This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
241] On: 10 September 2013, At: 03:02 Publisher: Taylor & Francis Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wafp20
Instrumental Textural Changes in Raw White Shrimp During Iced Storage
N. Nunak & G. Schleining
a a b
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand
Department of Food Science and Technology, BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria Published online: 18 Oct 2011.
To cite this article: N. Nunak & G. Schleining (2011) Instrumental Textural Changes in Raw White Shrimp During Iced Storage, Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 20:4, 350-360, DOI: 10.1080/10498850.2011.575986 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10498850.2011.575986
PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of the Content. This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/termsand-conditions
taste.ac. Mechanical parameters (force at yield point. (Luzuriaga et al.5.1. Pornrat et al.. ﬂavor. stored whole in ice for up to 14 days.575986 Instrumental Textural Changes in Raw White Shrimp During Iced Storage N. 2011 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group. 1998. Shrimp muscle maintained ﬁrm texture up to 4 days of storage after harvesting. its appearance. iced storage. and shear/penetration work) increased signiﬁcantly during the 14 days of storage. NUNAK 1 AND G. Keywords shrimp. Bangkok. Austria Downloaded by [117. Thailand 2 Department of Food Science and Technology. Address correspondence to N. chemical analysis (pH. cutting. Department of Food Engineering. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang. IMP.1080/10498850. As the freshness of seafood declines. etc. Preservation steps are needed to prolong the shelf life of fresh shrimp.75. freshness. 2009). E-mail: kbnavaph@kmitl. texture proﬁle analysis. toughness.1 mm/s and using penetration work as a parameter gave the best results to clearly indicate the changes in textural properties of iced shrimp with a high correlation coefﬁcient during storage time (R2 = 0. Several methods have been used to evaluate the freshness of shrimp—such as physical analysis (color.29.. Erickson et al. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang. test speed (0. appearance). while other test methods failed to provide an indication of deterioration. 1997. for all parameters obtained from the penetration test with the spherical probe) described adequately the mechanical properties of iced shrimp during storage. TMA.. stiffness of the skin layer increased. and penetration tests).. Bangkok. and texture change (Kagawa et al.218. BOKU-University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences.). third.. 10520. the penetration test on the second ﬂesh segment using a spherical probe at a speed of 0.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 The general objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in the texture of raw white shrimp. and then pH values in the shrimp reached a value higher than 7 (alkaline). Thailand. stiffness. 2007. Shin et al. and biological analysis. A linear model with a high coefﬁcient of determination (R2 > 0. Faculty of Engineering. Comparing several methods. and test position on sample (second.0 mm/s). 2002). by instrumental texture analysis of the ﬂesh after peeling off the carapace.Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. LLC ISSN: 1049-8850 print / 1547-0636 online DOI: 10.83). 0.. Keeping shrimp on ice is widely accepted as an economical and readily available method. 2002. Lakshmanan et al. Nunak. SCHLEINING2 1 Department of Food Engineering. compression. etc. Faculty of Engineering. texture. Effect of test method (relaxation. and fourth segments of abdominal musculature) were studied to measure the textural attributes of shrimp. and 1. 2007). the texture became soft. texture Introduction Shrimp is one of the most important ﬁshery products of Thailand (Government of Thailand. Vienna. TVB.th 350 . Freshness of shrimp is an important factor that determines its commercial value and potential for export.2011. At that time. 20:350–360.
0 was used for pH measurements.218. Litopenaeus vannamai. 2.0 and 7. There are some published articles about the changes of shrimp texture during storage. 2002. Espe et al.9 ± 0. The heads were manually removed and shrimp peeled. and tensile tests to examine the changes in texture of squid.3 mm. and the mean value of each shrimp was used. Belgium). 1996. Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the textural changes of fresh seafood during storage. and 14 storage days for textural attributes and pH analysis. leaving the shell and the tail in the last segment. were purchased from a local vendor in Pratumthani province.. Turnhout. 4. respectively. 8. calibrated to buffers of pH 4. The icebox was placed at ambient temperature. Thailand. The width and thickness of the second segment of musculature was measured with a vernier caliper (Figure 1c).. Jain et al. They were immediately washed.7 g and 10. (2002) used penetration.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Texture is not only the most important sensory characteristic of shrimp which affects the overall quality of fresh products but also one of the determinants of consumer acceptance. Analyses were recorded at the same regions (Figure 1a) as the texture evaluation (from the second to fourth segments of abdominal musculature).29. 1986). 10. Most foods have unique morphological characteristics which depend on the chemical and biophysical characteristics (Bourne. 1. Pornrat et al. Kagawa et al. Plastic baskets were put upside down at the bottom of an ice-box covered with alternate layers of ice and shrimp in order to prevent samples from contacting melted ice. A pH meter (Consort C830.1 ± 0. and held on ice for up to 14 days in an ice-box. and then becomes mushy during refrigerated storage (Ashie and Simpson. Materials and Methods Sample Preparation Live white shrimps. 2007). and (3) to identify the most suitable method to use for measuring changes in prawn texture. Shrimp were still intact and totally covered with ice during storage and randomly selected at 0. compression. Textural behavior is related to the structure of the food. (2007) measured the changes in texture of ﬁsh with compression and penetration test. but no studies have established the most suitable test method under the appropriate test conditions for instrumental measurement. Hultmann and Rustad. killed by immersing in ice. The deterioration of acceptable texture quality occurs during storage of raw shrimp. as measured by both sensory and instrumental techniques. Kagawa et al. A solution of one part shrimp and two parts distilled water was prepared. The average weight and thickness of prepared shrimp were 8. 6. .Textural Changes in Shrimp During Iced Storage 351 Downloaded by [117. 2004. and Pornrat et al. 3. The indiscriminate adaptation of methods carries a great risk with respect to the reliability and reproducibility of the results (Peleg. Twenty replicates were performed (n = 20). (2) to investigate and describe the changes in textural properties of raw white shrimp during iced storage using mechanical parameters. Fresh shrimp is relatively ﬁrm. 1979). the objectives of this article were (1) to determine the effect of crosshead speed (test speed) on the mechanical parameters of raw white shrimp. (2004) used a cutting test with Warner-Bratzler blade to evaluate the texture changes in salmon muscle. with a size range of 70–80 count/kg. Therefore. A great variety of instrumental methods have been employed for textural evaluation of seafood. (2007) used a knife blade cutting test to determine the deterioration of prawn muscle.
The force was recorded at 250 points/s. and (c) size measuring. Several types of probes were attached to the Texture Analyser for different testing—for example. Position of (a) shrimp muscle segments. (b) cut shrimp. Measurement of Mechanical Parameters Mechanical properties of sample were measured by using the Texture Analyser (SMSTA-XT.. The relaxation test is representative of applying the compression force. the mechanical parameters can be correlated to texture parameters as determined by a sensory panel. A computer using the Texture Expert Ver.PLUS.05 N was selected to detect the contact between probe and the sample surface. United Kingdom).0 software from SMS was used to operate the instrument. Stable Microsystems Ltd. while the cutting/shearing test using a craft knife blade is representative of applying compression and shear forces. Surrey. A trigger force of 0.29. a craft Table 1 Type of probe and extracted parameters for each test Test Relaxation Type of probe Flat-ended cylindrical probe ø 50 mm Extracted parameters Maximum force/relative elasticity/residual relaxation area Force at YP/modulus of elasticity Hardness/springiness/cohesiveness/chewiness Force at YP/toughness/stiffness/shear work Force at YP/toughness/stiffness/penetration work Force at YP/toughness/stiffness/penetration work Compression TPA Cutting-shear Penetration Craft knife Flat-ended cylindrical probe ø 2 mm Spherical probe ø 5 mm . Compression and shearing tests were carried out using the Texture Analyser with a 50-kg load cell.352 (a) N. Nunak and G.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Figure 1.2. In principle. Type of probe and extracted parameters from force-time or force-distance curves of each test are presented in Table 1. This rate was enough to accurately capture the test peaks. Schleining (b) 1st segment 2nd segment 3rd segment 4th segment 5th segment (c) Width Skin Flesh Thickness Downloaded by [117.218.
cohesiveness. Texture Proﬁle Analysis.1 mm/s. and chewiness.5 1 1.Textural Changes in Shrimp During Iced Storage (a) 12 10 Force (N) 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 Distance (mm) 8 10 X Y Force (N) (b) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 353 0 0. Relaxation Test. Downloaded by [117. This test speed was evaluated from the experiment under the topic “determination of effect of test speed.5 Distance (mm) 3 3. Force-distance curves of stored shrimp on ice for 1 day from (a) cutting test and (b) relaxation test at test speed of 0.1 mm/s. Four parameters (hardness. a 20% deformation and a stress relaxation of 90 s were selected as the key conditions for the relaxation test. The same percentage of deformation was used for the compression test. a 50-mm compression plate was used for relaxation. 10. and 20%. Force at YP is the peak force during compression or at failure. 2002). and ﬂat-ended cylindrical and spherical probes were used for the penetration test. Samples were compressed twice to 60% of their original thickness with a test speed of 0. The maximal deformation (20% of sample height) was selected because at this condition the shrimp muscle still was able to return to its original height (Figure 2b). springiness. no sample expanded more than the diameter of the probe. Bourne (2002) recommended that the maximal deformation should not be more than 20% of sample thickness. Mechanical parameters of interest were force at yield point (YP) and the modulus of elasticity. Compression Test.218. Circle “X” and circle “Y” demonstrated the force and distance at the YP at a thin skin and a ﬂeshy inner layer. This test measures the change in force over a period of time at a constant level of deformation. especially in fruits and vegetables. the force will increase again as the product slowly recovers its original shape (Bourne. compression. From a preliminary test during this study. Ten replicates were performed for all tests at each storage day (n = 10). and texture proﬁle analysis (TPA) tests. The force was plotted (on the y-axis) over time (on the x-axis) as presented in Figure 3. The evaluated parameter was the relative elasticity determined from the ratio of force at 90 s to force at 20% deformation. It was found that relative elasticity values were not signiﬁcantly different among three deformations at the same test speed and that the coefﬁcient of variation at 20% deformation was the lowest.29. since this is long enough for the force to decay to 20% of its original value. Therefore. respectively. Modulus of elasticity was obtained from the slope of the initial linear portion of the curves as reported in Szczesniak (1983).1 mm/s.5 Figure 2.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 knife was used for the shearing test. Samples were compressed to 60% of their original thickness with a test speed of 0.5 2 2. Table 1) were calculated based on deﬁnitions of Bourne (2002). the compressive strain imposed on the sample during relaxation test was 5. As the product is compressed and then held with less compression.” Throughout the compression. .
2007). Figure 2a). and work) are listed in Table 1. Schleining (b) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Force (N) Force (N) 150 day 3 day4 0 day0 20 40 day1 60 Time (s) day2 80 100 day3 120 day4 Downloaded by [117. Jain et al. Stiffness is the resistance of a visco-elastic body to deﬂection. the force at this starting point was not the correct value. Observing the force-distance curves obtained from cutting and penetrating tests demonstrated the skin structures of shrimp classiﬁed from the yield point at a thin skin (X point) and at a ﬂeshy inner layer (Y point. Preliminary results showed that cuts at the lower speed of 0. Samples were cut with a stainless steel craft knife or penetrated with 2-mm diameter stainless steel cylindrical and spherical probes into the muscle to 90% of their original thickness with test speeds of 0. as shown in Figure 2a. Experiments Determination of Effect of Test Speed.0 mm/s.1 mm/s were time consuming.354 (a) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 day 0 50 Time (s) day 1 day 2 (c) Force (N) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 100 N.1. and (c) texture proﬁle analysis. (b) compression test.0 mm/s. The deﬁnition of toughness is deﬁned as an area under the force-deformation curve until the yield point was reached. During tests at the upper test speed of 1.. . It is determined from the gradient of the force-distance curve (Jain et al. Instrumental curves of shrimp at each iced-storage day are mainly similar making it difﬁcult to visually differentiate between the curves.. 0.0 mm/s.5. and 1. 0.29. The extracted parameters (force at YP. 2004.1. 1983. It is a measure of the total energy required to penetrate through the sample (Sajeev et al. Generally. 2007). and they should be low enough to capture all the test peaks correlating the detail of shrimp muscle.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 100 day 1 200 Time (s) day 2 day 3 300 day 4 day 0 Figure 3. Therefore.5. Nunak and G. Force-time curves of shrimp during iced storage from (a) relaxation test. toughness. The individual samples stored for 1 day were subjected to relaxation and cutting tests at different test speeds of 0. the shrimp body is covered with a shell or cuticle in an outer layer and a ﬂeshy inner layer that is enveloped with a thin skin called the epidermis (Mantel. stiffness. These speeds were selected under the concept that a detailed fractural behavior would be obtained at the low test speed. the probe heavily contacted the surface of the sample. Cutting and Penetration Tests. Figure 1b). and 1..218.
Penetration testing with the cylindrical probe and cutting test with a craft knife blade was carried out for samples stored for 1 day at the positions of second. It was observed that the distance between the ﬁrst and second peak increased as the test speed decreased. Similar ﬁndings to this study are reported by Luyten et al. and fourth shrimp muscle segments. third. thus increasing again. Selection of the Most Suitable Method for Indicating the Change of Shrimp Texture. Tables and diagrams were created with MS-Excel 2007. and fourth junctions of the abdominal musculature. The most accurate details are obtained by moving the probe during testing as slowly as possible.PLUS). Mechanical parameters extracted from the force-distance curves were evaluated with the texture expert software. (2007) for snack foods. According to the discussion presented in the previous section.218.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Results and Discussion Effect of Test Speed Raw white shrimps stored in ice for 1 day were tested for relaxation and cutting resistance.05). They found that a detailed fractural behavior was obtained at the low test speed. All extracted parameters from relaxation curves were not signiﬁcantly different for all three test speeds. The coefﬁcient of variation of all extracted parameters at 0. Typical force-distance curves obtained from relaxation and cutting tests are shown in Figure 2. Two consecutive peaks of forces were identiﬁed during the cutting method (Figure 2a). Therefore. the test speed of 0. and the signiﬁcant difference of parameters.0 mm/s. In addition. compression.0 mm/s. Statistical Analysis Force-distance tables were obtained from the instrumental tests with the Texture Analyser (SMS-TA-XT. damage to the sample was observed at the test speeds of 0. penetration. All extracted mechanical parameters were correlated to the storage time and pH values for evaluating the texture deterioration of raw white shrimp. and there was a signiﬁcant difference among three test speeds as shown in Table 2. were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan’s multiple range test (p ≤ 0. relaxation. Position of Testing on the Sample Shrimp samples were sliced at the second. which was caused by the blade movement through the skin and then into the ﬂesh of shrimp (Figure 1b). It was clear that the evaluation of skin and ﬂesh of shrimp was obtained at the lowest test speed (data not shown). the force dropped until the blade started to shear the muscle below. several methods—such as TPA. and cutting tests—were applied to the samples. applying compression and shear forces . Downloaded by [117. Penetrating and cutting tests were selected to test the samples.Textural Changes in Shrimp During Iced Storage 355 Determination of Position of Shrimp Muscle.1 mm/s was selected for all further experiments.1 mm/s of test speed was lower than that obtained at 0.5 and 1. Statistical parameters. Mechanical parameters extracted from cutting curves increased with increasing of test speeds. such as the mean. (1992) and Ravi et al.5 and 1. the standard deviation of parameters. as shown in Figure 1a.29. In order to investigate and select an instrumental method for indicating the changes of mechanical properties of shrimp muscle during iced storage. third. Once the skin of the shrimp had been sheared.
58 ± 0.83b 1.88 ± 0.218.07 ± 0.5 1. Force and distance differences between two peak forces (Figure 2a) obtained from the curve were used as indicator parameters to determine the effect of testing position on the sample.26b 3.14ab 0.95 ± 0.70c a Toughness (N.47a 0. The shape of the forcedistance curves divided into compression and cutting parts was similar for all fresh and iced samples. Similar trends were found for all tests under the same conditions. Texture Changes Relaxation.07b 0.31c Data were analyzed with n = 10.24a Downloaded by [117.83b Cutting2 1. cutting.86a 1. Nunak and G. and compression tests (p > 0. b. respectively.29.84 38. TPA.59 ± 0. relaxation. The results from both penetration and cutting tests for all three positions are presented in Table 3.09 ± 0.0 Force at YP (N) 7.38 ± 0. Experiments with different superscripts (a. Therefore.20c 1.05.36 ± 0.05). It was observed (Figure 3) that there were no signiﬁcant changes of mechanical parameters obtained from TPA.77 ± 0. b.356 N.) 2 3 4 Penetrating2 3.39 ± 0.34 ± 0.16a 1. Typical force-distance curves of iced storage shrimp obtained from penetration and cutting tests are shown in Figure 4.20 ± 0.57b 9.68a Cutting2 3. Schleining Table 2 Extracted parameters from cutting curves at different test speeds Loading rate (mm/s) 0. compression. and penetration tests were performed in order to examine textural changes of shrimp during iced storage for 14 days. 2 Data were analyzed with n = 10.89b 1.77 ± 0. In the ﬁrst part.mm) 36. was appropriate to investigate the changing mechanical properties of shrimp during storage.1 0.05). there was a rapid increase of the force up to a YP over .06 ± 1. c) within the same column are signiﬁcantly different (p < 0. This is due to the second segment being the thickest part of the abdomen. Only penetration and cutting test curves presented differences among ice-storage days.88 ± 0.68 ± 1.28 ± 0.44a 1 “X” and “Y” points demonstrated to force and distance at probe cut a thin skin and a ﬂeshy inner layer. the test was carried out at the second segment of the abdominal musculature of shrimp for the subsequent experiments.27 ± 0. c) within the same column are signiﬁcantly different (p < 0. evaluated data for days 6 to 14 not shown as these were no different from the earlier samples).47c a Stiffness (N/mm) 2.42 8. Table 3 Force and distance between “X”1 and “Y”1 points (Figure 2) of shrimp stored for 1 day Difference of force (N) Difference of distance (mm) Penetrating2 0.29 ± 0. Experiments with different superscripts (a. moving of the probe into the sample at the second segment of muscle bundle gave the highest measurement and could best describe the textural changes of skin and ﬂesh of shrimp during storage.89b 50.24a 2.34 ± 0.01 ± 0. It can be seen that for both tests.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Segment (no.
a distance of probe movement which depended on the type of testing and storage time. The skin of shrimp stored on ice was stiffer. As expected.29. (2007) have reported that during storage the texture became soft due to the protein degradation. (2007). This discrepancy with our ﬁndings might be due to the different type of shrimp family as well as instrumental method and conditions. This means that no signiﬁcant changes in texture of raw shrimp occurred during the ﬁrst 4 days of storage. while shrimp meat changed into a soft texture during storage time.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Figure 4. This is probably because all of them were performed the same as the two parts described above. there were no signiﬁcant differences among mechanical parameter values and pH values for the ﬁrst 4 days of storage (p > 0. (2007) who reported that the shear force decreased as the storage time increased. During the ﬁrst part. Instrumental curves of shrimp at each iced-storage day are similar making it difﬁcult to differentiate between the curves. These results are in agreement with ﬁndings by Erickson et al. however. In this study. the probes moved very slowly into the sample which caused the compression force that occurred on the skin as the major force for cutting or penetrating tests. Several mechanical parameters were extracted from force-distance curves. Ofstad et al. Force at YP was speciﬁed as the force where the probe pierced into the external layer or skin of shrimp. (2006). stiffness. It was observed that obtained results from cutting and penetration tests show a similar trend. (2004). It is difﬁcult for probes to enter the shrimp ﬂesh . From a texture perspective. and Erickson et al. samples were deformed and compressed without any cutting or penetrating of the shrimp muscle.05). during storage the extracted parameters increased as the period increased from 0 to 14 days. only force at YP. The results are shown in Table 4.Textural Changes in Shrimp During Iced Storage 357 Downloaded by [117. (2007). Textural properties of freshwater prawn were observed by Pornrat et al. due to the similarity of the method used. These ﬁndings are in contradiction to the ﬁndings of Pornrat et al. Force-distance curves of iced shrimp from (a) cutting test with craft knife blade and (b) penetration test with cylindrical and (c) spherical probes. while white shrimp raised under saline conditions were investigated in this study. Espe et al. This is due to the degradation of protein by an enzyme released from the hepatopancreas.218. In addition. toughness. and shear/penetrating work could detect texture changes during storage. shrimp should not be kept on ice for more than 4 days (Table 4).
03a 11.14ab 11.9±6.46c 10.3±0.09bc 0.23b 36.61a 17.05).5±1.45a 5.7±3.29.4±4.01e 7.1±2.74cde 26.4±2.74e 52.66ab 46.51a 10.85a 5.44cd Penetration work (N.85abc 4.24a 1. f) within the same column are signiﬁcantly different (p < 0.4±0.85b 11.4±2.0±0.94a 5.9±4.1±0.41bcd 18.37abcd 10.1±1.8±3.Downloaded by [117.1±0.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 Table 4 Extracted mechanical parameters obtained from force-distance curves of raw white shrimp during iced storage for 14 days Penetration test (sphere) Penetration test (cylinder) Cutting test (craft knife) 358 Day 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 pH 6.95cd Force at YP (N) 5.5±6.6±3.20a 18.mm) 36.67a 14.9±5.49±0. e.2±0.03c 6.0±5.74c 25.66±0.5±5.68±0.0±1.23cd 55.01e 25.3±2.05d 7.6±8.63a 27.8±1.5±2.9±9.mm) 13.99ab 18.79c 17.38±0.33±0.31bcd 30.10d Toughness (N.89bcd 9.1±3.32cd 20.7±0.9±1.07ab 0.5±2.9±0.01c Stiffness (N/mm) 0.3±3.51±0.5±7.95±0.23bc 1.22a 10.7±0.9±7.44abc 5.01f Stiffness (N/mm) 1.92±0.8±2.7±0.73a 9.90a 15.07ab 0.7±2.85±0.02b 6.11abc 0.20cd 1.5±4.81a 6.53ab 41.5±0.88±0.2±0.86±0.2±2.09abc 0.80bc 17. d.4±2.7±7.62c 25.4±0.05d 10.08c Stiffness (N/mm) 0.75a 36.48bcd 9.5±0.17a 1.6±4.0±0.6±5.81ab 12.71bc Penetration work (N.85ab 26.27c 1.82bc 23.1±4.85de 21.78b 39.218.9±0.01e 7.09ab 1.77a 15.48bcd 10.90±0.0±0.5±4.69±0.09a 0.9±1.8±0.09c Toughness (N.3±0.46±0.6±0.2±0.22c 1.00bcd 24.8±3.mm) 7.4±8.07ab 0.1±2.2±0.75ab 19.3±1.20a 1.03a 12.23c Toughness (N.08c 1.26a 17.01a 6.45bd 21.09cd 1.14a 0.08ab 0.37±0.36bcd 11.16a 1.13c 1.74ab 5.4±9.5±1.56b 29.04ab 1.07ab 0.84±0.01e 7.86±0.59de Shear work (N.1±4.9±2.mm) 10.82±0.00a 37.24b 19.85±0. b.0±2.90±0.0±2.12b 0.58a 4.57ab 5.85±0.89c 28.3±056bc 5.04d 1.89abc 11. Experiments with different superscripts (a.9±5.1±1.1±1.73a 33. c.8±2.0±0. .64c 49.2±0.73±0.2±3.00c 8.02a 6.5d Data were analyzed with n = 10.01f 7.77±0.54bc 4.50b 20.9±4.8±4.38±0.5±0.8±0.36a 11.98c Force at YP (N) 4.4±5.64c 11.7±3.92±0.6±4.5±3.54c 37.56de 50.15c 31.99±0.3±1.3±1.31±0.07a 0.35±0.37±0.12bc 0.80abc 5.79±0.mm) 13.6±3.mm) 15.68c 4.4±0.
81 R2 = 0. therefore.241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 as demonstrated with the increasing of YP. For low test speed conditions (in this study). therefore. It can be concluded that the changes in textural properties of iced shrimp during storage can be explained and distinguished by the instrumental .30 R2 = 0.82 Y = 0.27 Y = 0.67 R2 = 0.218. There were no signiﬁcant differences in some of the mechanical parameter values among the ﬁrst 4 days of storage (p > 0.61 Downloaded by [117. led them to easily cut or penetrate into the sample.61 R2 = 0.61 Y = 1.33 R2 = 0. or toughness value.26 R2 = 0.303x + 8. the texture became soft. those from cutting other than shear/penetration and penetrating with cylindrical probe did not have a good ﬁt. They could be used to indicate texture changes during storage as the time increased.29. Conclusion Studies on textural properties of raw white shrimp during iced storage by instrumental measurement indicated considerable textural changes were occurring.76 Y = 0.40 Y = 1.79 R2 = 0.033x + 1. Those extracted from curves of the penetration test with spherical probe were adequately represented by linear models. On the other hand.76 Y = 0.946x + 15.008x + 0. Generally.84 R2 = 0. the stiffness of skin increased.05).513x + 16. The mechanical tests involving compression and shear forces—such as penetration with cylindrical and spherical probes and cutting with a craft knife—can be used to classify the quality of raw white shrimp during storage.99 R2 = 0.83 Y = 0. and the texture became soft. evaluated mechanical parameters that directly related to the shear force were used to identify the ﬁrmness of shrimp meat. the shear force that occurred in the ﬂesh was more important than the compression force that occurred on the skin. Many parameters were represented by linear models with the storage time as an independent variable (Table 5). parameters obtained from fresh shrimp were the lowest compared with other’s stored shrimp.51 Y = 1. Comparing several methods.35 Y = 0. the penetration test using the spherical probe gave the best results to clearly indicate the changes in textural properties of shrimp during storage time and showed a high correlation coefﬁcient using a linear model.545x + 9.33 R2 = 0. following this period.363x + 36. In this case. (2007). and stiffness on the skin layer increased. The slopes of linear models explained the changes in texture during storage and gave the highest value when plotted between penetration work and the number of ice-storage days.mm) Shear/penetration work (N. Shrimp muscle maintained a ﬁrm texture up to 4 days of storage after harvesting.037x + 4.485x + 4.75 R2 = 0. fresh shrimp have a ﬁrm-textured meat resulting in the probe moving easily into the inner part. however.053x + 0. as in the experiment conducted by Pornrat et al. stiffness.59 R2 = 0. the fast movement of probes (high speed of testing).Textural Changes in Shrimp During Iced Storage Table 5 Linear prediction equations of mechanical parameters for iced-storage days as the independent variable Test Cutting: Craft knife Penetration: Sphere Cylinder Force at YP(N) Stiffness (N/mm) Toughness (N.85 Y = 0.83 Y = 0.mm) 359 Y = 0. mechanical parameters related to shrimp texture both at a skin layer and at a ﬂeshy inner layer.818x + 13.154x + 9.
Kingsly. Acta 364: 159–164..go.. Survival of amine-forming bacteria during the ice storage of ﬁsh and shrimp. K. V. O. 1997. Evaluation of texture parameters of Rohu ﬁsh (Labeo rohita) during iced storage. P. and Rustad. Ruohonen. 68: 783–792. 29: 569–575. Olsen. A. P.29. J.. Texture analysis of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.. J.) and spotted wolﬁsh (Anarhichas minor O. U. E. Shin. Technol. Wiss. J. Development of ornithine biosensor and application to estimation of prawn freshness. Breakdown of intramuscular connective tissue in cod (Gadus morhua L. 6(3): 5–28. Roopa.. T. M. V. R. A. M. T. 40: 1774–1783. C.). Interactions between ice storage time. and Gates. Iced storage of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) effects on endogenous enzymes and their impact on muscle proteins and texture. Bourne. N.. M. J. 2006. L. D. B. H. 2010.. A.218. Bourne.. Fisheries Sci. L. 1–41.. S. Effect of water activity on texture proﬁle parameters of apple ﬂesh. 471 p. S. 1983. C. and Jeyasekaran. 2007. J. 38: 135–152. A. 2002. T. Retrieved March 15.. S. Vliet. Sajeev. Bjornevik. 1998. S. Vendetti.. Balaban.. R. Physical properties of foods: What they are and their relation to other food properties. Wiss. 1979. 81: 336–340. J. A. K.. Endo... 23: 245–266. 2002. and Walstra. M. A new device for measuring texture changes in raw white shrimp stored on ice. Mantel. Changes in the ultrastructure and texture of prawn muscle (Macrobrachuim rosenbergii) during cold storage.. Schleining measurement with the penetration test using penetration work as a parameter measured on the second segment of peeled shrimp ﬂesh using a test speed of 0. In: Physical Properties of Foods. Bulgarelli. 2004. Lebensm. M. Food Sci.. Yamanaka. L. Manikanthan. N.. Food Prod. J. Food Chem. R. 2002. K. Aquaculture 240: 489–504..241] at 03:02 10 September 2013 . and Sreekumar. Nortvedt. T..360 N. and Kiessling. Kagawa. D. R. Evaluation by instrumental methods of the textural properties of some tropical fruits (a review). U. Government of Thailand. 2009. A. S. B.. M. R. L. Texture Stud. Shakila.. and Hannesson. Food Eng. S. W. Westport.. R.th/foreign Hultmann. Texture Stud. New York: Academic Press. R. pp.. A. New York: Academic Press. R. (Eds. A. and Yeralian S. M. 1986. R.. 40: 1747–1754. 10: 45–65. O. 1996. 19: 617–625. Erickson. G. Lebensm. C. M. and Bagley. 2nd ed. M. Ravi. References Ashie. Aquat. E. K. Espe. and Kerr. Food Microbiol. M. 69(7): 315–321. Food Texture and Viscosity: Concept and Measurement. and Watanabe. Taylor. Matsumoto. M. A. 17: 311–340. Nunak and G. 1992. Sumolaya. Hasan. R.. 2004. 2007. B. and Hatae. Texture evaluation by uniaxial compression of some snack foods. CT: AVI. Texture Stud. C. Texture Stud.) related to gaping. Pathare. Yoneda. 87: 31–41. Lebensm.1 mm/s. 2007. Resurreccion. A... Application of high hydrostatic pressure to control enzyme related fresh seafood texture deterioration. K. Mitsuhashi. collagen composition. T. J.. Sensory differentiation of shrimp using a trained descriptive analysis panel. Wiss. S. R. Froyland. 39: 1143–1154. and Simpson. Technol.. Comparison of various methods to evaluate fracture phenomena in food materials. Szczesniak.. Rommanee. J. M. The Biology of Crustacea.. Technol.. Lakshmanan. H. Downloaded by [117. M. Int.. Chim. Pornrat.ﬁsheries. Sumate. K. L. Moorthy. gaping and textural properties in farmed salmon muscle harvested at different times of the year. Luzuriaga. P. and Bhattacharya. Anal.. Peleg.. Food Res. and Manikantan. H. H.. M. Peleg. B. Jain. Ofstad. R. S. I. U. 2004. J. Changes in meat texture of three varieties of squid in the early stage of cold storage. 1983.. from http://www. 2007.. Fisheries Foreign Affairs Division. Luyten.. Schott) cormels during storage and cooking.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.