ and du , o pre"en . Absen suc$ a $rea o publ!c sa(e ,# $e e;puls!on o( $e pe s. (ro' $e sc$ools !s no +us !(!ed. ;;; Al $ou.$ pe ! !oners do no par !c!pa e !n $e co'pulsor, (la. cere'on,# $e, do no en.a.e !n e; ernal ac s or be$a"!or $a &ould o((end $e!r coun r,'en &$o bel!e"e !n e;erc!s!n. $e!r lo"e o( coun r, $rou.$ $e obser"ance o( $e (la. cere'on,. T$e, 0u!e l, s and a a en !on dur!n. $e cere'on, o s$o& $e!r respec (or $e r!.$ o( $ose &$o c$oose o par !c!pa e !n $e sole'n proceed!n.s. As $ere !s no d!srup !on# e;puls!on !s un&arran ed. 8o&e"er# !( $e, s$ould co''! breac$es o( peace b, ac !on $a o((end $e sens!b!l! !es# bo $ rel!.!ous and pa r!o !c# o( o $er persons# $e sc$ool au $or! !es $a"e $e po&er o d!sc!pl!ne $e'. %o'pare 3es V. )oard o( Educa !on ". )arne e# >9A :S 67? /9A?>1 F* T$e S a e )oard re0u!red publ!c sc$ool pup!ls o salu e $e (la. o( $e :n! ed S a es &$!le rec! !n. a pled.e o( alle.!ance under penal , o( e;puls!on en a!l!n. l!ab!l! , o( bo $ pup!l and paren s o be proceeded a.a!ns (or unla&(ul absence. Appellees# 'e'bers o( $e -e$o"a$5s 3! nesses# cons!der $e (la. as a .ra"en !'a.e &$!c$ $e, are (orb!dden o salu e under $e!r rel!.!ous bel!e(s. T$e S a e asser s $e po&er o cond! !on access o publ!c educa !on. ISS:E* 3=N $e co'pulsor, (la. salu e !s "al!d. R:LING* NO. In connec !on &! $ pled.es# $e (la. salu e !s a (or' o( u erance. I re0u!res an a((!r'a !on o( a bel!e( and an a ! ude o( '!nd. I !s no& a co''onplace $a censors$!p or suppress!on o( e;press!on o( op!n!on !s olera ed b, $e %ons ! u !on onl, &$en $e e;press!on presen s a clear and presen dan.er o( ac !on o( a 4!nd $e S a e !s e'po&ered o pre"en and pun!s$. 8ere $e po&er o( co'puls!on !s !n"o4ed &! $ou an, alle.a !on $a re'a!n!n. pass!"e dur!n. a (la. salu e r! ual crea es a clear and presen dan.er $a &ould +us !(, an e((or e"en o 'u((le e;press!on. To sus a!n $e co'pulsor, (la. salu e# &e are re0u!red o sa, $a a )!ll o( R!.$ s &$!c$ .uards $e !nd!"!dual5s r!.$ o spea4 $!s '!nd le( ! open o publ!c au $or! !es o co'pel $!' o u er &$a !s no !n $!s '!nd. T$e %our appl!es $e l!'! a !ons o( $e %ons ! u !on &! $ no (ear $a (reedo' o be !n ellec uall, and sp!r! uall, d!"erse or e"en con rar, &!ll d!s!n e.ra e $e soc!al or.an!@a !on. To bel!e"e $a pa r!o !s' &!ll no (lour!s$ !( pa r!o !c cere'on!es are "olun ar, and spon aneous !ns ead o( a co'pulsor, rou !ne !s o 'a4e an un(la er!n. es !'a e o( $e appeal o( our !ns ! u !ons o (ree '!nds. 7. Freedo' o propa.a e rel!.!ous doc r!nes A'er!can )!ble Soc!e , ". %! , o( Man!la# 9E9 P >B6 /9AF<1 F* Pla!n !(( !s en.a.ed !n $e d!s r!bu !on and sale o( b!bles and rel!.!ous ar !cles. T$e %! , Treasurer o( Man!la !n(or'ed $e pla!n !(( $a ! &as conduc !n. $e bus!ness o( .eneral 'erc$and!se &! $ou secur!n. $e necessar, l!cense and pa,!n. $e re0u!s! e (ee !n "!ola !on o( $e %! , ord!nance. Pla!n !(( pro es ed a.a!ns $!s re0u!re'en as cons ! u !n. a res ra!n upon $e e;erc!se o( rel!.!on. I cla!'ed $a ! !s no

9. Fla. Salu e Ebran!la. ". D!"!s!on Super!nden en o( Sc$ools o( %ebu# 79A S%RA 7F6 /9AA>1 Conscientious #b,ectors cannot be compelled to salute the flag. F* All $e p e ! !oners !n $ese cases &ere e;pelled (ro' $e!r classes b, $e publ!c sc$ool au $or! !es !n %ebu (or re(us!n. o salu e $e (la.# s!nce $e na !onal an $e' and rec! e $e pa r!o !c pled.e as re0u!red b, RA 976F and b, Dep . Order No. B da ed -ul, 79# 9AFF o( $e DE%S 'a4!n. $e (la. cere'on, co'pulsor, !n all educa !onal !ns ! u !ons. ISS:E* 3=N sc$ool c$!ldren &$o are 'e'bers o( a rel!.!ous sec 4no&n as -e$o"a$5s 3! nesses 'a, be e;pelled (ro' sc$ool /bo $ pr!"a e and publ!c1# (or re(us!n.# on accoun o( $e!r rel!.!ous bel!e(s# o a4e par !n $e (la. cere'on, &$!c$ !ncludes pla,!n. /b, a band1 or s!n.!n. $e P$!l. Na !onal An $e'# salu !n. $e P$!l. (la. and rec! !n. $e pa r!o !c pled.e. 8ELD* NO. T$e !dea $a one 'a, be co'pelled o salu e $e (la.# s!n. $e na !onal an $e'# and rec! e $e pa r!o !ce pled.e# dur!n. a (la. cere'on, on pa!n o( be!n. d!s'!ssed (ro' one5s +ob or o( be!n. e;pelled (ro' sc$ool# !s al!en o $e consc!ence o( $e presen .enera !on o( F!l!p!nos &$o cu $e!r ee $ on $e )!ll o( R!.$ s &=c .uaran ees $e!r r!.$ s o (ree speec$ and $e (ree e;erc!se o( rel!.!ous pro(ess!on and &ors$!p. ;;; ;;; Forc!n. a s'all rel!.!ous .roup# $rou.$ $e !ron $and o( $e la&# o par !c!pa e !n a cere'on, $a "!ola es $e!r rel!.!ous bel!e(s# &!ll $ardl, be conduc!"e o lo"e o( coun r, or respec (or dul, cons ! u ed au $or! !es. ;;;

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
en.a.ed !n bus!ness &$!c$ necess! a es $e secur!n. o( a l!cense as ! ne"er 'ade an, pro(! (ro' $e sale o( ! s b!bles.

ZPG & ASSOCIATES

8I. LIBERT/ OD ABODE AND OD TRA8EL ISS:E* 3$e $er or no $e ord!nance as appl!ed o pe ! !oner !s uncons u !onal (or be!n. !n res ra!n o( pe ! !oner5s r!.$ o (ree e;erc!se o( rel!.!on. 8ELD* YES. T$e po&er o a; $e e;erc!se o( $e pr!"!le.e !s $e po&er o con rol or suppress ! s en+o,'en . T$ose &$o can a; $e e;erc!se o( rel!.!ous prac !ce can 'a4e ! s e;erc!se so cos l, as o depr!"e ! o( $e resources necessar, (or ! s 'a!n enance. I !s rue $a $e pr!ce as4ed (or $e rel!.!ous ar !cles &as !n so'e !ns ances a l! le b! $!.$er $an $e ac ual cos o( $e sa'e# bu $!s canno 'ean $a pla!n !(( &as en.a.ed !n $e bus!ness or occupa !on o( sell!n. sa!d 2'erc$and!se2 (or pro(! . T$e 'ar4 up can onl, be rea ed as con r!bu !ons b, $e (a! $(uls o $e rel!.!ous cause. T$e Ord!nance %ANNOT be appl!ed o pla!n !(( soc!e ,# (or !n so do!n.# ! &ould !'pa!r ! s (ree e;erc!se and en+o,'en o( ! s rel!.!ous pro(ess!on and &ors$!p# as &ell as ! s r!.$ o d!sse'!na e rel!.!ous bel!e(s. >. E;e' !on (ro' un!on s$op V!c or!ano ". El!@alde Rope 3or4ers :n!on# FA S%RA F? /9A<?1 F* )en+a'!n V!c or!ano !s an e'plo,ee o( $e El!@alde Rope Fac or,. In 9A67# $e res!.ned (ro' $e responden labor un!on on $e .round $a $e I.les!a n! Cr!s o o( &$!c$ $e !s a 'e'ber pro$!b! s un!on 'e'bers$!p. As $e un!on de'anded $!s d!s'!ssal (ro' e'plo,'en pursuan o a closed s$op a.ree'en # V!c or!ano brou.$ $!s ac !on (or !n+unc !on. T$e %FI ruled !n $!s (a"or e;e'p !n. (ro' $e closed-s$op con rac s 'e'bers o( rel!.!ous sec s &$!c$ pro$!b! a((!l!a !on o( $e!r 'e'bers !n an, labor or.an!@a !on. T$e un!on appealed. 8ELD* T$e s a u e does no "!ola e $e r!.$ s o( assoc!a !on. I does no !'pa!r $e obl!.a !on o( con rac s (or no onl, are e;!s !n. la&s read !n o con rac s !n order o (!; $e obl!.a !on o( $e par !es bu $e reser"a !on o( essen !al a r!bu es o( so"ere!.n po&er !s also read !n o suc$ con rac s. Ne! $er does $e la& cons ! u e an es abl!s$'en o( rel!.!on. I $as been $eld $a !n order o &! $s and ob+ec !ons based on $!s .round# $e s a u e 'usr $a"e a secular purpose and $a purpose 'us no d!rec l, ad"ance or d!'!n!s$ $e !n eres o( an, rel!.!on. %on.ress ac ed 'erel, o rel!e"e persons o( $e burden !'posed b, un!on secur! , a.ree'en s. ?. D!s0ual!(!ca !on (ro' local .o"ern'en o((!ce Pa'!l ". Teleron B6 S%RA ?9> /9A<B1 F* In 9A<9# Fr. Mar.ar! o Gon@a.a &as elec ed 'a,or o( Albu0uer0ue# )o$ol. A pe ! !on &as (!led a.a!ns $!' on $e bas!s o( sec !on 79<F o( $e Re"!sed Ad'!n!s ra !"e %ode pro"!d!n. $a 2!n nocase s$all $ere be elec ed or appo!n ed o a 'un!c!pal o((!ce eccles!as !cs# sold!ers !n ac !"e ser"!ce# persons rece!"!n. salar!es (ro' pro"!nc!al (unds# or con rac ors (or publ!c &or4s.2 T$e %FI d!s'!ssed $e pe ! !on on $e .round $a $e !nel!.!b!l! , $as been !'pl!edl, repealed b, sec !on 7> o( $e 9A<9 Elec !on %ode. 8ELD* T$e "o !n. o( $e S% &as !nconclus!"e. Se"en +us !ces $eld $a sec !on 79<F !s no lon.er opera !"e. -us !ce Fernando $eld $a sec !on 79<F !'posed a rel!.!ous es on $e e;erc!se o( $e r!.$ o run (or publ!c o((!ce con rar, o Ar . III o( $e 9A>F %ons ! u !on. -us !ce Tee$an4ee $eld $a sec !on 79<F $ad been repealed b, $e Elec !on %ode. F!"e +us !ces $eld $a sec !on 79<F !s cons ! u !onal. Art. III, S !. 2. Th li& rt) of %&o' %$' of !h%$gi$g th s%. *ithi$ th li.its #r s!ri& ' &) l%* sh%ll $ot & i.#%ir ' C! #t +#o$ l%*f+l or' r of th !o+rt. N ith r sh%ll th right to tr%( l & i.#%ir ' C! #t i$ th i$t r st of $%tio$%l s !+rit), #+&li! s%f t), or #+&li! h %lth, %s .%) & #ro(i' ' &) l%*. Salon.a ". 8er'oso A< S%RA 979 /9ABE1 Right to travel T$!s !s no $e (!rs !'e pe ! !oner -o"! o Salon.a ca'e o $e S% b, &a, o( a mandamus proceed!n. o co'pel $e !ssuance o $!' o( a cer !(!ca e o( el!.!b!l! , o ra"el. In $e (!rs case# Salon.a ". Madella# $e case beca'e 'oo and acade'!c. T$e presen pe ! !on !s l!4e&!se 'oo and acade'!c. In $e 'o !on o d!s'!ss (!led b, $e Sol!c! or General# ! &as s a ed $a $e cer !(!ca e o( el!.!b!l! , o ra"el $ad been .ran ed pe ! !oner. None $eless# !n "!e& o( $e l!4el!$ood $a $!s %our 'a, be (aced a.a!n &! $ $e sa'e s! ua !on# ! !s des!rable $a responden Tra"el Process!n. %en er s$ould e;erc!se $e u 'os care o a"o!d $e !'press!on $a cer a!n c! !@ens des!rous o( e;erc!s!n. $e!r cons ! u !onal r!.$ o ra"el could be sub+ec ed o !ncon"en!ence or anno,ance. T$e (reedo' o ra"el !s one o( $e 'os c$er!s$ed. ;;; Marcos ". Man.lapus# 9<< S%RA 66B K 9<B S%RA <6E /9ABA1 F* T$!s pe ! !on (or mandamus and pro$!b! !on as4s $e %our o order $e responden s o !ssue ra"el docu'en s o Mr. Marcos and $e !''ed!a e 'e'bers o( $!s (a'!l, and o en+o!n $e !'ple'en a !on o( $e Pres!den 5s dec!s!on o bar $e!r re urn o $e P$!l!pp!nes. T$e case (or pe ! !oners !s (ounded on $e asser !on $a $e r!.$ o( $e Marcoses o re urn o $e P$!l!pp!nes !s .uaran eed under $e pro"!s!ons o( $e %ons ! u !on respec !n. one5s l!ber , o( abode and r!.$ o ra"el. Responden s ar.ue $e pr!'ac, o( $e r!.$ o( $e S a e o na !onal secur! , o"er !nd!"!dual r!.$ s. R:LING* T$e r!.$ !n"ol"ed !n $!s case !s no $e r!.$ o ra"el (ro' $e P$!l!pp!nes o o $er coun r!es or &! $!n $e P$!l!pp!nes. Essen !all,# $e r!.$ !n"ol"ed !s $e r!.$ o re urn o one5s coun r,# a o all, d!s !nc r!.$ under !n erna !onal la&# !ndependen (ro' al $ou.$ rela ed o $e r!.$ o ra"el. T$e r!.$ o re urn o one5s coun r, !s no a'on. $e r!.$ s spec!(!call, .uaran eed !n $e )!ll o( R!.$ s# &$!c$ rea s onl, o( $e l!ber , o( abode and $e r!.$ o ra"el# bu ! !s $e %our 5s &ell cons!dered "!e& $a $e r!.$ o re urn 'a, be cons!dered as a .enerall, accep ed pr!nc!ple o( !n erna !onal la&# and under our %ons ! u !on# !s par o( $e la& o( $e land. 8o&e"er# ! !s d!s !nc and separa e (ro' $e r!.$ o ra"el and en+o,s a d!((eren pro ec !on under $e In l. %o"enan o( %!"!l and Pol! !cal R!.$ s# !.e. a.a!ns be!n. arb! rar!l, depr!"ed $ereo(. T$e re0ues or de'and o( $e Marcoses o be allo&ed o re urn o $e P$!l!pp!nes canno be cons!dered !n $e l!.$ solel, o( $e cons ! u !onal pro"!s!ons .uaran ee!n. l!ber , o( abode and $e r!.$ o ra"el. I 'us be rea ed as a 'a er $a !s appropr!a el, addressed o $ose res!dual uns a ed po&ers o( $e Pres!den &$!c$ are !'pl!c! !n and correla !"e o $e para'oun du , res!d!n. !n $a o((!ce o sa(e.uard and pro ec .eneral &el(are. In $a con e; # suc$ re0ues or de'and s$ould sub'! o $e e;erc!se o( a broader d!scre !on on $e

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2
par o( $e Pres!den o de er'!ne &$e $er ! 'us be .ran ed or no .

ZPG & ASSOCIATES