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Submitted to: Ms. Zahra Khan Date: 13-6-2013
Prepared by: NOAMAN AHMED CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR
Department of Chemical Engineering COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Defence Road off Raiwind Road Lahore
Chemical Process Technology II - Lab
detergents can be classified as. and products such as clothes. floors. Powdered detergents Detergent bars or cakes Liquid detergents Detergent paste Chemical Process Technology II .Lab . tableware. Detergent Powders – Used for washing clothes Liquid Detergents – Used for washing tableware Floor detergents – Used for cleaning floors Metal cleaning detergents – Specially formulated detergents for cleaning metals Oil/Grease removal detergents – Specially formulated detergents for removal of oil and grease stains from clothes and various surfaces Based on their physical appearance and manufacture. Some common types include. chemical processing equipment etc. Detergents can be classified into various types based on their application.1 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR Detergents A detergent is a chemical compound that is commonly used for washing and cleaning of various materials. surfaces.
3. zeolites are being used as substitutes for phosphates. Some common type of additives include. sulfates. 2.2 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR Raw Materials Detergents may contain varying percentages of linear alkyl benzene sulfonates. Most of inorganic materials such as oleum (H2S2O7). Builders boost detergent power and prevent re-deposition of soil from the wash water on fabrics. Builders These are inorganic chemicals that are added to detergents.Lab . are used as builders. fatty acids. Additives These chemicals enhance the properties of detergents and act as a medium for distinguishing various brands of detergents based on their additive power and enhanced capabilities. Surfactants These are organic derivatives such as sodium salts of high molecular weight alkyl sulfates and sulfonates. NaOH. Complex phosphates such as Sodium TriPolyphosphate (STPP) and Tetra-Sodium Pyrophosphate. various sodiumphosphates and a large number of builders and additives are also added during the manufacture of detergents. Corrosion inhibitors Fabric shiner Fabric softener Bluing agents (improvement of whiteness of clothes) Enzymes (help remove stains consisting of proteins) Chemical Process Technology II . fatty alcohols and amines. Although. 1.
R-C6H4-SO3H + R’. R-C6H4-SO3H + H2SO4. This reaction is divided into one main reaction and two secondary reactions Main Reaction Alkyl benzene reacts with oleum to form alkyl benzene sulfonate and sulphuric acid.Lab .C6H5 R-C6H4-SO2-C6H4-R’ (1%) + H2O Chemical Process Technology II . R-C6H5 + H2SO4.SO3 R-C6H3-(SO3H)2 + H2SO4 Alkyl benzene sulfonate reacts with alkyl benzene to form sulfone and water.3 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR Chemical Reactions The chemical reaction that occurs during the manufacture of detergents is linear alkyl benzene sulfonation. The reaction is exothermic.SO3 R-C6H4-SO3H + H2SO4 ΔH = -420 kJ/kg Secondary Reactions Alkyl benzene sulfonate reacts with oleum to form di-sulfonate and sulphuric acid.
Lab . Austin.4 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR Manufacturing Process Figure 1 –Simplified continuous flowchart for the production of heavy-duty detergent granules (Procter & Gamble Co.. Chemical Process Technology II . 1998.) Source: George T. “Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries”. 3rd ed.
the newly made surfactants are sent to a warehouse or a storage building to be stored as raw material for detergent manufacture.Lab . are added to the sulfator unit and maintained at operating temperature of 55°C. cooling coils are integrated with the reactor to cool off the excess heat. the product stream is passed on to the cooler where it is cooled down to a specified temperature. After the neutralization. Alkyl benzene and oleum are added to the sulfonator unit where the reaction takes place and alkyl benzene sulfonate is formed. Mixer The product streams from the sulfonator and the sulfator are properly mixed in a mixer and passed on to the surge tank. Any unprocessed or un-neutralized product is recycled to the mixer and follows through the surge tank and back into the neutralizer. As the reaction is exothermic. Sulfator unit The secondary reactions take place in the sulfator and disulfonate and sulfone are formed. occurs in the sulfonator unit. from the sulfonator. as mentioned previously. The surge tank’s function is to mitigate pressure variations that occur due to rapid changes in the velocity of the mixer product stream. Once the required pressure condition is obtained. Surge Tank and Cooler The product from the mixer is pumped into the surge tank. After cooling. Oleum and the alkyl benzene sulfonate. Neutralizer Sodium hydroxide is added to the neutralizer to neutralize the surfactant mixture stream and this process also helps to clean the mixed stream.5 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR SURFACTANT MANUFACTURE Sulfonator unit The main reaction. the product stream is passed on to the neutralizer. Chemical Process Technology II .
A furnace is integrated with the spray tower and the temperature inside the spray tower is maintained at 115°C for proper/optimum granulation. The product from the cyclone separator is subjected to a screening chamber where granules of required size pass through and the remaining are sent to the filter unit. Screening and Filtration The granules from the spray tower are passed on to the cyclone separator which separates the heavy granules from the light ones on the principle of centrifugal forced separation. Spray Tower The spray tower is usually a 24 m high column-shaped vessel which is primarily used for granulating the detergent paste/mix. The spray tower is also integrated with a cyclone separator and a stack removal system in order to remove light weight impurities and flue gases. density and shape are obtained at the optimum operating conditions. Chemical Process Technology II . builders. and additives are added to the crutcher. water is removed from the detergent mixture and a thick paste is formed which is then forwarded to a drop tank. During the crutching process. Various other chemicals such as colour pigments. Perfume addition and Packing Finally.6 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR DETERGENT MANUFACTURE Crutcher The crutcher is a mixing unit that is steam and water jacketed from inside and is incorporated with agitators for homogenous mixing. thus forming an environmental protection approach. From the drop tank.Lab . the granules are forwarded to the packing section for sale and distribution. The light weighted granules from the cyclone separator are also sent to the filter unit. the detergent mixture is passed on to the spray tower. Naphthalene acts as a germicide. which is also used for pressure adjustment of the detergent paste being pumped into the tank. naphthalene and TiO2 are added to the crutcher unit. Cyclone Separator. perfume and fragrant smells are added to the detergent granules. Dried granules of acceptable size. in order to separate granules of required size. Afterwards. Raw materials for detergents which include surfactants.
Lab ..wikipedia.org/wiki/Surge_tank http://en.7 Noaman Ahmed CIIT/SP10-BEC-037/LHR References George T. http://en. Austin. 1998.org/wiki/Detergent Chemical Process Technology II . McGraw Hill Publications. 3rd ed. Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries.wikipedia.
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