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P. Dalhoff*, K. Argyriadis* * Germanischer Lloyd Windenergie GmbH, e-mail:

ABSTRACT: Certification is an integral part to secure safety and reliability for offshore wind farms. Therefore state of the art certification guidelines are of vital importane. Within the EU-research projects Opti Pile and RECOFF existing guidelines were reviewed and modified where necessary. The results led to completely revised GL Wind guidelines for the certification of offshore wind turbines, which will be issued in parallel to the present paper. A comparison of the new GL Wind offshore guideline with other standards is given. Special focus is layed on comparison of general scope of guidelines and presentation of the new GL Wind offshore guideline concerning its safety philosophy, load assumptions, structures and Condition Monitoring Systems. Keywords: Offshore Wind Turbines, Certification, Guidelines, Loads, Structures, Fatigue Strength, Condition Monitoring System The IEC 61400-3 specifies essential design requirements to ensure the engineering integrity of offshore wind turbines. Its purpose is to provide an appropriate level of protection against damage from all hazards during the planned lifetime. This standard will be one out of a set of standards under the IEC 61400 regime dealing with Safety and measurement of wind turbines. The IEC 61400-3 should be used in conjunction with the appropriate IEC/ISO standards. In particular, this standard is fully consistent with but not duplicating the requirements of IEC 61400-1 [2]. IEC 61400-1 is one of the internationally acknowledged standards for the safety of (onshore) wind turbines. Emphasis is given to the determination of load assumptions within the IEC 61400-3. Details concerning site assessment and load assumptions can be found. Aspects concerning materials, structures, machinery components and systems (safety system, electrical system) are not covered or are only briefly handled. For this the IEC 61400-3 gives the following statement: When determining the structural integrity of elements of a wind turbine, national or international design codes for the relevant material may be employed. Special care shall be taken when partial safety factors from national or international design codes are used together with partial safety factors from this standard. It shall be ensured that the resulting safety level is not less than the intended safety level in this standard. Concluding, the IEC 61400-3 defines load assumptions and a safety level, but relys on application of national or international design codes for determination of the structural integrity as well as for machinery, blades, safety and electrical system.

Certification of wind turbines has a history of almost twenty five years. It has been applied differently in scope, requirements and depth in the beginning in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands only. These three countries are still leading in the development and application of certification rules but during recent years a number of other countries as well as many banks realised the necessity of a thorough evaluation and certification of wind turbines and their proposed installation. Among these countries are China, Greece, India, Spain, Sweden and USA. Germanischer Lloyd (GL) has been active in the field since the late seventies. Technical fundamentals were established by Garrad Hassan and Germanischer Lloyd within a EU-funded project in the early 90s. As a result Germanischer Lloyd issued the first rules for the certification of wind turbines in 1995. These incorporated GLs expertise in wind energy and in offshore oil and gas. Meanwhile GLs 1995 rules have undergone its second revision and the latest edition is issued in parallel to the present paper. Further standards and recommendations have been developed in Denmark. An international IEC standard is currently under development.


The IEC 61400-3 [1] is a draft standard and thus not yet officially released. Issue of the final draft standard is scheduled for 2005. The purpose of this standard is as follows:

Project Certification IEC 61400-3 GL Wind Offshore Danish Recommendation DNV-OS-J101


Support Structure P


Safety, Electrics and CMS P




IEC WT01 (onshore) P Table 1: Comparison of Scope for standards/guidelines in the field of offshore wind energy (

P= subject is dealt with, P = subject is partly dealt with or reference on other standard)
turbine to be monitored on a random sample basis, see section 3.1.7.

2.2 GL Wind Offshore Guideline

Germanischer Lloyd (GL) issued the first rules for the certification of offshore wind turbines already in 1995. Since then a lot of experience has been gained during design, certification, and operation of offshore wind farms. Due to this fact Germanischer Lloyd WindEnergie (GL Wind) issued a completely revised version [3], which is available as final draft currently and will be issued as final version in February 2005. The philosophy of all GL Wind guidelines is to provide state of the art design requirements for the entire wind turbine. This implies the full range beginning with clarification of certification extent and proceeding with loads, materials, structures, machinery, rotor blades, electrical, safety and Condition monitoring systems. Integration of all these aspects and components within one regulation can only be found in the GL Wind Offshore guideline. The safety philosophy follows that what is known from onshore wind turbines. i.e. that the load safety factors are harmonised with the IEC 61400-1/-3 and the material safety factors are comparable but more detailed compared to IEC 61400-1/-3. IEC does specify material safety factors in a general way without consideration of the material uncertainties itself. GL Wind specifies material safety factors depending on the material. E.g. the material factors are higher for soil resistance in comparison to those of welded structures, since soil resistance can only be estimated with a relatively high uncertainty. The scope and extent of a type or project certification, see figure 1, is outlined in the GL Wind guidelines. A new feature is the A and B level for project certification. This allows the customer to choose between a 100% surveillance (A level) for all wind turbines within the wind farm or a 25% surveillance (B level) for every fourth

2.3 Danish Recommendation

The danisch recommendation for technical approval of offshore wind turbines [6] has been issued in 2001. Application of this recommendation is mandatory for offshore wind farms in Denmark. This recommendation is an annex to "Technical Criteria for Type Approval and Certification of Wind Turbines in Denmark" [7] and the DS472 [8] and contains instructions and supplementary information about technical requirements for approval of offshore wind turbines. The recommendation deals with loads and foundations for offshore wind turbines. Furthermore the following topics are handled: occupational safety, lightening recommendations, marking, noise emission and environmental impact assessment. Special offshore specific requirements for machinery, electrical and safety system are not given in the Danish recommendations.

2.4 DNV-OS-J101
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) has issued its first standard for the design of offshore wind turbines structures in 2004 [9]. Self explanatory is that this standard does only cover the (support) structure of the wind turbine and not the entire system to be considered within a certification.

2.5 IEC WT01

The International Electrotechnical Committee (IEC) comprises rules and procedures for IEC System for Conformity Testing and Certification of Wind Turbines.

This standard is not related to offshore wind turbines and it does not give any design requirements. The only purpose of IEC WT01 is to define the basic elements and prodecures of a certification. Even though WT01 was not intended to be applied for offshore wind farms, its definition for project certification is sometimes applied for offshore wind farms. This is due to the fact, that on one hand no other standards were existent for the definition of offshore project certification. On the other hand WT01 offers an easy going project certificate, where any third party surveillance is optional. For comparison the GL Wind Offshore guideline provides the A-B-Level-concept for project certification, see section 2.2, which means that a minimum of 25% (Level B) of the wind turbines within a wind farm are to be monitored by third party surveillance. Project certification without third party surveillance during manufacturing, transport, installation and commissioning cannot reveal problems or failures occurring during these processes. The value of the project certificate then is limited to the assessment of the design documentation. Since experience with wind turbines shows that e.g. manufacturing problems occur from time to time, waiving of third party surveillance is not understandable. Repair of failures after installation, not detected during manufacturing, is a very cost and time intensive work. And secondary it leads to a bad reputation for the wind energy. Concluding the IEC WT01 is an international standard in defining rules and procedures for the scope of type and project certification. It was not intended to be applied for the certification of offshore wind farms and thus modifications are necessary. The GL Wind offshore guideline take into account the benefits of WT01 project certification and additional surveillance for offshore wind turbines. In the near future the IEC WT01 will be modified for the purpose of offshore wind farm certification.

certification of offshore wind farms, the participation in research projects and expert groups, the project management and operation of the FINO 1 research platform and comments from the Wind Energy Committee led to a substantial improvement of the Guideline. For those topics, which are not specific to offshore conditions, but specific to the design of wind turbines, reference is made to the Guideline for the Certification of Wind Turbines, [4] and the Guideline for the Certification of Condition Monitoring Systems, [5]. When carrying out Type Certification, the overall concept of the offshore wind turbine is assessed. The certification covers all components and elements of the offshore wind turbine, i.e. safety as well as design, construction, workmanship and quality are checked, assessed and certified. Prototype Testing, examination of the Implementation of the design requirements in production and erection and check of quality management system are to be performed after the Design Assessment and build the final steps of Type Certification. When carrying out Project Certification, conformity is assessed and certified that type-certified offshore wind turbines and particular support structure designs meet requirements governed by site-specific external conditions, local codes and other requirements relevant to the site. Within Project Certification the individual offshore wind turbines / wind farms are monitored during manufacturing, transport, installation and commissioning. Periodic Monitoring is carried out in regular intervals.

3.1 Project Certification

To attain the Project Certificate for offshore wind turbines at a specific offshore site, the following steps are necessary: Type Certificate for the type of offshore wind turbine used Site Assessment Site-specific Design Assessment Surveillance of Manufacturing Surveillance of Transport and Installation Surveillance of Commissioning Periodical Inspection (periodic monitoring) to maintain the validity of the certificate


The new GL Wind Offshore Guideline [3] (in the following named as the guideline) applies to the design, assessment and certification of offshore wind turbines and offshore wind farms. The Guideline can be applied for Type Certification and Project Certification. This Guideline represents a completely revised version of the Regulations for the Certification of Offshore Wind Energy Conversion Systems of Germanischer Lloyd (GL), Edition 1999. Knowledge gained through the

Figure 1: Elements of GL Wind Project Certification

3.1.1 Site Assessment

The site assessment includes the examination of the environment-related influences on the offshore wind turbine, and the mutual influence of the offshore wind farm configuration. For the site assessment, effects from the following influences are considered: Wind conditions

These site conditions will be assessed for plausibility, quality and completeness of measurement reports and accreditation of measurement bodies or institutes establishing reports about the external conditions.

3.1.2 Site specific Design Assessment

Based on the external conditions at the site, the site specific Design Assessment will take place subdivided into the following assessment steps: Site specific load assumptions Comparison of site specific loads with those from Type Certification Site specific support structure (tower, sub structure and foundation) Modifications of the machinery part and rotor blades in relation to Type Certification, if modifications existent Stress reserve calculations for the machinery part and rotor blades, if load comparison indicates higher loads than for the type certified machinery components

Marine conditions (bathymetry, waves, tides, correlation of wind and waves, sea-ice, scour, marine growth, etc.) Soil conditions Site and wind farm configuration

Other environmental conditions, such as: salt content of the air, temperature, ice and snow, humidity, lightning strike, solar radiation, etc. Electrical grid conditions

topsides structure (machinery)


tower support structure

platform WL

sub-structure pile


mudline soil pile


Figure 2: Definition of offshore wind turbine sections general appearance damages.

3.1.3 Surveillance of manufacturing

Before surveillance of manufacturing begins, certain quality management (QM) requirements shall be met by the manufacturers. As a rule, the QM system shall be certified according to ISO 9001, otherwise the QM measures will be assessed by GL Wind. This will involve meeting the minimum requirements defined in [4]. The extent of the surveillance of manufacturing and the amount of samples to be surveyed depends on the standard of the quality management measures, and shall be agreed with GL Wind. In general, the following actions and approvals will be carried out by GL Wind: inspection and testing of materials and components scrutiny of QM records such as test certificates, tracers, reports surveillance of manufacturing, including storage conditions and handling, by random sampling inspection of the corrosion protection dimensions and tolerances

3.1.4 Surveillance of transport and installation

Before work begins, transport and installation manuals shall be submitted, which take account the special circumstances of the site, if necessary. These will be checked for compatibility with the assessed design and with the transport and installation conditions (climate, job scheduling, etc.) prevailing at the site. The extent of GL Winds surveillance a ctivities and the amount of samples to be surveyed depends on the quality management measures of the companies involved in transport and installation. As a rule, GL Wind will carry out the following activities: Approval of transport and installation procedures identification and allocation of all components of the offshore wind turbine in question checking of the components for damage during transport

inspection of the job schedules (e.g. for welding, installation, grouting, bolting up) inspection of prefabricated subassemblies, and of components to be installed, for adequate quality of manufacture, insofar as this has not been done at the manufacturers works surveillance of important steps in the installation on a random-sampling basis (e.g. pile driving, grouting) inspection of grouted and bolted connections, surveillance of non-destructive tests inspection of the corrosion protection inspection of scour protection system inspection of the electrical installation (run of cables, equipment earths and earthing system) inspection of sea fastening and marine operations

functioning of the yaw system behaviour at loss of load behaviour at overspeed functioning of automatic operation visual inspection of the entire offshore wind turbine checking the logic of the control systems indicators.

In additions to the tests the following items shall be examined during commissioning surveillance: General appearance Corrosion protection Damages Conformity of the main components with the certified design and traceability / numeration of the same.

3.1.5 Surveillance of commissioning

Surveillance of commissioning is to be performed for all wind turbines of the offshore wind farm and shall finally confirm that the offshore wind turbine is ready to operate and that the offshore wind turbine fulfils all standards and requirements to be applied. Before commissioning, the start-up manual and all tests planned shall be submitted for assessment. Before commissioning, the manufacturer shall provide proof that the offshore wind turbine has been erected properly and, as far as necessary, tested to ensure that operation is safe. In the absence of such proof, appropriate tests shall be carried out when putting the offshore wind turbine into operation. The commissioning is to be performed under surveillance of GL Wind. This surveillance covers witnessing by the surveyor of approximately 10 percent of offshore wind turbines during the actual commissioning. The other turbines shall be inspected after commissioning and the relevant records shall be scrutinized. Within the course of commissioning, all functions of the offshore wind turbine deriving from its operating and safety function modes shall be tested. This includes the following tests and activities: functioning of the emergency push button triggering of the brakes by every operating condition possible in operation

3.1.6 Periodic Monitoring

To maintain the validity of the certificate, maintenance of the offshore wind turbine shall be carried out in accordance with the approved maintenance manual, and the condition of the offshore wind turbine shall be monitored periodically by GL Wind. Maintenance shall be carried out and documented by authorized persons. Periodic Monitoring intervals are to be defined in the inspection plan and to be agreed with GL Wind. These intervals may be varied depending on the condition of the offshore wind turbine. Major damages and repairs shall be reported to GL Wind. To maintain validity of the certificate, any alterations have to be approved by GL Wind. The extent to which this work is to be surveilled shall be agreed with GL Wind. The maintenance records will be perused by GL Wind. Periodic Monitoring by GL Wind comprises the following assemblies: Foundation and scour protection (if appropriate only perusal of relevant inspection records) substructure tower nacelle

all parts of the drive train rotor blades hydraulic/pneumatic system safety and control systems electrical installation

Details of the Periodic Monitoring are given in [3], Chapter 12.

3.1.7 A and B Levels of Project Certification

The project certificate will be issued after successful accomplishment of the steps described. Concerning the surveillance of manufacturing, transport, installation, commissioning and periodic monitoring it can be distinguished between two different levels of project certificates: A Project Certificate: Surveillance is to be u ndertaken covering 100 % of the offshore wind turbines, which means that all wind turbines of the offshore wind farm are to be monitored. Surveillance shall cover the support structure and essential parts of machinery, blades and electrical system. B Project Certificate: Surveillance is to be u ndertaken covering 25 % of the offshore wind turbines on a random sample basis, which means that at least every fourth wind turbine is to be monitored. Surveillance shall cover the support structure and e ssential parts of machinery, blades and electrical system. In case the surveillance should reveal major failures, deviations from the certified design or deviations in the quality management the number of turbines to be monitored is to be doubled.

Even though some major differences can be found between IEC 61400-3 and the GL-Guideline: While the IEC 61400-3 is based on the 3rd Edition of the IEC 61400-1, the GL Wind Guideline is harmonised with the GL Wind Guideline for onshore wind turbines and the 2nd edition of the IEC 61400-1. This find its way trough the definition of the external conditions (characteristic vs. mean turbulence intensity) as well as the load case definitions (extrapolation of extreme operating loads or deterministic load cases). A comparison of the governing wind conditions according to the GL Wind Guideline and the IEC 61400-3 can be found in tables 2 and 3. It has to be stated that both allow for a type certification of the machinery of the turbine (rotor and nacelle) while site specific design shall be used for the support structure.

Wind Turbine Class V ref A B C [m/s] I ref I ref I ref



0.16 0.14 0.12

Table 2: Definition of the Type classes according to draft IEC 61400-3 [1] Wind Turbine Class Vref Vave A [m/s] [m/s] I 15 a B I 15 a C I 15 a

I 50 10

II 42.5 8.5 0.18 2 0.16 3 0.145 3

III 37.5 7.5

3.2 Loads
Loading of an offshore wind turbine represents a major point in all related standards and Guidelines. The installation of the structure in shallow waters and its dynamic nature imply several difficulties in their development. The development of all standards and Guidelines was performed in parallel and in close cooperation. The results from EU funded projects as RECOFF, OWTES and Opti-pile were used in the development. Many similarities between the IEC 61400-3 draft and the GL Wind Guideline can be found. This is no wonder, since GL Wind participatet in WG3 of the IEC TC88, as well as members of the WG 3 reviewed the GL Wind Guideline.

Table 3: Definition of the Type classes according to GL Wind (2004) [3]

In the GL Wind Guideline as well as in the IEC a new turbulence class C dedicated to offshore conditions is included. The differences in the wind speed turbulence intensity definition are not so extreme as the values in the tables impose. Figure 3 shows the the variation of the turbulence intensity over mean wind speed. The description of the marine conditions is based on the standard approach used for the offshore oil and gas industry. Special problems arise when analysis is

Site Specific

Values Specified by the Designer S




performed in the time domain for shallow waters. In these cases it is essential to consider the influence of the shallow water and bottom inclination to the wave field and its distribution. The short term wave distribution is distorted and the maxima distribution is not a Rayleigh one as it is in deep water conditions. The Guideline includes the option to use modified (TMA) wave spectra to consider the different frequency content of the waves in stochastic wavefield simulations. The different distribution of the maximum wave elevation can be considered by applying shallow water distribution as the one proposed by Battjes [12]. One major problem in establishing the design environmental conditions for offshore wind turbines is the combination of the external conditions to derive design loads. Contrary to offshore structures where wave loads usually dominate loading, offshore wind turbine support structure may equally be loaded by wind, wave and sea ice forces while currents are of minor importance in 0,30
0,25 0,20 0,15 0,10 0 10 20 I

shallow waters. Preliminary analysis has shown that, in most cases, wind and wave loading are the two main sources of loading. In some areas like the northern Baltic Sea, sea ice loading, combined with extreme wind may be the design driving force. It is generally accepted, that sea ice does not occur in combination with waves, at least in the near shore conditions wind turbines are erected.

Several methods on the combination of external conditions exist, showing a different amount of conservatism and data to be considered. In general the approach: The fewer the information on real conditions is, that higher the conservatism in combination has to be followed in the design of offshore wind turbines. A classification for the extreme event analysis may be seen from the table 4.

IEC Ed. 2 B / GL B IEC Ed. 3 A/ 2 A / GL A IEC Ed. 3 B IEC Ed. 3 C GL-Offshore C

30 v [m/s]



Figure 3: Turbulence intensity according vs. wind speed according to different proposed standards/Guidelines.

Method Add extremes Extremes occur during same storm with 50-year recurrence period Extremes during the same storm have different individual long term probability of occurrence

Example 50-year gust + 50-year design wave 50-year gust + reduced design wave reduced gust + 50-year design wave 50-year gust + 10-year design wave 10-year gust + 50-year design wave Mean wind speed and sea state with a combined probability of 50-years are derived, theoretical assumption for individual extremes during the storms corresponds to: n1-year gust + n2-year design wave, ni-year gust + nj-year design wave Extreme values are combined according to their existing joint probability of occurrence The extremes are analysed as a function of the number of storms

Complexity Very simple

Loads very conservative

Probability Very unlikely



Very low, but may happen


Conservatism or not depends on site**

Site specific

Combination of probability density functions for individual storms

Difficult, Individual probability distributions needed, many realisations


Realistic ***

Combination of probabilities of individual storm events

Very high

Best fit


* Usually only the two extreme cases of the joint probability during the storm are considered, which is correct for linear loading. This may lead to some errors if intermediate combinations of higher order loads dominate. In practice this case occurs seldom and the error is small. ** The combination 50-year + 10-year may have to be changed in some sites to avoid over- or non-conservative results. The method is used in the North Sea. *** Provided the short term analysis takes care of shallow water and other site specific events Table 4: Comparison of possible combinations of extreme wind and wave events

In the GL Wind Guideline, as well as in the IEC standard, the assumption that extreme mean wind and extreme sea state occur at the same 50-year storm is made. The short term fluctuations are not correlated. Of course if better knowledge, from measurements exists for the site in question the real conditions shall be applied.

Further, since type certification, without knowledge of any specific site the GL-Guideline gives some simple methods to estimate the wind speed- wave height relation by using the JONSWAP wind generated wave spectrum in conjunction with the TMA filter. This approach is sufficient for type certification, where only the topsides structure is considered, but only seldom for site specific analysis.

A further problem regarding the shallow sites offshore turbines are intended to be installed is that non linear wave kinematics have to be considerd. Unfortunately there is no engineering method widely applied to consider non linear kinematics in stochastic wave fields. To overcome this drawback the Guideline recommends, that both stochastic wind and wave field simulations are performed as well as deterministic analysis is used. The load cases using stochastic model of the environment only consider linear wave kinematics, but result in a proper representation of the systems dynamics. In contrary the load cases with deterministic gusts and periodic waves consider non-linearities correctly but lack dynamic response consideration.

3.4 Electrics, Safety and CMS

For the electrical equipment additional requirements concerning medium voltage (protective measures, pressure relief, SF6 switchgear, cable), backup power supply, sub station, transformers and generators have been defined. For the safety system a modification was necessary for the case that the emergency system has been activated. Remote clearance can be allowed to a limited amount of activations, when remote monitoring e.g. by cameras and or microphones is possible. GL Winds guideline for the certification of condition monitoring systems [5] is to be applied with offshore specific additions.

A further problem and improvement of the new Guidelines is the inclusion of the breaking wave influence. The wave and sea bottom conditions leading to wave breaking are defined, indicating the type of wave breaking mechanism. In the Appendix of the Guidelines a method, developed by J. Wienke [ 13] of GL to calculate impact load from breaking waves is given.

3.5 Machinery
Due to the offshore environment, requirements for the marinisation of the machinery components have been added. These are air flow, air filtration, heating/cooling, salt filters, corrosion protection and protection classes and encapsulaton of the nacelle. The calculation procedure for pirch and yaw drives has been enhanced and the material safety factors against tooth root fracture and pitting have been increased. Gear box requirements for a running-in period under partial load have been incorporated.

3.3 Structures
The material safety factors for steel structures are now identical to those of the GL Wind onshore guideline, see table 5.

fail safe

non fail safe 1.15


Accessible, regular maintenance and surveillance Not Accessible, no maintenance and no surveillance




Existing guidelines and standards were compared in the present paper. The IEC 61400-3 will be available in 2005 as a draft standard and will focus on site assessment, load assumptions and safety factors for offshore wind turbines. In the GL Wind offshore guideline, one can find simliraties to the IEC 61400-3 load and safety philosophy. The GL Wind offshore guideline is the only guideline, which in depth covers all aspects of the structural safety for offshore wind turbines. Where other guidelines cover only loads or loads and structures, the GL Wind offshore guideline moreover provides requirements for structures, machinery, safety and electrical system and condition monitoring systems.

Table 5: Partial material safety factors for fatigue strength The soil investigation programme is to be performed in accordance to the BSH standard [11]. For horizontally loaded piles the vertical tangent criteria has been introduced, which means that the pile should remain vertical in at least one position under extreme loads. This requirement replaces the zero toe kick criteria. New requirements have been added for grouted joints under bending load.

Part of the investigations described in this paper were investigated within the EU-funded research projects Opti Pile and RECOFF.

IEC.: Wind Turbine Generator Systems part 3: Safety requirements for offshore wind turbines, IEC 61400-3, Ninth version of working draft, May (2004) [2] IEC.: Wind Turbine Generator Systems part 1: Safety requirements for wind turbines, IEC 614001, (2004) [3] Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie GmbH: Guideline for the Certification of Offshore Wind Turbines.Final Draft. Germanischer Lloyd WindEnergie GmbH, November (2004) [4] Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie GmbH: Guideline for the certification of wind turbines, edition 2003 with supplement (2004) [5] Germanischer Lloyd Wind Energie GmbH: Guideline for the certification of condition monitoring systems for wind turbines, (2003) [6] The Danish Energy Agencys Approval Scheme for Wind Turbines: Recommendation for technical approval of offshore wind turbines. December (2001) [7] The Danish Energy Agencys Approval Scheme for Wind Turbines: Technical Criteria for Type Approval and Certification of Wind Turbines in Denmark(TC), (2000) [8] The Danish Energy Agencys Approval Scheme for Wind Turbines: DS 472, Last og sikkerhed for vindmller (load and safety for wind turbines) [9] Det Norske Veritas: Standard for the design of offshore wind turbine structures DNV-OS-J101, (2004) [10] A. D. Garrad, H. G. Matthies, et. al.: Study of Offshore Wind Energy in the EC, Verlag Natrliche Energie, Brekendorf, Germany, (1995) [11] Bundesamt fr Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie: Standard for Geotechnical Site and Route Surveys, Germany, (2004) [1]

[12] [13]

Battjes, J. A., and Groenendijk, H. W., Wave height distributions on shallow foreshores, J. of Coastal Engineering, Vol. 40 (2000) Wienke, J., Druckschlagbelastung auf schlanke zylindrische Bauwerke durch brechende Wellen theoretische und gromastbliche Laboruntersuchungen, Thesis, TU Braunschweig ,