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Ministry of Science and Technology Department of Technical and Vocational Education Final Examination for B.

Tech Year II Date !".#"."$ Time #! %"&#' %"

Met "("!%) *oncept of Materials Science II +Mar,ing Scheme.ns/er any fi0e. #.+a- Define dispersoids. Nickel containing 2 wt% thorium is produced in powder form, consolidated into a part, and sintered in the presence of oxygen, causing all of the thorium to produce Th O2 ; sphere 8 nm in diameter. !alculate the num"er of sphere per cm#.$Density of Nickle and Th O2 is 8.% 2g& cm# and %.8'g& cm# . (tomic mass of Th is 2#2 and ) is *'+ .ns Dispersoids , Tiny oxide particles formed in a metal matrix that interfere with dislocation mo-ement and pro-ide strengthening, e-en at ele-ated temperature. 2wt% Thrium , %8wt% nickel in * gm of material.

Ni = 8.% 2 g & cm# , ThO2 = %.8' g & cm# , M Th = 2#2, M O = *'.


diameter of sphere . 8 nm, r = / nm -olume of Ni = Th + O2 = ThO2 2 g , Th xgThO2 = 2#2 g & mole 2'/ g & mole wt of Th O2 x = 2.201% gm 2.201% gm = .2# 8cm# %.8' g & cm# .2# 8 .2# 8 + **. 88 = . 2 1
0 #

%8 gm = **. 8.% 2 g & cm#

88cm#

total -olume of oxide .

-olume fraction of oxide f oxide =

/ # / $/ * -olume of each oxide sphere Vsphere = r = n # # . 2.'8 *


*'

cm# & particle

total no. of oxide particles in * cm# is , particles = . 2 1cm#ThO2 2.'8 * *' cm# & particle
*1

= 0.'1 *

particles & cm#

#.+1- 2hat is cemented car"ides3 ( cemented car"ide cutting tool used for machining contains 01wt% 2!, *1wt%Ti!, 1wt%Ta! and 1wt%!o. 4stimate the density of the composite.

.wc = *1.00 g & cm# , .TiC = /.%/ g & cm# .TaC = */.1 g & cm# , .Co = 8.% g & cm#
.ns !emented car"ides; 5articulate composites containing hard ceramic particles "onded with a soft metallic matrix.

.wc = *1.00 g & cm# , .TiC = /.%/ g & cm# .TaC = */.1 g & cm# , .Co = 8.% g & cm#
f wc 01 *1.00 = 01 *1 1 1 + + + *1.00 /.%/ */.1 8.% = fTiC = /.0' = .1/0 8.0 *1

/.%/ = .#/% 8.0 1 fTaC = */.1 = . / 8.0 1 f Co = 8.% = . '/ 8.0 6rom the rule of mixtures, the density of the composite is

C = f i i = $ .1/0+$*1.00+ + $ .#/%+$/.%/+ + $ . /+$*/.1+ + $ . '/+$8.%+


. **.1 g& cm# !.+a- Deri-e the rule of mixtures for the modulus of elasticity of a fi"er7reinforced composite $i+ when a stress is applied along the axis of the fi"ers $ii+ when a stress is applied perpendicular to the axis of the fi"er.

.ns $i+ 2hen a stress is applied along the axis of the fi"ers. The total force acting on the composite is the sum of the forces carried "y each constituent. Fc = Fm + F f 8ince, F = A c Ac = m Am + f Af

c = m

A Am + f f Ac Ac

9f the fi"ers ha-e a uniform cross7section, the area fraction e:uals the -olume fraction f .

c = m fm + f f f
6rom ;ooke<s law,

=E Ec c = Em m f m + E f f f f
9f the fi"ers are rigidly "onded to the matrix, "oth the fi"ers and the matrix must stretch e:ual amounts.

c = m = f
Ec = Em f m + E f f f $ii+ 2hen a stress is applied perpendicular to the axis of the fi"er.

c = f m c + f f c c = fm $ m + + f f $ f + Ec Em Ef
8ince,

c = m = f
f f * = m + f Ec Em E f

!.+1- Define composite and explain one of the following; $i+ dispersion strengthened materials $ii+ True particulate composite $iii+ 6i"er reinforced composite

.ns !omposites are composed of two or more materials =oined to gi-e a com"ination of properties that cannot "e attained any of the original materials. >irtually any com"ination metals7polymers and ceramics is possi"le. 9n many case the rule of mixture can "e used to estimate the properties of the composite. Dispersion strengthened materials, which are not true composite, contain exceptionally small oxide particles in a metal matrix. The small sta"le dispersoids interfere with slip, pro-iding good mechanical properties at ele-ated temperatures. )? True particulate composites contain particles that impart com"inations of properties to the composite. @etal matrix composite contains ceramic or metallic particles that pro-ide impro-ed strength, wear resistance and assure good electrical conducti-ity, toughness or corrosion resistance. 5olymer matrix composites contain particles that enhance stiffness, heat resistance or electrical conducti-ity while maintaining light weight, case of fa"rication or low cost. )? 6i"er reinforced composites pro-ide impro-ements in strength stiffness or high temperature performance in metal and polymers and impart toughness to ceramics. 6i"ers typically ha-e low densities, gi-ing high specific strength and specific modulus, "ut they often are -ery "rittle. 6i"ers can "e continuous or discontinous. %.+a- Define laminar composite. !apacitors use to store electrical charges are essentially laminar composites "uilt up from alternating layers of a conductor and an insulator. 8uppose we construct a capacitor from * sheets of mica, each . *cm thick and **sheets of aluminum, each . aluminum is #.8x * sheets. .ns Aaminar composites are "uilt of layers of different materials. These layers may "e sheets of different metals, with one metal pro-iding strength and the other pro-iding hardness of corrosion resistance.The fi"er7reinforced sheets ha-ing different fi"er orientations and anisotropic. 8uppose the capacitor plates are * cm 2 .
1

'cm thick. The electrical conducti-ity of and the conducti-ity of mica is *


*#

ohm * cm

ohm * cm * .

Determine the electrical conducti-ity of the capacitor parallel and perpendicular to the

VAL = $**sheets +$ . f AL =

'cm+$*cm 2 + = .

''cm#

Vmica = $* sheets +$ . *cm+$*cm 2 + = .*cm# . '' = . '2 . '' + .* .* f mica = = .%#8 . '' + .* Parallel ,

= $ . '2+$#.8 * 1 + + $ .%#8+$* *# + = .2/ * 1 ohm *cm * Perpendicular , * . '2 .%#8 = + *# = .%#8 * *# 1 #.8 * * *# = *. 0 * ohm *cm *
%.+1- 6i-e kg of continuous "oron fi"ers are introduced in a unidirectional orientation into eight kg of an aluminum matrix. !alculate $i+ the density of the composite,$ii+ the modulus of elasticity parallel to the fi"ers, $iii+ the modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the fi"ers. .ns wt of fi"er . 1 * # gm wt of (A . 8 * # gm density of composite C = f B B + f AL AL

B = density of fi"er, m = density of (A


f B = -olume fraction of fi"er, f AL = -olume fraction of (A 1 * fB = 1 * f
# #

f 8 * + m
#

1 f m

f 1 m + 8 f
8 f 1m + 8 f

1m 1 m + 8 f

8 * f AL = 1 * f
#

m 8 * + m

$i+ C =

8 f f AL 1m f B + 1 m + 8 f 1 m + 8 f 1 m f B + 8 f f AL 1m + 8 f

$ii+ @odulus of elasticity parallel to the fi"er;

EC = f B EB + f AL E AL $iii+ @odulus of elasticity perpendicular to the fi"er; * f f = B + AL EC EB E AL * E f + EB f AL = AL B EC EB E AL EC = EB E AL E AL f B + EB f AL

(. +a- Design a process to electroplate a .*cm thick layer of copper onto a *cm x *cm cathode surface. The density of copper is 8.%' g& cm# and atomic weight is '#.1/g&mole. .ns Thickness . .* cm (rea . * cm 2

Cu = 8.%' g & cm# M Cu = '#.1/ gm & mole, n = 2


>olume of !u . (rea x thickness . *. x .* . .* cm# wt of !u . 8.%'g& cm# x .* cm# . .8%'g 9t = wnF .8%' g 2 %'1 = M '#.1/ . 2022(8. 2e might use se-eral different com"ination of current and time to produce the !u plate. !urrent .* ( *. ( * . ( * ( Time 2022 8 . 0.' h 2022 8 . /1./ min 202.2 8 . /.1 min 20.22 8. ./1 m

(. +1- ( "rass fitting used in a marine application is =oined "y soldering with lead7tin solder. 2ill the "rass or the solder corrode3 2hy3 .ns 6rom the gal-anic series. 2e find that all of the !u "ase alloys are more catholic than a 1 % 5" B 1 % 8n solder. Thus, the solder is the anode and corrodes.

9n a similar manner, corrosion of solder can contaminate water in fresh water plum"ing systems with lead. !omposition cell de-elop in two phase alloys, where one phase is more anodic than the other. 8ince ferrite is anodic to cementite in steel, small micro7cells cause steel to gal-anic ally corrode. (lmost always, a two7phase alloy has less resistance to corrosion than a single7phase alloy of similar composition. (t anode $ferrite+ (t * O2 + 2 O + 2e 2$O + $cementite+ cathode 6e 6e 2+ C 2 e

'. +a- Define the 5illing7Dedworth ratio. The density of aluminum is 2.0g& cm# and that of (l 2 O# is a"out /g& cm# . Descri"e the characteristics of the aluminum oxide film. !ompare with the oxide film that forms on tungsten. The density of tungsten is *%.21/g& cm# and that of 2 O# is 0.#g& cm# . $atomic mass of (l . 2'.%', ) . *', 2 .*8#.81+
# # .ns AL = 2.0 g & cm , AL2O# = / g & cm

! = *%.21/ g & cm# , !O# = 0.# g & cm#


M AL = 2'.%' , M O = *' , M ! = *8#.81 M AL2O# = * *.%' g & mole , M !O# = 2#*.81 g & mole 6or P.B = # 2 Al + O2 AL2O# 2 M AL2O# AL nM Al AL2O# * *.%' 2.0 = *.28 2 2'.%' / # ! + O2 !O# 2

= 6or

P.B =

M !O# ! nM ! !O#

2#*.81 *%.21/ * *8#.81 0.# = #.## = 8ince P.B * for AL , the AL2O# film is nonporous and adherent , pro-iding protection to the underlying aluminum. ;owe-er P.B fE2 for ! , so the !O# should "e non adherent and nonprotecti-e. '.+1- 2hat are common methods of corrosion control3 4xplain any two. .ns !ommon methods of corrosion control are *. design 2. coatings #. inhi"itors /. cathodic protection 1. passi-ation and '. material selection. Explain any t/o Design 5roper design of metal structures can slow or a-oid corrosion. They are B *. 5re-ent the formation of gal-anic cell. 2. @ake the anode area much larger than the cathode area. #. Design components so that fluid systems are closed rather than open and so that stagnamt pools of li:uid do not collect. /. (-oid cre-ices "etween assem"led or =oined materials. 1. The rate of corrosion cannot "e reduced to a le-es that will not interfere with the expected lifetime of a component. The corroded part can easily and economically "e replaced. *oatings Temporary coatings are grease or oil. @etallic coatings include tin7plated and gal-aniFed $ Ginc7plated + steel. )rganic coatings, paint or ceramic coatings7 enamel or glass, pro-ide "etter protection. 9nhi"itors , (dditions to the electrolyte that preferentially migrate to the anode or cathode, cause polariFation, and reduce the rate of corrosion. *athodic protection 2e can protect against corrosion "y supplying the metal with electrons and forcing the metal to "e a cathode . !athodic protection can use a sacrificial anode or an impressed -oltage.

$i+ sacrificial anode ,

!athodic protection "y which a more anodic material is

connected electrically to the material to "e protected. The anode corrodes to protect the desired material. $ii+9mpressed -oltage , reaction. $. Define the following. $i+ (spect ratio $ii+ !ladding $iii+ 5ultrusion $i-+ 2hiskers $x+ 5assi-ation $-+ 6ilament winding $-i+ ;oney com" .ns $-ii+ (nodiFing ( cathodic techni:ue "y which a direct current is introduced into the material to "e protected, thus pre-enting the anode

$-iii+ DeFincification $ix+ 9ntergranular corrosion

$i+ (spect ratio , The length of a fi"er di-ided "y its diameter. $ii+ cladding , The good corrosion resistant or high7hardness layer of a laminar composite formed onto a less expensi-e or higher7 strength "acking $iii+ 5ultrusion , ( method for producing composites containing mats or continuous fi"ers $i-+ 2hiskers , >ery fine fi"ers grown in a manner that produces single crystals with no mo"ile dislocations, thus gi-ing nearly theoretical strengths. $-+ 6ilament winding, 5rocess for producing fi"er reinforced composites in which continuous fi"ers are wrapped around a form or man dral. $-i+ ;oney com" , (light weight "ut stiff assem"ly of aluminum strip =oined and ; expanded to form the core of a sandwich structure. $-ii+ (nodiFing , (n anodic protection techni:ue in which a thick oxide layer is deli"erately produced on a metal surface. $-iii+ DeFincification , ( special chemical corrosion process "y which "oth Finc and copper atoms are remo-ed from "rass, "ut the copper is replated "ack onto the metal $ix+ 9ntergranular corrosion , !orrosion at grain "oundaries "ecause grain "oundary segregation or precipitation produces local gal-anic cell. $x+ 5assi-ation , 5roducing strong anodic polariFation "y causing a protecti-e

coating to form on the anode surface and to there "y interrupt the electric circuit.