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Composites Market Report 2011:

Market developments, trends, challenges and opportunities


The European GRP market Dr. Elmar Witten (AVK) The global CRP market Bernhard Jahn (CCeV)

September 2011

Contents:
TheEuropeanGRPmarket ..............................................................................................................3 TheEuropeanGRPmarketin2011..................................................................................................4 Fibrereinforcedplastics:Marketdataanddevelopmentin2011 .....................................................5 Productionofglassfibrereinforcedplastics(GRP)in2011:Overalldevelopment............................5 TrendsintheDevelopmentofProcedures/Components................................................................7 Selectingthe"right"process...........................................................................................................9 Shortfibrereinforcedthermoplastics............................................................................................10 Applicationindustriesataglance..................................................................................................11 GRPproductionin2011:itemisedbycountry................................................................................12 Outlook.........................................................................................................................................14 Driversofmarketdevelopment.....................................................................................................15 Theglobal CRPmarket..................................................................................................................17 General.........................................................................................................................................18 Theglobalcarbonfibremarket .....................................................................................................18 Theglobalcarboncompositemarket .............................................................................................20 CRPmarketdataanddevelopments..............................................................................................20 Trendsandoutlook.......................................................................................................................23 Finalobservations.........................................................................................................................25

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Dr. Elmar Witten

The European GRP market

The Author Dr. Elmar Witten is Managing Director of the AVK - Industrievereinigung Verstrkte Kunststoffe (Federation of Reinforced Plastics). The AVK, as a professional association for fibre composite plastics/composites, represents the interests of producers and processors of reinforced plastics/composites on a national and a European level. Nationally, the AVK is one of the four pillars of the GKV Gesamtverband Kunststoffverarbeitende Industrie and an international member of the European composites confederation EuCIA the European Composites Industry Association. In these organisations, Dr. Witten represents the AVKs interests as a member of the extended management (GKV) resp. the board (EuCIA).

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The European GRP market in 2011


Moderate growth despite fluctuations and uncertainties The development of the market for glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP) is currently much more difficult to quantify than it has been in recent years. There are significant divergences between some of the predictions issued by the various market players regarding production volumes to the end of the current year 2011. These are due in part to general uncertainties relating to medium term macroeconomic developments (levels of national debt, developments in commodity markets, ). It is also becoming increasingly difficult to look at the purely European market in isolation as globalisation gathers pace and the network of supplier and buyer markets therefore becomes more complex. Furthermore, short-term commercial contracts also allow non-European markets to react more rapidly to changing requirements within the European market resulting in shifts in market shares. A simple comparison of this year's figures with those from 2010 shows that the overall production volume of GRP has grown moderately and is now at the same level as in 2008. This year, however, the value of a year-on-year comparison of the market developments is limited as part of the 25 % growth predicted exactly one year ago for 2010 was somewhat delayed and actually only took place in the first half of 2011. Specifically this also means that the growth figures for 2010 need to be revised downwards to a certain extent. However, in the interests of maintaining consistency and continuity in the collected market data, these effects have not been corrected in the annual data.

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Fibre reinforced plastics: Market data and development in 2011


As in 2010, the German association AVK - Industrievereinigung Verstrkte Kunststoffe e.V. (Federation of Reinforced Plastics) conducted a survey to obtain data regarding European production volumes of glass fibre reinforced plastics in 2011. In order to obtain comparable data, our model for analysing the European market in this context was once again limited to those countries for which suppliers of raw materials can supply facts and figures. Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics are not included in this section but are handled separately at the end of the report.

Production of glass fibre reinforced plastics (GRP) in 2011: Overall development


The production volume of GRP in Europe in 2011 has returned to the level last seen in 2008 at 1,049 million tonnes (see Fig. 1). However, the simple year-on-year comparison with 2010 is not an entirely accurate reflection of the real and increasingly complex development of the market. As predicted in last year's market report (essentially based on information from producers of raw materials), not all of the unexpectedly strong growth in volume in 2010 actually took place as production. Part of the figure reflected increased warehouse stocks. Production volumes in the first half of 2011 were still very high overall (especially in the 1st quarter) but were also due to a postponement of part of the growth expected in 2010. Essentially, all the market partners agree that this strong growth will no longer be sustainable by the second half of 2011, at the latest. For the reasons outlined above, the forecasts for further development range from "still good growth" to "zero growth" to the assumption of declines in production. These widely differing forecasts are further evidence of the extremely heterogeneous nature of the market, which varies strongly according to the production processes, application industries supplied and specific market conditions in the countries in question.

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However, these differences simultaneously highlight the general uncertainties that currently exist in the markets and the different basic assumptions of the individual market players in the corresponding stages of production.

At the moment, companies are primarily attempting to take advantage of the very diverse opportunities in the individual sales markets. Noteworthy areas include the need for lightweight construction and CO2 reductions in the transport sector, particularly in automotive, as well as new infrastructure projects in Eastern Europe and non-European countries. On the other side of the equation, uncertainties regarding the future development of application industries are delaying the investment decisions required for continuous growth (e.g. for machines and changes to production processes). 2011* Kt 198 69 267 160 98 258 120 77 51 128 86 69 155 105 16 1.049 2010** Kt 198 69 267 160 92 252 113 72 47 119 82 66 148 100 16 1.015 2009 Kt 160 56 216 123 74 197 94 56 39 95 69 55 124 75 14 815 2008 Kt 210 70 280 202 103 305 106 69 46 115 79 62 141 95 16 1.058

SMC BMC SMC/BMC Hand lay-up Spray-up Open mould RTM Sheets Pultrusion Continuous processing Filament winding Centrifugal casting Pipes and Tanks GMT/LFT Others Sum:

Fig. 1: GRP production volumes in Europe, itemised by techniques / components (2011* = estimated, 2010** = last year's estimate has been retained and not corrected to take account of real development)

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Trends in the Development of Procedures / Components


The continuing upswing in demand in the automotive and electro/electronics sectors has led to continued growth in the production of thermosetting SMC (sheet moulding compound) and BMC (bulk moulding compound) parts. Over recent years, SMC parts have accounted for by far the greater part of this production. Generally, growth of approx. 7 % is expected in this area in 2011. This is not reflected in Fig. 1 for the following reason: the forecasts for this production segment in 2010 were considerably higher than the growth actually achieved. In fact, some of this production only occurred in 2011 especially in the first half of the year (SMC production was up by well over 10 % compared with the first half of 2010, BMC was up by approx. 3 5 %).

The trend is shifting slightly towards a greater number of applications in the automobile industry. Structural components may also have the potential to become a future focus of production in addition to the current major area of car body parts. Growth in hybrid applications with other materials may also show greater strength than in previous years and there is also the potential for the development of applications in completely new sectors, such as renewable energy (e.g. sun reflectors).

Stagnation has been observed in the production of parts by hand lay-up. For now, a recovery from the collapse triggered by the economic crisis does not seem possible. Hand lay-up is the least automated of all the processes and primarily used by many of the small processors to manufacture large or individual parts and made-tomeasure components. However, it is either being partially substituted by other methods (e.g. RTM production) or the companies are no longer in the market. For the spray-up process, the trend is more positive and production is heading back up towards the levels achieved in 2008. However, these so-called "open processes" have the lowest growth in the GRP market as a whole. Their share of total production has fallen during the last few years from over 30 % to 25 %.

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Yet the potential of open processes remains strong as they usually require only a small investment in machinery and are extremely adaptable to individual specifications.

The future appears bright for RTM (resin transfer moulding) and parts manufactured using this process. Year-on-year growth was slightly above average. As well as benefiting from its use as a substitute for open processes, the potential of this sector is underlined by the growth observed in the use of RTM plants (esp. epoxy), above all in the automobile industry. The rising demand for equipment in universities and institutions suggests that additional research is being conducted into specific, novel applications and there is a need for further optimisation of procedures and processes. The growth picture for the second half of the year is slightly tarnished by the stagnation in the wind energy sector.

The market for GRP pultrusion profiles has weathered the crisis relatively well and continues to show above average growth albeit at a still relatively low level of production. Although public sector customers, especially for infrastructure orders, require very specific marketing activities, their partnerships tend to be more predictable in the medium-term than those with industrial companies.

Growth in GRP panels manufactured using continuous processes tracks the development of the main area of application the commercial vehicle industry. After a relatively sharp decline during the crisis, this sector is now enjoying comparatively high levels of growth.

In the area of pipe and tank components, the specialist segment of sewer renovation using so-called pipe liners continues to deliver above average performance. In contrast, the production of pipes in Europe continues to lag behind the growth seen in other regions.

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One example of this is the demand from the oil industry in North Africa and the Middle East, although there is currently stagnation here as well due to the political uncertainties.There is also potential in Europe especially in the area of sewage and drinking water treatment plants.

Glass mat reinforced thermoplastics (GMT) and long fibre reinforced thermoplastics (LFT) are now benefiting from demand in the automobile industry. With LFT, in particular, several companies have successfully opened up new applications and/or been able to replace metal materials. Here too although to a lesser extent part of the growth forecast for 2010 was delayed until the first half of 2011, which showed a double digit growth rate over the production in the same time period in 2010. The potential for LFT is greater than for GMT. A few years ago, GMT had a 40 % share of this segment but this has now stabilised at just over 30 %. Many observers see great potential for LFT materials, particularly in the area of direct processes.

Selecting the "right" process


Many people ask which of the above processes is the best or has the best potential for the future. There is no general answer to this question. When deciding which specific process to use for manufacturing GRP parts, the most significant consideration is always the customer's requirements regarding costeffectiveness and technology. Precisely which of the outlined technologies come into question depends on the number of pieces of a component required per year. Hand lay-up may be most appropriate for manufacturing unique, individual components or smaller batch sizes, the RTM process may be suitable for larger batches (e.g. several hundred) or large components and the SMC process best suited to producing parts by the thousand. Furthermore, the choice of the "right" process is defined by technical (esp. mechanical) properties.

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So just as GRP can have general advantages (as well as disadvantages) over other materials, it is also impossible to make meaningful general assertions about which process is the best. Ultimately, the choice of material or process is defined by the customer's needs and the required properties of the manufactured part. At the same time, the wide range of GRP processes available offers an exceptionally broad spectrum of potential applications in a number of areas and enormous manufacturing flexibility.

The question is therefore not what the material can do, but what properties are required of the manufactured part and which manufacturing technique is the most appropriate.

Short fibre reinforced thermoplastics


Demand for short fibre reinforced thermoplastics is currently growing continuously, especially for new applications in the automobile industry. The volume of this product manufactured is not yet included in the data collected by the AVK. Even though many of the general conditions in this market differ significantly from those for the processes described above, this segment will be included as a component of the composite market in the medium- and long-term.

With an average glass content in the total production volume of 30 %, short fibre reinforced thermoplastics are currently expected to reach a production volume of over 1 million tonnes and achieve double digit growth in the current year compared to 2010 in countries considered in this report.

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Application industries at a glance


The shares of the individual application industries in terms of the total number of GRP parts continue to be relatively constant over time (see Fig. 2). There has been a minimal increase here in transport applications and a correspondingly slight, retreat in the construction sector. Overall, GRP electro/electronic applications have mostly returned to 2008 levels while construction applications are currently still somewhat lower.

The key factor in the area of transport is automobile construction. Production is still rising in several of the European countries observed but with strong regional differences and with an overall stagnation in growth expected in 2012. The sales markets in China, India and Russia will experience above average growth as investments worth billions are expected here. European manufacturers, suppliers and GRP processors, principally in the strong exporting nations such as Germany, will participate in these market developments.

14%

2% 35%

35%

14% Electro / Electronic Sports & Leisure

Transport Construction Others

Fig. 2: GRP production in Europe for different application industries (year: 2011)

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GRP production in 2011: itemised by country


Analysis of GRP production volumes by country is extremely difficult due to the data base. Forecasts for regional market development vary widely. This is partly due to the differing forecasts regarding the development of the market in general (see overall development), but also to the divergences in the types of production that predominate in the various countries. Forecasts from manufacturers of raw materials vary widely according to the type of product the materials are used in. The market forecast should therefore be seen in fundamental rather than absolute terms.

The greatest decline has been observed in Spain/Portugal, particularly in Spain. GRP production has also fallen in the United Kingdom compared to last year

Relatively speaking, the strongest growth is in Germany and Italy as well as Austria and Switzerland (though here on a relatively low absolute level). In Germany, this is mostly attributable to the still prospering automotive sector while in Europe as a whole declines have already been observed in the first half of 2011. On the other hand, there are currently signs of comparatively weak growth or even declining production in Germany, e.g. in open processes, especially compared to countries such as Poland or even Spain. This is due to the differences that still exist in labour costs but also partly to the postponed or absent investment by smaller processors in particular.

Markets for electronic applications are also growing well at the moment, e.g. in Germany and Scandinavia. In Scandinavia, especially in Finland, GRP production growth is relatively strong at approx. 10 %.

In all Southern Europe countries, the decline in the construction industry is the major factor preventing stronger growth.

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The above average growth in Eastern Europe shown here for 2011, however, is primarily due to the larger number of countries included in this study: this year's report includes GRP production in Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia for the first time.

Turkey and the Russian market are not included. Turkey is currently in the global terms experiencing above average growth in the GRP market of approx. 10 % per annum. The scale of the production volume corresponds approximately to the average level of the five largest European countries (country groups) studied in this report. The automotive sector and major infrastructure projects are the primary drivers of growth currently expected in Russia (also indicated, e.g. by investment in SMC plants).

Globally, the total composites market share is: Europe 25%, America 25% and Asia 50% (including thermoplastic composites). Sales of resin materials for composites are a useful indicator for the further development of the global market. Currently, stronger growth is being observed in China, India and Brazil than in the USA/Canada or Europe. European suppliers must anticipate that Asian processors will increasingly attempt to take over GRP manufacturing for the European markets as well.

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2011* Kt UK / Ireland Belgium / Netherlands / Luxembourg Finland / Norway / Sweden / Denmark Spain / Portugal Italy France Germany Austria / Switzerland Eastern Europe** Total: 126 42 52 200 165 122 172 17 153 1.049

2010 Kt 130 40 50 217 154 116 161 16 131 1.015

2009 Kt 106 31 52 188 122 87 118 13 98 815

2008 Kt 123 38 69 236 183 115 145 13 136 1.058

Fig. 3: GRP production volumes in Europe broken down by country / group of countries (2011* = estimated, Eastern Europe = Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia and Slovenia. The last four of these have been included for the first time in 2011).

Outlook
These discussions are intended to highlight the fact that it is currently no longer possible to make specific forecasts about the overall market development for GRP isolated from an observation of the individual countries, processes and areas of application. Detailed analyses of the development of the application industries in the individual countries and the regional opportunities available to GRP processors are essential. Nevertheless, it is possible to make a few general statements about the main drivers for the further market development of the individual applications.

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Drivers of market development


Indutrial requirements in the area of weight reduction, and therefore lightweight construction, are a key consideration throughout the transport sector and therefore a major factor in the continued growth of the composites and GRP industry. However, vehicle construction faces additional requirements such as aesthetic appeal, which must be taken into account when designing surface finishes. The current hype regarding lightweight construction solutions in the automotive sector especially in relation to testing the use of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CRP) will only boost the market if producers are able to respond by manufacturing new high performance materials cost-effectively and on an appropriate industrial scale.

Faced with a growing list of requirements from consumers, users of these materials already face the challenge of comparing the economically viable with the new possibilities (e.g. with GRP). New production techniques must be tested. Further automation of processes offers enormous potential for future growth in composites in general. It should also be remembered that current capacity and demand for CRP is still low in absolute terms compared to GRP.

In the electro/electronics industry, as well as in sports and leisure applications, the factors driving further development in the use of GRP are different. Here the mechanical properties (compared to other materials) and costs of the components are the primary considerations. Aesthetic appeal is also important in the sports sector.

The highly diverse nature of GRP construction applications means that this market is driven by a variety of different factors: in the wind energy sector it is, above all, the political will/pressure to push forward "green energy". For infrastructure projects, e.g. in tank and plant construction, the main focus is on special corrosion properties requirements as well as costs.

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The following drivers apply to all the various branches of industry offering all participants in the market the opportunity to grow with GRP applications: 1. Growing pressure from consumers for products with greater advantages in terms of sustainability than products made using other materials. 2. The opportunities still available for replacing traditional materials with GRP. 3. The untapped potential offered by innovative applications, which have not yet been or cannot be realised using other materials (e.g. wind energy). 4. The pressure to achieve further efficiency gains in manufacturing and opportunities for greater automation. 5. The potential for offering solutions using hybrid constructions in combination with other materials.

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The global CRP market

The Author Bernhard Jahn is a project architect with Carbon Composites e. V. (CCeV). CCeV is the leading network of excellence for companies and research institutes in the southern German-speaking world involving the entire value-added chain of fibre composite technologies. As an industry association, the CCeV offers its partners an outstanding platform to advance their goal of "developing and marketing these pioneering technologies both nationally and internationally." The CCeV gathers expertise from both science and industry and brings together partners from these sectors to discuss, inspire and implement projects. Marketable and competitive CRP fibre composite structures - this is the product group CceV focuses on.

General
An assessment of the CRP market, including statements, forecasts, trends, outlook etc., can only make sense if it also looks at carbon fibre itself, the basis of all CRP materials. The market report 2010/2011 will therefore study the market for carbon fibre as well and take these findings into account.

The global carbon fibre market


The carbon fibre market, just like industry in general, suffered a significant decline in 2009 as a result of the global economic and financial crisis. A comparison of the figures available from the fibre industry show that approx. 33,000 tonnes of carbon fibre were processed in 2008. In 2009, the crisis year, demand collapsed to approx. 24,000 tonnes. Demand in 2010 totalled approx. 31,000 tonnes and therefore did not quite fulfil the expectation that it would regain the level achieved in 2008.

However, a significant revitalisation of the market is expected over the next few years. In 2011 alone, well-known fibre manufacturers expect demand to reach between 35,000 and 37,000 tonnes. The growth rates associated with this are now returning to the levels predicted before the economic crisis struck. [ACM], [SGLG],
[TEJL], [CIRFS], [DBG]

A few optimistic market analysts [LUC] are now forecasting carbon fibre consumption of approx. 38,800 tonnes in 2010, which is already considerably higher than the level of consumption in 2008. We will base our report this year on the data available from the fibre industry. Nonetheless, we will watch the figures from these analysts closely and, if appropriate, include them in future market reports.

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Fig. 1: Global demand for carbon fibres 2008 2015 (*estimates)

The very encouraging prospects for the sector mean that market leading carbon fibre manufacturers are already developing plans about how to expand future capacity. A number of manufacturers have already presented declarations of intent or plans for expanding capacity. If the calculations and predictions of the analysts are to be believed, demand in 2015 will already consume all today's available capacity. This may well be a reason that ambitious Chinese manufacturers now want to play their part in determining the direction of the carbon fibre market as well. According to the twelfth 5-year plan for the chemical fibre industry, the Chinese carbon fibre sector should be expected to have a capacity of approx. 12,000 tonnes of carbon fibre by as early as 2015. [Ch5P]

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Fig. 2: Carbon fibre capacities itemised by manufacturer (2010) in t - [ACM],


[SGLG], [TohoT]

The global carbon composite market


As the vast majority of carbon fibre produced (over 98 %) is processed into composite materials of all types, the carbon composite market develops at the same pace as the CF market. The tonnage of CRP is naturally much higher, however, due to the addition of the matrix component of approx. 35-40 % (epoxy, phenolic and polyester resins, thermoplastics, carbon, ceramic, metal etc.). [SGLG]

CRP market data and developments


Composites with matrices based on carbon, ceramics, glass or metal are exotic and intended for use in special applications. The principal of these is space flight but they are also used on a larger scale as CFC in high performance brake discs. It is estimated that this class of composites has an absolute market share of approx. 5 % and the following view of the overall CRP market by volume assumes this market share to be accurate. The sector with the largest market share is clearly composites using plastics (e.g. epoxy, phenolic and polyester resins etc. as well as thermoplastics) as the matrix. [SGLG]; [CCeV]

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Fig. 3:Global consumption/demand for CRP 2008 2015 (*estimate)

Thermosetting plastics (resins) dominate the market and account for approx. 90 % of production. The remaining 10 % is made up by thermoplastics such as PEEK, PBI, PPS, PEI as well as other high performance thermoplastics Epoxy resins are the leading resins used with a market share of approx. 72 %. [ACM]

Fig. 4: CRP thermosetting plastics - global market shares

[ACM]

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CRP based on epoxy and phenolic resins are used in a broad spectrum of applications due to their property profiles. Polyester resins are now increasingly being used in higher value applications, with the exception of the medical sector, due to their price-performance ratio. CRP with a polyester resin matrix is the dominant material in marine applications (e.g. boat building) and the construction sector.

Fig. 5: Applications of CRP with epoxy and/or phenolic resins [ACM]

Fig 6: Applications of CRP with polyester resins [ACM]

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Trends and outlook


In 2010, the market volume for CRP almost regained the level seen in 2008 and will significantly surpass it in 2011. Analysts are again forecasting double-digit growth rates for the years ahead once the economic crisis has been overcome. Apart from the recovering sectors of sports equipment, industry and aerospace applications, the following reasons/events are proposed as the root causes of the revitalisation of the market.

The growing numbers of orders received from the aviation industry and, in particular, the much greater proportion of CRP used in the structural areas of newly developed aircraft (Boing B787, Airbus A340-XWB etc.) will generate additional growth in the market. The weight reductions targeted, especially in the new aircraft models, will make a significant contribution to raising energy efficiency and hence cutting operating costs.

Ultimately, the reactor disaster in Fukushima has increased the pressure for renewable energies to be developed more quickly and more widely. In the short term, this can only be achieved by installing new large wind turbines (offshore turbines of more than 5 MW) or by re-powering existing locations. Wind turbines with a generating capacity of over 5 MW will require even larger rotor blades, which in turn will also require even greater rigidity. Rotor blades based solely on GRP cannot fully meet these requirements. Reinforcement bands made of CRP will be used increasingly in this area.

By the end of 2010, wind turbines with a total generating capacity of approx. 190 GW had been installed world-wide. As in 2009 and 2010, forecasts suggest that an additional 30 GW of capacty will be installed annually over the next few years. However, analysts have not yet taken the Fukushima effect into account in this figure. [LUC]

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Lightweight construction is the order of the day for saving resources while providing urban mobility using all modes of land, water and air transport. In electric cars, the extra weight of electric motors, batteries etc. must be balanced by lightweight construction in other areas. This is the only way to build vehicles with an acceptable range.

However, vehicles with conventional internal combustion engines can also benefit from losing weight. A reduction of 100 kg can cut fuel consumption by approx. 0.3 l / 100 km. Incidentally, these cars could also be fuelled by solar and wind energy albeit indirectly via hydrogen (from electrolysis) and synthesised methane.

Reducing weight plays a significant role in cutting costs and raising efficiency whenever mass is set in motion, whether for our own mobility or in the manufacturing and transportation of products and goods. Here, CRP can display its outstanding potential, which outperforms all other materials in lightweight applications. A component with an optimum CRP design can be made up to 70 % lighter than the comparable steel part or 30 % lighter than the aluminium version. [CCeV],[SGLG]

Tangible environmental and economic benefits, however, can only be achieved if lightweight construction is used on a large scale. For this, it is essential that CRP parts can be mass produced, which in turn demands automation in the manufacturing process. This is the key to achieving large scale use of CRP components in the automobile and aviation industries. CF composites with thermoplastic matrices will assume an important role in achieving this goal. Partnerships and joint ventures between well-known car manufacturers (Audi, BMW, Toyota and VW) and the CRP industry (yarn producers, CRP manufacturers and processors) demonstrate that industry has the will to address the area of CRP materials intensively and understands the necessity of doing so. [LUC]

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Final observations
If mankind wishes to secure its existence in the long-term, it will be essential to use existing resources more efficiently and sustainably. This will be the challenge of the future. One key aspect of this will be the use of energy. Regardless of whether energy is generated, consumed or stored, the potential of composites in lightweight construction offers a host of opportunities and will make a significant contribution to raising energy efficiency. The strength and durability of composites as well as the opportunities they offer in combination with traditional lightweight materials such as aluminium and titanium will open up new fields for novel applications. Substitution of steel, though much discussed and desired, is not the only area of interest. The intelligent combination and integration of steel with CRP can be an environmentally and economically valuable combination of materials. From the chart below showing current production volumes, it is obvious that a complete substitution of steel and aluminium by composites is neither a realistic nor a necessarily desirable goal.

Fig. 8: Global material consumption 2009 in millions of tonnes

[LUC], [SGLG]

Market forces will decide which materials and combinations of materials will be adopted in the various applications. In the future, the ecological rather than the economic aspects may well be the decisive factor. Objective LCAs for the various classes and combinations of materials and their consistent use therefore present a further challenge for the future.

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Literature:

[ACM] [LUC]

Acmite Market Intelligence: World Carbon Fiber Composite Market - July 2010 Lucintel: Growth Opportunities in Global / Composites Industry 2011-2016 - February 2011 SGL Group Carbon Fibers & Composites-Ascent to Industrial Engineering Materials Bayern Innovativ 05.05.2011 CIRFS European man-made fibres association: DIGEST: 17 August, 2010 Teijin Limited: Flash Report FY09 - Financial Performance &FY10 Outlook - May 10, 2010 TohoTenax Europe GmbH: Kohlestofffaserverstrkte Thermoplaste fr Strukturbauteile in der Lustfahrtindustrie (Carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastics for structural components in the aviation industry) - thermocomp, 06.2011 Deutsche Bank Group: Paper & Textiles/Textiles Synthetic fiber industry - Synthetic fiber industry Carbon fiber market prepares for another takeoff - 23 July 2010 Technology Innovation, the Lighthouse Guiding the Development of Chinese Chemical Fiber Industry during the 12th Five-year Plan Period. CCeV: Skizze fr den Spitzencluster-Wettbewerb des BMBF (Diagram for the "Spitzencluster" competition run by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) / M A I Carbon - Schlsseltechnologie fr Deutschland. 30.03-2011

[SGLG]

[CIRFS] [TEJL]

[TohoT]

[DBG]

[Ch5P]

[CCeV]

Note: Bernhard Jahn supports the CCeV as a project architect. His work is supported by the EU through the European Social Fund (ESF).

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