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PITMAN METALLURGY SERIES

FRANK

T.

SISCO,

Advisory Editor

Engineering

Metallurgy

Engineering

pitman
PUBLISHING CORPORATION

>*

Metallurgy
By

THE COMMITTEE ON METALLURGY


-4

collaborative writing group

of

metallurgy professors.

NEW YORK

TORONTO

LONDON

Copyright
BY

1957

PITMAN PUBLISHING CORPORATION


All rights reserved.

may
the

l>e

No part of this book reproduced in any form without


permission
of

written

the

publisher.

1.2

Associated Companies
Sir Isaac

London
Sir Isaac

Mcllraurne

Pitman & Sons, Ltd. Johannesburg

Pitman & Sons (Canada), Ltd. Toronto /

&9

/
,

QOZAfcl-

COTA

PRINTED

in

the United States of America

Coauthors
Theodore Allen,
Jr.,

M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical En-

gineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; Engineer Associated

with Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Bellaire, Texas

Lee L. Amidon, M.S.M.E., Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Dakota State College, Brookings, South Dakota

John K. Anthony.
Robert
E.

M.S.. Associate Professor of Physical Metallurgy, Uni-

versity of Arizona,

Tucson, Arizona
of Metallurgy,

Bannon, S.M., Professor

Newark College

of

Engineering, Newark,

New

Jersey

Francis William Brown, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New York

Frederick Leo Coonan, D.Sc, Professor and Chairman, Department of Metallurgy and Chemistry, U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey,
California

Howard

P. Davis, M.S., Associate Professor,

Department

of

Mechanical

Engineering, University of

Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming

Harold Vincent Fairbanks,


West Virginia
University,

M.S., Professor of Metallurgical Engineering,

Morgantown, West Virginia


State University,

Mars G. Fontana,

Ph.D., Professor and Chairman, Department of Metal-

lurgical Engineering,

The Ohio

Columbus, Ohio

Arthur R. Foster, M.Eng.,


ing,

Associate Professor of Mechanical EngineerNortheastern University, Boston, Massachusetts


Ph.D., Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engi-

Arthur C. Forsyth,

neering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois

Richard Edward Grace, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Metallurgical Engineering, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana

Leonard

B. Gulbransen, Ph.D., Associate Professor,

Washington Uni-

versity, St. Louis,

Missouri

Joseph Gurland, D.Sc, Assistant Professor, Division of Engineering,

Brown

University, Providence,
M.S.,

Rhode

Island

Walter R. Hibbard,
necticut

Adjunct Associate Professor of Metallurgy, College of Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Con-

vi

Coauthors
M.S.M.E., Assistant Professor of Mechanical En-

Walter M. Hirthe,
Wisconsin

gineering, College of Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee,

Abraham Eldred Hostetter,


John

Ph.D., Professor of Metallurgy, Kansas

State College, Manhattan, Kansas


J.

Flushing,
J.

Kaufman, Metallurgy Department, Academy New York

of Aeronautics,

New

Edward Krauss, M.S., Head, Department of Mechanical Technology, York City Community College, Brooklyn, New York

Hollis Philip Leighly, Jr., Ph.D., Chairman, Department of Metallurgy, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado
Irving
J.

Levinson, M.S., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Lawrence

Institute of Technology, Detroit,

Michigan

Jules Washington Lindau, III, M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, The University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina

James R. MacDonald, Ph.D., Chairman, Department


gineering, School of Engineering,
versity, Mississippi

of

Mechanical En-

The

University of Mississippi, Uni-

Omar
Don

C. Moore, M.S., Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama

R. Mosher,

B.S.,

Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering,

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

Charles Arthur Nagler, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

Richard O. Powell, College


Orleans, Louisiana

of Engineering,

Tulane

University,

New

Oran Allan
Kenneth
E.

Pringle, M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical En-

gineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri

versity of Kansas,

Rose, M.S., Professor of Metallurgical Engineering, UniLawrence, Kansas

Philip C. Rosenthal, M.S., Professor of Metallurgical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

Robert

E. Shaffer, M.S., Associate Professor of Engineering, University

of Buffalo, Buffalo,

New

York

Coauthors

vii

Walter
ing,

E. Short, M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical EngineerBradley University, Peoria, Illinois

Floyd Sheldon Smith, M.S., ing, Alabama Polytechnic

Associate Professor of Mechanical EngineerInstitute,

Auburn, Alabama

GEORGE
ing,

V. Smith, Ph.D., Assistant Director for Metallurgical EngineerSchool of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, College of Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

Sicmund Levern Smith, M.Met.E., Professor of Metallurgy, College of Mines, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona
Joseph William Spretnak, Ph.D., Professor of Metallurgical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio

Rocer Greenleaf Stevens,


William H. Tholke,
cinnati, Cincinnati,

Ph.D., Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Southwestern Louisiana Institute, Lafayette, Louisiana
B.S., Instructor of

Metallurgy, University of Cin-

Ohio

John Stanton Winston, M.A., M.S., Chairman, Department of Metallurgy, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada

Preface
Engineering Metallurgy was developed
standable
to present in a concise, under-

manner

the principles of ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy

for all engineers student


ate student engineers
will

employ

in

and practicing. Both graduate and undergraduneed a fundamental knowledge of the metals they their work. The emphasis, throughout therefore, is on

metallurgical principles rather than on handbook information; however, specific data are given so as to provide a realistic structure to reinforce the theoretical presentations. The practicing engineer who has had little

contact with the field of metallurgy, or who has had no formal work in metallurgy, will find in this book a sufficiently complete summary of all
of the essentials he needs to

know

to obtain a broad understanding of

the

field.

Keeping up with metallurgical developments in


art, as

all branches of the reported in the technical literature of the world, is difficult for

those actively engaged in the manufacture, processing, or the industrial use of engineering metals and alloys. For the thousands of such individuals, who work with or who use metallic materials but who cannot possibly find time to read everything, summaries such as this book have a well-defined place in the scheme of things.

Because metallurgy

is

such a dynamic and diversified art and science,

the preparation of a definitive, up-to-date, authoritative

work

in this field

required a bold approach. Forty professors actually engaged in teaching engineering metallurgy in universities across the country were asked to pool their knowledge and research to produce this text. Through intenthe scope and content of the book were defined and outlined by the group. Once the basic content had been selected, ideas for all chapters were channeled to experts selected to
first

sive questionnaire techniques,

on individual chapter committees. From these ideas and their own combined experience and research, each committee built chapter outlines. Overlaps and omissions were detected by the editorial staff and referred to the committees for alteration and preparation of rough draft. The coauthors read and checked the smoothness of presentation of the chapter, adding to and refining the draft. Thus were built the twentyserve three chapters of Engineering Metallurgy by the forty coauthors.

Chapters

through

6 deal

with the general principles of metallurgy

as they are related to engineering.

Chapter 3 (Factors Affecting Engineering Properties) will be especially useful to the student in gaining
ix

Preface

an appreciation of the over-all study of engineering metallurgy. In Chapter 6 (Phase Diagrams and the Simply Alloy Systems) the student is introduced to basic problems of equilibrium and alloying. Chapters 7 through 10 treat of the nonferrous metals and alloys. To these important
,

materials, a generous

amount

of space has been devoted so that com-

1 1 through 20 arc concerned with iron and steel with special attention given to the subjects of heat treatment and ferrous alloys. Machinability, corrosion, and the effects

plete coverage could be obtained. Chapters

of temperature are fully covered in Chapters 21 to 23.


All technical terms are defined as they are introduced, and stress
laid
is

upon fundamental

concepts. At the

end of each chapter there

is

a set of questions

tention
chapter.

and exercises constructed on the important definitions and

to help the student focus at-

principles presented in the

Principles, definitions,

precision

and

clarity.

and illustrative examples are set down with Drawings and photographs are used without re-

serve to amplify the discussion. In certain chapters, detailed tables are

included for the convenience of the reader. The Committee on Metallurgy is aware that the usage of this text and developments in the field will indicate areas needing revision. Professors

and students

are therefore urged to send comments on chapters to the publisher or chapter committees so that appropriate changes may be made in the next edition.

The

Editor

Contents
Preface
v
1.

Chapter
1.1. 1.2. 1.3.

Metallurgy and Engineering

Metallurgy as an Art
Metallurgy as a Science Metallurgy and Engineering

2 3

Chapter
2.1. 2.2.
2.3. 2.4.

2.

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys


Principle
in Solids

5 5 9 9
11

Building Blocks of Matter

The Building-Up
Types of Bonding

Assemblages of Atoms
Defects in Crystals
Polycrystalline Aggregates

2.5.
2.6.

14 16 18 19

2.7.
2.8.

Interactions in Metallic Solutions

Liquid Solutions
Solid Solutions

2.9.

20 20

2.10.

Intermediate Phases

Chapter
3.1. 3.2.

3.

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

...

23 24 29 32 33 36 37 38 40

Grain Size Control


Effect of

Grain Size on Properties

3.3. 3.4.
3.5.

Deformation of Metals
Slip in Single Crystals

Twinning
Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals

3.6.
3.7. 3.8. 3.9.

Hot Working
Cold Working
Annealing Cold Worked Metal
Factors Affecting Rccrysiallization Temperature and Grain
Size
xi

42 45

3.10.

xii

Contents

3.11.
3.12. 3.13. 3.14. 3.15.

Summary

of

Hot and Cold Working

46
47

Solid Solution Effects

Polyphase Structures
Allotropic Transformation
Precipitation
4.

49
51

Hardening

52

Chapter
4.1.
4.2. 4.3.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

...

57

Properties of Metallic Materials

57
60
61

The

Relative Standardization of Static Tests

Tensile Strength
Elastic Limit, Proportional Limit,
ticity

4.4.

and Modulus

of Elas-

63

4.5. 4.6.

Yield Point

and Yield Strength

66 67

Elongation and Reduction of Area

4.7.
4.8. 4.9.

Hardness

69 72

Comparison of the Various Hardness Tests


Relation

among Hardness

Tests and between Hardness


73

and Tensile Strength for


4.10.

Steel

Relation

among Hardness

Tests and between Hardness

and Tensile Strength


4.11. 4.12.

for Nonferrous Alloys

....
. .

74 77 78
81

Shear, Compression,

and Bend Tests

Sonic Testing

Chapter
5.1.

5.

Dynamic Properties of Metallic Materials


Brittleness

Notch

and Transition from Ductile

to Brittle
81

Fracture
5.2. 5.3. 5.4.

Value of the Notched-Bar Impact Test

85 86 87
.

The Mechanism of Fatigue The Endurance Limit


Relation of the Endurance Limit to Other Properties
.

5.5.
5.6. 5.7.
5.8. 5.9.

88 89 92

The

Effect of

Notches on the Endurance Limit

....
...

Corrosion Fatigue
Increasing the Endurance Limit by Shot Pcening
Significance of

92 93 94
97

Endurance Data

5.10.

Damping Capacity
6.

Chapter
6.1.

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

Solid State

Thermodynamics and Thermostatics

...

97

6.2.
6.3. 6.4.

Contents Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium


Cooling Curves
Solid State Mass Transfer

xiii

97
98

99
100
101

6.5. 6.6.
6.7.

The

Phase Rule

Solid State Solubility

Binary Systems
Intermetallic

101

6.8.
6.9.

Compounds
.

106

The

Peritectic Reaction

108 109

6.10.

Closure

Chapter 7. Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening


7.1.
7.2.

Ill

Alloy Requirements
Step

Ill

I Solution Heat Treatment

112

7.3.
7.4. 7.5.

Step II Precipitation Heat Treatment (Aging)

....

14

Theory of Precipitation Hardening

114
Precipitation

The

Effect of

Time and Temperature During


Hardening
of

Heat Treatment
7.6. 7.7. 7.87.9.

117

Precipitation Precipitation

Aluminum

Alloys

Hardening of Magnesium Alloys Precipitation Hardening of Copper Base Alloys


Precipitation Hardening in
Strain

7.10. 7.11.

Aging and

Its

Low Carbon Steel Consequences in Low Carbon


in

.... .... .... ....


Steel

119
121

124
125 126

Precipitation

Hardening

Alloy Steels

126

Chapter
8.1. 8.2. 8.3. 8.4. 8.5.
8.6.

8.

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

....
.

129
129 130

8.7. 8.8. 8.9.

Aluminum Economics of the Aluminum Industry Aluminum Ores Occurrence and Concentration Manufacture of Aluminum Physical Properties of Aluminum Chemical Properties of Aluminum Aluminum Alloys The Wrought Alloys Aluminum Casting Alloys
History of

131

132
133 134 135

136 140
143

8.10. 8.11.

Functions of Alloying Elements

Cold and Hot Working of Aluminum Alloys

147

xiv
8.12. 8.13. 8.14. 8.15.

Contents Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys


Corrosion Resistance of

148 150 152


155 158

Aluminum

Alloys

Joining of

Aluminum
Its

Alloys

Magnesium and
Beryllium

Alloys

8.16.
8.17.

Titanium
9.

159
161

Chapter
9.1.
9.2.

Copper and Copper- Base as Engineering Materials and Uses


of High-Purity

Properties

Copper
. . .

164
165 167

Constitution of the

Common

Copper-Rich Alloys

9.3.

Nomenclature of the Copper-Rich Alloys


Characteristics

9.4.
9.5. 9.6. 9.7. 9.8.

and Uses of the High Brasses

168
Silvers

Characteristics of the

Low

Brasses Brasses

and the Nickel

170
171

Properties of the

Wrought

Cast Brass and Cast Nickel Silver

172

9.9-

9.10. 9.11.
9.12. 9.13.

The Copper-Base Bearing Metals The Tin Bronzes Aluminum Bronze and Copper-Silicon
Copper-Beryllium Alloys

172
174

Alloys

176 177

The Copper-Rich

Copper-Nickel Alloys
in

184
. .

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


Miscellaneous Heavy
Metals

Powder Metallurgy

186

Chapter 10. Alloys


10.1. 10.2. 10.3. 10.4. 10.5.
10.6. 10.7. 10.8.

Nonferrous

Metals and
190
191

The White

Lead and Tin

as Engineering Materials
. .
.

196 197

Zinc and Zinc Base Alloys as Engineering Materials


Nickel and Nickel Base Alloys

199 201
201

Cobalt Base Alloys

Other Miscellaneous High Temperature Metals and Alloys

The

Precious and Semi-Precious Metals and Alloys

202 203

Metals and Alloys in Atomic Power Applications

....

Chapter 11. The Manufacture and Composition of Carbon and Alloy Steels
11.1. 11.2. 11.3.

208 210 212


216

Definitions of Ferrous Engineering Materials

Iron Ore and the Manufacture of Pig Iron

Acid and Basic Processes

Contents
11.4. 11.5. 11.6.

xv

Bessemer Processes

217 220
Steels

Open-Hearth Processes
Manufacture of High-Quality
Processes

by the

Electric

226
227

11.7. 11.8.

Wrought Iron
Special Steel-making Processes

229
231
Steels

11.9.

Mechanical Treatment of Steel

11.10. 11.11. 11.12. 11.13.

Harmful Elements
Manganese
in

in

Carbon and Alloys

....
.

233 236

Carbon and Alloy Steels Carbon Monoxide, and Rimming and Killed Silicon and Other Degasifiers
Other Elements
Low-Alloy
Steels

Steels

237
239

11.14.
11.15. 11.16.

239
. .

240
241

High-Alloy Steels

Chapter
12.1. 12.2.

12.

The

Constitution of Steel

244
244 245

The

Allotropy of Iron

Iron-Carbon Phase Diagram Phase Changes and Microstructures of Slowly Cooled Plain

12.3.

Carbon
12.4.

Steels

247
251

Isothermal Transformation in Steel

12.5.
12.6.

The

Effect of

Cooling Rate

Effect of Alloying

Upon the Resulting Structure Elements Upon the Iron-Carbon Dia-

254

g
12.7.

256

Effect of Alloying

Elements on the Isothermal Transfor257 258 259

mation of
12.8. 12.9.

Steel

Effect of
Effect

Hot Working on Structure of Cold Working on Structure

Chapter
13.1. 13.2. 13.3.
13.4. 13.5.

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment of Steel Grain Size and Grain Growth


13.

263
264

Controlling and Classifying Grain Size


Effects of

265 267

Hot Working on Grain


and Hardenability

Size

Hardenability

269 270
270

Grain

Size

13.6. 13.7.

Quenching and Properties of Martensite

The

Instability of

Quenched Carbon

Steels

273

XVI

Contents
Retained Austenite and Cold Treatment
Structural

13.8. 13.9.

274 274

and Other Changes

in

Tempering

Chapter
14.1. 14.2.
14.3.

14.

The

Operations of Heat Treatment

278 279
280 280
281

Heating Cycle

Annealing
Normalizing
Spheroidizing

14.4. 14.5. 14.6. 14.7. 14.8. 14.9.

Quenching

for

Hardening

282

Tempering
Isothermal Treatments

284
285
'

Case Hardening Processes

289 293

Flame Hardening and Induction Hardening


15.

Chapter
15.1. 15.2. 15.3. 15.4.

Carbon Steel as an Engineering Material

...

297

Carbon-Steel Castings as Engineering Materials

....
.

298
300

Factors Affecting the Properties of Carbon-Steel Castings

Hot-Worked Carbon
Effect of

Steels as Engineering Materials


Static Properties of

302

Composition on
Steels

Hot-Worked
303
305
. .

Carbon
15.5. 15.6. 15.7.

Effect of

Composition on Other Properties


Steels as

Cold-Worked Carbon

Engineering Materials

306 307 308


311

The Important

Properties of Cold- Worked Steel

...
.

15.8.
15.9.

General Effects of Cold Working on Strength and Ductility


Variables Affecting the Properties of Cold-Worked Wire
Effect of

15.10. 15.11.
15.12.

Cold-Working on Dynamic Properties


as

312

Heat-Treated Carbon Steels


Effect of Section Size

Engineering Materials

312
315

on

the Properties of Heat-Treated

Medium-Carbon
Chapter
16.1.
16.2. 16.3.
16.

Steels

Low- Alloy Steels

as Engineering Materials

318
319 320 322

Balanced Compositions

in

Low- Alloy

Steels

General Effects of the Alloying Elements on Carbon Steel


Effects of

Phosphorus, Manganese, and Silicon

....

16.4. 16.5. 16.6.

Effects of Nickel
Effects of the

and Chromium

324

Other

Common
as

Alloying Elements

....
.
.

325 326

Low-Alloy Structural Steels

Engineering Materials

Contents
16.7.

xvii

Composition and Properties of the Low-Alloy Structural


Steels

327 328
Materials
.

16.8. 16.9.

16.10.

The S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels The S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering The New Metallurgy of Low-Alloy Steels
Steels

331

333

16.11.

Similarity of Properties of Heat-Treated S.A.E. Low-Alloy

334
337

16.12.

The
17.

Engineering Properties of the S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels


Hardf.nability

Chapter
17.1.
17.2. 17.3. 17.4.
17.5.

342

Hardness and Hardenability in Carbon Steels Hardness and Hardenability in Low-Alloy Steels Cooling Rate and Hardenability

....
...

343 344
344 346

Time Delay and

Hardenability

Variables Affecting Hardenability

346 348 349

17.6.

Methods of Determining Hardenability

17.7.
17.8.

The Jominy End-Quench

Hardenability Test

Relation of the End-Quench Test to Actual Cooling Rates and the Selection of Steel by Hardenability
Virtues and Shortcomings of the

350 352
353

17.9
17.10.

Jominy End-Quench Test

Hardenability Bands
Relation of Hardenability to Engineering Properties Relation of Tempering to Hardenability
. .

17.11. 17.12.
17.13. 17.14.

354
356 356

Fundamentals of Calculated Hardenability

17.15.

The The
18.

Accuracy of Calculated Hardenability


Effect of

360
361

Boron on Hardenability

Chapter
18.1. 18.2.
18.3.

Special Purpose Steels

364

Classes of Stainless Steels

364
Steels

Constitution of

High-Chromium

366

Relation of the Constitution of High-Chromium Steels to

Their Heat Treatment


18.4.
18.5.

367

Mechanical Properties of High


Steels

Chromium

Steels

...

369

Corrosion and Oxidation Resistance of High-Chromium


370
18-8 in 18-8

18.6.
18.7.

The Constitution of The Role of Carbon

372
374

xviii

Contents
Properties of 18-8

18.8. 18.9.

376
Steels

Recent Developments in Stainless


Superstainless Steels

378
381

18.10.

18.11.
18.12.

High-Nickel Steels and Special Iron-Nickel Alloys


Austenitic
19.

...

384 385

Manganese
Steels,

Steel

Chapter
19.1. 19.2.
19.3.

Tool

Die Steels, and Cemented Hard


389
Steels

Carbides

High-Carbon Tool

390 395

Low Alloy Tool Steels Medium Alloy Tool and


High Speed
Cast Alloys
Steels.

Die

Steels

396 397

19.4. 19.5. 19.6. 19.7. 19.8.

High-Alloy Tool and Die Steels

398
Steels
. .

Function of Alloy Additions in Tool and Die

402
404 405

Cemented Carbide Tools


20.

Chapter
20.1. 20.2. 20.3.

Cast Iron
as

408
an Engineering Material 410

White Cast Iron

Malleable Cast Iron as an Engineering Material

Engineering Properties of Malleable Cast Iron

.... ....

410 410 412

20.4.
20.5.

Gray Cast Iron

as

an Engineering Material

Structure of Gray Cast Iron

414
415

20.6.

Relation between Properties and Structure of Gray Cast Iron

20.7. 20.8.
20.9.

Effect of Effect of

Cooling Rate
Graphite Size on Structure and Properties
.

416
.

417

Evaluation of Gray Cast Iron for Engineering Applications

419 420
422 425

20.10.

Nodular or Ductile Cast Iron


Melting and Casting of Irons

as

an Engineering Material

20.11.
20.12. 20.13. 20.14.

Ternary System of Iron, Carbon, and Silicon

Heat Treatment of Cast Iron

430 434

Normal and Alloy Elements


21.

in Cast Iron

Chapter
21.1. 21.2.

Machinability,

Wear

Resistance, and Deep-Draw-

ing Properties Variables Affecting Machinability

438

438
. . .

Evaluation of Metallic Materials for Machinability

438

Contents
21.S. 21.4. 21.5.
21.6.

xix

Free Machining Steels


Relative Machinability of Steel and Nonferrous Alloys
.

440
441

Types of Wear
Variables Affecting

442

21.7. 21.8.
21.9.

Evaluation of Steel for

Wear Resistance Wear Resistance

443 444
445

Importance of Deep-Drawing Properties


Evaluation of Steels for Deep Drawing
Yield-Point Elongation, Stretched Strains, and ing Properties

446

21.10.

Deep Draw448

21.11.

Deep-Drawing Properties of Nonferrous Alloys


22.

....

449
452

Chapter
22.1. 22.2. 22.3.
22.4. 22.5. 22.6. 22.7. 22.8. 22.9.

Corrosion and Oxidation

Electrochemical Corrosion

452
454 456

EMF

Series

and

Passivity

Uniform Corrosion
Galvanic or Two-Metal Corrosion
Concentration Cell Corrosion
Pitting

456
458

459 460
462
.

Intergranular Corrosion
Stress

Corrosion

Dezincification

466

22.10.
22.11.

Erosion-Corrosion

468
469
471

Methods

for

Combating Corrosion

22.12.
22.13.

Corrosion Testing

Liquid-Metal Corrosion

472
472

22.14. 22.15. 22.16. 22.17. 22.18. 22.19.

High-Temperature Oxidation
Formation of Oxides

473
. .

Dependence of Oxides Growth upon Gas Pressure Dependence of Oxide Growth Upon Time Dependence of Oxide Growth Upon Temperature
Oxidation Prevention

474
477

479
480

Chapter 23. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Metals


23.1. 23.2. 23.3.

485 486 486 488

The Importance of Creep The Engineering Significance of Creep The Creep to Rupture Curve

xx
23.4.
23.5. 23.6.

Contents
Determination of Creep
Effect of Variables

489
491

on Creep

Fatigue and

23.7. 23.8.
23.9.

Structural Changes

Combined Fatigue and Creep During Creep


. . .

493 495

Variation of Other Properties with Temperature

498
499

Design for Elevated Temperature Service


Variation
tures

23.10.

Mechanical

Properties

at

Reduced Tempera500 502

23.11.
23.12.

Effects of Metallurgical Variables

Design for Low-Temperature Service

....

...

503

Index

507

Engineering

Metallurgy

CHAPTER
1

Metallurgy and Engi nee r i ng


Don
R. Mosher, B.S., Assistant Professor of Mechanical

Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

1.1.

Metallurgy as an Art

METALLURGICAL
nings in the stone age
difference in behavior

knowledge had
first

its

begin-

when some ancient craftsman

recognized the

amongst certain of the "rocks" with which he was

working.
brittle,

The

stones familiar to this primitive artisan were hard and

and were capable of being fashioned into tools and weapons only by tedious shaping, chip by chip. His first encounter with metal then, undoubtedly native copper or gold, must have been an exciting experience. Here was a substance which, instead of fracturing, yielded to the blows of his stone hammer. Here was a material which could be formed

much more precisely, which was pleasing to the eye, which could be worked to a keener edge, and which, moreover, somehow acquired greater strength the more it was worked.
From
carbon
is

the use of native metal to the deliberate reduction of an ore by a long step, and one which is the subject of much interesting
It

speculation.

seems likely that the

first

such reduction was accidental-

possibly the result of a fortunate combination of circumstances in which the heat of a campfire, together with carbon from the charred logs

succeeded in reducing copper ore contained in the surrounding stones, On other occasions the stones may have contained additional metals such as tin, and the result was a remarkably stronger metal. In time, the relationship between the
stones was recognized,
fire,

the charred logs,

and the

discoverer, the

and the particular types first metallurgist, began

of

to

produce metals at will. He and his progeny of the next several thousand years have accumulated a mass of information concerning the effects of variables in processing

upon

the properties of the final product.


1

Engineering Metallurgy
Metallurgy as a Science

1.2.

Questions concerning the reasons why these variables resulted in the


observed
effects

must certainly have been present

in the

minds of

these

pioneers long before the means were available to answer them.

With the

advent of the microscope and the X-ray, these inquiring minds began to supply the answers.

The science of metallurgy really began when Sorby, a British scientist, reported in 1864 the results of his investigations on the use of the microscope to study the structure of meteoric iron.
studies in the

This was followed by same general field by Martens in Germany, reported in 1878. The work of these two scientists, however, aroused little interest at the time, and nothing further was accomplished until Sorby showed to the British Iron and Steel Institute in 1886 some photomicrographs of iron and steel. This aroused much interest in the internal structure of metals, and from 1890 to 1920 many distinguished metallurgists devoted
themselves to developing a science of physical metallurgy.
early problem of metallurgy, which fairly cried for was that of the hardening of steel why steel containing considerable carbon was soft when cooled slowly from a red heat but hard when cooled rapidly from the same temperature. This problem occupied most of the workers in the science of metals for more than two decades.
solution,

The paramount

Despite the efforts of

many

brilliant minds,

which resulted

in a

volume
that

of published literature that amazes present-day metallurgists,

little

was wholly decisive was accomplished until confirmatory X-ray crystallography methods came into use about forty years ago. Although some cynics say that the X-ray has created more problems than it has solved, X-ray crystallography has been a useful tool in the study of the structure of metals and the constitution of alloys.
In the past three decades the science of physical metallurgy has changed remarkably. Always closely related to chemistry and physics, it has been greatly affected by the revolution that has occurred in these two sciences since 1920. The gap between chemistry and physics has been largely eliminated, and, as these sciences came together, the science of metallurgy changed from simple speculations on the structure of metals and alloys, as affected by composition or mechanical or thermal treatment and as observed by the microscope, to speculations which involve such complex abstractions as spinning electrons, statistical mechanics, electromagnetic theory, quantum theory, wave mechanics, and thermodynamics.
Present-day physical metallurgists are inclined to smile condescendingly
at the battles over

beta iron, cement carbon, and amorphous metal which

Metallurgy and Engineering


filled the transactions of the

3
years ago.

metallurgical societies forty or

fifty

It is

not

at all certain that

even broader smiles will not be in order thirty

years from structure

over the discussions of free energy, entropy, and mosaic filling our journals at the present time. Especially apropos in this connection are the words of a venerable man of science,

now

which are

Ambrose Fleming, who presented a paper to the first meeting of the London in 1873 and who, in a formal address to the same body of scientists on "Physics and Physicists of the Eighteen Seventies,"* summarized his seventy years of experience by saying:
Sir

Physical Society of

also be the hence a fellow of the physics of the nineteen thirties, he will have to record the great additions then made to knowledge of physical facts. But he may also have to say that our explanations and theories concerning them have all vanished, or at least been replaced by others also destined in turn to pass

When we come to look back then on the world of physicists during the eighteen seventies, what we find is that their inventions, discoveries of fact, and ascertained principles remain with us today of permanent value, forming part of our useful knowledge. But their theories and speculations as to underlying causes and nature have nearly all passed away. Perhaps it will
same with our present-day work. Physical Society gives a talk on the
If

some

sixty years

away.

1.3.

Metallurgy and Engineering


little

Until about forty years ago there was

need for the engineer to


steel,

know anything about metallurgy


rolled or cold-drawn,

since

untreated carbon

hot-

was used for at least 95 per cent of steel structures and machines. The engineer was interested primarily in four propertiestensile strength, yield point, elongation, and reduction of area-and in having available an ample supply of cheap steel which, in addition to meeting specifications for tensile properties, would machine easily and fabricate readily. It was considered sound engineering practice to build machines and structures that would carry a much higher load than was

anticipated; weight was

synonymous with quality, and the heavier the structure the better the design. High factors of safety were used; consequently slight variations in quality, such as lack of structural
geneity, surface irregularities,

and numerous

others,

made

little

homoor no

difference in designing.

This is no longer true. Weight and the strength-weight ratio (tensile strength divided by specific gravity) have become very important. Under the leadership of the automotive and aircraft industries engineers have come to realize that excess weight not only indicates poor design but is an inexcusable economic loss. The experience of the automotive

and

Nature,

v.

143, 1939, pp. 99-102.

Engineering Metallurgy

the aeronautical engineer in designing lightweight structures and machines stimulated similar efforts in other fields of engineering. This
is

shown by the recent developments in machine tools, in lightweight way rolling stock, and even in bridge and building structures.
It
is,

rail-

of course, self-evident that the present-day emphasis on light

as exemplified by the automobile, airplane, and the streamlined train is directly related to the development of new types of steels and light nonferrous alloys and to new treatments for these materials. It is a moot question whether the metallurgist or the engineer was responsible for most of this development. Enthusiastic metallurgists insist that engineering progress has been the direct result of metallurgical progress; that engineers only improved their tools, machines, and structures because metallurgical art and science had produced new metallic materials for the engineer to use. There is no doubt that many engineers are too conservative and that engineering progress has at times lagged behind progress in metallurgy. On the other hand, examples could be cited where the metallurgist did not improve his product until insistent engineering demand forced it upon him. A discussion of whether this advance was pioneered by the metallurgist or the engineer is as futile as arguing whether the egg or the chicken came first; the essential fact is that important changes have taken place and that the

weight in engineering design

engineer should

know something

of the metallurgical progress that has

accompanied
It
is,

his changes in design.

therefore, the purpose of this


in metallurgical art

book

to outline the recent develop-

ments

This does not and refining, or of mechanical and heat treatment, or of thermodynamics and wave mechanics; it does mean, however, that sufficient details of the present state of metallurgical art and science are given so that engineers may recognize the importance of the variables, inherent in the manufacture and treatment of metals and alloys, that affect the engineering properties and the suitability of these materials for engineering applications.
in metallurgical science.

and

mean

that there are long descriptions of melting

QUESTIONS
1.

Distinguish between the art and the science of metallurgy.

2.

What

research tools have most profoundly influenced the development of

metallurgical science?
3. 4.
5.

To what

other sciences

is

metallurgy closely related?

How Why

is

progress in engineering

is it

and in metallurgy inter-related? becoming increasingly important for engineers to understand the

fundamentals of metallurgy?

CHAPTER

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys


Leonard B. Gulbransen, Ph.D., Associate Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri
lurgical
Professor,

Joseph William Spretnak, Ph.D., Professor of MetalEngineering,

The Ohio

State

University,

Columbus, Ohio

In RECENT
and the application of wave mechanics
lurgy has resulted in a
alloys.

years the study of the solid state


to solid state physics

much

clearer picture of the structure of metals

and metaland

Physical and mechanical properties of the metals, such as tensile strength, ductility, electrical conductivity, diffusion, etc are dependent on structure, sometimes to a marked degree. For this reason it is desir-

able to discuss the structure of solids,

and

in particular the structure of

metals and

alloys.

2.1. Building Blocks of Matter


All metals are aggregates of atoms. Atoms consist of a nucleus and one or more planetary electrons. In general, except for applications of the nuclear reactions, it can be assumed that the atomic nucleus consists of
positively charged protons,

and neutrons with no

electrical charge.

Most

of the mass of the

atom

is

sum

of the masses of the protons

concentrated in the nucleus and is equal to the and neutrons in the nucleus. Negatively

charged electrons

sufficient to balance the positively charged protons in the nucleus, resulting in an electrically neutral atom, are found outside the nucleus. Electrons may be thought of as point particles, with a definite

mass and electrical charge; however, their motion must be described in terms of an associated wave. The part of science that deals with this problem is known as wave mechanics. The fundamental equation
de-

Engineering Metallurgy wave


is

scribing the motion of an electron and accompanying

De

Broglie's

equation:
A

= h/mV
x 1027
erg-sec)
,

where h
electron,

is

Planck's constant (6.62


is

is

the mass of the

the velocity of the electron,

and A

is

the associated wave-

Practical use of this equation is made in electron diffraction equipment. Application of De Broglie's equation, and Heisen berg's uncertainty principle, which states that the position and momentum (mV)

length.

of a particle cannot be exactly determined simultaneously, result in a

somewhat

different idea of

atomic structure than the

classical picture of

a nucleus and planetary electrons in definite fixed orbits. of the equations of

Application

wave mechanics

results in a picture of the

atom

as a

positively charged nucleus, with electrons in discrete, but "smeared out"


orbits.

The
is

limits of the orbit

can be described

in

terms of a probability

function, in which, the probability of finding the electron at the center of

the orbit

maximum, but
is

finite

and small
as

probabilities exist for finding

the electron at the limits of the "smeared out" orbit. This description of

atomic structure

sometimes described

an electron cloud picture.

State

2 p State

State

Fig. 2.1.

Electron cloud diagrams of hydrogen atom.

characterized by four

In the solution of the wave equation for a given atom, the electrons are quantum numbers; n, I, m t and m s . The quantum
is

number n
1

quantum number, and is related to the n may have any integral value from + to infinity. The quantum number / is related to the angular momentum of the electron and may have any integral value from to (n-1) The quantum number m, is related to the magnetic moment of the eleccalled the principal
total energy of the electron.

Number

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys


tron and

may have any

value from

to

I.

related to the rotation of the electron

about

The quantum number m, is its own axis, and may have

values of i/ 2 . The four quantum numbers determine the energy of the electron in various states, with the result that an atomic system may be
fully described by specifying the values for the each electron.

quantum numbers

for

wave mechanics is the Pauli Exclusion Principle no two electrons in the same atom can have the same four quantum numbers. This principle in effect restricts a given electron to one and only one energy slate in a single atom. If then, two atoms are brought together to form a molecule, the electrons of each atom must occupy different energy states or energy levels. The idea of energy levels is important with regard to molecule formation and also to the formafurther result of
states that

which

tion of the solid state.

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ELECTRONS


5P

to 5s

10 6
2

Up
3D

"i

Us

IS
Fig. 2.2.

Energy

level

diagram

of

an atom.

As an example of the above principles, consider the hydrogen atom. consists of a proton, + 1 charge, and a mass of approximately one atomic unit. The hydrogen atom must then possess one electron. In the lowest energy state, this electron would have an energy described by the quantum numbers n = 1, / = 0, = 0, and m, = + \/ 2 The next atom in the periodic system, helium, with a + 2 charge on the

The hydrogen atom

Engineering Metallurgy

nucleus must possess two electrons.

The quantum numbers


,

describing

would then be: n, =1, I, = 0, mj, = 0, m, l = + \/ = and n, l = 0, wijj = 0, and 1, z m sl = \/z These two electrons have very nearly the same energy, the only difference being related to the spin quantum numbers m, and m tl Both electrons are confined to the same major energy level with n = 1, and only these two electrons can occupy this level. The next atom in the periodic system, lithium, must possess three electrons. Two of the electrons have the same quantum numbers as those for helium, but the third, n = 2, I = 0, m = 0, and m, = + i/ 2
these electrons, in order to fulfdl Pauli's exclusion principle,

A more common method


an atom
principal
the
is

of representing the electronic configuration of

to use the terminology of the spectroscopist, in

which the

quantum number n is listed, followed by a letter designating quantum number /, and indicating by a superscript the number of
(

For most metallurgical applicabetween energy states with different values for m and m, is so small that it may be neglected. According to this method of representation the hydrogen atom in its lowest energy state may be described as being in a (Is) 1 state; the helium atom in a (Is) 2 state; the
electrons in this particular energy state.
tions, the difference

lithium atom in a (Isf

(2s)
/

state etc.
1,

The quantum number

is

desig-

nated by s for
electrons, the

0,

for

for

2,

and

/ for

3.

By applying
of two

Pauli's exclusion principle, the s state

may

contain a

maximum

state a

maximum

of six electrons, and the d state a maxi-

mum of ten electrons.


ATOMIC NUMBER
1

ELEMENT

ELECTI ION CONFICUR ATION


(Is)
1

Hydrogen

2 3
i

Helium
Lithium
Beryllium

(Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (Is)' (2s) (2s)
1

5
6 7
fi

Boron

(2s)'(2p)'

Carbon
Nitrogen

(2s)'(2p)'
(2s) '(2p) 3

Oxygen
Fluorine

(2s)'(2p)<

9
10
ii

(2s)'(2p)

Neon

(2s)'(2 P )

Sodium

<2s)'(2p) (2s)'(2p)

(3s)

12

Magnesium
of

(3s)

Fic. 2.S.

Table

atoms through atomic number 12 with energy

states.

Fundamental Structure
2.2.

of Metals

and Alloys

The Building-Up

Principle

Using the principles outlined in the previous section, the electron configuration of the elements can be determined through argon, atomic

number

18. However with the element potassium, atomic number 19, instead of progressing from a completed 3p energy state to the 3d state, the next electron falls into a 4s state. Calcium follows with two electrons

in the 4s

state.

This discontinuity in the building up principle results

from the fact that as electrons are added to energy levels further removed from the nucleus a resultant shielding of the positively charged nucleus takes place due to the intervening electrons, causing the energy of the 4s
have a lower value than that of the 3d state. Following calcium in the periodic table, the building up of the 3d state occurs in a normal manner, inside of a completed Is state. The electron configuration of nickel, atomic number 28, being (Is) 2 (2s) 2 " (3s) 2 (3p) 6 (2p)
state to actually

The electron configuration of element atomic number 29, copper, then becomes normal with a completed 3d state and a (4s) 1 valence state. Elements with atomic number 21 through 28 are known
(3d) 8 (4s) 2
.

as

transition elements

and are characterized by incomplete 3d energy

states.

In the second long period of the periodic table a similar series of elements occur with incomplete 4d energy states. The group of transition elements is important to the metallurgist because it includes many of our

most important metals, such manganese, cobalt, and nickel.


ATOMIC NUMBER
21

as iron,

titanium, vanadium, chromium,

TRANSITION ELEMENT

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
(Is)'

Scandium
Titanium

(2s)'(2p)*
(2s) (2p)'
2

(3s)'(3p)(3d)>

(4s)'
(4s)* (4s) 8
(4s)'

22

(Is) 1
(ls)
(Is) 1
'

(3s)'(3p)(3d) 2
(3s)(3p)(3d)'
(3s) 2 (3p)(3d) s

23 24

Vanadium

(2s)*(2p) (2s)*(2p)
(2s)'(2p)

Chromium
Manganese
Iron

25
26 27 28

(Is)'
(Is) 2
(Is) (Is)
2 2

(3s) 2 (3p)(3d)

(4s)'
(4s)
2

(2s)'(2p) 6
(2s) (2 P)
2 6

(3s)'(3p)"(3d)
(3s) (3p)(3d)'
2

Cobalt
Nickel
Fig. 2.4.

(4s) 2

(2s)*(2p)

(3s)'(3p)(3d)

(4s)

Table

of

atoms of the transition elements.

2.3.

Types of Bonding in Solids

All solids can be classified in groups according to the bond formed between atoms in the solid state. The four types of bonds that may be formed in solids are:

10

Engineering Metallurgy
(1)

The Van der Waal's bond The ionic bond (2) covalent bond The (3) The metallic bond. (4) These various types of bonds may all

be analyzed in terms of electronelectron, electron-proton, proton-proton interaction between atoms.

Van der Waal's bonding occurs between atoms or molecules in solids due to an induced polarity on one molecule with respect to another. This type of bond is electrostatic in character and the binding force is relatively weak. Solids formed by Van der Waal's bonding have low melting and sublimation temperatures, and low strength. Solids formed by the atoms or molecules of neon, argon, and iodine are examples of Van der Waal's
solids.

Ionic bonds can be considered to be the result of the transfer of an electron, or electrons from one atom to another with the net result that one atom becomes positively charged, and the other negatively charged.

On

the basis of the building-up principle, such bonds should tend to form between atoms with one or two electrons in the valence state and

atoms with one or two vacancies in the valence state. More stable electronic structures occur for completed energy levels; thus, when two atoms such as sodium and chlorine are brought together to form a solid, the valence electron of sodium is accepted by the chlorine atom to complete the valence state of chlorine, leaving a net charge of + 1 on the

The

1 on the chlorine atom. sodium atom, and resulting in a net charge of ionic bond is electrostatic in nature and results in a strong bond. Examples of ionic solids are sodium chloride, magnesium fluoride, magnesium oxide, and calcium sulfide.

The

covalent

bond

is

formed by

forces arising

from the sharing

of
is

electrons between atoms.

The

simplest example of this type of

bond

the formation of the hydrogen molecule from two hydrogen atoms. The lowest energy state for the hydrogen atom is the h state in which m = can be occupied by two electrons, it follows that \/ 2 and since this state formed between two hydrogen atoms, their elecif a molecule is to be energy level. Many elements with more than trons must share this lowest crystal structures in the solid state based on one valence electron form octet of electrons, required bond. To complete an this type of electron
,

for a stable structure, electrons are shared with

8-N neighboring atoms,

where

is

the
is

number

of valence electrons in a given element.

The

covalent bond a strong bond, because of the completion of an energy covalent solids are generally speaking hard and strong. level; so that solids are diamond, silicon, and graphite. Examples of covalent

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys

11

features of both the ionic and cometal atoms are brought together to form a solid, a broadening and possible overlapping of energy levels occurs; so that, although a discrete number of electrons must occupy a given energy

The

metallic

bond has some of the

valent bond.

When

level,

according to the Pauli principle, the electrons in a given energy

level

may have more freedom


electric field.

to

move throughout

the solid lattice under

an applied

Solid

Decreasing interatomic distance


Fig. 2.5.

Broadening of energy

levels in

a solid.

The

metallic state is sometimes visualized as a structure consisting of positive ions arranged periodically in space, with a negatively charged

cloud of electrons surrounding the positively charged core. An explanation of the high electrical conductivity of the metals is based on the idea of unfilled or overlapping broad energy levels. An applied electric field
in either case

may

increase the energy of electrons in such bands

and

promote them

to a conduction band, resulting in a net flow of electrons

in the direction of the applied field.

characterized by filled

does not possess band.


2.4.

Insulators on the other hand are and empty levels. Thus, a normal electric field enough energy to promote electrons onto a conduction

Assemblages of Atoms
the seven crystal systems used by the crystallographer, the two to the metallurgist are the cubic and the hexagonal

Of

most important

12
systems.

Engineering Metallurgy
Nearly
all

of the

common

metals and alloys of commercial imin describing solid structures.

portance belong to these two systems. Before discussing metal structures,


it is

important to define certain terms used


[.attire.

The Space

space lattice

is

defined as a lattice of lines divid-

ing space into equal sized prisms which stand side by side with all faces in contact, so as to fill space with no voids. All of the points of a space
lattice

have identical surroundings.


lattices.

It

can be shown that there are only

fourteen possible space

The Space Group. Starting with a given space lattice, there are many ways of building up actual crystals by placing atoms or molecules at
various points on the space lattice.
called space groups, of

Actually there are 230 such ways,


crystals

forming actual
unit cell
is

based on the fourteen

space

lattices.

The Unit
space lattice

Cell.

The

defined as a network of lines through


it

into prisms. Each unit cell in a and orientation with every other unit cell. The unit cell is the building block from which the actual crystal is constructed by repetition in three dimensions. The three most the points of a space lattice, dividing
is

identical in size, shape,

important unit

cells for

the metallurgist are the body-centered cubic,

the face-centered cubic, and the hexagonal close-packed.

/'

y
/
/
/*

y/
>f
.

7
\

/
i

Fie. 2.6.

The

three unit

cells.

In the cubic system all of the cube edges of the unit cell are of equal length and stand at 90 to one another. In the hexagonal system, three
axes on the basal plane of equal length stand at 120 to one another with the third axis of different length at 90 to the basal plane.
Special planes

and

special directions in crystals are of great

importance
aspects

in plastic deformation of metals, hardening reactions, of the behavior of metal crystals; therefore,
it is

and other

necessary to have

some

method

of describing such planes

and

directions.

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys

13

The most common method


reference point.

is

to use Miller indices

and

indices of direc-

tion to describe the position of a plane

and
is

its

direction from a fixed

The

Miller index system

based on the space lattice


is

and unit

cell of the structure in

question, and

derived from the inter-

cepts of the plane along the axes of the space lattice.


are as follows:
(1)

The

three steps in-

volved in the determination of the Miller indices of a particular plane

Determine the intercepts


as a

of the plane on the three-crystal axes multiple or fraction of the unit cell edge.

(2) (3)

Determine the reciprocals of these three numbers.

Reduce the same ratio.

reciprocals to the smallest integers that are in the

The

three indices are then enclosed in parentheses. Planes that have the

Plane
Intercepts

Plane II

x axis
y axis z axis

= = =
=

a,,

x axis y axis
z axis

= = = =

oo

ao

oo

Reciprocals

x axis

=1
=
a
1

x axis

=
a.
oo

y axis

y axis

z axis

(111)

/.

axis

= =-r oo
(100)

Miller Index

Fig. 2.7.

Determination of Miller

indices.

same

integers, either positive or negative,

but in a different sequence


,

belong to the same planes (010) belong to the same family of planes, the [100] family.
family of planes.

The

(OlO)

(100) etc.

Indices of direction are derived by considering the motion that must be imparted to a point at the origin to move it in a required direction.

14

Engineering Metallurgy

required indices are found by moving the point first along the X axis, then along the Y axis, then along the Z axis, in terms of the unit

The

distance along these axes.

The

three smallest integers in the same ratio

that will impart die required


direction.

motion

to the point are the indices of

Indices of direction are enclosed in square brackets.

Direc-

tions having the

same

indices, positive or negative,

but

in a different [100],

sequence belong to the same family.


[O'TO],

The indices

of direction

[001] belong to the same family of equivalent directions <100>. Note that reciprocals are not used in finding indices of direction.

2.5. Defects in Crystals

Tn idealized representations of metal


is

crystals, a
cell
is

model of

perfect crystals

used that possesses no imperfections and is repeated indefinitely through space with no disregistry among the unit cells. Such a model clearly is not representative of a real metal crystal. If it were, we should commonly experience tensile strengths of the order of magnitude of millions of pounds per square
generally used.

In this model, a unit

inch.

Real metal

crystals

and

|>olycrystalline aggregates are characterized


It is

by

the presence of several types of defects.


defects in three categories:
1.

convenient to

classify these

Surface imperfections

2. 3.

Line imperfections
Point or atomic imperfections.

Surface imperfections include the free surface of a crystal, the grain boundary or interface between two adjoining grains in a polycrystalline
aggregate, interfaces between two solid phases, the interface of a twin and the parent crystal, and sub-boundaries of the mosaic block structure.

Metal

crystals are

made up

of cubic crystallites about 10

cm. edge
the

length, called mosaic blocks.

There

is

a slight disregistry

among

blocks, giving rise to interfaces

formed by adjacent blocks.

Line imperfections are termed dislocations. There are two basic types
of dislocations, the "edge" type
are illustrated in Figure 2.8.

and

the "screw" type.

These dislocations
is

The

dislocation concept

the basis of the

modern

theories of plastic flow in metals.

Atomic imperfections include several types. The lattice vacancy is a normal lattice point from which the atom is missing. Interstitial defects consist of either a foreign atom in the interstitial space between normal lattice sites, or an atom from a normal lattice site removed to an intersti-

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys

15

POSITIVE

DISLOCATION

SCREW DISLOCATION

Fie. 2.8.

Dislocations in Metals.

considerable distance from the vacancy so formed. Finally a substitute for a host atom on a normal lattice site, giving rise to a substitutional defect.
tial site at a

foreign

atom may

above account for the flow and fracture characterproperties including semi-conducting behavior, diffusion mechanisms, and creep characteristics of real metals and alloys. These
istics, electrical

The

defects listed

defects are the basis of the "prior history" effect so well

known in metals study of these defects by metal scientists has a two-fold purpose; namely (1) a better understanding of them and how they affect properties, and (2) exploration of possibilities of minimizing or eliminating these defects. For example, metal whiskers of diameter of
and
alloys.

The

about 10 cm. exhibit essentially theoretical strengths and arc thought to be free of dislocations.
'

16

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 2.9.

Schematic representation of crystallization.

(Rosenhain)

2.6. Polycrystalline

Aggregates

In technical freezing processes such as the solidification of ingots in metal molds or castings in sand molds, many nuclei or starting sites beactive. A nucleus consists of a crystallite which is large enough to be thermodynamically stable in the presence of the liquid. Each nucleus grows until it impinges on its growing neighbors. This process is illus-

come

trated schematically in Figure 2.9.

The impingement
The

process yields metal

grains at the completion of freezing, since on the average, two neighboring nuclei have different orientations in space.
is

structure developed

generally termed a polycrystalline aggregate.

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys

17

junction of two neighboring grains gives rise to a zone of distermed the grain boundary. The grain boundary is a few atoms in thickness and is essentially disordered in structure, showing viscous
registry

The

properties since the atoms in this zone belong to the lattice of neither of the two neighboring grains.

Some important

manifestations of grain

boundaries are the following:


(1)

They

are barriers to the propagation of slip, the basic

mechanism
is

of plastic deformation. metal.


(2)

The

smaller the grain

size,

the harder

the

Grain boundaries are high energy


cases,

sites; thus,

they are favored

sites

for nucleation of solid state reactions.

They may

also attract solute atoms

in

some
(3)

resulting in a segregation of the foreign


faster

atom

at the

boundary.
Diffusion
is

along grain

boundaries than in the

bulk

of the grain.
(4) At elevated temperatures, grain boundaries may contribute to deformation in creep by grain rotation. The grain size range usually encountered is from 10 to 250 microns (micron = 10* cm.) in diameter. The grain structure is usually studied

electrical sheet, grains are easily discernible

with the aid of a microscope. In certain cases such as cast structures and by the naked eye. An example of a polycrystalline metal is given in Figure 2.10.

Fie. 2.10.

Polygonal grains of high purity iron, etched. 500x-

18

Engineering Metallurgy

2.7. Interactions in Metallic Solutions

The

initial

addition of solute atoms of species

to a

pure liquid or

solid metal of species

results in a liquid solution or solid solution

respectively.
If

The

solubility of

in

A may be
said that

extensive or restricted.

is

completely soluble in A, then


If

it is

is

completely miscible

in A.

is

not completely miscible in liquid A, then a second liquid

phase will appear. In solid metal A, limited solubility will give rise to the appearance of a second phase, which may occur in the form of another
solid solution, or as
crystal structure.

an intermetallic compound with

characteristic

mainly determine the miscibility of B in A, namely and the chemical interaction among the species. The ratio of the diameter of the solute atom B to the diameter of the solvent atom A must be such that B can either (1) substitute for A at a lattice site forming a substitutional solid solution, or (2) such that B ran fit in the interstitial space of the A lattice, giving rise to an interstitial solid
characteristics

Two

the size factor

solution.

The size

factor

is

illustrated in Figure 2.11.

Favorable
for

Favorable
for
interstitial
i

substitutional
solid solutions

solid solutions

i
j

0.59

0.85

1.0

1.15

Ratio of
Fie. 2.11.

size of solute

atom

to solvent

atom

The

size factor in the

formation of solutions in metals.

Chemical interaction has


atoms. In an assemblage of
these symbols.

to

do with the strength of the bond between

A and B

neighbors are A-A, B-B, and A-B.

We

atoms, the possible pairs of nearest can also refer to bond strengths by

In solutions, three general types of behavior

may be

ex-

perienced: ideal solution behavior, positive deviation from ideality, and negative deviation from ideality. In the case of ideal solution behavior,
the situation in
a given

bond

strengths

is

A-A

B-B

A-B. This

is

to say that

has no preference as to an A or a B atom as its nearest neighbor. (The number of nearest neighbors depends on the symmetry of the space lattice, and is expressed as the coordination number. Values

A atom

for the

common
and 8

lattices are 12 for the face

centered cubic and hexagonal


.

metals,

for the

body centered cubic)

In

this case

complete mis-

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys


cibility in

19

the liquid

and

solid

state

is

expected, yielding the simple

isomorphous diagram. For the situation


tion
is

AB >
B

AA

HH
,

positive devia-

experienced, meaning

A atoms

prefer to cluster with other

atoms, and

B atoms

prefer to cluster with

tendency for phase separation. With sequence of binary diagrams is the following:

atoms. This gives rise to the increasing positive deviation, the


in the solid state

Isomorphous phase separation


peritectic with

minimum
gap

peritectic -h> eutectic


in the liquid region.

- eutectic with

a miscibility

For the situation

AB <

negative deviation from ideality

is

experienced, meaning A's and B's prefer to be associated. This leads to the tendency for compound formation. The sequence of phase diagrams

with increasing negative deviation is the following: Isomorphous ordering compound formation. An ordered solid solution is one in which the solute occupies
lattice sites

specific

and

is

not distributed randomly.

2.8.

Liquid Solutions

The concept of liquid solutions of metals is easy to grasp since we have common counterparts in our everyday experiences such as sugar dissolved
in coffee, salt dissolved in water.

liquid solution has some important

differences

from the
is

solid solutions.

Probably the most important

differ-

ence

is

that only "short-range order" exists. In a true solid, the crystalline

arrangement
order."

repeated indefinitely in space giving rise to "long-range a metal melts, an increase in volume occurs (only bismuth and gallium among the pure metals contract on melting) This increase in volume is accounted for by the formation of additional lattice vacancies and an increase in the interatomic distances, with a loss of long-range

When

It is believed that the liquid configuration is 12-15 atoms clustered about a lattice vacancy. As the temperature of the liquid is increased, the short-range order begins to disappear and the structure ap-

ordering.

proaches complete randomness.

Liquid metals and solutions


shearing
stresses.

The

in general have no ability to sustain thermal and electrical conductivities are about

The solubility of gases such as hydrogen increases with increasing temperature. When immiscibility occurs in the liquid region of an alloy, generally two liquid layers are formed because of difference in density of the two liquid phases.

50%

of the values for the solid structure.

20
2.9.

Engineering Metallurgy
Solid Solutions

concept of solid solutions is somewhat harder to grasp. These solutions are in reality solute atoms dissolved in the crystal lattice of the host, or solvent metal. As previously mentioned, the solute atom may
substitute for a solvent
solution, or
it

The

atom on

a lattice

site,

giving a substitutional solid

space between the solvent atoms, giving an interstitial solid solution. These two types of solid solution are illustrated schematically in a two dimensional array in
interstitial

may

lodge in the

/'

s
/

7 /
,

<

y
i

s
'

2
/*
yC

yt

<-

/
/

,/

}
B

Fig. 2.12.

Schematic representation of solid solution.

Figure 2.12. Solid solutions are produced either by the freezing of the liquid solution, or by the diffusion of the solute atom into the lattice of
the solvent

atom in the

solid state.

The
(1) (2) (3) (4)

introduction of solute atoms into the lattice of the solvent metal

brings about some important changes in properties:

The electrical and thermal conductivities are reduced. The thermoelectric power is reduced. The strength and hardness are increased. The ductility is decreased.
of solid solutions
is

The formation

one of the fundamental methods of

hardening a metal.
2.10. Intermediate Phases

When the solid solubility of a solute species is exceeded, a second phase will appear in the microstructure of the alloy. These intermediate phases can be classified into six categories: (I) Intermediate solid solutions.
These solid solutions exhibit a range of composition and lie intermediate to the components A and B. Terminal solid solutions, on the other hand, start with pure A or pure B.

Fundamental Structure of Metals and Alloys

21

(2) Normal Intermetallic compounds. These are often called valency compounds since they show a definite stoichiometric ratio of A to B and a definite chemical composition. Examples are Mg 2 Pb, Mg3 Bi 2 , PtSn AlSb, MgTe, MnSn, and AuGa.
2,

(3)

Electron Compounds.

These compounds are characterized by a definite valence electron to atom ratio, a definite structure, and usually a range of composition. The
electron/atom ratios encountered are 3/2, 21/13, and 7/4. A common example of electron compounds is the Cu-Zn, or brass series of phases.

These electron compounds are found The Sigma Phase. (4)

in alloys of copper, silver,

and

gold.

The sigma phase is a hard, brittle phase found in certain alloy systems such as for example Fe-Cr. It has a tetragonal structure with 30 atoms
in the unit cell.
(5) Interstitial Compounds. These compounds involve small solute atoms, usually hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon, which lie in orderly arrays between layers of the larger

solvent atoms.

They

are characterized by their high melting points,

high hardness, and metallic characteristics. The Laves Phases. (6)

Laves phases are compounds which form when the difference in size between solute and solvent is intermediate. They show the composition AB 2 with a size ratio of 1.2/1.

The

atomic

The formation of intermediate phases is another important method of hardening metals. The intermediate phases can further be classified as to being coherent or non-coherent. Coherent phases are those whose structure is continuous with the matrix structure and lead to precipitation hardening (age hardening) Non-coherent phases are those whose
.

discontinuous with that of the matrix and are simply mechanical mixtures. This class of intermediate phase leads to dispersion hardening. The hardness of such a mixture is mainly dependent on the average distance between the precipitate particles, or expressing it differently, the mean free path in the matrix.

lattice structures are

QUESTIONS
1.

Calculate the wave-length of an electron velocity of 1.8 X 109 cm/sec.

(m

9.1

10-28 grams) with a

2.

3.

4.

Calculate the wave-length of a particle of mass 2000 pounds and a velocity of 50 miles per hour. Would it be necessary to use wave mechanics to interpret the motion of this mass? Explain. Write the electron configuration of silver, molybdenum, and tungsten. Discuss the difference between the ionic and Van der Waal's bond.

22
5. 6.

Engineering Metallurgy

How

do the metallic bond and the covalent bond differ? Show how two different space groups may be constructed on
centered cubic
lattice.

a body-

7.

Determine the number of atoms

8.

9.

in a body-centered cubic unit cell; a facecentered cubic cell. (Note that corner and face-centered atoms are shared by other unit cells.) Determine the Miller indices of a plane in the cubic system with intercepts is the length of the unit cell edge) (a V-i a, and \i a 'A a Determine the intercepts of a plane in the cubic system with Miller indices
,

of (235). Sketch the direction [101] in a face-centered cubic cell. 11. Enumerate the three classifications of defects encountered in real metal crystals and give examples of each type. 12. What is the influence of these defects in metals and alloys? 13. Define a grain boundary and list some important manifestations of grain
10.

boundries. Describe the two types of solid solutions formed in metal systems. 15. What is meant by the size factor in solid solutions? Give the favorable size factor range for the two types of solid solutions. 16. Discuss the arrangement of atoms in solid solutions exhibiting (a) ideal behavior, (b) positive deviation from ideality, and (c) negative deviation
14. 17.

from ideality. Give the sequence of phase diagrams expected for increasing (a) positive deviation from ideality, and (b) negative deviation from ideality.
Discuss the properties of liquid solutions of metals.

18. 19.

What

changes occur in physical and mechanical properties when


six categories of intermediate phases

B atoms

arc dissolved in the crystalline lattice of A, forming a solid solution?


20.

Enumerate the

and

describe the char-

acteristics of each.

CHAPTER

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties


Philip C. Rosenthal, M.S., Professor of Metallurgical
Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin

IF A
it is

"perfect" single crystal of metal


in the

is

tested,

neighborhood of a million pounds per square inch, exceeding by a hundred-fold or more the strength of the same metal in its ordinary polycrystalline form. According to dislocation theory, this great difference in strength between the "perfect" crystal and
its

found that

strength

is

the ordinary polycrystalline metal can be attributed to the presence in the latter of dislocations within the grains, and to the grain boundaries themselves, which in effect, represent a series of dislocations. Therefore, the properties of polycrystalline metals are limited at the start by this
characteristic atomic disregistry;

and whatever means we have available

for controlling their properties cannot eliminate this situation.

In addition to the inherent atomic imperfections that are present, other microscopic or even macroscopic imperfections may be introduced

during the manufacture of the metal


sions,

part.

These are such imperfecetc.,

tions as segregation of alloying elements, presence of non-metallic inclu-

seams, porosity, voids, dissolved gas,


its

properties of the metal and determine


factors

"quality."

which will alter the These "built-in"

cannot always be prevented and must be recognized as affecting the engineering properties to a greater or lesser degree. Starting with a material that is already limited in its properties be-

we can alter its properties within limits, through the utilization of one or more of the following processes or "unit operations" of engineering property control that are available to the engineer for his manipulation. These are:
cause of these imperfections,

23

24
1

Engineering Metallurgy
Grain size control Mechanical working
Alloying

2. 3.

4. 5.

Heat treatment
Nuclear radiation. final engineering properties of a metal may therefore be thought resulting from a combination of positive and negative factors. The

The
of as

negative factors are the dislocations


segregation, inclusions, porosity,
are picked

and the additional imperfections of and any other undesirable factors that
of
its

up by the metal during the course

preparation and that

detract from the properties of the metal.

The

positive factors are those

combinations of the first four of the process variables listed above that are used to obtain the properties desired. To be most effective, any one or combination of these operations should be performed on metal having a "quality" consistent with the application and costs of the part. To illustrate the extremes possible, the metal going into an ordinary boat anchor and that going into a highly stressed landing gear of an airplane can be compared. In the first instance, the most important requirement is shape and weight, and strength is decidedly secondary. Metal going into this part could contain a number of the imperfections previously listed without seriously detracting from its serviceability. Furthermore, no strengthening would be required by any further processing. On the other hand, the highly stressed part of an airplane landing
gear would need to be very carefully produced to avoid any imperfections

and

excessive inclusions.

In addition, the metal would be alloyed and

properly heat treated and possibly mechanically worked to get the best
possible serviceability for the

negative factors

would be kept

minimum weight of at a minimum and

the part.

Here the

the positive factors

derived from the processing developed to the highest degree.

While knowledge concerning the control of all the variables affecting engineering properties is important to the engineer, it is with respect to the processes used to manipulate the engineering properties* that he is
generally concerned and these will be discussed primarily herein. References to the factors affecting the "quality" of the metal will be
necessary.

made when

GRAIN SIZE AND ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


3.1.

Grain Size Control

Although other factors such as alloying or heat treatment may have a more profound effect on metal properties, nevertheless control of the

The

metallurgical engineer, of course,

is

expected to be familiar with

all.

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

25

Fie. 3.1.

Partially solidified iron crystals

showing

their dendritic appearance (Howe).

grain size of the metal can be important because such properties as toughness, high temperature strength, machinability, and formability can vary appreciably with the grain size. How grain size can be confirst, following which some of the more important engineering aspects of grain size control will be discussed. Casting Process. When metal is melted and poured into castings, the metal solidifies as a mass of interlocked grains. The way the metal freezes

trolled will be discussed

final form it takes is related to its composition. It is not possible to consider here all the ramifications of solidification, and further consideration of this point is given in Chapter 6, but those factors affecting final grain size can be considered. As the temperature of the molten met;il is lowered by loss of heat to the mold walls, freezing commences by the nucleation of solid metal grains

and the

the

along the sides of the mold. The grains so nucleated are probably randomly oriented but a number will be so oriented that growth inward

26

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 3.2.

Completely frozen gold alloy showing dendritic character of each grain and

grain boundaries. 100X.

will

be favored,

i.e.

in the direction of the temperature gradient.

At the
lower

same time that they grow inward,


rates in their other

these grains will also

grow

at

dimensions as well.

The

growth, however, will not

be like that of an expanding block but more on the order of a growing


tree,

with the main stem being represented by the growth inward and

the branches representing the lateral expansion.


is

This

tree-like structure

related to the crystallographic structure of the metal since the lateral


is

growth

not random

(as in

a tree)

but confined

to definite preferred
3.1, for instance,

directions.

In the growing crystals illustrated in Figure


is

the lateral growth in any one grain

confined to two major directions at


Crystals

right angles to each other. In addition to the secondary branches, there

are also tertiary branches extending therefrom.


this

which grow in
is

manner

are referred to as dendrites.

The

tree-like

or dendritic growth

rather

than a wall-like growth in these crystallographic directions

attributed to the fact that heat can diffuse

away from a protuberance

much more readily than from a flat surface; consequently, there will be a natural tendency toward local extension of the growing interface.

The

crystals in

Figure

3.1

are only partially solidified.

If

allowed

to

and assuming enough liquid metal available to satisfy their needs, the grains would eventually fill out until all available space would be occupied by solid metal and each grain would be separated from the other by an irregular grain boundary (Fig. 3.2)
freeze completely,

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

27

Fie. 3.3.

Polygonal or equi-axed grains of high-purity iron etched. 500 x.

If the

metal

is

pure, the dendritic structure displayed in Figure 3.2

but the grain boundaries will still be present. The in Figure 3.2 occurs because chemical heterogeneity is created during freezing and can be revealed by etching the solidified alloy. Such chemical heterogeneity would not be possible in a pure substance; therefore, evidence of the dendritic structure can only be obtained by draining liquid away from a partially solidified metal as was necessary to reveal the dendrites in figure 3.1.
visible,

will not

be

dendritic structure

shown

Whenever grains grow more rapidly in one direction than the others, they are called columnar grains. If they grow equally fast in all directions they are called equi-axed grains. Equi-axed grains of iron are
shown
in Figure
3.3.
is dependent on two factors: (1) the rate of nucleation, N, or in other words, the number of growth centers that form in a given amount of time, and (2) the rate of growth, G, of these nuclei. It should be quite obvious that if conditions are adjusted to give

The

final size of these grains

and their growth is at a moderate rate, grain size will be the other hand, only a few nuclei, growing at an equal rate, will produce a coarser grain structure. Both rates of nucleation and the
nuclei
small.

many

On

growth can be represented by complex thermodynamic functions involving a number of factors. The rate of nucleation in particular is usually affected by impurity particles or the container walls. Practically,
rates of

28

Engineering Metallurgy

however, both of these rates are dependent on the cooling rate of the metal. As the cooling rate increases, the greater is the degree of supercooling of the liquid and the greater the rates of nucleation and growth.

The
It
is

relative changes of these

two

factors,

however,

is

such that for most

metals, rapid cooling produces a finer grain structure than slow cooling.

apparently impossible to repress completely nucleation in metal as

is

the case for glass which represents a material which does not develop an

appreciable rate of nucleation until


the rate of growth
is

it is

cooled to a temperature where

too low to be effective

and the

glass

remains a super-

cooled liquid.

Because nucleation of metals can be affected by impurities, some metals can be produced in a fine grain structure by the addition of certain
nucleating or "inoculating" agents. The addition of sodium to an aluminum-silicon alloy, for example, produces a fine grained alloy. Mechanical vibration can also induce nucleation.

mold other changes occur on the properties and behavior of the solid. Most metals contract on freezing. Since this normal contractual process
the cooling of liquid metal in a

During

that

may have

a bearing

occurs simultaneously with dendritic growth, interdendritic void areas

may develop may

that cannot be fed properly.

Also as metal cools, the solubility for certain dissolved gases or solids
change, resulting in their precipitation and entrapment within the
grains or

on grain boundaries depending on the degree and time of

these

changes. These conditions affect the "quality" of the metal as discussed


earlier.

Mechanical Working. The previous section has described how grain metals is controlled. Many metal parts, however, are produced from metal that has been cast into an ingot and then subsequently rolled or otherwise mechanically worked into a desired shape such as a forging, bar stock, plate, angle or some other form. This mechanical working can also change the grain sue of the metal.
size of cast

working is done at an elevated temperature (hot working) combined effects of the heat and working action will cause recrystallization, the size of these new grains being dependent on the amount of this mechanical action and the temperature at which it is performed. As long as the temperature remains high enough to assure spontaneous reIf the

the

crystallization, the
If the

lower that temperature, the finer will be the grain


at

size.
,

metal

is

worked

the original grains are cold working.

room temperature (or below for some metals) severely deformed and distorted. This is called
insufficient

However,

energy

is

available to cause this


set of

metal to seek a new orientation (nucleate) and grow into a new

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties


grains.

29

raising the temperature of the metal (annealing) , a temperareached where recrystallization docs occur and a new set of grains develops as a result of nuclcation and growth in the solid state.

By

ture

is

The

size of these grains

can be controlled,

as

described later in this

chapter.

Powder Metallurgy. Metal powders can be produced by reducing oxides or other compounds, by electro-deposition, grinding, or by other means. If these are subsequently compressed and heated (sintered) a metallic compact is produced by interdiffusion of atoms between the particles, producing ultimately a metallic mass composed of grains having a grain size that is determined by the processing variables involved.
Allotropic Transformation. In metals which undergo an allotropic transformation in the solid state a new set of grains is produced as a result of the transformation. Thus, in iron, which is the best example of this situation, cooling it from the high temperature face-centered cubic form to the room temperature body-centered structure results in nucleation and growth of the body-centered structure from the original facecentered structure. The size of the grains is again determined
relative rates at

by the which nucleation and growth occur. Slow rates of cooling

promote large grain size. Other Methods for Controlling Grain Size. In addition to the foregoing methods, it is also possible to produce a solid metal of a certain grain size by deposition from a vapor or by electrodeposition from a
solution. In the latter case the characteristics of the plating bath determine the grain size of the deposited metal.

3.2. Effect of

Grain Size on Properties


values showing the influence of grain size on

Table

3.1 gives selected

the strength

and

ductility of

pure iron.

Table

3.

Effect of Grain Size

on Tensile Properties of Iron. *

Grain Size, Grains per sq. mm.


2.5 to

Tensile Strength
psi

Yield Strength ps ;

Elongation in 2

in.

9.7

23,900

to

33,700

5,900
8
,

to to to

6,500
20 200
,

28.8 to 35.3
44.8
to

35.6 to 77.5
109 to 135

38,200 to 41,600
42,200 to 43,300

300

50.7

15,100

22,200

42.8 to 45.3

Metals

Handbook, ASM, 1948

ed., p. 433.

30

Engineering Metallurgy
is

These data show that there


result of decreasing grain size,

a substantial increase in strength as a

However, once the grain size mm. little additional change in properties is apparent. Since metal failure usually occurs by a process of slip (described

with an accompanying rise in ductility. reaches approximately 100 grains per sq.
later)

along certain crystallographic planes of the grains, followed by eventual fracture, the effect of decreasing grain size is to cause interference to
grains composing a fine-grained material thereby and altering the ductility, as compared to coarse grained metal where each individual grain is freer to slip and distort with less interference from neighboring grains. Figures 3.4 and 3.5 show further examples of the effect of grain size on the strength and ductility of metals. In the case of pure copper, very little change in properties is evident, but for the 65-35 Cu-Zn brass the strength and ductility are noticeably affected by grain size. In this case, the strength decreases and ductility increases with increase in grain size. In addition to affecting strength and ductility, grain size is also important in forming operations. Table 3.2, for example, shows the applislip

among
its

the

many

raising

strength

cations for brass of various grain

sizes.

The

coarser grained material

is

more

readily deformed but gives a rougher surface than the fine-grained

material. Similar effects are noticed in deep-drawing of low-carbon steel

where grain

size in excess of

about 0.0012 inches average diameter may

lead to a surface roughness after drawing referred to as an orange peel


effect (Figure 3.4)
.

On

the other hand, extremely fine-grained or annealed

low-carbon
that appear
3.5)
.

steel

may show another


This defect
is

type of defect after deep-drawing


is

called stretcher strains.

characterized by fine
after the
is

wavy

lines

on the surface of the part


too small

Also, a grain size that

deformation (Figure likely to make deep-drawing

difficult

because of high strength and low ductility.

Table

3.2.

Grain Size of Cold Worked and Annealed Copper Alloys.

Nominal Grain
0.015 0.025 0.035 0.050

Size,

mm.

Typical Use
Slight forming operations.

Shallow drawing.
For best average surface combined with drawing.

Deep drawing

operations.
thick gages.

0. 100

Heavy drawing on

Loc,

cit.

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

31

Fie. 3.4. Microstructure and surface structure of a fine-grained steel (A) and a coarse-grained steel (B). Orange-peel eficct is revealed in (B) after Erichsen cupping tests. (F Korber, Staht & Eisen, v, 47, 1927, p. 1158).
.

Machining operations are


steels, for

also influenced by grain size. Coarse-grained


if

example, allow for higher cutting speeds, but

finish

is

im-

portant a fine-grained steel is recommended. Metals under stress at elevated temperatures tend to elongate slowly with time (creep) This behavior is associated with grain boundary
.

movement, hence where

resistance to stress at high temperatures is important, a coarse-grained metal will be superior to a fine-grained metal. The tungsten filament in a lamp bulb, for example, is produced as a coarse-grained wire because of its better life. In other high temperature applications, such as turbines, jet engines, etc, the grain size of the metal composing the high temperature components will be a factor in determin-

ing

its

resistance to creep.

This

is

discussed in Chapter 23.

32

Eiigineering Metallurgy

Fie. 3.5.

Stretcher strains in

low-carbon

steel.

actual size

(1955

Supplement

to Metals Handl>ook).

EFFECT OF MECHANICAL WORKING ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


In a previous section the effects of mechanical working on grain
size

effects of

were described. mechanical working on the engineering properties that should be considered. Before these can be discussed, however, it is necessary to review briefly the principles dealing with the deformation of metals because some knowledge of this subject is helpful for an understanding
of the engineering applications of metal working.

In addition to these effects there are other important

3.3.

Deformation of Metals
a stress of a

When
is

magnitude

to cause only temporary displacement


is

applied to a metal, the resultant strain

termed

elastic strain.

If the

exceeds the limiting stress for elastic behavior, the permanent strain resulting is termed plastic strain. With increased application of stress beyond the elastic limit, metals continue to deform until they fail
stress

by fracturing. Most nonmetals and occasionally some metals are totally lacking in this plasticity and fail by fracturing with no permanent deformation. This is referred to as brittle fracture. Metals, in fact, are unique among structural materials in their ability to be deformed and it is only under special circumstances that they display a brittle fracture. Demonstrations of elastic and plastic behavior in tensile testing will be given in Chapter 4. From an atomistic viewpoint, a stress that causes elastic strain results in a temporary and small displacement of atoms from their normal posi-

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

33

Fig. 3.6.

An

octahedral or (111) plane.

Eight such planes can be constructed in a

given cube.

tions in the lattice so that the lattice


stress causes the

is

slightly distorted.

Release of the
lattice

atoms to return

to their

normal positions and the

regains

its

original shape.

are possible $/'/>

In the case of plastic strain, two basic processes of atomic movement and twinning. These deformation mechanisms are disfirst

cussed in the following sections,

then with respect


all

to polycrystalline metal.

with respect to single crystals and It will be impossible to cover

phases of this subject here, but the interested reader can find good

discussions of this topic elsewhere.

3.4. Slip in Single Crystals

In plastic strain there


the atoms

is a permanent displacement of the atoms, moving from one atomic position in the lattice to another.

The

particular crystallographic structure of a single crystal restricts the this straining to certain preferred planes. In the face-centered cubic metals such as copper, aluminum, or nickel the

movement occurring during

by slip is normally the (111) plane. This the octahedral plane that cuts diagonally through the unit cell as illustrated in Fig. 3.6. When this plane is viewed from a position at right angles to it, the atoms are close-packed much in the manner shown in Fig.
is

preferred. plane for straining

the other hand, it should be apparent from the left-hand illustration in Fig. 3.7 that other planes such as those parallel to the faces of the cube have a lower atomic density. Because of its high atomic density
3.7b.

On

A system of crystallographic indexing which indicates displacement of unity in the three crystallographic directions as measured from a reference point.

34

Engineering Metallurgy
V

\
plane

(111)

(III) (a)

plane -^\

Fig. 3.7. Arrangement of atoms in the octahedral plane of the face-centered cubic unit cell as viewed from the side of the cube (left) and perpendicular to the face of the plane (right).

the octahedral plane has the greatest interatomic attraction and theresaid to be a strong plane. As a consequence, slip occurs parallel to plane rather than along some intersecting plane of lower atomic density. For slip to occur along a plane of lower atomic density would

fore
this

is

require that the stronger interatomic attraction existing on the octa-

hedral planes would have to be overcome an unlikely situation.

The

direction of slip

is

likewise limited.

These directions are shown by


lines of least resistance to

the arrows in Fig. 3.7

and correspond

to the directions parallel to the

lines of greatest concentration of atoms,

and the

one row of atoms past another. Any other directions within the octahedral planes would require a greater disturbance of atoms since the direction of movement would be tangent to some atoms but pass directly through others. The combination of slip planes and slip directions constitutes the

movement

of

slip system.

In face-centered cubic metals, four slip planes are possible as


3.6,

mentioned in Figure
fore 12 slip systems.

each having 3 slip directions. There are there-

Since slip depends on exceeding a critical resolved

shear

stress that

is

specific for a

given metal, metals crystals will not flow

or deform by slip unless the applied force can be resolved into shear

plane and in one of the slip directions. This is therefore flow always precedes fracturing in these crystals (unless a unique condition of equal
stress parallel to a slip

always possible in face-centered cubic crystals;

triaxial stresses exists)

hexagonal close-packed metal such

as zinc or

magnesium can

slip

only on the basal or (0001) plane. This plane represents the plane of greatest atomic density in this type of crystal. As in the face-centered
metals, there are also three directions of slip. In fact, there
is

nothing to

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

35

distinguish the basal plane of a hexagonal close-packed metal in atomic

arrangement from the octahedral plane of the face-centered cubic metals. differences come in the way atoms in adjacent planes are stacked above or below the reference plane. Because it has only the one slip plane and three slip directions, a hexagonal close-packed crystal has only

The

three slip systems,

and

it is

possible to orient such a crystal with respect

to the applied load so that the slip planes are

to this load.

perpendicular or parallel In such cases, no flow occurs and a brittle failure ensues.

the basal plane is so oriented with respect to the applied load that a shear stress can be resolved in one of the slip directions can flow occur. Metals having this crystallographic structure, therefore, are

Only when

not so ductile

as

the face-centered cubic type.

body-centered cubic metals are not so well defined preceding two cases, and one of several possible planes can represent the plane of major slip. The slip direction, however, is always
as in the

The

slip planes in

number.

the close-packed direction represented by the cube diagonals four in Around each of these four directions there are arranged 12
this represents a
is

possible slip planes; consequently, 48 slip systems exist in these metals.

Although

comparatively large number of

slip systems,

each system

less

regular

and

face-centered cubic metals.

densely packed than those of the In general, then, the body-centered cubic
less

metals require somewhat higher resolved shear stresses to initiate and less permanent deformation is possible in advance of fracture.

slip,

Manifestation of Slip. The visual evidence of slip is the appearance of numerous slip lines or slip bands upon microscopical examination of a polished metal surface after the specimen has been deformed plastically.

These

slip bands represent a permanent displacement of one part of a metal crystal with respect to the rest of the crystal. The resulting micro-

scopical difference in elevation

accounts for the appearance of lines


a microscope.

traversing the crystal faces

when viewed under

Repolishing

and etching will remove this evidence of slip because ment which produced the slip lines is now removed
severe distortion, however, the disturbance
is

the surface displace-

thereby. In cases of

so great that slip will be

evident even though the distortion preceded the polishing and etching. This is demonstrated by the cold worked brass in Fig. 3.1 1.
Strain Hardening. The amount of stress required for slip increases with an increase in the amount of prior deformation. In other words,

a strain-hardening action occurs which lends to retard or restrict further slip on a given slip plane. As the stress increases, slip is transferred to

other slip planes. This is the basis for hardening metals by cold working as described later. This mechanism is unique to metals and

36
represents one of

Engineering Metallurgy
its

outstanding characteristics.

Putty or clay, for ex-

deformed and worked, but no hardening action occurs. Although much has been written about this hardening action and many
is

ample,

readily

theories proposed to explain it, the theory of dislocations is generally accepted today as offering the best explanation for the relatively low stress required to initiate slip and increased resistance to the slip as

deformation proceeds.

The low

stress

required to start slip

is

explained

on the

basis of a wave-like

movement

of a small dislocation "zone" across

the crystal rather than a block-like displacement of the entire grain.

The
Since

increased resistance to slip as deformation progresses


the dislocation theory
strain

is

attributed to an

interaction between dislocations created during the slip process.


is still

in the formative stage,


this

any explanation of
speculative.

hardening based on

theory

is

still

somewhat

The

theory does, however, offer the best overall explanation for metal behavior yet available.
3.5.

Twinning

Another mechanism accounting for plastic deformation of metal is twinning. This process has certain features similar to those of slip and other features which are dissimilar.
crystals

Like

slip,

in certain directions, but the planes

twinning occurs on certain crystallographic planes and and directions are not necessarily
slip.

the same as those for


required.

Also like

slip,

a certain level of shear stress

is

Twinning differs from slip in that the atomic movement is not from one atom position to the next but rather a fractional atomic distance. This results in a new orientation in part of the grain. This orientation is
such that the atoms in the area undergoing twinning present a mirror image of those in the original part of the grain when viewed along the

plane dividing the twinned area from the untwinned region as shown in Fig. 3.8. Although the figure depicts an atomic movement which in-

from the twinning plane, in reality the movement, of any one atom need only be less than one atom spacing with respect to a neighboring atom in order to accomplish the repositioning
creases the greater the distance

necessary for twinning.

Twins produced by mechanical action as just described are referred to as mechanical twins. Cold worked metals that are annealed also will exhibit annealing tivins which probably originated from mechanical twins. Mechanical twins are usually narrow and may be confused with slip lines. Slip lines should appear on an unpolished surface that has been strained; whereas, twin lines are usually evident only after etching. Furthermore,

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

37

Twinning plane*

Original

lattice

of

face-centered cubic

metal

as

Mirror

image

lattice

as

viewed parallel to twinning plane

(111).

created by atomic movement shown by arrows.

Fig. 3.8.

Diagram showing atomic movement required for twinning.

repolishing

appear. Slip usually shows

and etching would destroy a slip line but a twin would reup as lines; whereas, twins normally appear as
is

bands.

not capable of contributing as much permanent deformaIn face-centered cubic metals, therefore, it represents only a small part of the total deformation. On the other hand, in hexagonal close-packed metals, twinning is important not because of the deformation it permits but because twinning facilitates slip by aligning more slip planes in a favorable direction.
tion as slip.

Twinning

3.6.

Deformation of Pol j crystalline Metals


metals used in engineering are, of course, polycrystalline rather crystals. The mechanisms previously described apply to each

The

than single

of the single crystals composing the aggregate. However, the extent of the movement is governed by the presence of the surrounding grains. Consequently, the situation is a good deal more complex than in the ideal
case of a single crystal.

Cold working or stressing a polycrystalline aggregate composed of randomly oriented grains causes slip to occur in the most favorably oriented grains and on the most favorably oriented slip planes. As the
stress increases, additional grains less

favorably oriented are similarly

deformed. Severe distortion in one direction will cause the following effects in addition to the slip and twinning.

38
1.

Engineering Metallurgy

The

lattice of

each grain that

is

deformed tends to rotate into the

direction of the applied load.


2.

In addition, the constraint by surrounding grains


lattice to

may

cause the

be bent.

3.

Deformation bands representing different degrees of orientation


within a grain appear in the microstructure.

4.

preferred orientation of the grains develops. This

is

sometimes

referred to as crystallographic fibering.

The
is

type of fibering that


of importance in the

develops depends on the metal being worked and the nature of the
stress

system that

is

operating. This effect

cold working processes applied to metals, because the properties


are similarly rendered anisotropic
lized by annealing

and when the metal

is

recrystal-

(discussed later)

a "recrystallization

texture,"

which
3.7.
If

is

also of a preferred orientation,

may

develop.

Hot Working
metals are mechanically worked at a high enough temperature,

they do not strain harden, but simply recrystallize into


grains.

new

sets

of

working is referred to as hot working. Hot working temperatures depend on the characteristics of the metal being worked. Thus, lead is essentially hot workable at room temperature because it will recrystallize during the working operation. Steel, on the other hand, must be heated to above a red heat before the operation
this occurs the

When

can be

classified as

hot working. In either case recrystallization occurs

simultaneously with the mechanical working, and the properties, with


the exceptions noted in succeeding paragraphs, are not changed much.

During the working process, the shape of the metal part is usually changed drastically. As an example, in forming bar stock, the metal starts out as a bulky ingot and ends up as an elongated bar. The same relative changes occur to a greater or lesser degree in forming the many other wrought shapes by rolling, forging, extruding, or by other metal working processes. The coarse ingot structure is refined by this operation and voids and porosity that might have been present in the original ingot are
largely eliminated, but the heterogeneity originally existing in the ingot
as a result of the

irradicated.

In

fact,

changes occurring during freezing is not completely the metal working tends to elongate areas showing

chemical segregation, and the inclusions are also strung out in the rolling direction. This has a tendency of producing a fiber-like structure in the

metal so that the properties when tested in the direction of rolling will not be the same as those obtained from tests made at right angles to the rolling direction. This type of directionality developed by the rolling

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

39

>

n*

- ' MMH
i

Fig. 3.9

Elongated slag inclusions

in rolled steel,

uneiched. IOOX.

Fie. S.10. Elongated sulfide inclusions in steel in the region of these inclusions, etched. 100X.

and evidence

of chemical segregation

is sometimes referred to as mechanical fibering to distinguish it from the preferred orientation effect which may occur as the result of cold working and referred to as crystallographic fibering. Examples of the elongation of inclusions and evidence of chemical segregation are given in Fig. 3.9 and Fig. 3.10.

process

The principal effect of this directionality is to lower the ductility and toughness in the transverse direction as compared to the direction of

40
rolling.

Engineering Metallurgy

The

data in Table 3.3 illustrates

how

the V-notch

Charpy impact
also en-

values (which serve as a measure of toughness) vary with the selection of the test piece.
.Similar differences but not so

pronounced are

countered in the reduction of area values obtained in tensile


TABLE
70-F.
Influence of Directional

testing.

3.3.

Effects

on V-Notch Charpy Impact Values at

(9).

Specimen Transverse
Nature of
Steel

Specimen

Parallel

Tensile

to Principal

Principal

Strength

Rolling Direction

Rolling Direction
67-64 70-71
ft-lb.

137,500
Straightaway
rolled steels*

psi.

34-34 36-37

ft-lb.

142,000 134,000 132,000

43-44
54-49

75-76
62-61

Cross rolled
steels*

155,000 110,000
* *

44-47
53-56
ft-lb.

46-45

Cast

steel, as-cast

Same
*

steel

forged

110,000

102-122

ft-lb.

Notch

parallel to plate surface.


in. section to

**

From 2 x 3}^

A
X

in.

square bar.

Outside of the

effects

previously noted, hot working does not alter the

tensile properties of metals appreciably, particularly

when compared

to

the effects of cold working, which can effect a substantial change in


properties.

3.8.

Cold Working
results in a distortion of the grain structure as depicted

Cold working

Beginning with the hot tempered metals containing equi-axed grains, the successive stages of cold reduction produce increasingly greater distortion and elongation of the grains and generation of slip lines. Because of the grain fragmentation and disturbance of the lattice, there is an accompanying hardening action as shown by the accompanying Rockwell B hardness values. Tensile strength increases in about the same manner as hardness, and there is a simultaneous decrease in ductility and toughness. Changes in the tensile properties of brass and copper with percentage reduction in drawing are shown in Fig. 3.12. This hardening action is attributed to internal barriers to flow such as precipitated particles, impurity atoms, etc., to interactions between dislocations moving on different slip systems, and to formation of subboundaries within the grains (polygonizain the series of photomicrographs of Fig. 3.11.
soft

worked or

tion)

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

41

fe

s& m

ml&E&fmii

M
S
.a.

'-' -

1*3;

.-=H

'- :i

----. ::

-J -

-^-

;*-

<

Fie. 3.11.

Microstructure

of

70% Cu-30% Zn

sheet

brass

of

various

tempers.

Soft temper: 47 Rockwell B; i/ i/ hard: 82 Rockwell B; hard: 4 hard: 73 Rockwell B; 2 89 Rockwell B; spring temper: 94 Rockwell B. (Courtesy of R. A. Ragatz, University of

Wisconsin)

Cold working therefore provides a means for hardening pure metals It is a particularly useful process where the composition is such that hardening by heat treating cannot be used. The terminology
or alloys.

used in Fig. 3.11 (such as quarter hard, half hard, "spring temper") are commercial expressions for the degree of cold reduction obtained. De-

pending upon the final finishing processing operations required, a metal hardened by cold working can be ordered from the mill in any one of the "tempers" indicated. Where heavy subsequent forming operations are intended, the annealed or partially hardened metals are specified. But if little further forming is to be done and a metal of high hardness and strength desired, the full hard or spring tempers can be specified. The actual hardness and strength for each of the tempers would vary depending on the base metal used.

42

Engineering Metallurgy

Q.

O O

140
120 100

Q
t

Soft 10

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
reduction on
the tensile properties of copper and brass.

Percentage Reduction by Drawing


Be.
5.12.

Eircct of cold

(ASM Handbook.)

Steel can also be cold worked, and cold finished steel has certain advantages not obtainable by other means. For example, not only does cold finishing provide a smooth, oxide-free finish, but the metal itself is

readily machinable
action.

This

effect

due to the increased brittleness induced by the rolling makes chip formation easier as compared to a steel of

the same hardness obtained in other ways.


3.9.

Annealing Cold Worked Metal


its

Because of be considered

strained

condition, cold

worked metal can be

re-

crystallized by reheating or annealing.

In practice, this probably should

as essentially a fabrication procedure inasmuch as the accompanying recrystallization and softening may be necessary to allow further forming operations on the metal, but it produces properties contrary to the usual requirements of engineering materials. However, it is important to be acquainted with the principles of annealing cold worked metals because this knowledge is necessary wherever cold working is

used for fabrication.

As cold worked metals are heated, eventually enough energy is supplied form nuclei for recrystallization. These nuclei grow at the expense of the deformed metal until the entire structure is composed of a new set of
to

grains.
(1)

It is

convenient to separate the process into three distinct stages:


(2)

Recovery,

Recrystallization,

and

(3)

Recovery. Recovery represents a


in

relief of internal stress


resistivity.

Grain growth. and a decrease


Internal stresses

thermelectromotive force and electrical

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

43

c
CO

QJ
.**

co

Wmm^/AalS^^^r^
'Recrysloll'

.c

Groin

D >~
CD

Rtcot/cry

notion

G'owin

Annealing
Fin. S.13.

Temperature

Schematic changes in recovery, strength and recrystallization on annealing

cold worked metal.

(ASM Handbook)

were originally developed during the cold working process. They represent a balance of compressive and tensile stresses within the metal. Their

magnitude and distribution are determined by the degree and type of cold working treatment used. These stresses are detectable only indirectly through the distortion that accompanies annealing or in the loss in
"spring-back" tendencies. "Spring-back" is the increase in diameter of a roll of strip after it has been removed from a mandrel around which it was
held.
is one of the factors must constantly bear in mind in design, and these stresses may be beneficial or harmful depending on how they occur within a part. For example, shot peening a helical spring can markedly improve its

The

presence or absence of internal stress

that an engineer

service

life, i.e., its

resistance to fatigue failure. Distortion occurring after


is

machining a cold-worked metal


residual stresses.
Fig. 3.13

an example of the harmful

effects of

shows schematically what happens to residual stress, strength, when a metal is heated in the recovery range. Recrystallization. When the metal is heated sufficiently high, recrystallation occurs. As shown by Fig. 3.14 this results in a rapid decrease in strength and increase in ductility. This process is both temperature and time dependent, but the former variable has the more potent effect.

and grain

size

44

Engineering Metallurgy
._...

>

Lokt

T.P.

Pnoipnorued

E lee

T.P

wornc
0.10

Anneolinq
BO
70
I.

200

HOC

600

Temperature, deq Fohr 800 1000 1200 1400

014
*-jt
rr.Trrytr**.,'

vr
6

^.l ,-

^ Contract-.

at A'CQ

0i2

?;"
1.

SO 40 30 10

OlO
06

65

S5

006

J o E
O
5

S
IS J
f

004
-j

(Of

0.02

25

(00

?00

Annealing
Fic. 3.14.

300 4O0 tOO 600 700 Temperature, deq Cent

800

Elfect of annealing

on tensile properties and grain

size of four

commercial

grades of copper.

(ASM Handbook)

Grain Growth. Once a new


these grains will continue
if

set of grains

is is

established, the

growth of

the temperature

raised or the time of heatas well as

ing prolonged.
size is

The effect on

shown

for

the mechanical properties copper and brass in Figs. 3.14 and 3.15.

on grain

Annealing Temperature, deg Fahr ZOO 600 1000 1400


140
70 .g
CM

60 g 50
Grain

. ,

Site-

4Q

so Ci
20

Hard

43%Hard
24%Hord

63XHard-

in

ZOO 400 600 800 Annealing Temperature, deg Cent


on tensile properties and grain
size of

Fic. 3.15.

Effect of annealing

yellow brass

wire.

(ASM Handbook)

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties


3.10. Factors Affecting Recrystallization Temperature and Grain
Size

45

There are a
effects

fairly large

number of

variables affecting the recrystalliza-

tion temperature

and the grain

size after recrystallization,

and

since these
it is

may be encountered

in the engineering utilization of metals

important that they be recognized.

800

1200

i-00

400

600

800

Annealing Temperature, deg Cent


Fig. 3.16.

Influence of

the amount of prior cold work on

the

recrystallization

temperature of high-purity copper. Annealed one hour at temperature. (Koster,

ASM

Handbook)

Percentage of Cold Work. Increasing the percentage of cold work lowers the recrystallization temperature. This is more apparent in Fig.
3.16 than in Fig. 3.15.
creases the size of the

new

Increasing the percentage of cold work also degrains (Fig. 3.17) There is, however, an
.

intermediate
restricts

amount of deformation
sites,

as illustrated

by

Fig. 3.17 that will

lead to excessive grain growth.

Apparently, this amount of deformation

nucleation to but a few

and

these nuclei therefore

grow

to

In an actual part where a variation in the amount of cold working might be experienced, annealing could result in a region of exlarge grains.

g E
i

f-iq.

in .c 77

JWOTTO

20

40

60

80

Degree of Deformation,

% C

Fic. 3.17. Influence of degree of deformation on the grain size developed at 950 (1742 F) in low-carbon steel. (Hanemann, ASM Handbook)

46
cessively large grains

Engineering Metallurgy

which would effect the properties adversely. A cold punching operation would be a good example of a situation where this
If annealing is required, its temperature should be conkeep it below the recrystallization of the less severely worked metal but above that of the more severely deformed areas to avoid large

could occur.
trolled to

grains in the regions of critical deformation.

Composition. The actual temperature at which recrystallization occurs depends on the composition. Thus some metals like zinc may recrystalli/.e by working at room temperature. Other alloys such as those used in high temperature applications may not recrystalli/.e even when heated to 650C
(1200F) or above.
Annealing Temperature, deg Fohr

J00 400 500

too iso koo eso soo


Fie. 3.18. Effect of annealing lime on the softening of copper wire reduced by cold drawing. (Alkins & Cartwright, ASM Handbook)

93%

Effect of

previously cold reduced

Time. Time-tern (jeratu re relations for the annealing of copper 93% are shown in Fig. 3.18. This shows that

increasing time lowers the recrystallization temperature.


Effect of Initial Grain Size.

The

larger the original grain size, the

greater the

amount

of cold deformation to give equivalent recrystalliza-

tion temperatures

and time.
of Hot and Cold

3.11.

Summary
is

Working

Hot working
effect
is

used primarily for fabrication purposes and does not

cause a large change in tensile properties.

directionality or fibering

introduced, however, which has a tendency to reduce ductility


tested transversely to the rolling or

and toughness when


tion.

forming

direc-

Cold working raises strength and hardness and lowers the ductility. It an important method for hardening alloys that cannot be hardened otherwise or as an auxilary treatment along with other hardening processes. The effects of the cold rolling can be removed by annealing or
offers

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

47

tempering and can only be reintroduced by additional cold rolling. The combination of cold rolling and annealing has an effect on the recrystallizcd grain size of the metal,

and

the various factors affecting the

grain

size

and

recrystallization temperature
this process.

must be recognized

for a

proper utilization of

EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES When one or more metals are added to another metal in the liquid
solidification the atoms of the added elebe a part of the lattice structure of the base metal as a solid solution or another phase will appear in the microstructure. Either
state,
it

is

found that upon

ments

will either

of these effects will alter the engineering properties of the base metal;
therefore, alloying represents

one

of the important

trolling them. Frequently, the effects of alloying are

methods for concombined with those

of heat treatment to further influence the properties.

3.12 Solid Solution Effects

binary alloy that exists as a solid solution has grains containing


sizes in

atoms of two

the lattice structure. This strains the lattice

and

in-

creases resistance

to deformation,

thereby serving to strengthen and

harden the

For two metals that are completely soluble in each other maximum hardening occurs at about 50 atomic percent of each. Coppernickel alloys are good examples of this case and Fig. 3.19 shows how several properties of these alloys change with
alloy.

in the solid state, the

composition.
nickel, the

Although the

maximum

strength occurs at about

70%

maximum

hardness (not shown)

occurs close to 50 atomic

percent (48 wt.%) nickel.

In addition to the mechanical properties, other physical properties are altered by solid solution alloying. Fig. 3.20, for example, illustrates how
electrical resistivity

and the the temperature

coefficient of electrical re-

sistance vary with nickel content in copper-nickel alloys.

This

illustrates

the important principle that the


tivity

maximum

heat and electrical conducof alloys

are obtained

from pure metals and that the presence


is

where high conductivity is desired. Other alloy systems may have only limited rather than complete solid solubility of the alloying element in the base metal. Such is true for many of the copper-base alloys, for example. In these alloys the solid solution hardening action increases with the amount of the alloy up to the limit of solid solubility, following which the properties are affected by the presence of another phase in the microstructure as described in the next

(impurities in this case)

definitely detrimental in those instances

48

Engineering Metallurgy

40

60

80

Nickel, percent
Etc. 3.19.

Effect

of

nickel

on the mechanical properties of copper-nickel

alloys.

(Wise)

40 60 Nickel, per cent


.

Fie. 3.20.

Effect of nickel

on the

electrical properties of copper-nickel alloys.

(Wise)

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

49

section. The degree of hardening is usually inversely proportional to the range of solid solubility, so that those alloys of very limited solubility

exhibit the greatest percentage-wise influence


illustration of this point,
it

takes

0.6%

Sb,

on the properties. As an 4.6% Si, 4.7% Al, 12.1 % Zn


.

or 13.2% Ni to increase the hardness of pure copper by an increment of 14 Vickers DPH. (diamond pyramid hardness number) The order in which these elements are listed is also the order of increasing solubility of
these elements in copper.

Besides the aforementioned effects, it might also be mentioned that during the free/ing of alloys that exist as solid solutions at room temperature, there is a tendency for chemical segregation to occur within the growing dendrites as freezing progresses. Also, voids or a general porosity may develop or inclusions may segregate between or within grains. If the metal is further processed by working, the segregation and porosity
are fairly well eliminated and the inclusions more or less uniformly distributed and broken. If the metal is retained in the cast condition, however, these imperfections may have some bearing on the properties of the casting. These are examples of some of the factors affecting the quality of the metal.

3.13 Polyphase Structures


If

an alloy

is

room temperature,
1.

prepared which exceeds the limits of solid solubility the second phase may appear as:
in essentially pure form. Alloys of

at

The second component


and
the

aluminum

silicon are of this type, with the silicon

phase interspersed in
the properties of

aluminum
is

phase.

The

effect

of silicon on

Al-Si alloys,
2.

shown

in Fig. 3.21.

An

original solid

intermetallic phase, in itself a solid solution, interspersed in the solution. Copper-zinc alloys, with zinc exceeding
illustrate this behavior.

about 38%,
tion,

The

alloy at

room temperature

consists of separate grains of alpha

brass,

the original solid solu-

and beta

brass,

an intermetallic phase containing about

45%
solid

Zn.

(In the absence of the alpha phase, the beta phase can range in

composition from about 45 to


solution characteristics)
3.

50%

Zn.,

which indicates

its

intermetallic phase which is essentially an intermetallic compound. Carbon in steel precipitates as the compound Fe.-,C so that at room temperature steel consists of a mixture or iron and iron
carbide.

An

No

ing properties. There

matter what these extra phases are, they will influence the engineeris a tendency to generalize by staling that the effect

50

Engineering Metallurgy

%
Fie. 3.21.
alloys.

6 8 Silicon

K)

Effect of silicon content in

annealed and hard rolled aluminum-silicon

(ASM Handbook)

of the second phase

is

proportional to the
is

amount
if

present, the properties

consequently being determined by the properties and amounts of the


individual phases present. This

only true

the second phase

is

rather

uniformly distributed in the parent phase; however, there are so many exceptions to this rule that it is perhaps better to generalize that the
effects of the

second phase are determined by

(1)

its

properties, (2)

the

amount
sidering

present,

and

(3)

its

distribution.

As will be learned when con-

steel, for example, the way the iron carbide is distributed will profound effect on the properties of the steel. Present as a network, around the grains it can lead to brittleness and poor machinability. Finely distributed throughout the steel, it contributes to high strength

have

and toughness.
Occasionally, a very small quantity of a given phase can be very harm-

due to the fact that it may be distributed in a manner to produce extreme brittleness. Examples of these effects are found with bismuth in copper, iron sulfide in steel, and graphite in cast iron. In the latter case, whether the graphite is distributed as essentially spherical particles or as elongated shapes referred to as flakes will determine whether the metal is strong and ductile or weaker ami brittle.
ful to properties

There

are so

many

different possibilities that

it

is

impossible here to
it

cover each of the situations that

may be encountered. However,

can

be stated that the presence of a second phase can produce a decided


strengthening effect or can be decidedly harmful depending on the three
factors listed previously.

In any event, by alloying to produce a second

Factors Affecting E?igineering Properties

51

phase we have available to us another method for controlling engineering properties, and in succeeding chapters, examples will be given to illustrate its importance.

understanding of the consequences of alloying it become familiar with the principles of alloying as enunciated in Chapter 6.
full
is

To

have a

necessary that one

EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON ENGINEERING PROPERTIES


The
upon:
1.

use of heat treatment to alter mechanical properties depends

An

2.

allotropic transformation as in the case of steel, or decrease in solid solubility of a second phase with decrease in temperature as exemplified by a fairly large number of binary sys-

tems having copper, aluminum, magnesium, iron, or a number of other metals as the base metal. Heat treating based on this effect is referred to as age hardening or precipitation hardening.
3.14. Allotropic Transformation

to
is

Iron undergoes an allotropic transformation from face centered cubic body centered cubic structure at 910C (1670F). When iron
alloyed with carbon

up to about 0.8%, this transformation is depressed lower temperatures and occurs over a temperature range. The normal product on slow cooling steels in this range of carbon content is a mixture
to

of iron (ferrite) and a product referred to as pearlite which

is

actually a

mixture of

ferrite

and

iron carbide.

Rapid

cooling, however, tends to

retard or repress this transformation with the result that other microstructural products are produced, and in the instance of very rapid

cooling a

new metastable phase


This phase

called martensite
is

is

produced instead of

iron and pearlite.

the hardest product obtainable for a

given carbon content.


softened

It is fairly brittle as produced and is usually and toughened by a subsequent tempering treatment: the higher the temperature of tempering, the softer and tougher the resultant

structure.

Utilization of the various heat treating possibilities based on the allotropic transformation in iron produces a variety of microstructural products

method

for controlling the properties of steel.

discussed fully

and properties. Hence, heat treatment represents a basic Inasmuch as this subject is in subsequent Chapters 12, 13, and 14, no details need be

presented here.

However, it should be pointed out that in addition to the operation of heat treatment, the engineer also has at his disposal the benefits avail-

'

52

Engineering Metallurgy

able from alloying so that in steel


of alloying

are usually utilizing a combination For example, by varying the carbon content (alloying) the base hardness of the steel can be changed; whereas,

we

and heat treatment.

varying some of the other alloying elements will alter

its

susceptibility to

Combinations of these effects, therefore, provide a degree of control and versatility not obtainable by either method alone. Superimposed on these effects of alloying and heat treatment are those resulting from the quality of the metal as originally produced in the ingot and from the mechanical processing the steel may have had. These matters must also be kept in mind when designing a part.
heat
treatment.
|

105 F
1

/OT___

/
VVL /
a'

140 F
1

t
1

CHANCE
IN
1

SCALE
;

-J75 F
210 F-'
P

32 F r~

'

68 '0

10

20

30

40

SO

60

75 100

ZOO

Time al Aging Temperature. hours


Fig. 3.22. Quench-aging of a 0.06% carbon steel. Hardness after quenching from 717C (1325 K) and aging at indicated temperatures. (ASM Handbook)

3.15. Precipitation

Hardening
be considered
in detail here.

The
and

principles of precipitation hardening are discussed in Chapter 7

will therefore not

The

process involves
it

heating an alloy of selected composition to a temperature where


single phase

is

a
it

and then cooling it rapidly normally would be a two-phase structure as


with temperature.

to

a temperature where

a result of solubility
it

changes
phase

The

rapid cooling, however, retains

as a single

metal. It

is

then subsequently "aged" at

room temperature

or above to

toward the equilibrium two-phase structure. As a result occur during this treatment, certain alloys can be hardened appreciably. This hardening action is a function of time and tem|>eraturc as illustrated by Fig. 3.22. The maximum hardness reached is decreased as the aging temperature is raised. Also, the increase in aging temperature results in a rapid drop off in hardness which is referred to as overaging. Fig. 3.22 illustrates the fact that even in ironcarbon alloys, which were previously used to describe the principle of hardening by allotropic transformation, age-hardening can also be encountered. This aging effect depends on a slight solubility of carbon in
initiate a start

of

the atomic adjustments that

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties


body-centered cubic iron.
perature.

53

This solubility increases with increasing temConsequently the necessary {but not exclusive) condition for
is

age hardening

present.

In addition to the hardness change illustrated by Fig. 3.22, there are also corresponding changes in strength, inverse changes in ductility and
toughness, and changes in electrical conductivity and other properties.

Aging may

also be

combined with metal working treatment

to provide

additional control over engineering properties.

EFFECT OF NUCLEAR RADIATION


For materials going into the construction of nuclear reactors, it is know about their relative absorption coefficient for neutrons. Materials with low neutron absorption coefficients are necessary where neutron passage is desired, or in other words, where the maximum utilizanecessary to
tion

and minimum waste


is

of neutrons

is

desired.

On

the other hand, a

high coefficient

necessary for shielding or control


is

purposes.

The

one of the engineering properties that must be established. As examples, elements like boron, cobalt, and cadmium have high absorption coefficients, but elements such as beryllium, sodium, magnesium, aluminum and zirconium have low coefficients. The property of neutron absorption plus related properties of strength, formability.

absorption coefficient, then,

UNIT

CELL

OF

URANIUM

WITH

PERTINENT

PLANES

INDICATED

PREDOMINANT

PLANES

PREDOMINANT

PLANES

""*
'

EFFECTS OF PREFERRED ORIENTATION ON DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF URANIUM DURING IRRADIATION

Fic. 3.23. Effect of nuclear radiation on 'growth" of (Courtesy of General Electric Co. Hanford Works)

nuclear

fuel

material.

54

Engineering Metallurgy

corrosion resistance, heat resistance, etc. must be evaluated for the design of nuclear reactors, and the metallurgy of the materials used to construct the reactor
is

therefore a very vital part of design.


it is

Besides the aforementioned requirements,


susceptibility of the metal to radiation

also necessary that the


Fig. 3.23

damage be known.
exposed
to

shows

what happened
atmosphere.

to a nuclear fuel material

an intense neutron

smooth cylindrical specimen increased in size or elongated and warped depending on crystal orientation. Proper

The

original

metallurgical treatment can considerably improve resistance to this type


of deterioration.

Structural

metals subjected to neutron

radiation

are

hardened or
It

strengthened and sometimes embrittled by such treatment.

has been

damaged by such exposure, metals tend to become cubic whereas the hexagonal and body-centered brittle. Raising the temperature causes less damage. Heat treating by
found that the face-centered metals are
least

annealing can be used to eliminate the embrittlement.

SERVICE FACTORS
In the preceding sections the factors affecting the engineering properties have largely been those concerning the processing and preparation of the

metal for service. There are, however, additional an influence after the part is placed in service.

effects that

may have

Lack, of attention to the problem of residual stresses as briefly discussed under cold working could lead to a premature failure of a part of fatigue. Besides originating from cold working, these stresses can also be

thermally induced as by welding or heat treating. Without going into the details of this point, since it requires a knowledge of the static and dynamic properties as discussed in Chapters 4 and 5, it should be emphasized nevertheless that the stress distribution created by design or metallurgy is unfortunately often overlooked and that many of the failures

which have been recorded can be attributed to


Another
22
service factor of

this omission.

is corrosion. It for corrosive conditions the properties of that part will deteriorate in

be covered should be quite obvious that when a part

extreme importance

to

in
is

Chapter
designed

time and cause failure unless a sufficiently resistant material is used or it is replaced frequently enough to avoid damage. By the same token, unexpected corrosion can seriously detract from the load-carrying ability of a part in service and possibly cause premature failure. These are additional factors, therefore, that the engineer must observe.

Factors Affecting Engineering Properties

55

SUMMARY
There
is

a very close relationship


is

between the structure and properties


part at least to affect the final

of metals. Part of the structure


properties.

established during the manufacture of

the metal, and this can carry over in

Most of the structural modifications, however, depend on subsequent processing, and such operations as grain size control, metal working, alloying, heat treatment, and/or nuclear radiation are available
to the engineer for controlling the properties.

In certain applications,
in service as for

example, temperatures or under corrosive conditions. Then it is necessary for the engineer to recognize the effect this will have during the service
while the part
is

these operations

may continue

at high

of the part. It can be said, therefore, that unlike gases and liquids, the properties of solid metals depend on past history, rather than on the variables existing at the moment.
life

In order to gain an appreciation of the relationships and interrelationships involved in producing a given set of properties,
for the engineer to learn
it is

necessary

discussed in Chapter
in

2,

about the fundamental structure of metals as about the measurements of behavior as discussed
of alloying

Chapters 4 and

5,

and about the principles

and heat

treat-

ment

as discussed in

succeeding chapters.

With the exception of corrosion behavior which is dependent on surface conditions and chemical reactions, the behavior of a metal is governed by its internal structural condition.

QUESTIONS
1.

What

are the processes available to the engineer for controlling metal

properties?
2.

How

does the factor of metal "quality" enter into the problem of property

control?
3. 4. 5.
6.

Describe the freezing of a dendrite. Why is the dendritic structure absent on etched surfaces of pure metals? What two factors affect the final grain size of a freezing metal?

How

7.

arc these two factors affected by cooling rate and what additional variables beside cooling rate may be used to control grain size? Beside the growth of dendrites, what additional changes take place during
freezing that may affect the quality of a metal? Describe several ways besides the casting process which can be used to control the grain of metals.

8.

9.

Of what
examples.

practical

importance

is

grain

size

control? Cite

number of

10.

Compare

the slip behavior in the

face-centered cubic, hexagonal closecrystals.

packed and the body-centered cubic

56
11.

Engineering Metallurgy

How Why

does the twinning mechanism differ from the


is
it

slip

mechanism and in

what respects
12. IS.
is

similar?

the twinning

mechanism important

in

some metals?

Describe a

number

of the structural changes accompanying cold working of

polycrystalline metal.
14.

Compare
ductility.

(a) tensile strength,

the effects of cold working and hot working on such factors as (b) directionality of properties, (c) toughness, and (d)

15. 16.

17.

Suggest possible applications for hard or spring temper brasses. Why is the relief of internal stresses during the recovery period when annealing cold worked metal of industrial importance? Why is annealing a cold-worked metal sometimes considered a fabrication

procedure?
18.

19.

20.

What damage may result from annealing at too high a temperature for a metal that has experienced a wide variation in the amount of cold work? What are the possible effects on properties when one metal is added to another to (a) form a solid solution? (b) cause another phase to appear? What basic ways are available for altering mechanical properties by heat
treatment?

21.

Explain how design for nuclear reactors involves factors not encountered
in other types of applications.

Static Properties of
CHAPTER

Metallic Materials
Lee L. Amidon, M.S.M.E., Professor and Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, South Dakota State College, Brookings, South Dakota

Walter

E. Short, M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Bradley University, Peoria,


Illinois

4.1. Properties of Metallic Materials

I HE

properties of metallic materials are com-

monly divided into three general classes: (1) physical constants, (2) electrical and magnetic properties, and (3) engineering properties. The first class includes elastic constants, density and related properties, thermal expansion, vapor pressure, emissivity, and thermal conductivity. The thermal properties are affected by temperature and phase changes. Dimensions change and heat is absorbed or discharged at such times.
Problems in heat-treating operations

may be

anticipated as a

result.

These properties are of


lurgist.

interest to the physicist as well as to the metal-

in his

Usually, however, they are of interest to the physicist as a step study of theories of matter rather than as properties of metallic

Some of the physical constants are of interest to the engineer: the elastic constants surely are, because they are important in the design of structures; density is of interest if the strength-weight ratio must be considered, as in aircraft construction, high speed railway trains, and
materials.

motor-haulage vehicles; thermal expansion and thermal conductivity may be of importance for some engineering applications and of none for
others.

The

essential fact for the engineer to


is

constants as a group

know about the physical that in general they are determined by standardized

fairly precise, readily reproducible values that can be used in engineering design without trepidation regarding their meaning and accuracy. Values for the constants are well established and can be obtained in handbooks of physical tables.

methods that yield

57

58
Electrical
resistivity,

Engineering Metallurgy and magnetic properties include thermoelectric


properties,

magnetization, induction, permeability, and coercive forces.

These properties vary widely between different metals and their alloys and must be investigated thoroughly before making final selection for any given service. Aluminum on a weight basis may be a better conductor than copper and cheaper as well, but its tensile strength may not be sufficient to make it safe for the long spans desired on high-tension transmission lines so we compromise by using a steel core to provide strength and the result is an efficient carrier at low cost. Table 4.1 gives typical values of resistivity and the manner in which these values will change with temperature. The resistor elements for a dynamometer will call
for a material with great resistance to the flow of electricity while in a

Table

4.1.

Resistivity of Typical Metals

and Alloys

Resistivity at

20 C.

Temperature Coef.
Increase per

Material

Microhm-cm.
1.7241

C.

Copper

.00393 (0-100 C)

Aluminum
Iron

2.654

.00429 (20 C)
.0056 .0002
.0019

9.8

(0-100 C)

Constantan

(55% Cu, 45%


Ni,

Ni)
.

-19

(20-100 C)
(20

Nichrome (80%

20%

Cu)

107.9

C)

transmission line the

12

loss

should be

as

near zero as possible.

Magnetic properties are essential in the design of motors, generators, metering equipment, and huge lifting magnets. The magnetic properties are the result of the plus and minus magnetic fields
transformers,
set

up by

the electrons whirling in their orbits. Ferromagnetic materials

this property to the greatest extent. not form a permanent magnet but several atoms grouped together will form a magnetization unit. This small group is

such as iron, nickel and cobalt exhibit

Single atoms will

known

as a domain. There will be several domains in one metal grain. Ordinarily the domains of a metal bar will have random orientation in

which case the bar


netized.
If

will not

be magnetic.

An

external magnetic

field will
is

align the orientations found in the

many domains and

the bar

mag-

upon removal of the external field, the domains remain oriented we have a hard permanent magnetic substance. On the other hand if they tend to lose orientation then we have a soft or temporary
magnetic substance.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

59

Temperature has a very decided influence on ferromagnetic materials. and finally to disappear altogether at what is known as the Curie temperature. This temperature is 1414F for iron, 2039F for cobalt, and 665F for nickel. The domains disappear at these temperatures, which for iron is below the point at which it becomes austenitic. These temperatures may be altered drastically by small additions of alloying elements or impurities.
Increase in temperature causes the magnetization to decrease
Electric properties are extremely important to the electrical engineer,

and the methods

for their determination are precise; but because of their limited application to general engineering, further discussion is beyond

the scope of this book.

From the standpoint of engineering in general and of those fields of engineering which deal specifically with the design, erection, and maintenance of structures and machines, the last class, engineering properties,
is

of vital importance.

classes: static

For convenience, they may be divided into three mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical properties, and

miscellaneous properties. There is a very close relationship between the engineering properties and the metal lographic structure, which will be

made

clear in later chapters of this book. Because of this relationship between micro-structure and physical properties, metallic materials are

structure sensitive.

In other words, they are affected by changes in the structure even though the chemical composition is unchanged. As we learn how to produce space lattices which are undistorted during the mechanical processing of our materials, much improvement in strength

and

physical properties

may

be anticipated.

Precise instructions for the physical testing of engineering materials

have been established by the American Society for Testing Materials and summarized in the Handbook of the American Society for Metals. It must be understood that the properties established by these tests are useprimarily in maintaining uniformity of material once a satisfactory The most useful form of testing is that made upon a completed structure under actual service conditions. Time and
ful

design has been established.

cost usually

limit this procedure; therefore, the following pages will evaluate the advantages and shortcomings of the various tests of a given material for use in engineering machines and structures.
It cannot be emphasized too strongly that the data from a small specimen should be accepted with caution unless it is certain that the
test test

piece

representative of the entire lot of material whose properties are being determined. A large number of specimens reduce the chances for error of even the most accurate and reproducible tests. The shape of the
is

designed part

may determine

to a large extent the distribution of stress

60

Engineering Metallurgy

in a given cross-section.

The

presence of stress raisers

(holes,

sharp

changes in cross-section, scratches, inclusions)

may

increase the stress 3 to

5 rimes the average value. Ductile materials under static loading will yield

and little harm will be produced. However brittle materials and parts under repeated or reversed loading will start to tear and fatigue failure
of the part thus ultimately occurs.

Many

of these stress concentrations can be readily corrected by prop-

er design changes.

Frequently the magnitude of

stresses at

concentra-

tion points cannot be readily determined by analytical methods.


of brittle lacquers applied to the structure

The

use

under simulated

service con-

ditions will reveal trouble spots

which can then be corrected or eliminated. This design technique known as stress coating will supplement the
standard
test data.

The

use of strain gages in a similar

manner

will

determine the location, direction, and magnitude of the unit strain at locations where stress concentrations are suspected. The unit strain can then be used to calculate the actual stresses rather than the average stress that might be determined by the ordinary methods of design. Another method of determining stress concentrations is based on the optical
properties of transparent materials.
isotropic

tropic

Some of these materials are optically when in an annealed condition, but become optically anisowhen subjected to external stress. This method requires a plastic

model, which, of course, limits its use to a certain degree. Hidden stress raisers such as blow holes, slag inclusions, malformed space lattices or grain structures may be revealed by sonic testing described later in this chapter. Other methods frequently used to determine surface and hidden defects are radiography and magnetic particle detection. All of the above mentioned methods have the advantages of being non-destructive tests.
Physical properties, then,
structure itself

must always be considered in relation to the and sound engineering judgment used in its selection,

considering always the limitations of the material for a given service or


condition.

4.2.

The

Relative Standardization of Static Tests


a

Static

mechanical properties, which are

measure of the resistance of a

material to a steadily applied load, include tensile strength, compressive strength, torsional strength,

bending strength, hardness, and their

related properties, such as yield strength, elongation,

mined

incidentally to the

first

and others deternamed. The determination of some of

these properties has been given considerable attention by testing societies

in the principal metal-using countries with the result that methods and

specimens are

fairly well standardized.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

61

The most important and the two most common tests for the evaluation of the static properties of metallic materials are tensile and hardness
tests.

The former
it
is

is

well standardized throughout the world. If the


is

tensile strength of a certain steel

reported as 60 kg. per

sq.

mm.

in

Germany,

certain that a standard specimen of the


lb.

have a strength of about 85,000


i/4-in.

per

sq. in. in

same steel will the United States and

that either value represents accurately the stress necessary to break a

specimen of that particular

steel.

The

tensile strength of a steel of


satis-

certain composition,

made by

a particular process, and of otherwise

factory quality can be used in the design of a bridge in Japan, even if the steel was made and the strength determined in France. Because hardness tests are made rapidly and cheaply and because they do not destroy the material, they are used widely. That hardness is not a definite prop-

makes the interpretation of Hardness tests are not standardized, although the measure of a specific kind of hardness, namely, resistance to indentation, is in a fairly advanced state of development. Hardness tests took on added importance during the war years as new and untried low-alloy steels were substituted freely for some of the older alloy steels on the

erty but a combination of several properties

some

of the tests difficult.

basis of the hardness of

an end-quench hardenability

test.

Static tests used less frequently,

not proceeded so
of these
is

far,

and for which standardization has include compressive, torsion, and bend tests. None
tests,

used so widely as are tensile or hardness


test,

although the
is

transverse

a form of bending,

is

the most widely used and

prob-

ably the most valuable single

test for

the evaluation of gray cast iron as

an engineering material. With this one exception, none of these tests is standardized, and it is not always easy to interpret the values obtained or to apply them to the design of engineering structures.
4.3. Tensile Strength

The commonly determined


area, are obtained

tensile

properties,

including

tensile

strength, yield strength, proportional limit, elongation,

and reduction of
.

on a single test specimen (see Fig. 4.5) The accuracy and reproducibility of the results depend upon the dimensions of the
specimen, the sensitivity of the machine, the alignment of the specimen in the machine, and above all on how accurately the specimen represents
the whole section. Considerable attention has been paid to these factors by the testing societies and the builders of machines in all countries,

with the result that reported values are about as accurate as for any
engineering property.

62

Engineering Metallurgy
17.000
16.000
15.000

y
/'

14,000 13,000 12,000

/ c
11,000

hn

TS

10.000
9000 o
1

/,
/
1
1 1

/
/
1 i

:8O0o

| 7000
ta 6000

1/"
1/

Is 1
1

r
1

5000

p
I
1

4000
3000

1
_i
/

2000
1000

A
1

^
0006

1
c

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.002

0.004

St rain, inch

per inch

Fie. 4.1.

Stress-strain curves in tension for


steel.

(A) annealed low-carbon steel

and

(B)

cold-worked low-carbon

As

is

well

known, the

tensile strength of a

specimen

is

the

maximum

load before rupture


sectional area.

(point C, Fig. 4.1 A) divided by the original cross-

It is reported in pounds per square inch, tons per square (England) or kilograms per square millimeter (continental Europe) Specimens and other variables have been standardized by the

inch

American Society
unnecessary.

for Testing Materials

*so that further discussion


structural constituents

is

Owing

to the inherent variations

in

and

in as

composition which

may
in.,

cause variations in tensile strength of as


is

much

1,500 lb. per sq.

tural

a growing tendency to test full-sized strucmembers with large machines. This type of test is especially valuthere

able for structures that are riveted or welded.


If a tensile test
is

made on
,

a larger or a smaller specimen than

is

com-

monly used

(0.5 in.)

the tensile strength

may

be considerably higher or

lower than that obtained on the standard bar.

For ductile materials,

which include most


A. S. T.

rolled,
1955.

forged,

or heat-treated carbon

and

alloy

M. Standards,

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

63

\
STRAIN HARDENING BEGINS

Fic.

42.

Greatly enlarged view of stress-strain diagram in region near yield point.

steels,

the error

is

variation in strength

not great; for a brittle material, such as cast iron, the may be considerable if differences in cooling rates

of cast specimens of various sizes result in differences in structure.

been based on either the with the use of appropriate factors of safety. For example, a working stress for carbon steel may be of the order of 18,000 psi. although the yield point of this material may be approximately twice this value. It might be noted that the portion of the
of years, structural design has
tensile strength or the yield strength
stress strain

For

number

curve shown in Fig.


if

4.1

ably different appearance


It will

the curve

at point B would have a considerwere plotted with a different scale.

be noted from
is

Fig. 4.2 that a large

amount

of yielding at a rela-

tively constant stress will

occur before strain hardening begins.

This

phenomenon

the basis of recent

work

in the field of plastic design.

4.4. Elastic Limit, Proportional Limit,

and Modulus of

Elasticity

men concerning the meaning of the terms Elastic Limit, Proportional Limit, Yield Point, and Yield Strength. The elastic limit is the maximum stress that a material withstands without permanent set. Although it is practically
is

There

occasionally confusion

among

engineers and steel

impossible to determine the true elastic limit experimentally, it is possible with present-day extensometers to detect a relatively slight variation from Hooke's law,* and by careful testing the point of this variation can be fixed with considerable exactness on the stress-strain diagram

(point P, Fig. 4.1A)

The

load which this point represents, divided by

Hooke's law states that in clastic materials stress is proportional to strain. It is generally held that in metallic materials the application of stress, within the range

where deformation

is

elastic, actually

produces some plastic deformation.


purposes,

The amount,

however, is so small that for design, Hooke's law is valid.

all practical

and

especially for engineering

64

Engineering Metallurgy

0.004

0.012

0.016

0.020

0.024

0.032

Strain, in./in.

Fic. 4.3.

Stress-strain

Institute,

"The Behavior

diagrams of common metals. (H. of Engineering Metals," p. 15.)

W.

Gillett, Batelle

Memorial

the cross-sectional area,

is

the proportional limit.


is

It is

frequently deter-

mined

seldom used in the design of structures. In most annealed and heat-treated carbon and low-alloy steels, the proportional limit is practically identical with the elastic limit and, as
in testing laboratories but

Fig. 4.1

shows,

is

slightly
is

limit of such steels

found

to

below the yield point. If the proportional be much below the yield point, it is likely

that internal stresses are present.


limit
is

The
is

determination of proportional

frequently

made

to detect the presence of such stresses.

Modulus

of elasticity in tension
It is

the ratio of stress to strain with-

in the elastic range.

given by the slope of the stress-strain curve

(see Fig. 4.1 A) up to point P. For carbon and low-alloy steels of any composition and treatment, the value is approximately 29,000,000 lb. per sq. in.; for aluminum alloys, the modulus in tension is about
alloys, about 15,000,000 determined in compression as lb. per sq. in. Modulus of elasticity may be Another for either method. well as in tension; values are about the same of rigidity, which shear modulus, or modulus important quantity is the (Young's modulus) the modulus of elasticity is invariably smaller than

10,000,000

lb.

per sq.

in.;

for copper

and copper

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

65

-*

A!

KM^se-r'*

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

Strain,
Fig. 4.4.

in.

per in.

Ptoc.

Am.

Stress-strain curves for two gray cast irons tested in tension. (/. Soc. Testing Materials, v. 32, 1932, II, p. 477)

W. Bolton,

The modulus
It is

of elasticity

is

a measure of the stiffness of the metal.

not appreciably affected by heat treatment. A part too springy in the annealed state will not have the condition improved by hardening. The modulus decreases with increases in temperature moderately at first, but may change very rapidly when some specific high temperature is

The rate of change varies with the alloy chosen. values of stress-strain diagrams and moduli of elasticity are
reached.

Some
shown

typical
in Fig.

There are some metallic materials-gray cast iron and austenitic alloy outstanding examples-which when tested in tension have a stress-strain curve that is curved from the origin (Fig. 4.4) Such materials have no readily determinable proportional limit and yield point. Moreover, they have no true modulus of elasticity; reported moduli are
steels are
.

arbitrary

values

that

measure

the

relative

stiffness

under

specified

conditions of loading, usually with a stress equivalent to 25 per cent of the tensile strength.

66
4.5. Yield Point

Engineering Metallurgy

and Yield Strength

Engineering structures and machines subject to static loads are designed on the assumption that the stresses that must be withstood will not cause appreciable plastic deformation (permanent set) As plastic deformation probably starts in a large number of independent locations, it is difficult to determine where it actually begins. Plastic deformation does not become measurable until a large part of the section has been affected, and even then very sensitive equipment is necessary to locate this point the
.

proportional limit.

Fortunately, practical experience has

shown

that, at

ordinary temperature, the limit of usefulness of a metallic material is that stress which produces a plastic deformation that is readily detected.

Higher

stresses

than
is

this

may cause
This

considerable damage; with lower


stress
is

stresses the

damage
it
is

negligible.

the yield point. In ductile


of the specimen with

materials,

indicated by a

marked elongation

no increase in load. It is readily detected with a pair of dividers or by the drop of the beam of the testing machine. The yield point is of conit has the not well marked in hard materials, some of which have no true yield point. To overcome this disadvantage the American Society for Testing Materials recommends the use of yield strength in-

siderable value to engineers in the design of structures, but

disadvantage that

it is

stead of yield point.*


specified
set,

This

is

the

maximum

stress

that

produces a
In hard
stress-strain

usually 0.1 or 0.2 per cent of the gage length.

materials, the point can be readily determined

from the

curve

(point B, Fig.

4.

IB); in

soft materials,

it

corresponds closely to

the yield point determined by drop-of-beam.

yield strength is an important and readily determinable value and should replace the yield

The

point in

all

reports of tensile properties.


is

The
is

value for yield point

affected by the rate of strain, that

is,

by

the speed of the cross head of the machine. Generally, however, the error

not great for the speeds used in testing to determine whether a mawithin specifications. For example, increasing the rate of strain
to 2

terial is

from 0.2 about 2,000 lb per


tenfold, as
2-in.

per cent per min., increases the yield point only

sq. in.

The American

Society for Testing Materials


in.

specifies that the cross-head

speed should not exceed i/ 8

per min. for a

gage length.

Very soft materials, especially annealed low-carbon sheet, frequently have two yield points: an upper point, at which there is a decrease in stress (A in Fig. 4.1 A) marked by a sudden drop of the beam of the testing machine, and a lower yield point (B in Fig. 4.1 A) where strain
,
1

A.

S.

T.

M.

Standards, 1955.


Static Properties of Metallic Materials
Radius not less than'/ 8"
U \|

67

gj
Parallel section

.'

Nole

The gage length, parallel sect/on, and fillets shall be as


:-

o
,k

fiO.Ol"

shown, but the ends

may be of any shape


to fit the holders of the testing machine in such a way that the load shall be axial

2"i0.00S"A
Gage length
for elongation after fracture

h- ?gm/h mgnps-*^*-

3f mih between grips

>j<-

2g/n/n in grips-

"1
^r w =o.soo"io.o/o" to +0.003 to 0.005 ,
<
I
1

w+0.003to0.0OS" (See Note!

Zj

mm.

-t

>-}

Fig. 4.5.

Ifeduced section

\ ''Radius

0.5" to3"

6'min.
t = Thickness ofma ferial

Note: Gradual taper from ends ofreducedsection to middle. All machining dimensions are shown below and testing dimensions above specimen

Standard round and

flat

tensile specimens.

(AS.TM.

Standards E8-46)

hardening begins and where additional stress is necessary to produce further strain. The difference between the upper and the lower yield point is considered to be an indication of the deep-drawing capacity of annealed low-carbon sheet.
4.6. Elongation

and Reduction of Area

In the United States, the standard round tensile-test specimen has a diameter of 0.505 in. (cross-sectional area 0.2 sq. in.) in a gage length of 2 in. (Fig. 4.5 top) Elongation values determined on round specimens larger or smaller than the standard are directly comparable with the standard if it has a gage length equivalent to
.

G = 4.5vT
where
inches.

A the cross-sectional area in square Unfortunately, since the standard tensile specimens used in
is

the gage length and

Great Britain, Germany, and France have a different relation between gage length and cross-sectional area from that expressed by the above formula, values obtained in those countries, while always reproducible

where determined, cannot be compared directly with elongation values determined in the United States.

68

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 4.G. BrineU hardness machines: left, hand-operated laboratory model; right, high-speed production testing model. (Courtesy of Tinius Olsen Testing Machine

Company)

For some products, especially for plate and thin sheet, specimens are may differ in size and shape from the standard (Fig. 4.5 bottom) Gage lengths for tensile specimens of such products vary from 2
used that
.

depending upon the material and its size. As elongation is reported as a percentage of the original length, the percentage elongation
to 10 in.,

of a given material

is

higher the shorter the gage, owing to the fact

that most of the elongation takes place in the "necking-down" that occurs
at the point of fracture.

When

tensile properties are

determined on

speciis

mens

that differ in dimensions from the standard, the gage length


if

always given. Even

a standard specimen
in.)

is

used, most metallurgists

report the gage length (2

so that there will be


as

no misunderstanding.
a

Reduction-of-area values are always reported

percentage of the

original area so that values for this property should be comparable.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

69

clear, idea of the ductility of the

Elongation and reduction of area give a rough, but usually a fairly metal tested. Although engineers gen-

demand a relatively high elongation, metallurgists place more emphasis on reduction of area as a criterion of ductility and believe that the importance of elongation is usually overemphasized. It is doubtful if
erally

there are any applications for which an elongation of more than 8 or 10 per cent in 2 in. is needed. As an example of the exaggerated importance sometimes given to ductility, the crankshaft of the internal-combustion engine may be cited. For years crankshafts were made from highly alloyed steels which were carefully heat treated so that they would be as ductile as possible coincident with the high hardness required. The cast-iron crankshaft now used successfully in some automotive engines

shows very

little elongation in the tensile test resistance to single-blow impact.

and has

practically

no

It is generally true that in carbon steels and many nonferrous alloys high strength values are accompanied by low values of elongation and reduction of area and vice versa. This general relation does not always hold for alloy steels. One of the principal reasons why alloy steels are used in place of carbon steels is that a better combination of yield

strength

and ductility-as shown by elongation and reduction of area

(and impact resistance) -justifies their higher cost for many applications.
4.7.

Hardness

do not recognize hardness as ordinarily determined as a fundamental property of matter; to engineers it is a property of great importance. Everyone thinks he knows what hardness is, but no one has been able to define it satisfactorily. Probably as good a definition as any is that hardness is resistance to permanent deformation. Hardness is complex. First and most important, it is the resistance of a material to
Physicists

indentation. It is also the resistance to cutting with a tool, which involves resistance to indentation plus tensile strength and toughness. It is also
resistance

strength,

which likewise involves indentation and toughness.

to abrasion,

resistance,

There are at least eight methods for the determination of hardness, of which two-Brinell and Rockwell-are the more
frequently used.

The

on hardness testing is extensive. Since standards for making Brinell and Rockwell tests have been set up by the American Society for Testing Materials,* the methods for making these tests can be dismissed
literature

with a few words.


* A. S. T.

M.

Standards, 1955.

70

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 4.7Rockwell hardness lesliug machine. strument Company)

{Courtesy of Wilson Mechanical In-

In the Brinell test, a definite load is applied to the piece to be tested by means of a hardened steel (or tungsten carbide) ball. The diameter or the depth of the resulting impression is measured, and the Brinell hardness number is calculated by dividing the load applied (in kilograms) by the area of the impression (in square millimeters) which is assumed to be spherical. Owing to a slight deformation of the steel ball
,

and

to the fact that the

impression

is

not truly spherical, the hardness

number

somewhat with the load applied and with the diameter of the ball. These have been standardized in this country: a 10-mm. steel ball and a load of 3,000 kg. are used for steel and a few nonferrous alloys; and the same ball and a load of 500 kg. are used for soft materials. The
varies
is applied for 20 to 30 sec, the diameter of the impression varies from about 6 mm. for soft materials to about 2.5 for hard materials and is measured with a micrometer microscope. The Brinell machine is shown

load

in Fig. 4.6.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

71

Rockwell hardness machine (Fig. 4.7) is designed to test materials of widely varying hardness by interchangeable indenters. For hard materials, a diamond cone is used; for softer metals and alloys, -in. and
l/g-in.

The

hardened
is

y16

steel balls are

load of 10 kg.
material.

applied to

employed. In the Rockwell test, a minor force the penetrator below the surface of the

then applied. The hardness, which is indepth of penetration, is read directly on a scale, several of which are used.* A Rockwell hardness number is meaningless unless the scale symbol accompanies the value. Loads and scales used with the Rockwell machine are as follows:
is

The major

load

versely proportional to the

Major
Scale Pencirator
load,
kg-

Materials tested

A
B

Diamond cone

60

Tungsten carbide and other very hard materials.


Thin, hard
steel,
steel,

such as razor blades, nitrided

and

the like

Hi-in. ball

Diamond cone Diamond cone


H-in. ball

100 150 100 100

Soft steels, hard nonferrous alloys Steels of 90,000 to 350,000 lb. per sq. in. tensile

D
E

strength Materials with thin, hard surface layer; case-

hardened and nitrided


Soft materials,

steel

aluminum

alloys,

bearing metals,

and the

like

There

is

a third hardness

use, especially in the laboratory; this

mond pyramid
tests

is

is coming into relatively wide the Vickers test in which a diapressed into the surface of the material. Other hardness

test,

which
is

now rarely used, which determines hardmeasuring the rebound of a diamond-pointed weight falling from a fixed height; and a number of scratch tests in which needles of definite
ness by

include the scleroscope,

A laboratory hardness tester has been recently developed by Frederick Knoop at the National Bureau of Standards. A carefully prepared diamond pyramid is forced into a There are a number of other scales in addition to the ones listed in the
table i/ e -, i/ 4 -, and i/ 2 -in. ball indenters; these are used occasionally for special hardness determinations. There is also available a special Rockwell machine for the de termination of superficial hardness. All of these are discussed in A. S. T. M.

laboratory to detect differences in the hardness of the various constituents in an alloy but are rarely used industrially. new

hardness or diamond or sapphire points are dragged over the polished surface. Scratch tests are sometimes useful in the research

which are used with

Standards, F.18-42.

72

Engineering Metallurgy

polished metal surface and the dimensions of the resulting impression


are read with a microscope.

The Knoop
it is

tester

is

flexible

and apparently

gives precise results, but at present

adapted only to the laboratory. A practical qualitative method widely used for the determination of the hardness of steel is the file test. In the hands of an experienced man, rubbing the
file

relatively slight differences in hardness can be detected by

material with a

of

known

hardness. Thus, a steel with a Rockwell


a

hardness of 54 can be differentiated from one which has

Rockwell

C C

hardness of 60. Obviously, too


tion for the
file test

much depends upon

the personal equa-

to

be useful except in the hands of an experienced

man.
4.8.

Comparison of the Various Flardness Tests


making hardness
In the
first

In

tests

by any method

number

of precautions are

necessary.

place, the

specimen must be rigidly supported,


place, the

and the load must be applied perpendicularly. In the second


surface tested must be
flat

and

relatively

smooth, and any surface scale


In the third place, specimens

or decarburized areas must be removed.

must be
specimen

thick
rests

enough

so that the material of the anvil

on which the

does not affect the indentation in the specimen. In general,

hardness impressions on thin sections are not accurate unless the material
has a thickness equivalent to 10 times the depth of the impression.
All tests for hardness by indentation cause strain hardening to

some

degree.

The

Brinell test

is

as close to

an

ideal test as possible as

it

distrib-

utes strain hardening over a relatively

wide

area,

but

it

lias

the dis-

may not be uniform and, further, that the method is too restricted in application. With a 500-kg. load, the Brinell test is quite satisfactory for aluminum alloys and for
advantage that the amount of strain hardening
brass
tensile strength
is

and bronze; with a 3,000-kg. load its use is restricted between 45,000 and 250,000 lb. per sq. in.
steels that are
lb.

to steels

with a

When

the test

used on

harder than 500 Brinell


,

(tensile strength greater

than 250,000

per

sq. in.)

there

is

likely to
all

be some permanent defor-

mation of the
tions

steel ball that

causes

subsequent hardness determinasteels

made with

this ball to

be inaccurate. For
is

with high hardness

a special tungsten carbide ball

used.

The Rockwell machine


of the Brinell
test.

is

designed to overcome some of the limitations

It is flexible
is

and can be used

for

hard materials,

it

makes
piece,

a small impression that

not likely to spoil the appearance of the


sec-

and

it

can be used to measure the hardness of relatively thin

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

7:5

tions.
Scleroscope hardness

For example, on
per
sq.
in.

steel of

20
100
150

24

30

40

50 60 70 80 90 100

150,000 lb.
strength the

tensile

minimum
method
is

thickness

60 200 250

that can be tested accurately by

the Brinell

0.15

in.;

'.on j\j

k
N^
\
L_
\

120

300
350

WO
160
Iftfl

with the Rockwell diamond cone (C scale), it is 0.06 in. The Rockwell machine also has the advantage that hardness numbers are read directly from the
scale; it is unnecessary to measure the width of an impression.

400

an

S450

m
\
\

MU V\0 <u
c

240 260 280

The Rockwell machine


fore,

is,

there-

550
ftYl

widely

used

for

routine

testing

and

for the inspection of

\
650
700

heat-treated parts.

f
V
\

SO
340

The
which
all
is

Vickers

hardness

test,

rapidly becoming standis

750

ardized,

the most flexible of

800
-10
10

20 30 40 50 Rockwell C hardness

60

70

Fie. 4.8. Relation of hardness values to each other and to tensile strength for carbon and low-alloy steels. (French and Sands)

tests and can be used without change of penetrator on materials of widely varying hardness by varying the load applied. The impression is

hardness

small and, owing to


shape,

its

diamond
very
is

can

be

measured

accurately.

ideal as a laboratory tool, at present so well adapted to routine testing as the Rockwell.
test,

The

Vickers

not

4.9. Relation

among Hardness

Tests and between Hardness and

Tensile Strength for Steel


All indentation hardness methods fail to measure the hardness of the undeformed metal. An exact mathematical correlation of the various hardness numbers is therefore impossible as the amount of strain hardening varies from test to test and, furthermore, varies from metal to metal. A large amount of time and effort has been expended in studying the relation among the hardness numbers as obtained by the Brinell, Rockwell, Vickers, and scleroscope machines. One of these correlations for carbon and low-alloy steels is shown in Tig. 4.8* A word of caution is

H.

J.

French and

J.

W. Sands

(editors),

Nickel Alloy

Steels,

Nickel Co., Inc.,

New

The

International

York, 1934.

74

Engineering Metallurgy

necessary concerning such a correlation. Brinell values


to Vickers or

may be

converted

Rockwell

values, or vice versa, with

not more than 10 per cent, except for where the uncertainty becomes greater. The error in converting Brinell or Rockwell to scleroscope may be considerably greater than 1 per cent. The most recent conversion table and probably the most accurate for carbon and low-alloy steels was compiled by a committee of the Society of Automotive Engineers and the American Society for Testing Materials.* These values are reproduced in part in Table 4.2.

an expected error of hardness numbers over 500 Brinell

The resistance

to indentation

is

directly related to compressive strength.

For most carbon and low-alloy steels there is a fairly close relation between compressive strength and tensile strength; hence, indentation hardness values for such steels can be converted into tensile strength with reasonable accuracy. Results of a large number of investigations on
this relation indicate that the ratio of tensile strength
lb.

(in units of 1,000

per

sq. in.)

to Brinell hardness

number

varies

from 0.45 to

0.58,

and

heat treatment apparently has

no

effect

on the

ratio.

The

ratio obtained

most frequently is 0.47 to 0.50. Thus, if the Brinell hardness number is given, tensile strength can be calculated by multiplying the hardness

number by 480; the result should be accurate within =p 5,000 lb. per sq. in. The relation between the various hardness numbers and the tensile strength for carbon and low-alloy steels is shown in Fig. 4.8 and in Table 4.2. Although this relation is fairly accurate, there may be considerable variation in individual specimens. The actual ratio depends upon structure, with composition a possible complicating factor, and although in most cases the conversion may be made with an error of 5,000 lb. per sq. in., errors as great as 12,000 lb. per sq. in. may be encountered.
4.10. Relation

Tests and between Hardness and Tensile Strength for Nonfcrrous Alloys

among Hardness

In contrast to carbon and low-alloy steels, which all harden approximately the same amount when cold worked (strain hardened) and which show, therefore, a fairly close relation among hardness tests and between hardness and tensile strength, the nonferrous alloys differ considerably in their capacity for strain hardening and no such relation can be worked out for these materials as a class. For example, a high-strength duralumin that has been heat treated will have a tensile strength of around 70,000 lb. per sq. in. and a Brinell hardness (500 kg.) of 115; whereas a cast manganese bronze containing 55 to 60 per cent copper and 38 to 42 per
cent zinc will have a tensile strength of 90,000
1

lb.

per

sq. in.

and

a Brinell

A.

S.

T.

M.

Standards, 1955.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

75

Table
Brinell. 10

4.2.

Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers


Rockwell hardness nun ber
1

for Steel

mm.

ball,

3,000-kg. load
1

Vickers

d lamond-

ApproxiSclero-

B
Diameter
of
A-scale.

pyramid
hardness
D-scale.

mate
tensile

scale.

100-kg.
load. Hi-in. ball

C-scale.

Hardness

number

scope hardness

60-kg.
load.

impression

number

150kg.
load,

100 kg.
load.

(DPH)

number

strength. lb. *, per


sq. in.

mm.

diamond

diamond

diamond

2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60


2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85

653 627 601 578 555

*
*

81.2 80.5 79.8 79.1 78.4 77.8 76.9 76.3 75.9


75.1

60.0 58.7 57.3 56.0 54.7


53.5 52.1 51.0 50.3 48.8

70.7 69.7 68.7 67.7 66.7 65.8 64.7 63.8 63.2 61.9 61.0 58.8 56.8 54.6 52.8 51.0 49.3 47.6 45.9 44.2 42.0 40.5

697 667 640 615


591

81

79

77
75 73
71

323,000 309,000 297,000 285,000

wn

'JfWUf
'>--

534 514 495 477


461

* '

569 547 528 516 495

70
68 66 65

274,000 263,000 253,000 247,000 237,000


226,000 210,000 195,000 182,000 170,000
160,000 150,000 141,000 133,000 126,000

***/tf
'-

2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30


3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80

444 415 388 363


341

74.3 72.8 71.4 70.0


68.7

47.2 44.5 41.8


39.1 36.6

474 440 410


383 360

63
59 56 52 50 47 45 43

321 302 285

67.5 66.3 65.3


64.1

34.3
32.1

339 319
301

269 255
241 229

63.0 61.8 60.8


100.0 98.2 96.4 94.6 92.8

29.9 27.6 25.4 22.8 20.5 17.5 15.2

284 269 253


241

40
38

3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30


4.40 4.50 4.60 4.80 5.00

217 207
197
187 179 170 156 143

228 218 207


196 188 178 163

36 34 33 32 30 28 27 26 24 22

118,000 111,000 105,000 x 100,000 '0*i</' 95,000

90.7 89.0 86.8 82.9 78.7

150

90,000 87,000 83,000 76,000 71,000

By tungsten carbide
less

ball.

hardness of
rolled

than 100. Copper hardened with arsenic, in the coldcondition, will have a Rockwell B hardness of 95 to 100 and a tensile strength of about 60,000 lb. per sq. in.; whereas admiralty
(hard)

metal containing 71 per cent copper, 28 per cent zinc, and 1 per cent tin and of the same Rockwell B hardness will have a tensile strength of 95,000 lb, per sq. in. or higher.

76

Engineering Metallurgy
only nonferrous alloy for which hardness conversions have been
is

The

worked out Table 4.3.*

cartridge brass.

Some

of these values are collected in

All the thousands of other alloys, with the possible exception of the high-nickel alloys, which apparently harden much like steel, are quite evidently a law unto themselves, and each must be considered
as a special case.

Table 4.3. Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers Copper, 30 Per Cent Zinc)
Brinell,

for

Brass

(70 Per Cent

10-mm.

ball

Rockwell hardness number

Vickcrs

diamond
Diameter
of

Hardness number

scale.

scale.

impression,

3,000-kg.

mm.
2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40
3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90
*

load*

500-kg. load

100-kg. load,
Ke-in. ball

60-kg.
load, Ho-in. ball

Tscale. t 30-kg.

pyramid
hardness

load,
Hs-in. ball

number (DPH)

653
601 555 514

158 143 130 119 109 100

91.0 85.5 79.5 74.0


68.5

108.0 105.5 102.5 99.0 96.0

75.5 72.5 69.5 66.0 62.0


59.0 55.5 52.5 48.0 43.0 38.5 34.0 29.0 23.0 18.0

183 165 149 135 123

477 444
415 388 363 341
321

93 86 80 74
69
65
61

63.5 59.0 54.0 47.5 40.0 33.5 28.7


18.5 12.5

93.5 91.0 88.0 84.4 80.0

113 105 98

90
82
77 73 66

57

53 50 48 45 42

77.0 74.0 68.5 65.0 61.0


56.5 53.5 47.0 40.0

62
58

302 285 269 255 241

12.0

54

52 48
45 43

40

For steel, included for comparison. Rockwell superficial hardness: initial load 3

kg.;

major load 30

kg.

If the

proper precautions are observed, indentation hardness


if

tests

are

accurate and readily reproducible; and


of machinability
A. S. T.

judgment
steels

is

used, the tests

give a reasonable approximation of the tensile strength

and wear

resistance for

most

and a rough idea but not for most

M.

Standards, 1955.

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

77

nonferrous alloys. Their greatest value lies in their speed and cheapness, which make them ideal for checking uniformity of heat treatment and as an acceptance test for hardened steels, especially tools and dies, and
for a

number

of other metallic materials.

4.11. Shear, Compression, and

Bend

Tests

The

or torsion

determination of the resistance of a material to failure by shear is important for many engineering applications, especially for
for such tests nor the

shafts subjected to twisting, for rivets holding two plates together, for keys in shafts, and the like. Neither specimens

methods of making the tests are standardized. Stress-strain diagrams may be plotted from a torsion test, from which the maximum torque
(torsional or shearing strength)
,

yield point or proportional limit,


rigidity)

and and

modulus of elasticity in shear (modulus of mined. There is no accurate relation between


the
tensile strength,

may be
is

deter-

torsional strength

the torsional strength about 75 per cent of the tensile strength.


steels,

but for carbon

generally

rials that fracture;


it

Compressive strength can be determined accurately on brittle mateon ductile materials, which flatten without fracturing, can be determined only when a limiting amount of deformation is
is

specified.

Compressive strength is a common test for cast iron, as this frequently used in compression, but is rarely made on steel. The compressive strength of cast iron is 3 to 4 times its tensile strength.
metal
are becoming increasingly valuable for some of the new These steels are used in structures primarily to save weight, and the bend test is useful to determine the relative
tests

Bend

low-alloy steels.

stability of ductile materials are tested, the specimen does not fracture when bent; hence, the test can also be used to detect deep-seated flaws and other internal defects or to discover brittle areas in and around a weld. A variety of the bend test-the transverse test-is a useful measure of the quality of cast iron and has been used so widely for this purpose that virtual standardization has been

these materials

under load.

When

effected.

Transverse

tests of cast

iron are

made on

standardized bars.

As

dis-

cussed in Chap. 20, the results are reported as the load necessary to fracture a specimen of definite diameter held on supports a specified distance apart. In the United States this is usually reported as transverse strength in pounds; abroad, and to some extent in the United States, it is reported as modulus of rupture in pounds per square
inch.

The

test is

usually

a cast bar without machining; removing the surface layers of the bar may cause a slight change in values. The deflection in inches (that is, how much the bar bends before breaking) is also re-

made on

78

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 4.9.

Oscillograph screen showing diagram obtained by sonic

tester.

ported.

The

transverse test gives an indication of toughness, flexibility,

surface condition,
test for cast iron.

and even machinability and

is

the most valuable single

4.12. Sonic Testing

Large forgings, castings, and weldments are inspected for hidden flaws by x-ray radiography. Recently the sonic tester has been developed for non-destructive testing of all types of machine elements. This apparatus is portable and can be used on a part even when it is completely assembled in the machine. This makes possible inspection during manufacture, but it also can reveal fatigue cracks and defects in highly stressed machine

machine has been placed in service. High-frequency compression waves are produced by a quartz crystal placed directly on the work surface or the crystal may be carried on an
parts after the
oil film.

The beam

of vibrations flows through the metals

and are

re-

back from the bordering surfaces. The reflections are then recorded on an oscilloscope, A on Fig. 4.9 being true top surface reflection and C the bottom surface reflection. An internal crack would also send back a reflection as shown by the pip at B. Location of the defect can also be determined from die oscillograph. The length from A to C represents the
flected

work depth. AB same scale. This

is

ability to

then the distance from top surface to defect on the measure depth makes it possible to gage the

Static Properties of Metallic Materials

79

SEARCH UNIT AT POSITION


Fro. 4.10.

SEARCH UNIT AT POSITION


(Courtesy Sperry Products, Inc.)

Surface

Wave

Testing of a Shaft.

progress of corrosion in piping


fluid.

and pressure

vessels

even when

filled

with

The majority of ultrasonic testing is done by x-cut quart/, crystals which send waves directly through the specimen. However, Y-cut crystals or plastic wedges may be used to propogate surface waves which can follow curved surfaces and thus reach otherwise inaccessible locations. Fig. 4.10 shows this technique being used to check the fillet areas of a shaft for
fatigue cracks, such a crack being revealed by the surface

wave unit

in

position

2.

QUESTIONS
1.

Define

properties?
2.

What

mechanical properties. What are the five most useful static engineering property is standard throughout the world? materials, because of their magnetic properties, are most useful in
static

What

the design of motors, generators,

Curie temperature. reached?

What happens

and transformers? Define domain. Define to the domain when this temperature is

80
S.

Engineering Metallurgy

How
What

accurate

is

mined? What variables


4.

the tensile strength of a metallic material as usually deteraffect this accuracy? What factor is most important

in using tensile-test data in engineering design?

5. 6.

7.

are the advantages and disadvantages of testing a completed structure under actual service conditions? Discuss the use of aluminum as an electrical conductor. Distinguish between elastic limit and proportional limit. What is modulus of elasticity, and what does it represent? Can proportional limit and modulus of elasticity be readily determined on all metallic materials? Give the reason for your answer. Give approximate values of modulus of elasticity for (a) steel, (b) aluminum
(c) copper. Describe three methods of testing which will allow the designer to determine the location and magnitude of stress concentration in a given speci-

alloys,
8.

9.

men or structure. What modulus is


which
is

a measure of the stillness of a metal.

Can

metal part

not

stiff

enough

in the annealed state be

improved by hardening?

10.

What

is the difference between yield point and yield strength? What is the importance of these values to engineers? How does the speed of testing

affect the yield point?


11.

What phenomenon
into a

occurs

on the

stress-strain

curve which has developed

new

science

known

as plastic design?

12.

13.

Define elongation and reduction of area. How are these values determined? What is the effect of gage length on elongation? What properties are components of hardness? What precautions are necessary in the accurate determination of hardness? Describe briefly the method of determining hardness
well,

14.

by the

Brinell,

and Vickers machines, and

give the principal advantages

Rockand diswill a

15.

When

advantages of each. a part is so designed that


ductile material react as

stress

concentration

is

present,

how

16.

compared with a brittle material? What will be the reaction if the stress is released and then reapplied? Convert a hardness of 40 Rockwell C to Brinell and Vickers values and to
tensile strength.

How

accurate are these conversions?


is

If

of an annealed carbon steel

85,000

lb.

per

sq. in.,

what are

the tensile strength its approxi-

mate
17. 18.

Brinell, Vickers,

and Rockwell

hardness values?
structure sensitive?

What do we mean when we say a material is What hardness tests are commonly used for
ferrous alloys?

nonferrous alloys? Why is it impossible to convert hardness values to tensile strength for most non-

19.

What

is

the value of the shear test?


(b)

What

is

the value of the

bend

test

(a)

for ductile materials?

for brittle materials?


is

What

is

the relation be-

tween the strength of a metallic material


20.

in torsion

and

in tension?

docs the sonic tester function? What of testing as compared with x-ray analysis?

How

the advantage of this


is

method

How

a defect in the specimen

located?

Dynamic Properties of
CHAPTER
Oran Allan

Metallic Materials
Pringle, M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri

iHE

design

of

engineering structures

and

machines that are subject to static loads is based upon tensile strength and yield strength with an ample factor of safety. Few failures of such structures and machines occur. This, however, is not the case with moving parts of machines which fail so frequently that it has been estimated that
metal failures are caused by dynamic loads. For this and engineers are now paying more attention than ever before to the resistance of ferrous and nonferrous materials to dynamic stresses and to methods of determining the dynamic properties.
all

95 per cent of

reason, metallurgists

The

principal

(fatigue)

strength,

dynamic properties impact resistance, endurance and damping capacity measure the ability of the

material to withstand suddenly applied or pulsating loads. Endurance strength has been the subject of much study and in some respects might

even be called a standardized property. Impact resistance and damping capacity are not standardized; hence, the values obtained by impact and

damping

tests

may mean

very

little

unless the

method and

the specimen

used are known. Such tests are more valuable as a method of comparing various materials or various grades of the same material than as a means
to obtain values

which can be used

in design.

5.1.

Notch Brittleness and Transition from Ductile to Brittle


Fracture

In applications involving impact loads it is necessary to know the influence of speed of loading or strain rate on the mechanical properties of 81

82

Engineering Metallurgy
.

Stress

Stress

atMN

M-,

Fie. 5.1.

Typical notches or

stress

raisers

occurring in machines and structures.

(Moore)

knowledge, there is always a considerable increase in yield strength of metals at high strain rates; for example, over a range of strain rates from 103 to 102 in. /in. per sec. the yield point for mild steel increases by as much as 100 per cent. The ultimate strength also increases at high strain rates but to a lesser degree, and at very high strain rates the yield point of mild steel approaches the value of the ultimate strength. These considerations might lead one to conclude that there is less likelihood of failure under impact
the materials.

According

to present

loads than static loads. Unfortunately however,

it is

now

well

some commonly
tures,

ductile materials can fail in a brittle fashion

known when

that sub-

jected to certain insidious combinations of high strain rates, low tempera-

and notch

effects.

is preceded by a considerable amount of plastic deformation; since the force required for fracture thus acts through a comparatively large distance, a relatively large amount of energy is absorbed. A brittle fracture is preceeded by little or no plastic deforma-

ductile fracture

tion;

therefore very

little

energy

is

required to produce this type of

fracture.
brittle

Some

materials,

like glass,

always fracture in a completely

manner. On the other hand, a few metals, among them the plaincarbon and low-alloy steels, behave in a ductile manner under some con-

Dynamic

Properties of Metallic Materials

83

Charpy Impact specimen


-?-

/--

ajs.*'

Y-45"
0. J/5"

^0.01-Bad.

Alternate Charpy

impact specimen
0.395?'

*SM
-l.l024~iO.OI9P

-o.OOO-

1 0.001 \
)

0.3I5~0.00I- '-O.OI'Rad.
.

Izod impact specimen


Fie. 5.2.

Standard impact specimens.

(American Society of Testing Materials)

ditions, such as in the ordinary tensile test; however, they can break in an almost completely brittle manner under certain other conditions. The

three most important conditions which tend to bring about this transition from ductile to brittle behavior are high strain rates due to shock

low temperatures, and the presence of notches (Fig. 5.1). Thus may bend without breaking under a static load at room temperature if smooth, but may snap with a brittle fracture if a sharp notch is located in the region of stress, and/or the load is suddenly applied, and/or the temperature is sufficiently lowered.
loads,

a certain steel part

In testing,

it is

often convenient to hold constant the notch condition

and strain rate and to use the temperature zone or transition temperature at which ductile behavior ceases as an index of the susceptibility of the

Many different types of tests and specimens have been used. The Charpy and Izod tests are common in the United States. The specimens used are shown in Fig. 5.2. The pendulum of the
material to brittle fracture.
testing

machine

falls

the notch.

The

from a definite height and breaks the specimen at energy absorbed during fracture is measured from the

backswing of the pendulum. Typical results are shown in Fig. 5.3. It can be seen that a drastic decrease in ability to absorb impact energy occurs when the temperature is below the transition range. In order to understand how brittle fracture can occur in ordinarily ductile materials, it must be realized that several entirely different mechanisms can cause fracture. The brittle type of fracture occurs when
the highest tensile stress reaches a critical value,

and

is

almost indepen-

84
-I7S

Engineering Metallurgy
Temperature, deg.C.
-150
tJ

-I2S
,J

-100
1

-75
A,

-50
!_,

-25
I '

70 r

+25

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

+50

+100

Temperature, deg. F.
Tig. 5.3.

Transition

temperature
steel;
steel;

curves

for

various

steels:

(A)

18-8

austenitic

stainless steel;

(B) annealed low-carbon 3.5 per cent nickel steel;

(C) annealed low-

carbon 13 per cent chromium


nickel, 0.6 per cent

chromium

(D) normalized 0.35 per cent carbon, 15 per cent (E) annealed 0.35 per cent carbon steel; and (F)

normalized 0.35 per cent carbon


others had

notch.

steel. Specimens for steels B and E had keyhole notch; (The International Nickel Company)

dent of other types of

stress.

On

the other hand, the ductile type of

fracture occurs only after plastic yielding has taken place, which begins

when

the

maximum
is

shear stress reaches a critical value. As the load on a


is

ductile material

increased, the critical value of shear stress


critical

ordinarily

reached before the

value of tensile

stress,

consequently plastic

deformation and ductile fracture result. If by some means the critical shear distress could be raised so high that the critical tensile stress were reached first, brittle fracture would occur. This is exactly what happens at high strain rates, since increasing the strain rate raises the

Low temperatures have a similar effect, since the yield strength of most metals increases by a factor of around 2 as the temperature is lowered from room temperature to the boiling point of hydrogen.
yield strength.

The
but

brittle tensile strength

is

also affected

by strain rate and temperature,

to a lesser degree.

Since brittle fracture results from exceeding a critical tensile stress and ductile fracture from exceeding a critical shear stress, any means by

Dynamic
which shear

Properties of Metallic Materials

85

is reduced or suppressed will tend to promote This is what is accomplished by notches. Consider a cylindrical tensile specimen with a circumferential notch or groove. As the load is increased, the first effect of the notch is to produce elastic

stress in a part

brittle fracture.

stress

concentration at the root of the notch.


is

With

further increase in

load, the elastic limit

reached, and plastic yielding relieves the stress concentration. As the core of the circumferential notch undergoes plastic
elongation,
it

must

also contract in a transverse direction, pulling in

on

the metal surrounding the notch.


verse direction.

The surrounding

metal then pulls

back out on the notch core, subjecting it to biaxial tension in the transActually, however, the notch core is in a state of triaxial tension, as the external axial load on the specimen is still acting. In a system of equal triaxial tensions, the shear stress is zero. Thus the effect of the notch is to suppress all or part of the shear stress which would
ordinarily be present in the tensile specimen, leaving the
tensile stress to

way open

for the

high to exceed the critical value for brittle fracture. This effect of the notch is called plastic constraint. In addition to high strain rates, low temperatures, and notches, numerous other factors tend to a lesser degree to promote the transition from
sufficiently

become

ductile to brittle fracture.

Some

of these factors are: increased size of

part, large grain size, pearlitic rather

than martensitic microstructure,

certain deoxidation practices,

and prior cycles of fluctuating load. Although the ferritic steels are the most important alloys which exhibit the phenomonon of a transition from ductile to brittle fracture, other metals, such as zinc alloys, tin alloys, and magnesium have been shown to behave similarly. On the other hand, aluminum, copper, nickel, and austcnitic steels (Fig. 5.3) have thus far failed to show a transition temperature.

5.2.

Value of the Notched-Bar Impact Test

It is evident from the foregoing discussion that the chief value of the notched-bar impact test is in classifying materials according to their tendency toward brittle fracture. It is rapid and cheap and gives informa-

tion that

no other
it

test gives at present,


its

provided that
evaluation.

common

sense

and

experienced judgement are used in


of development

In the present state

has a

number

of disadvantages.

Transition tempera-

one type of specimen and machine cannot be directly correlated with values obtained with different specimens and machines;
similarly, test results

tures obtained with

parts

under

service conditions.

inherently brittle

cannot be directly correlated with results on full size Furthermore, it is not a reliable test for materials like cast iron and hardened tool steels. De-

86

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 5.4. Typical fractures of fatigue specimens with unclistortcd area (A) (Moore) and (B) at side. (Johnson)

in center

spite these disadvantages, the engineer

and metallurgist have found the

notched-bar impact
exclusion

test to

be a valuable tool.

test to detect steels


it is

It is used primarily as an with high tendency toward brittle fracture.

In industry
mobiles,

used by manufacturers of ordnance, aircraft, and autosteel

who

have found as a result of experience, that

which ex-

ceeds a certain

minimum impact

resistance in the laboratory gives satis-

factory service in applications

where low temperatures and shock loads

are encountered.

5.3.

The Mechanism of Fatigue man


has used metal for moving parts, he has noticed that

Ever since

would sometimes fail were relatively low. Usually the failure would be sudden: an axle that had been forged from steel of excellent ductility would snap off short as if it were brittle. Examination of the fracture would show a dull area usually surrounding an oval-shaped area of bright
after a period of satisfactory service such a part
stresses

even though the

crystals (Fig. 5.4)

Although

all

details

of

the

mechanism

of

fatigue

failure

are
this

not
pro-

thoroughly understood, the main events which occur during gressive type of failure may be summarized. Under repeated

stress the

metal yields at one or more local areas of weakness, usually at some surface defect where elastic stress concentration occurs. Eventually the atomic bonds are broken, resulting in submicroscopic cracks at the ends of which

Dynamic

Properties of Metallic Materials

87

I'io.

5.5.

R.

R.

Moore

high-speed

machine

for

rotating-hcam

fatigue

testing.

may be high concentrations of stress. As the stress on the piece is repeated, the crack or cracks spread. After a time there is so little sound metal left that the normal stress on the piece is higher than the strength
there
of the remaining material,

and complete fracture

occurs.

of a typical fatigue fracture is explained by the fact that as failure proceeds the severed surfaces rub and crush each other and

The appearance

produce a dull appearance; while the remaining unfractured portion preserves the normal grain structure up to the moment of fracture.
5.4.

The Endurance Limit


is

perhaps not the best word to use in referring to the type of it is too firmly entrenched in metallurgical and engineering terminology to be dislodged. The term endurance is
failure

Fatigue

under discussion, but

also

of a metal or alloy is the stress below which the material will not fail if subjected to an infinitely large number of cycles of stress. It is determined in a number of ways, the most common of which is by alternate flexure, usually known as the rotating beam method. A polished specimen of suitable size, which is rotated in a specially designed machine (Fig. 5.5) is subjected by dead weights to alternate tensile and compressive stresses.
,

commonly used. The endurance limit

A number of identical specimens are prepared from a single material. he first is run at a stress which is considerably higher than the expected endurance limit, and the number of cycles causing failure
I

is

noted.

The
for

stress

reduced for the next specimen; this process for steel, there is no fracture after 10 7 cycles of stress.
is

is

continued until,
stress
(S)

The

88

Engineering Metallurgy

'104

105

106

I0

108

Cycles
Flo, 5.6,

Typical S-N curves for carbon

steels.

(Moore and Kommcrs)

each

number of
.

(Fig. 5.6)

The

cycles (N) is plotted; the result is the S-N diagram value for S which the horizontal portion of the curve

represents

is

the endurance limit.


steels

Although same is true


limit,

for

have a definite endurance limit, it is doubtful if the most nonferrous alloys. At any rate, the S-N diagram for

nonferrous alloys usually does not show an abrupt knee at the endurance but rather consists of a gradual curve with the portion at lower stresses becoming approximately horizontal only at a very large number of
cycles of stress.

In reporting results of fatigue


life,

the endurance strength (or fatigue strength)

tests on nonferrous alloys corresponding to a certain

number
a well

such as 500,000,000, is usually given, since not found. The importance of determining the endurance limit or endurance strength, even though the test takes a long period of time, is evident when
of cycles of fatigue

denned endurance

limit

is

it

is

recalled that airplane propellers, turbines, etc.


life.

may

easily

run a

billion cycles during their useful

5.5. Relation of the


If

Endurance Limit
is

to

Other Properties

determined by the rotating-beam method using carefully polished specimens of proper design, the value obtained for most carbon and alloy steels is about one-half the tensile strength (Fig. 5.7) As there is a fairly close relation between tensile strength and
.

the endurance limit

hardness,
limit

follows that there is also a close relation between endurance and hardness; the former is about 250 times the Brinell hardness number (Fig. 5.7) There seems, however, to be no correlation between endurance limit and any other property of ferrous alloys.
it
.

Dynamic Properties
Brinell hardness
,,0

of Metallic Materials

89

number
600

100

200

300 400 500

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 Tensile strength, thousand lb per sq. in.

240

260

280

Fig. 5.7.
ness.

Relation of endurance limit of (Moore)

steel

to tensile strength

and Brinell hard-

The above relations among endurance limit, tensile strength, and hardness hold for carbon and alloy steels of any composition and heat treatment except those treatments which produce very high hardness,
and may be used
ever, the actual

as approximations in design. For refined design, howendurance limit of the material must be determined, as this may in individual cases vary between 35 and 65 per cent of the tensile strength. Cast steel (not heat treated) has an endurance limit of about 0.4 times the tensile strength, somewhat below the average for wrought steel. Cast iron has a ratio of 0.3 to 0.35. Attempts to correlate endurance strength of nonferrous alloys with tensile strength are not very successful; the endurance strength may be less than 25 per cent or more than 50 per cent of the tensile strength.

5.6.

The

Effect of Notches

on the Endurance Limit


polished specimen

The endurance limit of a carefully as much as 50 per cent by a notch.

may be reduced

In actual machines and structures notches of some sort are almost invariably present in some form such as

rough surfaces, tool marks, holes, screw threads, keyways, fillets, inclusions, gas cavities, etc. (Figs. 5.1, 5.8) The effect varies with the kind of
.

90

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 5.8.
fillet

about

Failure of a crankshaft starting in a sharp \/ 2 in. above and to the left of the arrow.

fillet.

The

crack started in the

the notch sensitivity of the material. For hard notch can be approximately predicted by the elastic stress concentration as calculated by mathematical theory or as determined by photoelastic studies. For ductile steels the effect of the notch is usually

notch,

its

location,

and

steels the effect of the

less severe.

The effect of a number

of different surface conditions

is

shown

in Fig. 5.9.

As a general rule the damaging effect of a notch in carbon and alloy and in some nonferrous alloys increases with its sharpness, that is, with increase in the ratio of its depth to the radius of its root. Usually a notch becomes harmful of this ratio exceeds 28 or 30. When shallow notches are present, hard steels with their relatively high endurance limits are superior to low strength steels. On the other hand, with sharp notches present, a soft steel with low notch sensitivity may be superior to a high-strength high-endurance steel with high notch sensitivity. Gray cast
steels

Dynamic Properties

of Metallic Materials

91

Tens
GO

le

strength .thousand
100
'

lb.

per sq
160
1

in.

80

120
1

140
1

180
i_

200

aIC

b
c

20

in

*40

\s \ \
s

S.

J
P<0
5

\e

i
"fin

\f
9

1
B o o 70
V- notch
flO
.

"

-
y\l
O.lmm.
7.5

so -

mm. tj>

inn

i3

iJ

i)

a3

9> 3

K j

15

E 3

>

Tensi e str<

ngth kg.p er

sq. mrn.

Fig. 5.9. Decrease in endurance limit for carbon and low-alloy steel specimens having the following surfaces: (a) polished, (b) ground, (c) roughened, (d) circumferential V notch, (e) decarburized, (f) corroded in tap water, and (g) corroded in
salt water.
(Z.

Ver. deut. Ing., v. 77, 1933)

iron,

although inherently
fact to

brittle,

is

relatively

insensitive

to

notches.

Another important

remember

is

that a decarburized surface, while

not acting as a notch, lowers the endurance limit of the whole section to that of a steel whose carbon content is the same as the surface layer,
since fatigue failure usually originates at the surface. As Fig. 5.9 shows, the effect of a decarburized surface may be greater than the effect of a sharp notch.

Chafing or fretting the polished surface of steel or nonferrous alloys, a form of wear which occurs in parts which are intended to fit tightly

but which
limit.

slip slightly

under fluctuating

loads, reduces the

endurance

92
5.7.

Engineering Metallurgy
Corrosion Fatigue

If a polished metal specimen becomes corroded before testing, the endurance limit is lowered somewhat, an effect which would be expected in view of the roughening of the surface. On the other hand, if a polished

specimen
stress,

corroded simultaneously with the application of repeated is lowered to a much greater degree. As a matter of fact, there is probably no true endurance limit in corrosion fatigue, since with sufficient time the corrosion alone would produce failure even at very low stresses. Some data indicate that carbon and low-alloy steels
is

the endurance limit

subjected to simultaneous reversed stress and corrosion will

fail at stresses

5000 cycles or more)


as as

low

lb.
.

per

sq. in. if

they are run long enough

(100,000,000

The

data given in Fig. 5.9 indicate that a combination


a loss of

of corrosion
limit
if

and fatigue causes


is

about 50 per cent of the endurance


if

the tensile strength


is

low, and a loss of about 90 per cent

the

strength
is

high.

The

corrosion fatigue strength of most nonferrous alloys

likewise only a small fraction of their endurance strength in air. For high resistance to corrosion fatigue a material must have an oxide skin which is tightly adherent and at the same time flexible enough to withstand repeated stressing without breaking. Among ferrous alloys, only the high-chromium stainless steels normally have such a skin. Corrosion

of carbon and low-alloy steels results in corrosion products which, being

and expose the underlying surface to further some highly alloyed steels, are reduced by simultaneous corrosion and repeated stressing to a common low level of resistance, there are only two things to be done in such applications: use a stainless steel, or protect the surface by plating with some metal that will form a continuous corrosion-resistant coating. According
brittle,

fracture readily

attack. Since all ferrous materials, except

to present

knowledge, electroplated zinc or cadmium coatings are

best.

5.8. Increasing the

Endurance Limit by Shot Peening

Shot peening,
or fatigue
life

if

properly controlled, can increase the endurance limit

25 to 100 per cent or more. Shot peening consists of sub-

jecting the surface of a finished metal part to a hail of metallic shot that has been released by the blades of a revolving wheel or by an air blast.

The

work the outer layer, and hardness and decreasing the ductility of this region. At the same time, the cold working introduces longitudinal compressive stresses near the surface. Surface-rolling is an alternate method that produces the same effects. The resulting increase in endurance limit is due to two factors: (1) the increase in strength of the surface layer due to the cold work; and (2)
shot, in striking the surface with force, cold

increasing the strength

Dynamic

Properties of Metallic Materials

93

the residual compressive stresses set up in the surface layer. Opposed to these favorable circumstances, however, are the roughening of the surface

and the formation of a large number of shallow


localized stress concentration.
if

pits that
is

may

cause

If the

shot peening

carefully

done and

the size of the shot

result of the operation

life. Shot peening is manufacturers for improving the life of crankshafts, camshafts, connecting rods, steering knuckles, transmission shafts, gears, and other parts.

and the velocity of impact are controlled, the net is a marked increase in endurance limit or fatigue now used regularly by some automotive and aircraft

5.9. Significance of

Endurance Data

Endurance limits that have been obtained under controlled laboratory conditions on carefully designed polished specimens are valuable in the design of machines and structures subject to repeated stresses, but they should be used only with full realization of their somewhat limited significance. Such endurance data give information of one kind only; conditions in service are rarely so simple that these data can be used without

considering other factors.

Most structure and machine parts are subjected to more or less random fluctuations of load; however, most fatigue tests are run under conditions
of constant

maximum and minimum


satisfactory

no completely

method

stress. At the present time there is of correlating the behavior of a speci-

men under cycles of varying stress amplitude and the behavior of another specimen under cycles of constant stress amplitude. It is certain, however, that the
history.
If a

endurance limit of a specimen may be affected by its stress specimen is understressed, or subjected to a few million
as

lower than its ordinary endurance limit, its final determined later will be considerably increased. If a repeated stress slightly above the endurance limit is applied for a small number of cycles, an improvement similar to that produced by understressing is sometimes observed. On the other hand, higher values of repeated stress and larger number of cycles may damage the material, and its endurance limit as subsequently determined will be reduced.
stress slightly

cycles of

endurance limit

Another important factor is surface condition. Parts in actual service are rarely as highly polished as most laboratory fatigue specimens, and full consideration should be given to the character of the surface, including the possibility of corrosion and accidental defects, and to how much a roughened surface may reduce the endurance limit. All in all, a great many complicating factors including surface condition, variable stresses, external and internal stress raisers both intentional and unintentional,

notch

sensitivity, possible decarburization

during heat treatment, residual

94

Engineering Metallurgy

Cast iron

mmmtmHmmmm
Carbon s+eel

Aluminum
Fie. 5.10.

alloy
carbon
steel,

Damping

curves for cast iron,

and an aluminum

alloy.

(Pohl)

stresses,

and combined

stresses

must be considered

in problems involving

fatigue.

5.10.
If a

Damping

Capacity
is

metal or alloy bar

supported

at

one end and

if

the free

end

is

hammer, the bar will vibrate for varying lengths of time depending upon the composition, the stress imposed, and other factors, but at a uniformly decreasing rate owing to the internal friction of the material which dissipates the energy as heat and sound. The dissipation of energy per unit volume of the material for one cycle of stress is the damping capacity. It may be reported as inch-pounds per cubic inch,
struck with a

or as centimeter-kilograms per cubic centimeter, per cycle.


capacity
loop.
ratio.
is

Damping

usually measured by the area of the stress-strain hysteresis

The

ratio of this value to the work of deformation is the damping This increases with the capacity of the material to damp out

vibration.

There is apparently no direct relation between damping and any other mechanical property. In most cases the ability of a steel to damp vibration decreases as the tensile strength increases.

Of

ferrous materials, the

strong alloy steels usually have the lowest, and cast iron and low-carbon
steels the highest

damping

capacity.

tions to this generality as steels of the

strength

may have

very different

There are, however, many excepsame composition and tensile damping capacities. Typical curves

Dynamic Properties
showing
It

of Metallic Materials

95

free vibrations

Fig. 5.10 for cast iron,

clamped only by internal friction are shown in carbon steel, and duralumin.

has been suggested that the endurance limit might be predicted from capacity, although attempts to correlate the two have not been successful. There is, however, some evidence that damping capacity is related to notch sensitivity. For, example, cast iron has a high damping

damping

capacity and

is

relatively insensitive to notches;

duralumin, with
vibrations.

high

notch

sensitivity, has a very

low capacity to

damp

question, however, that the

damping

capacity of a

There is no material is an im-

portant criterion for


crankshafts
in

internal
If

quently occur.

applications. For example, in combustion engines resonant vibrations frea material with high damping capacity is used, the

its

usefulness in

many

energy of vibration is dissipated by internal friction and the peak amplitude of the vibratory stresses is held to a low level, thus minimizing
the possibility of fatigue failure.

QUESTIONS
Define the terms notch brittleness and notch sensitivity. Give an example to illustrate the importance of each of these properties in engineering. 2. What is the chief value of the information gained from notched-bar impact tests?
1.

3.

What

are

some disadvantages

of the

common methods

of notched-bar im-

pact testing?
4.

Why

is

a fatigue fracture usuallv characterized by a bright area surrounded

by a dull area?
5. 6.
7.

Define the terms endurance limit and endurance strength.


Sketch typical S-N curves for a steel and an

aluminum

alloy.
(a) the en-

How many
durance
alloy?

cycles of testing arc usually necessary to determine limit of a steel, and (b) the endurance strength of

an aluminum

8.

A recent
What

expedition exploring Greenland experienced considerable difficulty with breakage of almost new vehicle tracks. What was the probable cause
of these failures?
is

9.

the approximate endurance limit of

alloy steel with a tensile strength of 150,000 psi and a ultra-high strength steel with a tensile strcngdi of
surface,

and

(c)

annealed

steel

with a

quenched and tempered ground surface, (b) 280,000 psi and a ground Brinell hardness of 200 and a V(a)

notch?
10.
If

service,
11.

a suspension spring on your automobile breaks after 60.000 miles of what is the most probable cause of failure?

What is the approximate endurance limit of a steel having a tensile strength of 140,000 psi if the surface is (a) ground, (b) heat treated with a smooth but decarburized surface, and (c) heat treaded with a rough, pitted, oxidized surface?

96
12.

Engineering Metallurgy The


gear teeth of an automobile transmission
testing machine,

may

fail in fatigue.

Assuming

that the endurance limit of the steel lias been determined on a rotating*

beam
13.

what

factors

would you consider

in deciding

upon
an

a suitable operating stress in the gear teeth?

During preliminary
abrupt
fillet.

testing of a

crankshaft, fatigue failure occurs at

dimensional restrictions it is undesirable to increase the fillet radius. Can you suggest another method by which the fatiguestrength of the fillet may be substantially increased?
to
14.

Due

What

advantage would gray cast iron have over other materials for use

as

a frame for a precision


15.

machine

tool?

Railroad car axles are frequently surface-rolled over the region where the wheel is pressed on. What benefit may be gained by this operation?

16.

The

elastic stress concentration factor of a notch or similar discontinuity can frequently be determined by photoclastic studies of plastic models. To what extent can information of this type be used in predicting fatigue behavior of metal parts with similar discontinuities?

17.

are available, fatigue testing of actual parts

Although fatigue data for standard specimens of many different materials under simulated service conditions is widely practiced. Can you suggest some reasons for this?
using a high-

18.

Under what

conditions might there be no advantage in strength steel for a part, even though it is heavily loaded?

19.

For certain applications, such as bridge cable and helical springs, colddrawn steel wire strengthened by work-hardening is preferred over steel wire strengthened by quenching and tempering. Why?

20.

Why

can the shank area of

a bolt

be turned

down

to considerably less

dian

the root area of the threads without decreasing die strength of the bolt

under fluctuating loads?

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems


CHAPTER
Theodore Allen,
Jr.,

M.S.M.E., Associate Professor of

Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas; Engineer Associated with Anderson,

Greenwood and Co., Bellaire, Texas John K. Anthony, M.S., Associate Professor

of Physical

Metallurgy, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

6.1.

Solid State

Thermodynamics and Thermostatics

1 HE study of physical metallurgy would hardly be complete without the mention of solid state physics; indeed, it is just a small portion of that vast field. For reason of simplicity the metallurgist often refers to a "system." A system may be defined as an arbitrary portion of matter which has been isolated from the rest of the universe by prescribed boundaries. The system is merely separated by these boundaries from its environment for the purpose of analysis. A phase may be defined as a portion of homogeneous matter in a system. When a system undergoes a phase change, this change must take place at a rate which is infinitesimally slow, or equilibrium can not be maintained during the change. This is not novel, for thermodynamic processes which are reversible necessarily require the state point to pass through a series of quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium states. In this sense, then, reversible or equilibrium changes should be classified as thermostatics while actual changes which proceed at a finite rate are truly thermodynamic changes of state. The study of metallurgy includes such non-equilibrium phase changes as those that produce coring, segregation, and other irreversible processes as well as those processes which are carried out slowly enough to produce a "near equilibrium" change of state.
6.2.

Concept of Dynamic Equilibrium


has been said in the preceding paragraph, one might infer
is

From what

that this concept of equilibrium

a static sort of thing;

such

is

not the

97

98
case.

Engineering Metallurgy

a macroscopic point of view this assumption would be tolerfrom the microscopic point of view the picture is a dynamic one. To be specific, two phases of a pure substance may be in equilibrium with one another, and the molecules of one phase may be escaping into
able, but

From

the other phase, while those of the second phase are escaping into the first, ff this exchange were taking place so that the net transport of mass,

momentum, and energy


brium.
It
is

is

zero, then the

a well established fact (the


its

two phases would be in equiliSecond Law of Thermodynamics)


existed

that nature tends to equalize

potentials; a system, then,

equilibrium

if

no unbalanced tendency

would be in which would bring about

a change of state provided this tendency was active. With respect to the escaping tendency of a component from one phase to a second phase in chemical equilibrium with the first, it may be said
that the fugacity of a

fugacity of that
persist.

component in one phase must be equal to the same component in the second phase for equilibrium to

6.3. Cooling

Curves

Useful in equilibrium studies are cooling curves. These curves present it is being heated or cooled. Consider the cooling of liquid O. The (temperature-time) curve a
the temperature history of a system while

for

from some arbitrary temperature, say 80F, is a line with a negative slope. The temperature decreases with time until a temperature of approximately 32 F (corresponding to standard pressure of 14.696 psi, abs.) is reached. At this point the formation of another phase
it,

starting

(ice)

occurs.
is

The
.

cooling curve
is

is

then a horizontal line until

all

of the

liquid

frozen

(the delay

of this chapter)
sults in a

Upon

explained by the phase rule in section 6.5 completion of solidification, further cooling re-

drop

in

simplest possible because only tem.

temperature with time. Such a cooling curve is the one component, H,0 is present in the sysis

The

concentration and nature of a component

required to specify

In the above example, there was one phase (liquid, composed of 100% H a O) at the start of cooling. Next, two phases coexisted (liquid and solid, each composed of 100% H,0) Finally, a single phase (solid, composed of 100% FLO) existed. Frequently a system may contain two or three components. Such systems are referred
.

the composition of a phase.

to as binary

and ternary systems, respectively. The number of components is not limited to three or any number in particular. Suppose the water had been cooled very rapidly from SOT. Chances are very good that ice would not have formed at 32F, but at a somewhat

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

99

lower temperature. It is possible to cool the water below 32F without the formation of ice. However, the addition of a small crystal of ice to serve as a nucleus causes solidification. Freezing can also be brought about by disturbing a super-cooled liquid. Super-cooled liquid water in this state is not characterized by stable equilibrium. This illustration serves to point out the influence of cooling rate on equilibrium. The only way to freeze liquid water at exactly 32F (if this be the "absolutely correct"
freezing point)
is

to cool

it

infinitesimally slowly; otherwise the solidifi-

cation will begin at a temperature lower than 32F, the amount of departure being a function of the cooling rate. The depression of the freez-

ing point

is brought about because of time necessary for solidification to begin after the freezing point is reached. The student of thermodynamics will again recognize the influence of time on the irreversibility of proces-

ses.

When
employed

ice

is

melted, the melting begins at a temperature slightly


the heating rate
is

above 32 F

if

greater than zero.

way frequently
is

to determine the "correct"

freezing or melting point

to

construct a heating

and a cooling curve based on a minimum rate of temperature change and to interpolate between the "depressed" freezing point and the "elevated" melting point.

Cooling curves for alloy systems can be determined experimentally for various concentrations of the components, and these curves may be used
to construct equilibrium or constituent diagrams such as presented in

Section 6.7 of this chapter.

6.4. Solid State

Mass Transfer
it is

The
is

rate of mass transfer or diffusion, as

commonly

referred to,

given by Fick's

Law

in the following

fundamental form

m=-DA^ ax
in

? is the change of concentration dx in the direction of the diffusion path, per unit of path length, A is the cross sectional area of the path (this area is normal to the path) and D is a coefficient of mass diffusivity. The minus sign indicates that the mass
is
,

which

the mass transfer rate,

transfer takes place in the direction of decreasing concentration. It is through the process of diffusion that a solid solution of several metals may

be homogenized. If a large concentration of one component exists in a localized form in a solid solution, it will diffuse. The concentration provides a gradient which gives rise to the mass transfer.

100

Engineering Metallurgy
process of diffusion
is

The

very slow for solids at ordinary


coefficient

room

temperatures.

However, the

of mass diffusivity

varies ex-

Because of
centration

ponentially with the absolute temperature of die material being diffused. this increase in diffusivity at elevated temperatures, a conis

diffused in a matter of minutes at 1500F that

would prob-

ably take several centuries at

room temperature. For

this reason, alloys

which are heterogeneous because of rapid and irreversible cooling are homogenized at elevated temperatures in annealing ovens.

By
6.5.

gations

the process of dilfusion (a "self-homogeni/.ing action") solid aggrebecome homogeneous (and thence become phases)

The Phase Rule

In the latter portion of the nineteenth century, the phase rule was advanced by J. Willard Gibbs. It is largely because of the work of Gibbs that our knowledge of phase equilibria is as advanced as it is today. The
is a short explanation of how the phase rule may be derived. Equilibrium is assumed; therefore, the fugacity of a component in one phase is equal to the fugacity of the same component in any other

following

phase.

If there are

phases in the system, then equilibrium provides

(N p -1) equations per component. In a system of N components, there are N c (N p -1) fugacity equations. The concentration of all the components in a particular phase must sum to unity. This fact provides N p independent equations. The number of variables that are independent,
(also called degrees of

freedom)

are then equal to the difference be-

tween the

total

number

of variables

and the number of independent

equations relating these variables. The total number of variables are N c N due to composition plus any two thermodynamic coordinates. It follows then that

N =
r

[N c

N p + 2] [N.
f

(N p-1)
2

or

N =N-N +
This
is

the phase rule of Gibbs. By way of illustration, attention is again directed to the freezing of the water. When two phases of the one

component were coexistent, the phase rule indicates that there was only one independent variable. This is evidenced by the fact that once the pressure (a thermodynamic coordinate which was arbitrarily taken as
independently chosen, the temperature is fixed. for two phases and one component. Upon completion of freezing, one phase existed. Now there are two variables that are independent according to the phase rule. After solidification is complete, the temperature varies although the pressure has been arbipsi,

14.696

abs.)

is

(in this case at

32F)

trarily selected.

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

101

further application of the phase rule, the following quesadvanced. Can three phases of a single component exist simultaneously? The phase rule indicates that this is possible, but that there would be no independent variables. This means that the state where the three phases coexist is fixed ( that is, there is a definite temperature and
tion
is

To examine

pressure for a given


fest itself)
.

The

component where triple phase coexistence can manitemperature and pressure are not arbitrary once the
is

component

(the system in this case)

selected.

The

reader will recog-

nize this concept as the "triple point" in physics.

The
lurgy.
fixed.

phase rule
It
is

is a valuable tool in the field of experimental metaluseful in predicting the phase equilibria once the system is

phase rule does not apply to the prediction of state configurafrom non-equilibrium effects, nor is the rule applicable to a vacuum. The phase rule is based on the assumption of equilibrium
tions that result

The

and

the existence of a system.

6.6. Solid State Solubility

Solid phases form solutions mechanism of explanation here


liquid solutions.

do liquid and gaseous phases. The the same as that for the familiar Solid solutions can be formed by atoms of the solute
as
is

much

replacing atoms in the crystalline structure of the solvent. This type of solid solution is referred to as a substitutional solid solution. Another

common

type of solution

is

the interstitial solid solution, in which the

atoms of the solute locate in the


of the solvent.
solution.

interstices of the crystallographic planes Iron, iron-carbide alloys are examples of this type of

The

to as a metalloid, since

smaller atoms of carbon are the solute. Carbon is referred it has metal as well as nonmetal characteristics.

One of its predominant


resistance slope.

nonmetallic properties

is its

negative temperature-

Section 6.7 shows equilibrium diagrams of some binary systems with varying degrees of solubility between components. It is possible to have supersaturated solutions in the solid state; martensite is a common ex-

ample of a
6.7.

solid solution containing

an excess of carbon.

Binary Systems

The constitution of metallic alloys is studied by preparing a series of high-purity alloys ranging in composition from 100% of one constituent or component to 100% of the other component. Suitable specimens of these alloys are subjected to treatments that produce a state of equilibrium. This step is followed by studying the changes in length, electric
resistivity,

microscopic structure, atomic structure, absorption or libera-

102

Engineering Metallurgy

M.P. of

Ni

CC =

alpha

solid solution of Cu+Ni

Cu

Ni
f

0%N;
100% Cu

25%Ni 75% Cu

50% Ni
50%Cu
Composition (by

75%
wt.)

Ni

lOOZNi

25% Cu

0%Cu

Fig. 6.1.

Equilibrium diagram

for the

Cu-Ni system.

tion of heat (thermal analysis)

alloy

is

and other changes that occur when the heated or cooled to room temperature or sometimes to the melting
,

point and above.

The

plotted against the composition; the result

temperatures at which the changes occur are is an equilibrium diagram

(also called a constitution or phase diagram) of the series. A diagram showing changes between two metals is called binaiy equilibrium diagram.

Solid Solution Alloys.

or miscibility in

all

A few binary alloys exhibit complete solubility proportions and temperatures in the solid state.

These are called solid-solution alloys. Typical of this type is the Cu-Ni system. Development of an equilibrium diagram for Cu-Ni by thermal analysis is shown in Fig. 6.1. (The cooling curves shown have been
previously discussed in Section 8 of this chapter)

The
is

line, 1-2-3-4-5,

is

the liquidus line,

and everything above and everything below


<x )

this line

liquid or melt (also indicated as

m)
this line

The
is

line, l-2'-3'-4'5, is the solidus line,

solid solution or alpha (also, indicated as

(The various solid phases not necessarily only solid solutions of an equilibrium diagram are generally shown by letters of the Greek alphabet
starting

from the extreme

left

of the diagram

a.

/?,

etc.)

To

trace the cooling of an alloy of Cu-Ni, refer to Fig. 6.2.

Here

alloy

"A" was chosen, containing


dotted line)

Cu, which represents approximately the composition of Monel metal (shown by the vertical

63% Ni and 87%

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

103

\rm

Tc-

_ftrja
Td

Cu

Composition
Equilibrium diagram for

Ni

Fig. 6.2.

63%

Ni and

37%

Cu.

The following stages on cooling may be noted (cooling must be slow enough so that equilibrium conditions prevail) 1. At temperature Tm, the alloy is completely molten.
:

2.
3.

4.

5.

molten until the temperature reaches Ta. crystals of solid solution appear and will have the composition as shown at a' (by drawing a horizontal line from a until it intersects the solidus line) The composition may be read by dropping a vertical line from a' to the composition axis. On further cooling to Tb, more solid solution crystals appear, with the composition changing along the solidus line from a' to b', and the composition of the remaining melt is shown by dropping a vertical line from b on the liquidus line to the composition line. Thus, on cooling between Ta and Td, the composition of the melt
alloy stays

The

At Ta, the

first

become richer in Cu from a to d and the composition of the from a' to d'. At any temperature, Tc, between Ta and Td, the relative amounts of solid and melt may be calculated as follows:
will
solid solution crystals will vary

Let

Wt =

total

weight of alloy,
of solid.
(or)

Wm = weight of melt,
Ws = weight
Then, Wt = And, Wt X
of

Wm + Ws,
Cu

Ws = Wt Wm.

[6.1]

Cu

in the original alloy will represent the total present.

amount

Wm x % Cu m will represent the amount of Cu present in the melt. Ws X % Cu, will represent the amount of Cu present in the solid.
(Cu n
,

& Cu

represent the composition of the melt

and

solid re-

104

Engineering Metallurgy
spectively as read by

dropping

vertical lines

from

&

c',

the horizontal line at temperature


solidus lines.

Tc

intersects the liquidus

where and

Then:

Wt X

% Cu

Wm X % Cu m
100

100

Ws X
"

% Cu

100
6.2,

By substituting the value of Ws from Equation 6.1 in ated and Equation 6.2 becomes:

Ws

is

elimin-

Wt X
(or)

100

% Cu = Wm X % Cu
100

n,

Wt X
"

%
100

Cu,

Wm X % Cu
100

Wt x % Cu- Wt X % Cu 8 = Wm X % Cu m -Wm X Wt (% Cu _ % Cu ) = Wm (% Cu - % Cu )
B ra 8

Cu

At temperature Tc, the composition of the original and the composition of the melt is 54% Cu, and the composition of the solid is 28% Cu.
Let 100# represent the
100 (37-28)
total

alloy

is still

37%

Cu,

weight of the original

alloy; then,

= Wm

(54-28)

Wm
.".

= 1Q0X9 =34.5#
26

or 34.5%;

Ws =

65.5# or 65.5%.
Principle.

The Lever

Since the length of the horizontal line

is

pro-

portional to the composition, the above problem


so-called lever principle.

may be

solved by the

Illustration

The The The

length of the line c-Tc-c'

is

26 units
17 units

length of the line c-Tc


length of the line Tc-c'

is is

9 units
100

Therefore,

% of solid = -1^X 26
'

= 65.5%

.
c-Tc-c7

100,

and

% of melt =
ratio for

-^ X
*6
is

100

34.5%

Tc-c'
c-Tc-c'

100.

The

the melt

the distance from the nominal analysis the distance from the nominal

(fulcrum of the lever) to the solidus line over the total distance between
the lines.

The

ratio for the solid

is

analysis to the liquidus line over the total distance.

The

lever principle

may

be used to determine the relative amounts of


(both phases

each phase

when two

phases are present

may

be solid)

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

105

The

total

horizontal
lines of the

boundary

distance is always measured between the two two phases present, and the fulcrum is taken at

the nominal analysis of the binary alloy.

the

Application of the phase rule shows that a one-phase region, such as cc or areas, is trivariant: i.e.. there are three degrees of freedom.

N
1

+N =N +2 +N = 2+2 N =3
f

used in selecting a pressure of one atmosused in selecting a temperature which will locate the vertical position, and the third is used in selecting the composiis

One

degree of freedom

phere, the second degree


tion,

is

which locate the

lateral

position.

Thus, the three degrees are


in the single

utilized in fixing the position of

any point

phase area.

When

two phases are coexistent, as in the

m+

<x

region, there are

two

degrees of freedom.

N +N =N +2 2 + N = 2 + 2 N =2
p
f f

degree of freedom is used in fixing the pressure at one atmosphere. Therefore, if the remaining degree of freedom is used in fixing the

One

temperature (vertical position)

it if

follows that the compositions of the


first,

two phases are then fixed; or, the temperature becomes fixed.
Binary Eutectic Alloys.
in

the compositions are selected

then

the

liquid state

solid state, a

When two metals arc soluble in all proportions but only partially soluble in each other in the eutectic will be formed between the limits of solid solubility.

binary eutectic is a finely divided mechanical mixture of two solid phases and will exhibit a definite composition and definite melting point.

Cu-Ag form

alloys of this type as

shown in

Fig. 6-3.

Consider an alloy containing 6% Cu and 94% Ag. On cooling from some temperature above the liquidus line, the first phase change will occur when the temperature reaches the liquidus line. At this point, a, alpha solid solution will start to separate, with an initial composition as shown by drawing a horizontal line until it intersects the
crystals of
b. On further cooling, the composition of the alpha change along the solidus line and the composition of the remaining melt will change along the liquidus line; with more and more alpha crystallizing out and, consequently, less and less of the melt remaining. At point c the last of the melt will crystallize and the alloy will consist

solidus line at point


will

of solid alpha.

On

further cooling to the solubility line at point d, beta

solid solution will start to precipitate

from

the alpha as the solubility of

106

Engineering Metallurgy

X
1200
108.1

1000

800

600
Solvus (or)
solubility line

Solvus
line

(or)

solubility

400
10

20

30

40
Wt.

Ao
Fig. 6.3.

50

60

70

80

90
Cu

Cu
for the

Equilibrium diagram

Ag-Cu system.

beta in alpha decreases with a decrease in temperature as shown by the

shape of the solubility

line.

Consider an alloy containing


the melt approaches the

to crystallize at the liquidus line.

20% Cu and 80% Ag. Again alpha starts On further cooling, the composition of eutectic composition. When the temperature has
remaining melt
will

dropped to the

eutectic, the

have reached the eutectic

composition. At this point, and on further extraction of heat, the melt


will crystallize isothermally to Eutectic.

Therefore, the various areas

may be

described as follows:

Area Area Area Area Area Area

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Two phases consisting of alpha plus precipitated beta. Two phases consisting of alpha plus eutectic. Two phases consisting of beta plus eutectic. Two phases consisting of beta plus precipitated alpha. A single phase consisting alpha solid solution only.
A
single phase consisting of beta solid solution only.
is

6.

Since the eutectic

a finely divided mechanical mixture of both alpha


(1, 2, 3, 4)

and

beta, the

combined area

can be designated as consisting

of alpha plus beta, but they will

be

in different physical states as described

above.

The precipitation of one solid phase from a solid solution is a very important factor in the heat treatment of alloys such as those of Al, Mg,

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

107

Atomic
10

%
40

Ca
50 60
70

20

30

60

90

Fie. 6.4.

Equilibrium digram for the Mg-Ca system.

and Gu. This type of treatment is known as "aging" or precipitation hardening and will be discussed in more detail in Section 6.8. Application of the phase rule will show why the eutectic reaction must
occur at a constant temperature.

N p + N = N + 2
f

N, N,

=2+ =
1

Again, one degree of freedom is used in fixing the pressure at one atmosphere; therefore, neither the temprature nor the composition of any of the phases can change during the course of the eutectic reaction under

equilibrium conditions.
6.8. Intermetallic

Compounds

Many alloy systems will exhibit one or more intermetallic compounds. This type of compound is generally very hard and brittle, and, under proper conditions, may impart additional strength ami hardness to an
alloy.
ally.

Therefore, intermetallic

compounds

are very important industri-

Compounds

of this type have a definite chemical formula, eg.

and have a

definite melting point


.

that shows as a

Cu s Al, maximum on the

liquidus line (Fig. G.4) This melting point may sometimes be higher than the melting point of either component. Phase diagrams of this type may be conveniently studied by considering them as two-part diagrams, i.e. the system Mg-MgXa and the system

108

Engineering Metallurgy

^=^-

7s

is is

be

the solidus line. the CuAla solubility line.

*/

<

%Cu
Fig. 6.5.

4-56
' i

Al.-rUh end

of

Cu-AI phase diagram.

Mg2 Ca-Ca.
types.
Fig.
If

]Jy this

method the diagram


the Al
rich
is

simplifies itself into

two eutectic

6.5

represents

an alloy containing

2% Cu
will

end of the Cu-AI phase diagram. heated to temperature T, and held for a
become
a

sufficient length of time, the alloy will

homogeneous
this

solid sol-

ution.

Rapid quenching

then retain the alloy in

condition at

room temperature. This is known as solution treatment. On reheating this alloy up to temperature T,, (below the solubility line be) the intermetallic compound, CuAl 2 will precipitate from the solid solution. The amount of this precipitation will depend on time, temperature, and solubility. This step in the heat-treatment is known as aging or precipitation
,

hardening.

The

physical properties of certain alloys

may be markedly changed

by the heat-treatments described above.


6.9.

The

Peritectic Reaction

may be called an inverse or fake eutectic rewherein a liquid and a solid react isothermally to form a new solid. By examining Fig. 6.6, it will be noted that alloys of Li and Mg lying between the points a & P will first contain alpha solid solution and melt after crossing the liquidus line on cooling. At the peritectic temperature all of the melt will react with some of the alpha to form the
peritectic reaction

The

action,

new
to

solid,

beta solid solution.

Between points

P and

and

at

the

Peritectic temperature all of the alpha will react

form

beta.

If

with some of the melt an alloy were chosen such that its composition was ex-

Phase Diagrams and the Simple Alloy Systems

109

40

50

60
Li

%
Fig. 6.6

Wi of

Equilibrium diagram for the Mg-Li system.

acily as

shown

at the peritectic point P, then,

on cooling

to the peritectic

temperature,

all of

the solid, alpha,

would

react with all of the melt to

form beta.
6.10. Closure
In recent years considerable progress has been
solids,

made

in

the field of
in the

and these achievements are

reflected in

no small measure

science of metallurgy as well as in other subdivisions of solid state physics.

New developments include transitors, transducers, solid rocket fuels, high temperature sealants, metal production technology, "light weight"
radiation shields,

and a host

of other innovations.
is

The
success

salient feature of the real progress in all of these fields

that

was accomplished by thorough consideration of the fundamental nature of the problem. The metallurgist of the future should be well versed in such items as quantum theory, radiation, and fundamental rheology. The physicist has helped the engineer to understand aspects of the solid state phenomena, but there is a need for further investigation by the research engineer.

110

Engineering Metallurgy

QUESTIONS
1.

to the "lever principle", would such a rule apply to a two phase region in any plane where extensive properties were used as coordinates? Assume equilibrium exists and recall that an extensive property of a multiphase system is the sum of that extensive property for all phases of the system.
It is known from thermodynamics that constant pressure boiling of a pure substance (one component) takes place at constant temperature as long as the vapor is in contact and in equilibrium with the liquid. Explain this.

With reference

2.

S.

Can

the "triple point" referred to in paragraph 6.5 ever appear as an area

4.

5.

on a plane of thermodynamic properties? Explain. During a certain experiment, pertinent to cooling a binary system, a specimen was "isolated" and observed to contain five phases, apparently coexisting. Give several conclusions and substantiate. With reference to the lever principle in paragraph 6.7, how was equilibrium
assumed or implied
in the derivation?

6.

Using the law of mass transfer as given in paragraph 6.4, derive the partial differential equation for three dimensional, unsteady state diffusion.

7.

Using the equilibrium diagram

for copper and nickel calculate the proportions of solid and liquid for an alloy containing 30% Ni. at a temperature of 2200 deg.F. What are the concentrations of each component in the liquid and the solid?

8.

Compute

the volume of a unit mass of mixture containing 80% (by mass) water vapor and 20% liquid water in equilibrium with the vapor. The pressure of the mixture is 50 pounds per square inch absolute. Reference to vapor tables will be necessary here. Was the so called "lever principle" employed in the above computation? HINT: See Problem 1 above.

9.

upon cooling
10.

For copper-silver phase equilibria discuss the transformations taking place for the following alloys: 5% copper, 20% copper, and the
alloys exhibit a characteristic such that there exists a composithat has a lower melting point than cither pure component. Show

eutectic composition.

Some binary
tion

that this point the

is a point of tangency for the liquidus and solidus. Would tangent to both curves at the above point be a horizontal line on the equilibrium diagram? Substantiate your answer.

common

1.

12.

Can water exist in more than one solid phase? Discuss. How many degrees of freedom exist for the following
(a)

situations:

(b)
(c)

A diatomic gas. A pendulum swung by A locomotive making a

an elastic and extensible cord. run between two cities on a specified

track.

Heat Treatment of Alloys


CHAPTER

by Precipitation Hardening
Harold Vincent Fairbanks, M.S., Professor of Metallurgical Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown,

W.

Va.

Arthur R.
Mechanical

Foster,

M.Eng.

Associate

Professor

of

Engineering,

Northeastern

University,

Boston, Massachusetts

X RECIPITATION
called dispersion or age hardening,
is

hardening,

sometimes

the most important

method

of

strengthening nonferrous metals through heat treatment. This treatment has been used very effectively with the light alloys of aluminum and

magnesium. It has also been applied to a number of heavy alloys of metals such as copper, iron, nickel, silver, and lead. The susceptibility

upon the manner in which component metals combine rather than upon the properties of the dominant metal.
its

of an alloy to precipitation hardening depends

The
In the

process of precipitation hardening consists essentially of two steps.

first step, an unstable condition is produced in the alloy structure through the formation of a supersaturated solid solution. This step is

called solution heat treatment


state for the alloy.

and produces

comparatively

soft,

ductile

The second step requires a certain degree of precipitation of the supersaturated phase to impart the increased hardness and strength to the metal. If this step is carried out at room temperature, the process requires several hours or days

the other hand,

if

quires

much

less

and is sometimes called age hardening. On an elevated temperature is employed, the process retime and is called the precipitation heat treatment.

7.1. Alloy

Requirements
for alloys to be heat treated
is

There are two main requirements


precipitation hardening.

by

The

first

requirement

that the solubility of the

HI

112

Engineering Metallurgy

dissolved constituent decreases with decreasing temperature.

The second requirement is that there be some coherency between the precipitating phase and the matrix phase. It is this coherency or lattice conformity between the two phases which brings about the internal crystal stresses
required for strengthening of the alloy.

Another influencing factor which governs the degree of hardening is the quantity of available material for precipitation. The slope of the solid solubility curve (solvus line) and the composition of the precipitating phase determines the

amount

of material available for precipitation.


is

The

closer the precipitating

phase

to the solid solubility curve


is

on the

phase diagram, the more the material that


ture, the larger will be the

available for precipitation.

Also, the greater the decrease in the solubility with decreasing tempera-

amount

of material available for precipitation.


either a solid solution or

The

precipitating material

may be

some

inter-

mediate phase or compound.

However, it must be remembered that a large quantity of material available for precipitation does not insure that heat treatment of the alloy by precipitation hardening is possible. In the Mg-Pb system, magnesium
can dissolve 46 percent lead
percent lead at
at

the eutectic temperature and only 2

alloy shows but little strengthening effect of precipitation hardening due to the small amount of coherency of the precipitated phase with the matrix material.

room temperature. This

7.2. Step I

7.

Solution Heat Treatment

The process of precipitation hardening is divided into two steps: first, the solution heat treatment, and second, the precipitation heat treatment.

schematic representation for the process of precipitation hardening


1

is

given in Fig.

The alloy to be solution heat treated must have a composition that meets two requirements: (1) that at an elevated temperature a solid
is formed, and (2) that the solid solution can be retained upon rapid cooling to room temperature. A typical alloy used for precipitation

solution

hardening

is

shown

as alloy

in Fig. 7.1.
(1)

The
(2)

process for solution heat treatment has two parts:

heating,

and

quenching.

In heating, the alloy is heated to a temperature above the solvus line but below the solidus line. The alloy is held at this temperature for a sufficient period of time to produce a solid solution. For some alloys the temperature range is fairly narrow between the solvus and solidus lines. It is very important not to heat above the solidus line as incipient melt-

ing of the alloy will take place destroying the dimensions of the fabricated

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening

113

PHASE

DIAGRAM

PRECIPITATION

HARDENING

Temp.

Composition
Kic. 7.1.

Tlmt

Schematic representation for the process of precipitation hardening.

Also, too high a temperature can produce excessive grain growth. the other hand, the temperature should be above the solvus line in order to take advantage of the material available lor precipitation hardening and to produce as homogeneous a solid solution as possible.
part.

On

In quenching, the heated alloy

is

cooled to room temperature rapidly


alloy at

enough
phase
is

to retain the solid solution.

The

room temperature

is

now

in a state of nonequilibrium as only the supersaturated solid solution


present.
is

The

retention of the potential precipitating phase in solid solution

the prime requirement of quenching to room temperature. It is important that the alloy be quenched as uniformly as possible as uneven quenching forms areas of high stress in the alloy which will produce
soft spots in

the subsequent hardening treatment.


first

The

stressed areas

will

harden

and then become


is

softer during the subsequent heat

treatment which

necessary for the

main body

of the material to obtain

maximum hardness.
The result of the solution heat treatment is a supersaturated solid solution condition in the alloy. The alloy in this state may be softer than in the annealed condition, but generally it is found to be harder than
the annealed state for the alloy, as shown in Fig. 7.6. However, the material after solution heat treatment is still ductile and may be cold worked.

Some alloys start to harden upon standing at room temperature. Any deformation required after solution heat treatment for these alloys should be done immediately before the hardening begins. In order to arrest this hardening action, the metal may be placed in a deep freeze which lowers
the rate of atomic diffusion due to thermal activity. This fact was

made

114
use of in the storage of

Engineering Metallurgy

aluminum rivets for assembling of airplane parts during World War II. However, most alloys are fairly stable at room temperature after solution heat treatment.
7.3.

Step

II

Precipitation Heat Treatment (Aging)

The

second step in the process of precipitation hardening brings about

the hardening

and strengthening of the


line,

alloy.

This

is

achieved by

re-

heating the unstable solution heat treated alloy to some temperature be-

low the solvus

but

sufficiently

above room temperature

to allow

mobility of the atoms held in supcrsaluration.

This precipitation temperature

is

held for a definite period of time

until the hardness of the alloy has reached the

maximum
it

or desired value,

and then the

alloy

is

either

quenched or

air cooled to

room temperature.

Once the
migrate.

alloy has reached

room temperature,

will retain the desired

properties due to the lack of mobility of the atoms in the crystals to

Attention must be paid to the proper temperature and to the time at

temperature in order to insure maximum hardness and strength. high a temperature and too long a time will cause softening of the

Too
alloy,

and the advantages of

this

method

of heat treatment will be

lost.

For some alloys the entire second step is carried out at room temperature. This is only possible when the mobility of die atoms in the alloys are sufficient at room temperature to cause the desired hardening and
strengthening of the alloy.
7.4.

Theory of Precipitation Hardening

The heat treatment of alloys by the precipitation hardening process depends upon obtaining an unstable state for the alloy by solution heat treatment, and then controlling the degree of approach toward the stable state for the alloy during the precipitation heat treatment. The maximum hardness and strength are obtained before the equilibrium or stable
state for the alloy is reached.

The

actual hardening

precipitation heat treatment step.

and strengthening of the alloy occurs during the The mechanism involved may be di(I)

vided into three stages:

the pie-precipitation stage,

(2)

the inter-

mediate precipitation stage, and (3) the equilibrium precipitate stage.* Fig. 7.2 shows sketches of the various stages in precipitation.
* For an excellent discussion on Precipitation see "Report on Precipitation" by H. K. Hardy and T. J. Heal in "Progress in Metal Physics", edited by Bruce Charles and R. King, Interscience Publishers, Inc., Vol. 5. pp. 143-278. 1954.

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening

115

ca,S?n n ,oo

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D.

ooo

oo oo

Supsrsoturot. d
solution

BOlid

Pit -precipila'e

hlttrmtdletc

precipitate

Equilibrium

prtcipitote

Fig. 7.2. Sketches showing the various stages in precipitation. matrix atoms. Filled-in circles represent solute atoms.

Open

circles represent

In the pre-precipitation stage, the solute atoms segregate along specific crystallographic planes of the matrix phase in preparation for nucleation.

These clusters of atoms are called knots or Guinier-Preston Zones, having been detected by Guinierf and Preston;}; with X-rays.
In the intermediate precipitate stage, nucleation
the resultant
is

is
is

taking place and

This new form of thin plates from 2 to 50 atoms thick and 20 to several hundred atoms long or wide. There is a lattice coherency present between the precipitated phase and the matrix phase which results in a
lattice of the precipitating

new

phase

present.

lattice

in the

highly stressed area in the matrix surrounding the intermediate precipitate.

In the third stage, the precipitate has grown to such a size that the coherency forces between the two adjacent crystal lattice systems are over-

come and

the precipitate becomes its own independent crystal entity. This relieves the major stresses in the area and softens the metal. It is during the second stage in which the intermediate precipitate is formed that maximum hardening and strengthening of the alloy occurs. This is due to the fact that a flexible dislocation cannot move easily through the regions of localized stresses. The greater the number of
these localized stresses per unit volume of material the greater is the strengthening of the metal due to the increased force required to push the dislocations through the many stress barriers.
fCuinier, A., Nature 142 (19S8) 569. j Preston, G. D., Nature 142 (1938) 570.

116

Engineering Metallurgy

solute phase

This precipitation process is one of nucleation and growth of the from a supersaturated solution. The driving forces involved for the diffusion of the solute atoms include: (1) thermal energy, (2) the

supersaturated condition of the matrix phase, and (3) stresses which were developed due to quenching in the solution heat treatment step. The nucleation throughout the alloy does not necessarily start at the same time in the alloy during the precipitation heat treatment. Therefore, it
is

the statistical average effect which

for a given temperature.


stages at the

is produced at a given time There are undoubtedly particles in all three

same

time.

Fie. 7.3.

0.02 per cent iron,

500x;

Structure of an alloy containing 3.94 per cent copper, 0.02 per cent silicon, and remainder aluminum. (A) as cast, 100x; and (B) quenched, etched. (Courtesy of Aluminum Research Laboratories)

If the

temperature of the alloy


stage cannot take place.

is

maintained

sufficiently low,
if

even

the

first

On

the other hand,


is

the temperature

for the precipitation heat treatment


prevail.
its

too high, only the third stage


alloy

may
loses

This

is

called overaging.

The

becomes

softer

and

strength. It

may become
in Fig. 7.3.

as soft as in the

annealed

state.

Photomicro-

graphs showing microstructure of an


aents are

aluminum

alloy with various treat-

shown

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening


Optimum
tamp.

117

Strength

-Tim e
Fie. 7.4. Effect of strength of the alloy.

precipitation

heat

treatment

temperature

and

time

on the

7.5.

The

Effect of

Time and Temperature During

Precipitation

Heat Treatment
carried out

Both the temperature at which the precipitation heat treatment is and the length of time at temperature are important. As the
is

temperature

increased the mobility of the atoms in the supersaturated

This means that the growth' of the unstable submicroscopic platelets in the transition phase is speeded up. This also

lattice structure increases.

means that they will attain the critical size at which they shear away from the parent alpha phase sooner. The result of this is that optimum hardness and strength are attained more quickly. This is shown in Fig.
7.4.

Increasing the time of treatment causes the growth of stable precipitated particles of the second phase with marked losses in the strength
alloy along with other changes in the properties of
Fig. 7.5.

and hardness of the the alloy as shown in


atoms
is

temperature is lowered, the diffusion of the solute impeded. In an extreme case this may mean that it is completely suppressed and no increase in hardness or strength can occur. In other cases the improvement is less than the optimum amount. The temperature which is required to prevent hardening of the solution treated metal varies with the alloy. Some aluminum alloys must be
stored at sub-zero temperatures to suppress hardening, but beryllium copper, after solution treatment, remains soft at room temperature indefinitely.

If the precipitation

Some data on hardness of 24S aluminum is included in Fig. 7.6. This graph indicates that increased temperatures will speed the rate of hardening. At 240F it shows that little overaging occurs in a week. It is

118

Engineering Metallurgy

Ten tile S trength

Propertie*

Log
Fie. 7.5.

Time
on
alloy properties-

Effect of precipitation heat treatment time

interesting to note that the furnace cooled specimen

is

much

softer

than

the solution treated material. This indicates that the alloy in the solution treated condition
soft as the

where the solid solution is maintained, is not as equilibrium structure which contains relatively large particles
is

of hard, brittle second phase. This


is still

because, in the case of 24S, the copper

in the solid solution with the

aluminum

in the solution treated

specimen. Since the atoms of copper are of a different size than those of aluminum, the movement of dislocations along the various planes in the
is impeded. This results in greater strength and hardness. Both the temperature and the length of time at the chosen temperature must be specified if satisfactory results are to be obtained in the precipitation hardening process. It may be possible to shorten the time in the heat treating furnace by raising the temperature. Care should be taken that proper temperature and time be selected from published data or, if

lattice structure

information is not available, that they be established experimentally. can be seen from Fig. 7.4 that although higher than optimum temperatures may reduce the attainable strength slightly, the shortened time may reduce the heat treating costs sufficiently to justify the slight reduction in
this
It

physical properties.

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening


80
1

119

240 F aging temp.


70

r~~

75 F aging temp.

60

f
1

/8 F

agina temp

SO

C0

4Q

20

10

Fu noce coo led to

re*

om

temp.

3 4 Time, days

Fie. 7.6. Rockwell B hardness vs. time for 24S. Solution treated 1 hour at 970 K. Furnace cooled specimen cooled very slowly. Other specimens water quenched prior

to precipitation hardening.

7.6. Precipitation

Hardening of Aluminum Alloys


of precipitation hardening with

Extensive use

is

made

many

alloys of

aluminum. Wrought

alloys

may

be strengthened by either cold work or

precipitation hardening.

The
is

latter usually results in a smaller decrease

in ductility for a similar or even greater increase in strength. In castings,

precipitation hardening

especially useful since

no cold working can be


all

performed.

The

binary phase diagrams for Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Si, and Al-Zn


rich alpha phase as the temperature decreases.

show

the characteristic decrease in the solubility of the alloying element in the

aluminum

Few com-

mercial alloys are true binary alloys, but the phase diagram for aluminum and the major alloying element usually points the way to possible successful heat treatment.

120
700

Engineering Metallurgy

SO

SO

10

Copper, per cent


Fie. 7.7.

The aluminum-copper phase

diagram:

inset,

the aluminum-rich portion.

{Dix and Richardson)

The Al-Cu phase is shown in Fig. 7.7. Wrought alloys 1 IS, 14S, 17S, and 24S all contain 4.0 to 5.5 percent copper plus minor amounts of silicon, magnesium, manganese, lead, and bismuth, while casting alloys
such
as No. 108, 112, 142, 195 and 212 contain 4 to 8 percent copper as the major alloying element. In alloys containing up to 5.5 percent copper all

the theta phase should go into solid solution with the alpha phase

on

heating to about 1000F. A casting alloy such as No. 212 containing 8 percent copper, 1.2 percent silicon, and 1 percent iron cannot dissolve all the theta phase when solution treated as the alpha phase when heated

below the eutectic temperature can hold only 5.5 percent copper. However, this alloy can be hardened just as the other Al-Cu alloys and
to just

the undissolved hard, brittle theta particles will serve to improve the machineability of the alloy. In the presence of magnesium and silicon, other intermetallic compounds which are susceptible to age hardening
as it shows hardening at each end of the diagram. The magnesium rich end of the diagram will be treated in Section 7.7. It can be seen from the phase diagram that aluminum can dissolve 16 percent magnesium at the eutectic tempera-

may be formed such as Mg,Si, AlXuMg, or AlCuMgSi. The Al-Mg phase diagram shown in Fig. 7.8 is of interest
the type of partial solubility required
for precipitation

ture of

844F and very

little at

the alpha phase alloys to


intermetallic

room temperature. On slow cooling of room temperature, the beta phase which is an

compound of Mg2 Al 3 precipitates. Casting alloy No. 220 containing 10 percent magnesium has the best physical properties of any

Heat Treatment
of the

of Alloys by Precipitation

Hardening
is

121

aluminum

base casting alloys.

Its

major disadvantage

its

poor

capability which requires special foundry techniques and inhibitors to prevent deep surface defects.

diagram shows a decreasing solubility of silicon in is lowered. However, the amount of the silicon rich beta phase which is suppressed upon solution treatment is not great enough to produce a commercially important improvement

The

Al-Si phase
as the

aluminum

temperature

in physical properties.

Silicon rich casting alloys are used extensively,

but not in the heat treated state. When silicon and magnesium are used together in an aluminum alloy, an intermetallic compound of Mg 2 Si is formed which allows effective
heat treatment.

The

solubility of this

compound

in

aluminum

increases

from 0.27 percent at 390F. to a maximum of 1.85 percent at 1100F., which is the eutectic temperature. Silicon in excess of the amount forming Mg2 Si does not affect the solubility of the compound in aluminum, but an excess of magnesium does reduce its solubility. Therefore, it is necessary to be sure no excess magnesium is present. Wrought alloy SIS (l%Si, .6%Mg, .25%Cr) is of this type. 61S is slightly more complex (.6%Si, l%Mg. .25%Cu, .2r,%Cr) in that it contains copper, which further complicates the mechanism of precipitation hardening by increasing the number of intermetallic compounds which

form.
offset

The
the

small
ill

amount

of

chromium added
is

to both alloys tends to

effects

of iron which

present as an impurity. Casting

alloys 132, 355,

and 356 are heat treatable Al-Si-Mg alloys. They have considerably higher silicon contents (5-12%) than the wrought alloys

mentioned. This improves their ratability. Although a high percentage of zinc can be dissolved in aluminum at elevated temperatures (82.8 percent at 720F. compared with 5 percent
just

show only limited response to precompounds such as MgZn2> MgZn, and AlMgZn are formed and these alloys will respond very well to precipitation hardening. The wrought alloy 75S containing 5.6 percent zinc, 2.5 percent magnesium, 1.6 percent copper, 0.3 percent chromium and 0.2 percent manganese is essentially a Zn-Mg alloy. It
cipitation hardening.

at 248F.)

alloys of these elements

With

the addition of magnesium,

develops

the

best

mechanical

properties

of

any of the commercial

aluminum

alloys.

7.7. Precipitation

Hardening of Magnesium Alloys


is

Precipitation hardening
since the close

especially useful with

magnesium base

alloys

packed hexagonal crystal lattice structure will allow only limited amounts of cold work. The major alloying elements are alu-

122

Engineering Metallurgy
Atomic Per Cent Al
10
i

20
i

30
1

40
1

50
1

60
'

70
i

80
1

90
1

"C

600

500
463"

ruA
400

*36 *
Si

./
, Mg/I,

451"

/
\

..

5
t.V

6
1II

300

fi

200

'

.1

-L
80

10

20

40

50

60

70

to

Weight Pet Cent AL

Fie. 7.8.

Aluminum magnesium
8c

phase diagram.*

By permission from Structure Hill Book Company, Inc., 1949.

Properties of Alloys, Brick

&

Phillips,

McGraw-

minum, zinc and manganese. The manganese strengthens the alloys by going into solid solution with the magnesium while both the aluminum and the zinc show the decreasing solubility required for successful precipitation hardening. Fig. 7.8 shows that 12.6 percent aluminum is
soluble in

magnesium
is

at the eutectic

temperature of 815F. while

less

room temperature. Zinc shows virtually no solubility in magnesium at room temperature and has a maximum of 8.4 percent at 646F. The precipitating phase is an intermetallic compound MgZn. Many alloys contain substantial amounts of both aluminum and zinc
than 2 percent
soluble at
so that a ternary

diagram

is

necessary to

these alloys.

The change
7.9.

in solid solubility

show the phase relationships in and the identity of the phase

is suppressed by solution treatment is diagram, it can be seen that casting alloy C containing 9 percent aluminum, 2 percent zinc, and 0.2 percent manganese should precipitate only Mgi 7 Al 12> but alloy H containing 6 percent aluminum, 3 percent zinc, and 0.2 percent manganese also precipitates some Mg3 Zn 2 Al 8 These are the two most commonly used casting alloys. Solution treatment not only improves the strength of the alloys but also

or phases in which precipitation


indicated in Fig.

On

this

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening

123

%i<\

Fig. 7.9. Section of ternary diagram for Mg-Al-Zn system. Isothermal lines show the limits of solid solubility at the various temperature levels. To the left of the

dashed line the structure consists of solid solution and MgAl. The solid dot shown on the diagram represents the composition of Alloy C which shows this type of microstructure. To the right of the dashed line the structure will consist of solid solution, Mg1T Al M and Mg37.njAlj. Alloy H whose composition is represented by the small circle on the diagram is an alloy of this type.*
,

improves the ductility considerably, because the


eutectic

brittle

interdendritic

compounds

are dissolved.

The

precipitation treatment reduces

most applications. It causes a marked change in tensile strength. Of the wrought alloys only 0-1 containing 8.5 percent aluminum, 0.5 percent zinc, and 0.2 percent manganese, and ZK-60 containing 5 percent zinc, 0.7 percent zirconium have enough alloy content to be effectively precipitation hardened. Extrusions and forgings are usually worked at high enough temperatures and cool fast enough in the atmosphere to be effectively solution treated. Thus, they need only to be precipitation hardened after fabrication is completed.
for

the ductility, but leaves

enough

increase in yield strength with

little

The precipitation of a second phase with its different crystal lattice dimensions results in the growth of the piece during precipitation hardening. If such dimensional instability cannot be tolerated at the service

Busk and Miranda Trans. AIME.

IG6. 346. 1946.

124

Engineering Metallurgy
is

temperature, a stabilization heat treatment


sists

required.

Stabilizing conprecipiof

of heating to a temperature

somewhat higher than the usual


to

tation

hardening temperature

allow

partial
is

precipitation

the

second phase.

The

degree of transformation

greater than will occur at


is

no further tendency for This is essentially ovei aging and causes some loss in physical properties. This type of heat treatment may be applied to other precipitation hardening alloys as well as the magnesium base alloys discussed here.
the service temperature, and, therefore, there
is

precipitation while the part

in use.

C
5,

10

Atomic Percentage 15 SO IS 30

Beryllium 40 35

1000

(600

700
1200

600
-

1000

500

300, Co

B 3 Weight

10

Percentage

Beryllium

Fig. 7.10.

Copper-rich

portion

ot

the

copper-beryllium

phase

diagram.

(H.

F.

Silliman)

7.8. Precipitation

Hardening of Copper Base Alloys

is not used as extensively with copper base with the aluminum and magnesium alloys, but there are several alloys with which it may be used very effectively. Commercial beryllium-copper alloys contain from to 2-\/ A percent beryllium plus \/ percent nickel inhibit excessive grain growth at the to A solution treatment temperatures. The phase diagram shown in Fig. 7.10 indicates a maximum solubility of 2.1 percent beryllium at 1590T. The figures given in Table 7.1 indicate that precipitation heat treatment is extremely effective with these alloys and that when combined with cold

Precipitation hardening
it is

alloys as

Heat Treatment

of Alloys

by Precipitation Hardening

125

working, tensile strengths approaching 200,000 psi may be obtained. The usual heat treating cycle consists of solution treatment at 1450F.
followed by a water quench and reheating to 480 to 620F. for 2 to 3 hours. The high strength, corrosion resistance, and fatigue resistance of
these alloys

recommend

their use for springs, diaphragms,

and non-spark-

ing tools.

Moncl metal which contains 67 percent nickel and 30 percent copper amounts of iron and manganese forms a single homogeneous solid solution as do all the alloys in the binary Cu-Ni series. However, if 3 percent aluminum is added producing K-Monel or 4 percent silicon
plus small
is

added producing S-Monel, the metal

is

responsive to precipitation

hardening.

Tin bronzes show little tendency towards precipitation hardening although the phase diagram indicates that it is possible. The low temperatures at which the alpha phase becomes unstable which is 570F.
and 95 percent copper prevents any appreciable preThe addition of up to 8 percent nickel, however, promotes the precipitation of a Ni-Sn rich constituent which improves the physical properties considerably beyond those of the ordinary tin bronzes. The data in Table 7.2 indicates the effectiveness of precipitation hardening on a commercial alloy of this type.
for 5 percent tin

cipitation of the delta phase.

7.9.

Precipitation Hardening in

Low Carbon

Steel

In Chapter 12 where the fundamental structure of carbon steels will be is defined as alpha iron holding in solution small amounts of silicon, phosphorus, carbon, and other elements. Of the elements which may be in solution in very small quantities in alpha iron, three: carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen can, under suitable conditions, cause
discussed, ferrite

precipitation hardening.

Fig. 7.11 shows the approximate solubility of these in iron. It will be noted that the slope of these curves resembles the slope of the solubility curves of the other alloy systems discussed in this chapter.

mon

Precipitation hardening in carbon steel is a phenomenon that is comonly in the low carbon grades. Since these steels are used rarely in the quenched conditions, precipitation hardening due to iron carbide or

iron nitride retained in solution by quenching, followed by slow spontaneous precipitation at room temperature or more rapid precipitation at slightly elevated temperature is seldom encountered. It is, however,
possible, by quenching a steel containing 0.04 to and by precipitation treatment at 140F. for 10 to

0.10 percent carbon


15 hr. to increase the

Brinell hardness from 120 to 160.

126

Engineering Metallurgy
Oxygen, percent

.K .04
irJBOO

.os .on

.to

%
*IS00
D

\.a*i SolidSol. \l x4
1

V soo
'

k.
SB

i^
,

a Sum'
|

/
1
i

>
w
j*

g-

Solution
|

BOO
400
j

a: Soiio Solution
1

"^jC

aOMM
.05
./<?

A
.
.>

B
.01

e
.02.05

Carbon,

per cent

Nitrogen, per cent

Fig. 7.11. Iron-rich portions of the (A) iron-carbon, (15) iron-oxygen, and (C) ironnitrogen phase diagrams, showing changes in solubility of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen with temperature. (Epstein)

7.10. Strain Aging and Its Consequences in

Low Carbon

Steel

There
steels

is

another variety of precipitation hardening in low carbon


as strain aging.
If steels

known

susceptible to aging are strained by

cold working, a hardening constituent, probably iron carbide, iron oxide, or iron nitride, precipitates during straining and for some time afterward.

This

is

accompanied by increased hardness and strength and by de-

The effect of the precipitation can be detected by cold working a rimming steel and a deoxidized steel of the same composition and by testing a sample of each immediately and at intervals of several weeks or months. Strain aging frequently has undesirable consequences. Low carbon sheet for automobile bodies and fenders are given a light final cold working after hot rolling to prevent stretcher strains. This produces conditions ideal for precipitation of the hardening constituent. Unless the sheet is deep drawn immediately, the loss of ductility may be so great that the steel will not withstand the drawing operation successfully. Strain aging has been known to cause failures in boiler plate in the strained areas around rivet holes.
creased impact resistance.

7.11. Precipitation

Hardening
of

in Alloy Steels
alloy steels, only those con-

Of

the large
1

number

common low

taining about

percent copper are subject to precipitation hardening.

The
at

solubility of copper in alpha iron increases


to 1.4 percent at

from about

0.4 percent
steels

room temperature
1.5

1525F.

Low

carbon

con-

taining 0.7 to

percent copper can be hardened by a heat treatment

sists

causing precipitation of the hardening cons titu tent. This treatment conof heating to If>50F., cooling to room temperature, and reheating

Heat Treatment of Alloys by Precipitation Hardening


for 3 or 4 hr. at 930F.

127

Precipitation hardening increases the tensile


is

strength

and

yield strength about 20,000 psi. Ductility

decreased, but

the precipitation hardened copper steels are not brittle. of investigations have been concerned with the precipitahardening of highly alloyed steels which contain 2 or 3 percent titanium and also with stainless steels containing tungsten.
tion

number

Table 7.1 Typical Properties 0.25% Co (or 0.35% Ni).*

of Beryllium-Copper Alloy 0.032" Thick Strip

2% Be,

Condition

Tensile Strength
(psi)

Yield Strength
(psi)

Elongation

Rockwell Hardness

(%)
50
5

Number
B 60

Solution treated Precipitation hardened Solution treated and cold rolled

72,000 175,000
107,000

25,000 80,000 70,000

41

37.1%
Solution treated cold rolled 37.1 %and precipitation hardened
* Metals

B 97.5

195,000
p. 934.

110,000

42.5

Handbook, 1948 Edition,


Properties of

Table

7.2

Type

Ni-Vee Bronze (88% Cu,

5%

Ni,

5%

Sn,

2%

Zn)

Property
Tensile Strength, psi Yield Strength, psi Percent Elongation
Brinell
*

As Cast
50,000 22,000
40 85

Heat Treated*
85,000 55, 000 10
180

Hardness

Number
at 1400F., water

Heated 6-10 hours

quenched, and reheated 6-10 hours at 500F.

Courtesy of the International Nickel Co., Inc.

QUESTIONS
1.

2.

Define precipitation hardening. Why is it sometimes called age hardening? Discuss the characteristics that an alloy must possess to be precipitation

hardened.
3.

4.

Discuss what happens if too high a temperature is used during: (a) the solution treatment, (b) the precipitation heat treatment. Discuss what happens if the alloy is held for too long a time at temperature during: (a) the solution treatment, (b) the precipitation heat treatment. Discuss the constitutional changes

5.

which take place during precipitation

hardening.

128
6.

Engineering Metallurgy

How

does precipitation hardening


(a) tensile strength,

effect

an alloy

in

properties:

(b) yield strength,

(c)

regard to the following hardness, (d) elonga-

7.

tion, (e) electrical resistance, and (f) corrosion resistance. Discuss the effect of precipitation hardening on the movement of dislocations within the metal.

8.

9.

Explain why alloys arc sometimes precipitation hardened at temperatures higher than the temperature at which optimum strength occurs. Explain why wrought magnesium alloys may be precipitation hardened directly after fabrication without a formal solution treatment?

10.

What
use
is

is

meant

by:

(a)

overaging,

(b) strain aging,

(c)

stabilizing?

What

made

of each?

11.

If

an alloy were to contain 4% aluminum, 2% zinc and 94% magnesium, what phases would be present in the slowly cooled state at room temperature?

12.

What

alloying element

added

to

the following materials will


(a) tin

make them
(c)

susceptible to precipitation hardening?


alloy steel.
13.

bronze,

(b)

monel,

low

14.

whose solubility in aluminum decreases with temperathem be used effectively as binary precipitation hardening alloys with aluminum? Why is a moderate amount of Mg used with the major alloying element Zn
List four elements
ture.

Can

all

of

in
15.

75S?
alloying clement produces the strongest commercial casting alloy of
is its

What What
to
Is

aluminum? What
16.

major drawback?

three alloying elements present in a plain carbon steel

may

cause

it

17. 18.

respond to precipitation hardening? precipitation hardening used extensively with low carbon

steels?

Explain.

List

some

practical applications for precipitation hardening.

Light Alloys as

Engineering Materials
CHAPTER

8
Francis Wii.uam Brown, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, New York

8.1. History of

Aluminum

ALUMINUM
Danish
scientist

was

first

made

in

1825

by

named Oersted by means

of a reaction between

aluminum
metal

chloride with a potassium-mercury amalgam. In 1845 Henri Sainte-Claire Devilie produced globules of aluminum meta] by heating sodium

method was improved by using cryolite as the flux. The very nature of these raw materials indicates the large amounts of energy that are required to make aluminum and why this metal under these processing conditions was very costly. Aluminum was produced by Charles M. Hall, in 1886, by the electrolytic decomposichloride; later this

with anhydrous

aluminum

aluminum oxide (alumina) dissolved in molten This process has continued since 1886 to the present as the only economical process for the manufacture of aluminum. The first major industrial demand for aluminum was in the aircraft field because of aluminum's unusual combination of lightness and strength. The discovery of the aluminum-copper alloy duralumin and its heat treatment by Wilm in Germany stimulated the use of aluminum. Wilm's early work was done in connection with Zeppelin's development of the dirigible. Prior to the First World War, the Aluminum Company of America supplied the U. S. Navy with duralumin sheet for the Navy's dirigible. The aircraft industry was primarily interested in the strengthtion
cryolite.

of anhydrous

weight ratio of the high-strength aluminum alloys; whereas, most other industries were concerned primarily with the cost. It was only about twenty-five years ago that these alloys were considered seriously for automobile, truck, and bus construction and for railroad rolling stock;
their

consideration for bridge and building construction

is

even more recent.

129

130
8.2.

Engineering Metallurgy

Economics of the Aluminum Industry


,

For about thirty years after aluminum metal was first produced (1825) was a laboratory curiosity worth about $100 per pound. In 1857, Sainte-Claire Deville, as the result of research supported by Napoleon III, succeeded in bringing the price down to S25; two years later, to $17 per pound. Despite the fact that alumina was a very abundant oxide and could be produced economically in pure form, cheap aluminum was impossible because of the high cost of metallic sodium and the aluminum chloride. By 1886, the cost price of aluminum was reduced to $8 per
it

pound,

still

too high for

common
down

use.

The

electrolytic reduction process

1886 brought the price

to $1 per pound.

developed by Charles M. Hall in In 1943, the price for

aluminum
arise here

ingots reached $.15 per pound.


is,

question that might readily


steel

"can this cost be cut drastically so that aluminum and


basis?"

are

on an equal price
less

In 1893,

than 100 tons were produced in the United

States; ten

years later domestic annual production increased to 3,000 tons. In 1915,

world production was 85,000 metric tons; in 1939 this had increased to 675,000 tons, of which the United States and Germany each were responsible for 175,000 to 200,000 tons. The peak world production of aluminum during the Second World War, in 1943 was 2,176,000 net tons, of which considerably more than half was produced in the United States.

This country's consumption of aluminum in 1952 was distributed over


the following
fields:

32%

Transportation

10% Consumer

15% Building Construction 14% Miscellaneous 13% Electrical


It is

6% 6% 4%

Durables Chemical Uses Machinery & Equipment Packaging

interesting to note that, despite the fact that during the

war

aluminum expanded very much more than iron and steel, the total production of primary aluminum in the United States for the year 1943 was approximately equivalent to the average amount of steel
the output of
ingots produced in 3

great difference in production

working days during the same year. Reasons for this and cost may be deduced by comparing

the properties of the high grade ores of each of these metals.

Aluminum

Iron

Name b Source

of

Main

U. S. Ore

Bauxite (Arkansas)
Cryolite

Hematite (Minn.)

Secondary ore Combined water <%) Combined metal (%) Density of ore

(Greenland)

25% 32%
2.55

None None

50%
4.90

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

131

The

transportation costs for the

aluminum

greater distances involved

and

their higher

ores are higher due to the bulking values. The aluminum

2.3); this

ores have specific gravity values near to that of the siliceous gangue (2.2 means gravity concentration of the ore is difficult. The ship-

ping costs of bauxite are decreased by calcination of the bauxite to remove water and other volatile matter. The lower percentage of aluminum in
the ore is another factor that leads to higher processing costs. A comparison of the Hall Process and the Blast Furnace Process will further bring out the comparative economics of these two commercial metals. A com-

parison of the costs of aluminum and steel should be made on the basis of the finished article and not on the relative price per pound of ingot metal. Because the specific gravity of aluminum is approximately onethird that of steel, less aluminum by weight will be used. In addition there are economies that result from the unique combination of the properties of aluminum, namely, ease of fabrication, (1)

machinability,
costs, (5)

(3)

low

cost

good (2) good surface color and polish, (4) low maintenance of distribution, and (6) high scrap value.

8.3.

Aluminum Ores

Occurrence and Concentration

Although aluminum occurs in nature in a higher percentage than iron, the major share exists in the form of clay. Bauxite, the principal ore of alummum, consists of a mixture of the mono- and tri-hydrate of aluminum oxide. Bauxite has been formed in nature by the weathering of clay; bauxite deposits are found primarily in warm countries because high
temperatures and rainfall accelerate this hydrolytic degradation of the The main source of supply of high grade ore (50-65% alumina) in this country is from Arkansas; in South America it is found in the Guianas. The impurities in bauxite ore are the oxides of iron, silicon,
clay.

and titanium. Since


it is

these impurities are difficult to separate physically, evident that high-grade deposits are very desirable. Aluminum is more chemically reactive than iron and silicon; therefore
is

it

difficult

and

costly

to

remove these undesirable impurities from

the crude metal.


process is the most commonly used process for the concenand purification of bauxite. The fundamental principle involved in this process is "that alumina differs from these other oxides in being amphoteric, i.e., weakly acidic and basic." Alumina will dissolve in hot
tration

The Bayer

concentrated alkali but


process are as follows:

is

insoluble in cold dilute alkali.

The

steps in this

high-grade bauxite is finely ground; (2) ore is digested with hot, concentrated sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) to form the soluble sodium aluminate; (3) the insoluble (red mud) oxides
(1)

132

Engineering Metallurgy
off; (4)

of iron, silicon, and titanium are filtered


ate
is

the hot

sodium aluminit is

diluted with water, seeded with crystals of alumina hydrate, and


(5)

allowed to cool;

pure hydrated alumina


(6)

settles out;

filtered off

and calcined to form alumina, tion and used over again.


8.4.

the filtrate is

concentrated by evapora-

Manufacture of Aluminum

The electrolytic reduction process for the manufacture of aluminum is dependent on the fact that anhydrous alumina dissolves in molten cryolite to give an ionic solution of high electrical conductivity. The passage of direct current through this molten electrolyte deposits aluminum at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. Since iron and silicon are objectionable impurities, the iron cell must be properly lined with a material of high purity and of a conducting nature so as to function as the cathode. The anodes must likewise have similar properties. Ordinary carbon fulfills
the conductivity requirement but not the purity one.

The

lining of the cell

and the anodes are made from fabricated parts of petroleum coke. The oxygen formed at the anode combines with the carbon to form carbon dioxide gas; therefore, the cost of these electrodes is an important economic factor. When metals are manufactured by an electrolytic process, the weights
of the metals deposited are proportional to their equivalent weights.

The

ratio of weights of

some common
31.8.
It is

industrial metals deposited

by the

same amount
12.1, iron 18.6

of current vary in order listed:

aluminum

and copper

evident that

magnesium the economical manu9,

facture of

energy.

aluminum Aluminum plants


relative

necessitates large

amounts

of low cost electrical

are therefore located near hydroelectric plants.

A measure of the
is

manufacturing problems of iron and aluminum

indicated by the listed data.

Aluminum
(Hall process)

Iron
(Blast furnace)

Type

of operating unit

Capacity of unit, per day

Lining of unit

Small, semi-batch 1000 lbs. Petroleum coke

large, continuous

700-1500 tons Refractory bricks


IfiOO'C
.63
II).

Temperature of operation Weight of metal per lb. ore Weight of carbon per lb. metal.
Value of gaseous by-product Agent used to remove impurities.
Electrical
lb.
.

lOOO'C 50 lb.
. .

.75 lb.

8"i ll>.

none
Caustic Soda (Bayer Process)

85 Btu/cu. ft. Air, iron oxide

Energy Requirements per 12 metal Energy requirements ratio


(theory)

KWHr.
1

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

133

The aluminum mum) aluminum,


The
cell

produced by the Hall process

consists of

99%

(mini-

the major impurities being iron and silicon.

Aluminum

of high purity (99.99%)

may be obtained by

an electro-refining process.

used in the Hoopes process consists of three molten layers, the bottom anodic layer of crude aluminum-copper alloy, the intermediate
layer of
salts,

and the top cathodic


Properties of

layer of pure

aluminum.

8.5. Physical

Aluminum
its

low

The most generally recognized physical characteristic of aluminum is density. The lightest metal, magnesium, is two-thirds as dense
(sp. gr. 2.70);

as

aluminum

whereas, iron and

steel are three

times as dense.

The

density of most aluminum alloys range 2.70-2.80, which means that aluminum and its alloys roughly weighs .1 lb. per cubic inch. The low density of aluminum can be attributed to its low atomic weight (27)

and

its

great chemical reactivity. These two properties in addition gener-

ally indicate

heat, high heat of fusion,

such thermal properties as low melting point, high specific and high coefficient of thermal expansion.

The melting point (1220T.) and heat of fusion (94.6 cal.) are slightly higher than corresponding properties of pure magnesium. Its very high specific heat and its linear coefficient of thermal expansion are second
to

magnesium. The high

solidification shrinkage

(6.6%)

as well as its

"hot shortness"

make

the casting of pure

aluminum

rather unsatisfactory.

The electrical conductivity of metals, in decreasing order, are silver, copper, gold, and aluminum. Pure aluminum has 64% of the electrical conductivity of copper on an equal-volume basis but has a 212% value on an equal-weight basis. It is therefore the best commercial electrical
conductor on the
latter basis.

The
basis.

best thermal conductors, in decreasing


is

order, are silver, copper, gold,

and aluminum; aluminum

the best

conductor on an equal-weight

This parallelism between


pressed by the
to

electrical and thermal conductivity is exWiedemann-Franz law. Another relationship that appears be indicated is that these two physical properties are related to crystal
all

structure since
line structure.

four of these listed metals have a face-centered crystal-

The low density and


erties of

melting point of aluminum are related to its propbeing soft (Brinnell Value 16) and relatively low tensile strength

(8,500 psi).

In view of
erties of

its

low melting point and "hot shortness," the

tensile prop-

aluminum rapidly aluminum and many of its

decrease with a rise of temperature; therefore,


alloys are not well suited to elevated tempera-

134
ture applications.

Engineering Metallurgy

Aluminum and

all

of

its

alloys

become stronger and


it
is

tougher at subnormal temperatures.

Aluminum

is

a very malleable and ductile metal; in fact,

second

best of the commercial structural metals. These properties are related to its face-centered cubic crystalline structure, for we note that copper,

and gold are very malleable and ductile and have face-centered cubic structure. Under standard testing conditions, pure aluminum will
silver

stretch 60 per cent of

its

length before breaking.


strength,

high ductility, malleability, and

adapted

to

working by most methods of

With the combination of aluminum and its alloys are forming and fabrication.

high degree of plasticity and relative chemical inertness to normal conditions, aluminum can be easily finished to a high polish. The brilliance of aluminum paint is due to the high reflectivity of the

Due

to the

finely

divided

flat flakes.

Aluminum is an excellent reflector of radiant energy of all wave lengths. The high durability of aluminum paint is largely due to the efficient reflection of the ultraviolet rays;

ultraviolet rays destroy the oil film in

paints and lead to loss of adhesion.


reflectors of the

most modern

telescopes.

Aluminum is used as thin films on the Aluminum foil is important in


its

the thermal insulation field because of


radiation.

high

reflectivity of infrared

Three important requirements

of a

molten metal for

satisfactory casting

arc low surface tension, high fluidity,

and

relative chemical inertness.

is

Molten aluminum has a surface tension of 520 dynes per centimeter which one third that of molten iron, both at their respective melting temperatures. Pure molten aluminum has a fluidity 50 per cent that of molten tin; the normal impurities of commercial aluminum increase this value to 70 per cent. Molten aluminum is protected from oxidation by a thin oxide film; excessive agitation must be avoided to prevent the removal of this oxide film. Two other properties of molten aluminum contribute to its poor castability, first its reactivity with moisture to form aluminum oxide and hydrogen, second the high selective solvency for hydrogen gas
which leads to high-porosity
cast metal.

8.6.

Chemical Properties of Aluminum


very high solution potential of

The

aluminum demonstrates

that

it is

the second most chemically active structural metal. In spite of this great activity, aluminum offers great resistance to normal weathering. This
relative inertness

can be attributed to the presence of a thin protective and adhering oxide film. Other outstanding features of this oxide film

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


are
its

135
itself,

its electrical

chemical inertness, water insolubility, ability to and thermal insulation properties.


chemical inertness of this film
is

mend

and

The
dilute

indicated by fact that

aluminum

tanks are used for storage and shipment of concentrated acetic acid,

and concentrated
the oxide film,
is

When
serts

itself;

nitric acid, and strong hydrogen peroxide. removed, the active nature of the metal asfor example, caustic soda and strongly alkaline solutions

readily attack

aluminum.

When

alkaline degreasing solutions are used to


is

clean aluminum, a corrosion inhibitor such as silicate of soda

added.

Aluminum

in contact

with mercury or

its salts will

show

accelerated cor-

rosion due to the removal of the oxide film.

In the melting of aluminum and subsequent handling operations, precautions should be taken to avoid, as much as practicable, contact with moisture, water vapor, or other materials that will react with aluminum

The amount of dissolved gas can be kept at a low low temperature, short operating time, minimum agitation, and low absolute humidity of the atmosphere.
to

form hydrogen

gas.

amount by using

The

great affinity of

the steel industry.

aluminum for oxygen is illustrated in its use in The amount of aluminum required for the deoxidation
is

of molten iron and steel


are used, the excess

usually less than

lb.

per ton.

When
it

1-1 1/ lbs. 2

aluminum

functions in another manner:


steel.

leads to

the subsequent formation of a fine-grained

similar deoxidation reaction is involved in the thermite welding and repairing of large ferrous alloy sections, railway and street car rails,
etc.

Thermite
It is

consists of a

scale.

ignited by

means

of flashlight

mixture of granulated aluminum and mill powder or another primer, which

aluminum, followed by a violent reaction form aluminum oxide and molten iron. The excessively high temperature (4500F.) is due to the great heat of reaction, the low specific heat of iron, and the absence of any volatile product. A modified thermite releads to localized melting of the
to

action

is often used in the manufacture of pure high-melting metals as vanadium, chromium, molybdenum, and manganese. Atmospheric nitrogen is a very inert gas but will react with aluminum and chromium, at elevated temperatures, to form metallic nitrides. The presence of .851.2% aluminum in the nitralloy steel plays an important role when being surface hardened by nitriding. The stainless steels and

other
8.7.

chromium

alloy steels

do not require aluminum

for this purpose.

Aluminum

Alloys
alloying elements used in the manufacture of

The important

aluminum

alloys are copper,

manganese, magnesium,

zinc, nickel,

chromium, and

136
silicon.

Engineering Metallurgy
In special purpose alloys the elements titanium,
tin, lead,

and

bismuth are intentionally added. For example, lead and bismuth are added to the extent of .5% each in the free machining alloy; those metals
are insoluble
in

aluminum and

are

therefore

present

as

colloidal

dispersion which functions as a lubricant.

The

total alloy

7% and 16%

content of the wrought and casting alloys are usually maximum, respectively. The three main important strength-

giving elements in the wrought and cast alloys respectively are coppermagnesium-manganese and copper-magnesium-silicon. Silicon also plays
a very important role in the castability of alloys.

The

individual alloys are designated by numbers, the wrought alloys as

a four digit

Two
Zn)
;

number, and the cast alloys as a two- or three-digit number. high-strength wrought alloys are 5056 (5% Mg) and the 7075 (5%
the alloys that have excellent castability are 43, 355, 356.
are two classes of

wrought aluminum alloys: (1) alloys that are not heat treated and that owe their properties to strain hardening by cold work, (2) alloys whose strength may be improved by heat treatment and whose properties may be altered still more by cold deformation.

There

8.8.

The Wrought

Alloys

The

various tempers of commercial wrought

aluminum

alloys until
letters.

recently have been designated

by a system of numbers and

The

new temper designation consists of a letter indicating the basic temper which may be more specifically defined by the addition of one or more digits. The letter F means "as fabricated," O "annealed, recrystallized,"
and

H"strain

give a detailed

meaning

hardened." The latter as per follows:

may be

modified by numbers to

Strain hardened Strain hardened


digits.

only HI, plus one or more digits. and then partially annealed 112, plus one or more

Strain hardened

and then stabilized-H3, plus one or more

digits.

In dealing with the heat-treatable type of alloys, the letter following the alloy number signifies that it has been hardened by solution treatment. The specific combination of basic operations is indicated by a number:

6061-T5 means
and

artificially aged.

that alloy 60G1 has been hardened by heat treatment The various basic operations are as follows:
(cast

T2 T3

Annealed

products only).

Solution heat treated


condition.

T4 T5

and then cold worked. Solution heat treated and naturally aged to substantially stable
Artificially

aged only.

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


Table
I

137

8.1 Temper Designations for hat Arc Not Heat Treatable (*)

Strain

Hardened Wrought Aluminum Alloys

New Temper Designation({)


Strain

Old Temper Dest^iahon

Strain

Hardened
only

Hardened and then


Annealed

Strain

Hardened and then

Partially

Stabilized

(Alloys 1100
14
'/2

and 3003)

H H

*A

-H12 -H14 -H16 -H18 -H19

-H22 _H24 -H26 -H28

Extra Hard (Not Standard)

(Alloys 3004, 5052, 5056J)

#{J % H

^
Extra Hard (Not Standard)
Alloys listed also available in and F tempers, are standard for the alloys listed. (t) The alloys 3004, 5052 and 5056 may also be obtained in the Conditions.
( )

-HS2 -H34 -H36

H39 -O

(t)

The tempers shown

-HI and -H2 type '~

T6

T7 T8 W

Solution heat treated and then artificially aged. Solution heat treated, then stabilized. Solution heat treated, cold worked and then artificially aged.

-T9 Solution heat treated, artificially aged and T10 Artificially aged and then cold worked.
Solution heat treated-unstable temper.

then cold worked.

In Tables 8.2 and 8.3 there are listed the important wrought alloys in order of their increasing tensile properties, together with other important physical properties. The number of alloying elements and total alloy percentage for the nonheat-treatable are less than the heat-treatable alloys. principal characteristic of the wrought alloys, especially the heatis their high strength-weight ratio. The typical mechanical properties of the annealed and fully hardened alloys are listed
treatable type,
in

The

Tables

These properties are applicable to room temperature but are satisfactory for the range from about 0 to 150F. All of the aluminum alloys become stronger and tougher at subnormal temperatures. Due
8.2
8.3.

and

to the fairly

rapid decrease in tensile properties, and sometimes the de-

138
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Engineering Metallurgy
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2024

2014

H<

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

139
all

velopment of hot shortness and/or excessive oxidation,


alloys are not well suited for high

aluminum

temperature application.
alloys (500-kg. load,

The

Brinell hardness of the

wrought

varies from approximately 30 to

10-mm. ball) 85 for untreated alloys and from 30 to

120 for the heat-treated material, depending upon the temper. Even the

aluminum alloys are much softer than the softest steels. Endurance limits (based on 500 million cycles) are low; the endurance ratio is highest for the annealed alloys and is only about 0.25 for heat-treaied high-strength sections. It is characteristic of the annealed alloys that the endurance limit is higher than the yield strength.
hardest

The modulus of elasticity for tension or compression, measured in kips per square inch, ranges from 10,000-10,600, except wherein the high
(12%) increases it to 11,400. The values for the annealed and hardened form of a particular alloy is the same. The modulus of elasticity for shear, measured in kips per square inch, ranges from 3, 800-4000, the high silicon alloy value being 4300.
silicon

The thermal and electrical conductivity of the wrought alloys are less than the pure metal, the higher the alloy content the greater the lowering. An annealed alloy has higher values than the strain hardened and/or
heat-treated
alloy.
at

The

thermal coefficient of expansion per degree

room temperature is almost the same for most wrought alloy varying from 124-135 x 10", the only marked exception being when very high silicon (12%) is present, when the value is 108 x 10-7 The cold
Fahrenheit
.

working of alloys does not appreciably change these values; whereas, heat treatment makes an increase of several per cent.

The

resistance to corrosion of

aluminum

alloys

is

usually very

satis-

factory, the strain-hardening type alloys being generally superior to the

heat-treatable type.

The

presence of relatively large amounts of coppcr

or zinc reduces the over-all resistance to surface attack. The resistance to high temperature oxidation is best insured by the presence of the
alloying element nickel.

Maximum resistance to corrosion of the heat-treatable alloys is dependent on the solution heat treatment being followed by a very rapid quench; therefore, thick sections arc not as resistant as thin sections due
to their slower rate of quench.
Artificial

aging usually

effects a

marked

improvement

in resistance to corrosion.

Some sheets, plates, and tubes arc produced with a surface coating of pure or low-alloy aluminum that are metallurgically bonded to the core during hot working. These coatings offer electrolytic protection to the
core against corrosion.

This protection includes cut edges and areas where the coating may be scratched or abraded.

140
8.9.

Engineering Metallurgy

Aluminum

Casting Alloys

The

casting alloys are designated by a


is

number

of

some instances the number


variation
in composition.

preceded by a

letter,

two or three digits. In which indicates a slight

For example, the three casting alloys 214,

B214, and F214 contain 3.8% magnesium but differ in the silicon content. Casting alloys may be of two types: (1) the nonheat-trcatable alloys, and
(2) the heat-treatable alloys. The condition of heat treatment is designed by appending some symbol, as 195-T4. The elements used in aluminum casting alloys are primarily copper, silicon, and magnesium. The minor alloying elements are zinc, nickel, manganese, iron, and tin. The requirements for the sand, permanent mold, and die castings arc not necessarily the same, although many of the

alloys are used for

both sand and


is

die.
all

The 5%

binary silicon alloy

is

the

only listed alloy that

used for

three types of castings.

Aluminum finds little use in the production of castings because of its low strength and inferior casting qualities. Two exceptions are the induction motor rotors and cable clamps, which require the higher electrical
conductivity of aluminum.

The commercial
ties

casting

aluminum

alloys

and

their important proper-

are listed in Table 8.4. Note that the total percentage of alloying ele-

ments is generally greater than that of the wrought alloys. Some of the important characteristic properties of molten casting alloys such as good
fluidity,

a high percentage of alloying elements.


fication leads to

low surface tension, and low pouring temperature necessitate The low temperature of solidi-

low gas solubility and porosity, and


(1)

fine grain structure.

The important
die casting are
tendencies,

casting characteristics for a sand

and
(2)

freedom from hot shortness,

a permanent low shrinkage

and (3) pressure lightness. Low gas absorption is a very important property for a sand-casting alloy. A die-casting alloy should have freedom from hot shortness and mold-filling capacity.
scores of

and shape can be made from aluminum alloys, each having unique properties or foundry characteristics. Where only a few castings are required, or where the castSand
castings of almost unlimited size

ing

is

relatively large,

sand castings are indicated.

On

the other hand,


if a

when

large

numbers of

relatively small parts are required, or

smooth

surface

permanentmold or die castings are to be preferred. Some typical permanent-mold castings are shown in Table 8.4. The method of casting, too, affects the properties to be expected from a given composition, permanent-mold and die castings usually having a somewhat higher strength than sand castings.
desired,

and a minimum amount of machining are

In general,

when

the

number and

the size of the castings to be

made would

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


justify the use of

141

any of the three methods, die castings are the cheapest and can be cast to the closest tolerances, while sand castings will cost the most and will require the broadest tolerances.

A comparison of the mechanical and tensile properties of the sand permanent mold, and die castings is best made by listing the typical
values for alloys 43.
Permanent
Sand
Tensile strength Tensile yield strength Elongation (% in 2")
19,000

Mold
2 3000 9 000
'

r)ie

30,000 16,000

8,000

8
9,000
10

Compressive yield strength Brinell hardness Shearing strength

10
9,000

45
16,000
19,000

14,000

Although the casting alloys have a greater alloy content than the wrought, the improvement as compared with pure aluminum is primarily greater in the casting properties rather than the mechanical properties.

The maximum tensile strength of the commercial aluminum alloys in the "as-cast" condition for the sand, permanent mold, and die castings are approximately 27,000, 35,000, and 46,000 psi. respectively. The
tensile properties of

solution heat treatment.


stituent

some casting alloys are further improved by This type of alloy contains at least one conis

whose
,s

solid solubility

substantially greater at elevated temperaof this alloying

tures than at

room temperatures. The usual amount


it is

completely soluble near the melting point of the alloy. Heat treatment finds limited application with die castings because of blistering and possible loss in dimensional accuracy.

element

such that

The

yield strengths in tension

practically equal.
in the design of

The
some

ments are available that

and compression for the cast alloys are yield strength in compression is very important aircraft structural members. Some special treat-

T6 3nd T62 condition hav * ^e respective tensile strengths , 36,000 and 40,000 psi; the compressive yield strengths under these condi-

raise the compressive yield strength to a value almost as high as the tensile strength. For example, sand casting alloy

*LZ

tions are respectively 25,000

and 38,000

psi.

of elasticity of most aluminum casting alloys is approximately 10,300 kips; therefore this property is about one third that of steel The Brinell hardness of "as-cast" alloys range 40-70 (500-kg. load, 10-mm. ball) whereas, for the heat-treated alloys the hardness value is 75-100 The endurance limits for the alloys range 5,500-9,500 psi. This gives an endurance ratio of .25-.38 for cast alloys and .17-28 for the heat-treated
;

The modulus

142
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Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


alloys,

143

based on a rotating-beam test of 500 million cycles. These ratios are one third to one half of those usual for carbon and low-alloy steels. Inasmuch as the total percentage of alloying elements is usually greater
in casting alloys than wrought, the melting point, and the thermal electrical conductivity, are much lower for the former class.

and

The

melting

range and the specific gravity range (2.66-2.92) are wider for the casting alloys because of their higher alloy content. The specific gravity and the thermal and electrical conductivity values are lower for the die castings than the sand and permanent mold casting alloys.
Centrifugal castings have been very popular for many ferrous and nonferrous alloys because the molten metals and alloys are cleansed of oxides and inclusions by the centrifugal action thereby improving the

mechanical
of

small differences in the specific gravity between the usual oxides and inclusion present in molten aluminum alloys makes this type
casting of a limited advantage.

properties.

The

8.10. Functions of Alloying Elements

The
and

cast

advantages and limitations of commercial aluminum as a wrought metal may be summarized as follows. Its advantages
as

wrought metal are high electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent malleability and ductility, excellent formability, good machinability, and unusual resistance to normal corrosion. The limitations include low tensile properties, poor high-temperature tensile properties, and high temperature brittleness. Molten aluminum has the desirable properties of low surface tension and good fluidity, the undesirable properties are high selective hydrogen gas solubility, high solidification shrinkage, and
great chemical reactivity towards air and moisture. The cast metal has the unsatisfactory properties of high thermal coefficient of expansion, hot shortness, gas porosity, and coarse grain structure.

The
tensile

addition of the alloying elements


properties

is

primarily to increase the


qualities

and improve

certain

fabricating

of

wrought metal; they function to increase tensile strength and castability of the alloy casting. Such alloying always results in the improvement of some properties and in the further limitation of others. The changes involved depends upon the type and amount of alloying elements,
the

the

resulting grain structure, size

and distribution of insoluble constituents,

homogeneity, etc. Copper. The most important and commonly used alloying element is copper. The intermetallic compound CuAU forms a eutectiferous series with aluminum; the eutectic alloy contains 33% copper and melts at 548C. The maximum solubility of copper in solid aluminum
at elevated

144
temperatures

Engineering Metallurgy

is 5.65% and less than .25% at room temperature. The copper content of the high-strength wrought alloys usually ranges between 4-4.5% copper. Although tensile properties increase progressively above this range, higher copper alloys are not commercially practicable because of difficulty in working. The high-strength alloys of this type include

alloys 2011, 2017,

and 2024.

The electrode

potentials of commercial

aluminum and

the intei metallic

compound CuAl 2

are .84 and .53 volts respectively.

This relatively
is

great difference means that the corrosion resistance of the copper alloys

much

less

than those of the other alloying elements. Improper heat treatalloys can further decrease their resistance

ment of the copper-aluminum


to corrosion.

an alloying element in the casting alloys leads to inand decreased surface tension of the molten metal. The cast metal is improved by the freedom from hot shortness, decreased porosity, increased tensile properties, and finer grain structure. Silicon. The second most important alloying element in aluminum alloy is the metalloid silicon. It differs from the other soluble alloying elements in not forming an intermetallic compound with aluminum. It forms a eutectic having the composition of 11.6% silicon by weight and melts at 577C, The solubility of silicon in solid aluminum at the eutectic and room temperatures are 1.65% and less than .05%. Although silicon is a rather hard constituent, it is evident that due to its low solubility and inability to form an intermetallic compound, the binary

Copper used

as

creased fluidity

silicon alloys are

not markedly strong.

A
is

comparison of the strength


given by the tensile yield
Si)

giving properties of silicon

and copper

strength values of the sand casting alloys

#43 (5%

and #195 (4.5%

Cu)

namely 8,000 and 34,000

psi respectively.
role in the casting alloys. Its im-

Silicon plays

an extremely important

portant contribution to the molten alloy are very high fluidity and low solidification shrinkage. The shrinkage of an 8% silicon-aluminum

binary alloy

is

5.6%; the 11.6% silicon-aluminum alloy

(eutectic)

is

3.8%. The presence of silicon influences the properties of the solid cast metal in having a lower coefficient of thermal expansion, absence of hot shortness, and a lower degree of porosity. An unusual property of silicon
in a casting
is

to

form a sound outer

sure tightness.

The

silicon alloys 43, 355,

(>ermanent mold castings.

which leads to presand 356 give excellent sand and The two die-casting silicon alloys, #13 and
layer or skin

#360 are very

satisfactory.

The
of the

ability of silicon alloys to

"undercool" leads to the modification


its

normal eutectic composition and

properties. In 1921 A. Pacz

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

145

discovered that very rapid cooling or the addition of .05% metallic

sodium

(or

sodium

fluoride)

results in the

formation of eutectic alloys

containing as high as

14%

silicon,

having a freezing point 10-15 degrees

lower than normal. This modified alloy has a finer grain structure; it is stronger and more ductile than the eutectic alloy. The silicon content of wrought alloys is usually less than 1%: one
exception
treatable aging.
is

the forging alloy 4032.

The

presence of silicon in the heat

wrought

alloys generally increases their response to artificial

The
its

presence of silicon in

aluminum

alloys does not materially decrease

corrosion resistance, probably due to the formation of a protective


film.

siliceous

The 5%

binary casting alloy

#43 and wrought


acids.

alloy

4032

resist

atmospheric weathering, chemicals and food

Inasmuch
is

as silicon

and aluminum

are both amphoteric, this type of alloy

not

very resistant to alkaline conditions

and

solutions.

The

strength

and corrosion

resistance

of

silicon-aluminum

alloys

are markedly increased by the presence of

magnesium due

to the forma-

compound Mg^.Si. Magnesium. The eutectic of magnesium and aluminum contains approximately 33% magnesium and the melting point is 451 C. The solubility of magnesium in solid aluminum at the eutectic and room temption of the intermetallic

eratures

is

14.9% and
in

less

than

4%

respectively.

This variation in the


the alloys susceptible to

solid solubility with temperature renders

some of

improvement

tensile

properties

by heat treatment.

magnesium-aluminum solid solution is approximately equal to that of aluminum; therefore this type of alloy shows excellent corrosion resistance. In addition, these alloys show the
electrode potential of

The

4%

highest resistance to alkaline corrosion, such resistance increasing with

magnesium

content.

Binary alloys containing more than 4.5% magnesium are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking particularly when they are in the cold worked
condition.

This corrosion

highly anodic to the


electrode potentials

due to the fact that the insoluble phase is magnesium-aluminum solid solution. The of the two components are respectively 1.07 and
is

4%

volts. This stress corrosion is prevented by the addition of small amounts of manganese and chiomium.

.87

Magnesium is second to silicon in effectively increasing the fluidity of molten alloys. The fluidity of the binary 6% magnesium alloy is approximately the same as the binary 5% silicon alloy. Magnesium is a more reactive metal than aluminum; therefore it reacts more readily with air and moisture. Molten casting alloys of magnesium-

146

Engineering Metallurgy
considerable dross, a tendency that increases with mag-

aluminum form

nesium content. Alloys containing


larly

5%

or

more magnesium

cast in ordi-

nary green sand molds show surface discoloration and porosity, particu-

when

thick sections are

involved.

High magnesium-aluminum

should be heat treated in a controlled atmosphere or for a


processing time so as to avoid surface oxidation.

minimum

of

Magnesium ir Silicon. The magnesium silicide forms an eutectic with aluminum containing 13% Mg 2 Si and melts at 595C. When an excess of silicon (over that required to form the magnesium silicide) is present, a
ternary eutectic of aluminum,

Mg .Si
L

and

silicon results,
is

550C.
silicon,

The

composition of

this ternary eutectic

melting point approximately 13%


solubility in

6% magnesium

and

81% aluminum. maximum

The Mg,Si
solid
at

constituent in the binary alloy has a

aluminum of 1-85% at the eutectic temperature and less than .2% room temperature. These alloys have the ability to respond to heat

treatment and have tensile properties comparable with those of the heattreated

4% copper alloys.
corrosion resistance of this type of alloy
is

The

very satisfactory beis

cause the electrode potential of

Mg Si
2

(.83 volt)

almost the same as

aluminum. Alloys of this type, such from most other heat treatable alloy

as alloys 6053, 6061 in

and 6151, differ showing no appreciable decrease

in corrosion resistance after heat treatment.

Manganese. Manganese and aluminum form an eutectic containing 2.2% manganese by weight and melting at 657C. The intermetallic compound of these metals has the formula MnAl e The solubility of manganese in the solid aluminum at eutectic and room temperatures is .65
.

less than .1 respectively. This low solubility indicates that the most common manganese alloy 3003 (1.25% Mn) is a non-heat-treatable alloy. The electrode potential of this intermetallic compound is the same as aluminum, therefore this alloy has exceptional corrosion resistance. Inasmuch as manganese and its compounds are not toxic, this alloy is used in equipment for preparing and processing of foods. It is also used extensively for the manufacture of cooking utensils, conduit and pipes, pressure vessels, architectural applications and builders hardware. Nickel. Nickel forms an eutectic: with aluminum which contains 6.5% nickel and melts at 640C. The composition of the intermetallic com-

and

pound
eutectic

is

NiAlt

The

solubility
is

of nickel
.06%,

in

solid

aluminum

at

the

and less than .04% respectively. The addition of nickel to the copper-aluminum type alloys definitely improves the high temperature properties and retains the high thermal

and room temperatures

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


properties.

147

The forging alloys 2018, 2218 and 4032 are ternary alloys aluminum, copper and nickel. Their uses are for forged cylinder heads and pistons, jet engine impellers and compressor rings and other applications wherein high strength at elevated temperatures is necessary. Zinc. Aluminum and zinc form an eutectic consisting of 95% zinc and 5% aluminum, melting point 440C. The solubility of zinc in solid
of

aluminum
tively.

at the eutectic

and room temperatures

is

70% and 18%


One important
is

respec-

Zinc

is

a low melting and highly volatile metal.

limita-

tion of binary

and complex zinc-aluminum

alloys

their great loss in

strength at elevated temperatures. For example, castings

made from A612

and C612
of 200F.

are not

recommended

for use at temperatures greatly in excess

These casting alloys have the marked advantage that without heat treatment they have tensile properties comparable with the aluminumcopper and aluminum-silicon heat treated alloys. They offer the advantage that they can be heated to the temperature required for brazing

and will regain their original properties after a few days. The zinc wrought alloy 7075 has very good strength and good resistance to corrosion. This wrought alloy in the T6 condition in extrusions has a tensile and yield strength of 88,000 and 80,000 respectively.
8.11. Cold

and Hot Working of Aluminum Alloys


of cold working in the fabrication of sheet, rod, wire,

The purpose

tubing, extrusions,

and

like

basic

products are

(1)

increased

tensile

properties, (2) grain refinement, (3)

improvement

in surface appearance,

and

(4)

improvement

of dimensional properties.

Aluminum and its alloys on cold working undergo strain hardening. The tensile properties increase with the amount of work, in some instances almost proportional to the fractional reduction of the initial

Alloy

Tensile Strength
1G.0OO 19,000

Yield Strength
6,000 17,000
19,000

Elongation in 2 in.

3003-O 3003-H-12 3003-H-I4 3003-H-16 3003-H-18


Alclad
202-1 -T4 2024-T3 2024-T36 2024-T81 2024-T86

30
10 8 5 4

21.000 25,000
29,000
64.000

22,000

26,000 42.000 44,000 53,000 60,000 66,000

19
18
11

64.000

67.000
65,000 70,000

6 6

148
cross section.

Engineering Metallurgy

The elongation decreases with increasing amount of cold work. As a general rule the initial cold work produces a relatively greater
effect

than subsequent reductions of equal amounts.


is

The

effect of

cold

work

two types of wrought alloys. The degree of strain hardening in aluminum and its alloys has an important effect on their temperature of recrystallization. It is usual to make
listed for the

50%

or higher reduction in cross-sectional area between annealing or heat

treating operations in order to prevent the development of excessively


large grain structure.

In the fabrication of the commercial basic products there

ment
used,

of the surface properties

due

to tool surface

is an improveand shape, lubricants

and the burnishing

effect

obtained by the cold work.

The

greater

the degree of reduction and the inherent hardness of the alloy, the brighter the surface.

Straightening and flattening operations are performed cold and are


usually conducted so as to introduce a
Plate, rod

minimum

of strain hardening.
thickness, followed

and bar are hot worked nearly to the desired by cold work to obtain greater dimensional accuracy.

structures.

aluminum ingots are hot worked to convert them to wrought Hot working is carried out during the manufacture of extrusions and forgings. The hot working of aluminum alloys require about 30-40% more power than for steel. Extrusions are made in the shape of
cast

The

rods,

bars,
is

and complicated

cross

sectioned materials.
is

The extruded
its

section

highly fibrous in structure which

parallel to

direction of

extrusion, therefore the tensile properties are often

much

higher than

other hot- or cold-worked products of same alloy.

Another difference between aluminum and steel is that aluminum does not form scale during heat treatment; therefore a suitable lubricant should be used during hot rolling. Die lubricants are generally used during hammer and pressing forging; extrusions usually do not require
lubrication.

8.12. Heat Treatment of

Aluminum

Alloys

The
to
(3)

three basic types of thermal processing that are


alloys are
(1) (2)

commonly applied
and

aluminum

annealing, precipitation heat treatment.

solution heat treatment,

alloys

The strain-hardening which results from cold working of the aluminum may be removed by annealing. The annealing process likewise re-

moves most of the temper resulting from solution heat treatment. This
thermal treatment permits recrystallization to take place; the higher the temperature used, the greater the rate. The rate of recrystallization is

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

149

also dependent upon the alloy involved and the severity of the cold work. Complete annealing is almost instantaneous for alloys 1100 and 5052 at 650F., and for alloy 3003 at 750F. The rate of cooling thereafter is not
critically

important although rapid cooling

may

lead to

some

distortion.

The temperature
alloy

used for annealing the heat-treatable type of

aluminum

must be carefully controlled and as low as practicable so as to prevent the dissolving of the intermetallic compound. Castings of non heat-treatable alloys are often annealed for the purpose of relieving internal strains, increasing their ductility

Some

alloys are

improved

in strength

range of 900-1000F., given a

and shock resistance. and hardness by heating in the rapid quench, and then aged at room temp-

erature and/or at slightly elevated temperatures. The alloy after quenching has fair ductility and malleability and is subjected as soon thereafter to

forming or other fabricating processing. Some

alloys spontaneously in-

crease in tensile properties within a short period of time; other alloys age so slowly that they are artificially aged by heating in the range 250-400F.

Such heat-treatable
that has a

alloys

contain

principal

alloying constituent

marked

increase in solid solubility at elevated temperature.

In most instances this alloying constituent is an intermetallic compound. The 4i/ copper-aluminum alloy 2024 has CuAlj as its hardening 2

agent;

its

solid solubility at

room and

elevated temperatures

is

.25% and

5.65%

respectively.

All this intermetallic

compound

goes into solid

solution at elevated temperatures and continues to remain in solution after rapid quenching due to the marked decreased mobility of the system. This unstable supersaturated solution has good ductility and malleability; therefore

During

it is formed into proper shape as soon as practicable. the next few hours fine precipitation of submicroscopic particles

of this hard intermetallic


the tensile properties.

compound

takes place, progressively increasing

Other heat treatable alloys such as 6061 undergo a similar transition during heat treatment and quenching, but differ in the respect that the rate of precipitation of submicroscopic particles is extremely slow at

room temperature,
of 250-400F.

it is artificially aged by heating in the range normally hardened by room temperature aging may be further increased in tensile properties by this artificial aging. The time required to reach the maximum strength by artificial aging

therefore

The

alloys

decreases as the aging temperature is raised; the value of the maximum strength, in turn, decreases. The precipitation of the hardening constituent from solid solution that results from artificial aging is accom-

panied by small changes in


properties.

specific gravity

and therefore dimensional


alloys after artificially

The 5% and 6% copper-aluminum

150

Engineering Metallurgy
length of approximately .01%

aging show a decrease in


respectively.

and .15%

The

response to
is

artificial

the material

strain

aging for alloy 2024 is greatly enhanced if hardened after solution heat treatment and prior
In this instance the increase in tensile
a reduction of

to precipitation heat treatment.

and yield strengths is more than doubled by working prior to artificial aging.

6%

by cold

The
for

percentage of alloying elements


longer.

in casting alloys is

higher than
cast-

wrought
is

alloys, therefore the solution heat

treatment time for

and the finer grain structure of wrought alloys results in a greater degree of improvement in tensile properties by heat treatment for the wrought alloys.
ing

much

The

greater uniformity

The solution heat treatment of alloys containing high amounts of magnesium should be done with proper atmosphere control so as to
prevent possible oxidation along the grain boundaries.
condition
erties
is

This oxidation
of clad

manifest by minute surface

blisters,

decreased tensile prop-

and embrittlcment. The time of solution heat treatment


should be kept
at a

alloys

minimum

so as to prevent changes in composi-

tion

diffusion

and electrode potential properties of from the core.

the surface coating

due

to alloy

The cooling rate during quenching is often critical. The alloy 2024, improperly quenched, forms a non-uniform precipitation of microscopic and larger size particles of AIXu which makes the alloy susceptible to
localized corrosion.

8.13. Corrosion Resistance of

Aluminum

Alloys
its

The

excellent corrosion resistance of

aluminum and

alloys

is

due
it

primarily to the adhesion and chemical inertness of the oxide film.


differs

Inasmuch as this aluminum oxide is a nonconductor of electricity from iron rust (cathodic) in not causing galvanic corrosion.
Galvanic or "battery action" type of corrosion
is

encouraged wherein
electrode

the alloying metals or


potentials

their

intermetallic

compounds have

than the base metal. The solid solutions and the insoluble intermetallic compounds of manganese, chromium, magnesium and MgoSi have electrode potential values almost equal to aludifferent

much

minum;
FeAl s
,

therefore alloys involving these constituents

show good corrosion

resistance.

The solid solutions of copper, and the insoluble constituents NiAl3 CuAl 2 and Si, have much lower solution potentials than
,

aluminum, therefore
to corrosion.

alloys of these constituents

show only

fair resistance

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

151

The poor corrosion resistance of the improperly quenched aluminum copper alloys is due to its heterogeneous nature. Alloy 2024 on solution
heat treatment and properly quenched consists of a uniform supersaturated solid solution; its homogeneous nature makes it very resistant to
corrosion.

The subsequent

aging of the alloy leads to the uniform precipi-

tation of submicroscopic intermetallic


resistance to corrosion.

compound which
is

also

shows good

When

the alloy

quenched

slowly, the

CuAL

precipitates out at the grain boundaries as non-uniform microscopic and larger sized particles. The phase adjacent to the cathodic intermetallic compound consists of areas of depleted solid solution (anodic). The
localized corrosion that lakes place in this alloy
is

termed intergranular

corrosion.

When
increased

a
if

mild quench
the alloy
is

is

necessary, the resistance to corrosion


artificially aged.

subsequently

may be In the case of thick

sections, the rate of cooling,

even by immersion in cold water, is often not great enough to produce material completely free from susceptibility to this intergranular attack. This condition may also be discouraged by the use of alclad materials.

One of the most effective methods for increasing corrosion resistance of an aluminum alloy is to use alclad material or by applying a surface coating of pure or low alloy aluminum. The surface layer must be
anodic to the base metal, hence the protection is both mechanical and The present products available with this type of cladding are sheet, tube and wire. One limitation of this type of product is that during heat treatment, temperature and time should be very carefully
electrolytic.

controlled so as to avoid excessive alloy diffusion into the clad layer, thereby decreasing its effectiveness in protecting the core from corrosion. Alclad 2024 sheet improperly heat treated should be checked by proper
tests for excessive

"copper diffusion."

Another commercial process used to protect aluminum alloys from corrosion is by the surface oxidation by electrolytic means. The process
is known as anodization because the aluminum is made the anode and the iron tank the cathode, the processing solution being dilute sulphuric

or chromic

acid.

The

anodic film
it

natural oxide film; therefore


cal insulation, abrasion

is thicker and more uniform than the has increased corrosion resistance, electri-

hardness and chemical inertness. An unusual property of the anodic film, especially right after its formation, is its great

power of adsorption. The

excellent anchorage
is

minum

for paint films

and dyes

power of anodized aludependent upon this great power of

adsorption.

152

Engineering Metallurgy
acid dip treatment, anodi/ation, painting with zinc

Chromic

chroma te
alloys are

primer, and other like processing and treatments of

aluminum

based on the passivation action of chromic acid and chromates, and


their adsorption in the oxide film. When an aluminum alloy in use shows excessive corrosion, this condition may be stopped by cleaning area, painting with chromic acid solution, drying and then painting.
It
is

important that aluminum assemblies should consist

as

much

as

possible of the

same

alloy or alloys of like solution electrode potential.

Rivets should be of the same alloy as the base metal, and if different, should be of an alloy that lias a slightly lower potential so that the rivets would be cathodic. Galvanic corrosion can be markedly retarded
if

the rivets can be electrically insulated by anodic treatment. Welding-

same alloy or of slightly lower potential than the base metal. Inasmuch as brazing and soldering involves foreign metals, adjacent areas must be carefully protected from galvanic corrosion. When two metals are involved that have marked difference in potential,
rods should likewise be of the
it
is

good practice
is

to coat

potential value.

The

steel cable

one with a metal intermediate in electrode used in aluminum cable for transmission

of electric current

plated with zinc to discourage galvanic action.

8.14. Joining of

Aluminum
its

Alloys
joined by fusion and electric-

Aluminum and

alloys are usually

resistance welding, brazing

and

riveting.

in that the filler material has a

much

Brazing differs from welding lower melting point that that of the

parent material so that the latter does not melt. The common types of fusion welding are the gas and the arc processes.

The

three brazing processes are classed by the methods used in applying

the brazing heat, namely, furnace, torch,


resistance welding
is

and dip

brazing.

The

electric

classified as spot,

seam, and

flash.

The main difference in the welding technique and procedure of aluminum and its alloys as compared to the iron alloys is primarily due to the
very high thermal coefficient of expansion and high temperature oxidation of

aluminum, and thermal and

electrical insulating pro]>erties of

its

oxide coating.

The

the use of properly designed parts

high thermal expansion of aluminum and its alloys necessitates and carefully prepared joints so as to

minimize buckling and distortion. The filler rod and the base metal are both provided with a flux coating to maintain an oxide-free metal surface during the welding process. The commercial flux materials consist of mixtures of saline chlorides-fluorides. -Proper ventilation must be provided in the welding area because the fumes of the flux are both

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

153

disagreeable and irritating to the welder and highly corrosive to nearby metal structures and materials. The welded part must be given a mechanical cleaning or chemical pickle treatment so as to completely remove
residual saline material

due

to

its

toxic

and

corrosive character.
torches,

Gas welding involves the use of oxyhydrogen and oxyacetylene

the flames in both instances being neutral in character. The gas welding has its main application with materials ranging from .0401 inch in thickness.

The main
tungsten
arcs.

arc processes include metal, carbon, atomic hydrogen,

and

The

metal-arc

is

particularly suitable for heavy material;

have been welded satisfactorily. Difficulties is used with material less than 5/64 inch thick. The carbon-arc is used for manual and automatic welding; the produced welds are comparable in structure and appearance to gas welds but with less distortion. The atomic hydrogen process is applied
to 21/g inches

thicknesses

up

are experienced

when

the metal-arc

welding but differs in the respect that it by moving the torch away from or towards the work. One limitation of the atomic hydrogen-arc process is the difficulty of removing the residual flux from the welded assembly. The tungsten arc uses an inert gas shield to protect the arc and the weld area; this method has two advantages: satisfactory welds can be (1) made with equal facility in vertical, flat, and overhead positions, and
as gas
is

in

much

the same

manner

possible to control the heated zone

(2)

no

flux

is

required.

All commercial alloys are not readily adaptable to fusion or electricresistance welding. The alloys that are commercially fusion welded are 1100, 3003, 5052, 6053, and 6061. In some instances the welding is

and/or costly. One limitation of the heat-treatable type of alloys that the high temperature of welding tends to decrease the mechanical strength and the corrosion resistance.
difficult
is

The proper choice of welding rod is very important particularly when dealing with alloys having large amounts of alloying elements. The two
most weldable alloys 1100 and 3003 use 1100 welding rod.
strength alloys 5052, 6053,

The

high-

and 6061,

fairly difficult to weld, are

welded

with 5% silicon-aluminum alloy filler rod. This 4043 alloy rod has a melting point much lower than pure aluminum, excellent fluidity and wetting properties, and low shrinkage contraction, thereby insuring a
the important applications of fusion welding is the salvaging of aluminum alloy castings that have foundry defects, and the repairing of cracked or broken castings. Castings should be preheated in a furnace
to

minimum One of

of shrinkage stresses and cracks.

approximately 800F. This thermal treatment avoids thermal

stress,

154

Engineering Metallurgy

amount of welding gas required. It is important that careful temperature control is maintained during this preheat treatment so as to avoid "burnt" material and possible collapse
reduces the welding time and
of the casting.

The

areas adjacent to the welded sections of the strain-hardened alloys

The weld metal has tensile properties almost equal to the annealed metal but lower in ductility. Assemblies of
are annealed by the welding heat.

heat-treatable alloys should be welded prior to heating or given a reheat

treatment so as to improve the tensile and corrosion resistance properties. Electric-resistance welding has been a large factor in reducing the cost

making joints, improving products, and speeding up production. This type of welding is usually applied to strain-hardened type of alloys,
of

but

is

often used with the heat-treatable alloys particularly of the alclad

type.

The

aluminum and
In addition

technique and equipment employed for the resistance welding of its alloys is considerably different than that used for steel.
the electrical capacity required
for

aluminum

is

several

times greater.

The

three types of equipment are classified on the basis

of the electrical system used for supplying the welding current, namely,
(1)

energy storage.

alternating current, (2) magnetic energy storage and (3) condenser The proper choice of electrode shape and its proper
is

maintenance
spot welds.

very important in obtaining high quality and strength


electrode must have high electrical

The welding

and thermal

conductivity and fairly good strength; electrodes are usually


copper-silver alloys.

made

of

Weld pick-up and

the softening of the tip are pre-

vented by having cold water circulating through the electrode.

Some

machines use refrigerated water circulating at a rate of 2 gallons per minute and to within 3/8 inch or closer of the tip face.

The material to be welded must first be freed of oil and grease, dirt, and surface oxidation because these substances have electrical insulating properties. The surface contamination may be removed by an alkaline
degreasing bath whereas the oxide coating necessitates mechanical abrasion or chemical etch methods.

The

metal must be spot welded within

a few hours of chemical etch because the oxide film will reform.

Bra/ing has been used in production on certain alloys such as 1 100 and 3003, and to lesser degree on the heat treatable alloys 6053 and 6061.

The copper-aluminum
tensile strength

alloys

and 5056 show poor workability during

brazing operations; the resulting joints and adjacent areas have decreased

compared

and corrosion resistance. The advantages of brazing as and arc welding are as follows: (1) it can be used with thinner material, (2) the costs are lower, and (3) the surface appearance
to gas

Light Alloys
is

as

Engineering Materials

155

superior. The torch-brazed joint has the tensile strength comparable to a weided joint and has almost the same degree of corrosion resistance. Riveting is the most commonly used industrial method of joining the

structural
rivets are

aluminum alloys, particularly the heat-treatable type. The made of commercial aluminum, the magnesium-silicon alloys

6053 and 6061, and the copper alloys 2017, 2024, and 2117. All except the
are received from the manufacturer in the hard, heat-treated condiRivets of 2017 and 2024 are solution heat treated, quenched, and driven as quickly as possible; whereas, the other type of rivets are driven
first

tion.

"as received."
It is advantageous from a strength point of view to use rivets having about the same mechanical properties as the base metal; whereas, from

the driving standpoint


softer.

From
it is

it is usually advisable to have the rivets somewhat the corrosion resistance angle it is advisable to have the

rivet of the

same composition or electrode potential


driven.

as the material in

which

For example, alclad sheet alloys are usually riveted

with 6053 or 6061 because of their excellent corrosion resistance and

aluminum in their electrode potential value. Rivets that are solution heat treated prior to driving arc generally processed in large quantities, quenched in cold water, washed
nearness to

with 2017

alcohol,

and placed

in refrigerated cabinets. Solution heat treated

and 2024 alloy rivets harden at room temperature over a two-hour period, making them unsuitable for driving thereafter. The rivets will remain
soft for

36 hours if kept at 32F., or lower, after quenching. Small insulated boxes of cold rivets are kept in refrigerated cabinets near the individual work areas. Large rivets of 2017 alloy are usually driven in the hot condition. They are solution heat treated at 930-950F. for approximately fifteen minutes, inserted in the hole and driven. The relatively cold driving tools and the base metal function as quench. Steel rivets in aluminum-alloy structures
are driven hot in the customary fashion; they are heated to I800F. and driven as quickly as possible.

When the service conditions are severe or dissimilar metals are involved, special treatments should be applied to prevent corrosion. Various methods are used, such as application of zinc chromate primer prior to assembly, use of good grade of joint compound before assembly, use of anodized aluminum alloy rivets; and if steel rivets are involved, they are metallized with aluminum or zinc after driving.
8.15.

Magnesium And
is

Its

Alloys
its

Magnesium

a very unusual metal:


its

properties
is

any other commercial metal, and

behavior

do not run parallel to not as predictable. Mag-

156

Engineering Metallurgy

nesiuni holds the unique position

among

the structural metals in having

the lowest density, the highest machinability, and has an inexhaustible

source of supply.

The

low specific gravity of magnesium (1.74) means that


1/4

it

is

2/3 as

dense as aluminum and

that of iron

and

steel.

The

cutting speed for

magnesium and

its

alloys

is

twice that of free-cutting brass and four times


1

part in 770 of magnesium therefore one cubic mile of seawater could produce nine million tons of magnesium. There is also a vast supply of magnesium in magnesite and dolomite.
that of cast iron. Seawater contains

low melting point, high near the melting temperature, good thermal and electrical conductivity, low density, high strength-weight ratio, and non-magnetic and non-sparking propis

Magnesium

similar to

aluminum

in

its

solidification shrinkage, hot shortness,

low

tensile strength

From a chemical point of view these two metals have low atomic and equivalent weights, and high electrode potentials. It markedly differs from aluminum in its crystal structure, (H. C. P.) fair malleability and ductility, fair cold workability, poor notch sensitivity, non-protective oxide coating, and lower corrosion resistance. Magnesium is much more chemically reactive than aluminum due to the physical and chemical
erties.
,

nature of

its

oxide coating.
of
fl)

The manufacturing procedures and processes much like that of aluminum in the respect that

magnesium are very the impurities must

be removed from the ore rather than from the produced metal, (2) requires large amounts of energy, (3) requires high temperatures, and (4)
reduction involves nonaqueous reactions.
process for making magnesium is by molten solutions of magnesium chloride. The formed molten magnesium floats on the surface and must be protected by an inert atmosphere since it chemically absorbs both oxygen and nitrogen. Another limitation of this (Dow) process is that the chlorine constitutes a health and corrosion hazard.
the electrolytic reduction of

The most important commercial

Two lesser important processes are the chemical reduction of magnesium oxide by carbon and silicon respectively. In the carbothermic (Hansgirg) process, briquets of magnesium oxide and carbon are heated at 2000C. to form magnesium vapor and carbon monoxide gas. This reaction mixture on cooling would reverse to the original raw materials; this is prevented by rapidly cooling and diluting with natural gas or other inert gases. The fine magnesium powder that results by this "shock" action must be purified by distillation. The Pidgcon process depends on the fact that silicon in the form of ferrosilicon will remove the oxygen from magnesium, that the formed silicon dioxide is a non-

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials


volatile material,

157

and metallic magnesium under reduced pressure can The Hansgirg and Pidgeon processes are more expensive than the Dow process, but have the advantage of not depending on electric power.
be
distilled at 1150C.

The improvement of magnesium by addition of alloying elements is not very great. The main alloying elements are aluminum, zinc, and manganese. Zinc is more effective than aluminum in the improvement
of mechanical properties but offers the disadvantage of decreasing
its

corrosion resistance.
of manganese

compromise

alloy AZ-63 consists of


is

6%

made by using both. The aluminum and 3% zinc. The main function
is

often

to increase the corrosion resistance.

The minor
tin,

alloying elements are beryllium, calcium, cerium, silicon,

and zirconium. Beryllium decreases the tendency of burning during the melting and casting. Calcium reduces oxidation during melting and heat treatment, and increases the reliability and formability of magnesium sheet. Cerium increases the high temperature strength. The

main function
and
metal.

of silicon is to increase the fluidity of molten magnesium to decrease the hot shortness and cracking tendencies of the solid

Tin

increases ductility,

and zirconium

leads to grain refinement.

The

very undesirable elements and their approximate


,

maximum

tolerance

and iron (.005%) Magnesium alloys are somewhat difficult to roll; therefore structural members are usually extruded. Cold working, bending, and deep drawing can be satisfactorily accomplished under carefully controlled conditions and with frequent annealing. Most mechanical processing is done at
temperatures above 225C.

are copper (.1%), nickel (.01%)

Pure commercial magnesium sheet in the annealed and hard-rolled conditions have the respective tensile strength values of 27,000 and 33,000
psi. Most magnesium alloys have tensile strength in the range of 40-50 thousand psi, and the maximum of sixty thousand. Special

costly alloys

containing
thousand.

3%

silver or

6%

cerium have

tensile strength of sixty-five

The

heat-treatment processes of

aluminum except
readiness with
alloys

magnesium alloys is similar to that of the temperatures involved are considerably lower. The
in the air

which magnesium oxidizes

precautions and
its

new techniques

are involved.

means that special Although aluminum and


baths, violent ex-

plosions

may be heat treated in molten sodium nitrate may take place with the alloys of magnesium.

One outstanding advantage of magnesium and its alloys is its excellent machinability. Cutting fluids are used primarily as a coolant to prevent the magnesium from catching on fire. The turnings from machining

158

Engineering Metallurgy
fire

operations also represent a potential


are unsatisfactory for putting out

hazard. Dry sand should be

available in these areas because water or the

common

fire

extinguishers

magnesium
likewise

fires.

The

casting

of

magnesium

requires

special

conditions.

Molten magnesium is usually protected by an inert atmosphere of sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Green sand castings can not be used unless inhibitors

magnesium will react with the moisture. The subsequent finishing of the casting involves metallic dust that represents
are present; otherwise the a
fire

hazard.
of

magnesium and its alloys under normal conUnder highly humid conditions and other severe conditions, magnesium and its alloys should have a protective film or coating. Magnesium alloys prior to fabrication are usually shipped
ditions
is

The corrosion resistance

very satisfactory.

with a film of
pickle
is

oil

or a

chrome

pickle treatment coating.

The chrome
is

superior to the

oil film for protection,

but the former

easier to

remove prior

to spot welding.

Magnesium alloys may be joined by gas and arc welding, electric-resistance welding, and by riveting. Most of the wrought alloys can be joined
by gas welding using neutral flames of oxyhydrogen, oxyacetylene and oxycarbohydrogen

The

filler

rod should have the same composition

as the

parent metal

or have a lower melting point.

must be used during welding due to the ease of oxidation of magnesium. Magnesium alloy sheet, extrusions, forgings, sand and permanent mold castings are often welded by using an inert gas-shielded arc method. These alloys may be resistance welded after they have been cleaned of surface contamination and oxide coatings. Magnesium may be riveted by the most conventional methods. Magnesium-alloy rivets cannot be used because of their rapid work hardening at room temperature. The rivets generally used are the 5%
flux

magnesium-aluminum alloy 5056, which has a like electrode potential. Most processed magnesium alloy parts and assemblies that will be used where corrosion is greater than normal are given a final chromate treatment.
offers

The chromate
good anchorage

treatment results in the removal or passivation of


for a paint film.

all

foreign metals

and produces an adhering protective

coating. This coating

8.16. Beryllium

Beryllium resembles magnesium in


close-packed crystalline structure,
similarity to

its

low density
its

and

(1.84) its hexagonal poor cold workability. Its


,

is shown by its low equivalent weight, its amphoand the refractory and protective nature of its oxide film. The outstanding property of beryllium is its great power of producing

aluminum

teric properties,

Light Alloys as Engineering Materials

159

hardness and strength in other metals; it suffers the two great limitations of high cost and toxicity. Its cost is high because (1) its ores are not common, (2) the concentration of beryllium in the ores is often less than 4% average, (3) its manufacture by the modified thermite or Gold-

schmidt process is a costly one. The most important alloy of beryllium is the beryllium-copper alloys, which have high fatigue and corrosion resistance, good electrical and thermal properties, and are virtually non-sparking. The 2% alloy on
heat treatment, quenching, and aging develops a hardness equal to Rockwell C-40.

Amounts in the order of .01% beryllium in molten aluminum and magnesium decrease their oxidation and combustibility markedly, and
reduce their
of beryllium
viscosity, particularly in the case of

aluminum. Small amounts


steel.

may be

used to case-harden iron and

beryllium are very toxic and give rise to lung diseases that are often fatal. Beryllium is available commercially in the form of 12% beryllium-copper alloy.
8.17. Titanium

The vapors and powdered

Titanium in one of the most abundant metals in the earth's crust, the main ores being ilmenite (iron titanate) and rutile (titanium oxide) It is made by the modified thermite or Goldschmidt process.* The very
important properties of titanium as a structural metal are its high melting point (1820C.) its high tensile strength at ordinary and elevated temp,

eratures,

corrosion.

low density (4.5) and its high resistance to ordinary In the annealed and cold-worked (60% reduction) condition the commercial metal has the respective tensile strengths 78,700 and 111,500 psi. Exposure to accelerated corrosion tests using salt spray for 30 days has little effect on commercial titanium.
its

relatively

Titanium, like magnesium and beryllium, has the hexagonal packed crystalline structure; therefore its workability likewise
at

close-

ordinary

temperatures is poor. When titanium is heated to 875C, it undergoes a transition to an body-centered cubic structure; hence its workability markedly increases at this temperature. There is a 5.5% volume change during this allotropic transformation. One limitation of titanium is that it will readily unite with and burn in oxygen at 600C. and with nitrogen at 800C. At elevated temperatures titanium will likewise unite with carbon and hydrogen.
is a very important additive element in the steel industry. great affinity of titanium for carbon is taken advantage of and carbide precipitation avoided in 18-8 stainless steel by the presence of titanium, the amount being about five times that of the carbon content.

Titanium

The

And now produced

widely by the Kroll process.

160

Engineering Metallurgy
presence of .5-1% titanium in 17-7 stainless steel leads to a ferritic

The

structure.

The

grain refinement of

aluminum and
is

its

alloys

by the

presence of small amounts of titanium


for dissolved oxygen, nitrogen

due

in part to

its

great affinity

and hydrogen. Titanium


steel.

acts likewise as a

scavenger for oxygen and nitrogen in

QUESTIONS
1.

What
that

2.

in the earth's crust? What is the metal inexhaustible in its supply? Magnesium oxide has been reduced industrially by the action of carbon to form metallic magnesium. Why cannot aluminum be economically made
is

the .most

abundant metal

is

in the
3.

same manner?
impurity as a metal oxide,
in the Bayer Process?
if

What

present in bauxite ore, could not be

removed
i.

5.

Aluminum is often melted in iron pots which are usually protected by a coating of whiting or other insulating material. Why is this protective coating important? The general rule regarding gases is "they decrease in solubility in liquids with rise of temperature." How would you explan why the solubility of
hydrogen increases with
rise

of

temperature

when

present

in

molten

aluminum?
6.

Accurate control of temperature is very important during the solution heat treatment of aluminum alloys. What are the relative advantages of a molten bath and an air furnace?

7.

What
it

8.

9.

test solution would you use on a large assembly to determine whether was an aluminum alloy or a magnesium alloy? What are the main obstacles of manufacturing aluminum from clay? Excessive rates of heating metal lead to cracking. In view of the fact that aluminum alloys are good conductors of heat and that the nitrate bath is a

fair

conductor,
is

why

is

the heating in this bath

still

rather slow?

(What

in-

sulation film
10.

involved?)

processing room wherein the Hall process is conducted must be provided with good ventilation. What gas and vapor must be conducted away? 11. Why does the presence of high silicon in aluminum alloys lead to superior fluidity? To lower degree of contraction? 12. How do you explain why magnesium has the highest machinability among the commercial metals? Why arc its turnings so much more combustible than those of aluminum? 13. Why should the heat treatment of magnesium be made in an air furance rather than a molten nitrate bath? 14. Aluminum sheet arrives at the plant with fine (tissue) paper between each sheet. Give three reasons why this has benefical results. 15. After aluminum has been anodized, and then given cold and hot rinses, it should be painted within one hour thereafter. Why should this time be important? 16. What precaution should be made regarding machining or processing of beryllium alloys? 17. How do you account for the fact that titanium has high strength at elevated temperatures?
18.
is passed into molten aluminum on two occasions. What are two conditions that are eliminated by this action. Give reasons for both.

The

Chlorine gas

CHAPTER

Copper and Co pper -Base Alloys as Engineering Materials


Waiter
R. Hibbard, M.S., Adjunct Associate Professor
of Metallurgy, College of Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut

Roger Greenleaf Stevens,

Ph.D., Head, Department of Chemical Engineering, Southwestern Louisiana Institute, Lafayette, Louisiana

1 HESE

metals are such an integral, but com-

monly unnoticed, part of our daily life that even the housewife in the kitchen and the clerk in the store would find it difficult to establish a new routine of existence if copper suddenly disappeared from the world. Judged solely from the standpoint of absolute value to mankind, copper and its common alloys, the brasses and the bronzes, cannot compete with carbon steels, but each is of vital importance to our civilization and
could
It

hardly be eliminated without destroying or at least seriously


the elixir vitae of

crippling most branches of industry.

has been said with justification that electricity


civilization.

is

machine
if

It

is

difficult to

conceive of an electrical industry

copper and its ores had never been known, unless nature had provided with a substitute of equal conductivity, plasticity, and cost. Second only to high conductivity in importance is the resistance of copper and

man

some of the copper-rich alloys especially sea air and sea water.

to corrosion

in certain environments,

The average automobile uses 45 lb. of copper and its alloys, the average steam locomotive 4,500 lb., and the modern steamship more than 3 million lb. as castings, in pipes and tubes and in electrical equipment.

No metal has proved so suitable for steamship propellers as manganese bronze; four of these, weighing 37 tons each, drove the Queen Mary across the Atlantic Ocean in four days.
With two or three exceptions, the copper and copper-rich alloys discussed in this chapter have been important engineering materials for
161

'62
years and, unlike

Engineering Metallurgy

some of the light alloys discussed in the previous chapter, are covered by specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials.* In addition, most of them also conform to specifications adopted by the Society of Automotive Engineers, the Association of American Railroads, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(Boiler Construction Code)

U.S. Navy,

the American Standards Association, the and the U.S. Army, and to general federal specifications.
,

These standards especially those issued by A.S.T.M. -should be consulted for exact chemical composition and for minimum mechanicalproperty and other requirements which must be met before the material can be considered to be of good commercial quality. Although copper is present in the earth's crust to the extent of only 0.01 per cent, ore deposits of commercial importance are fairly widecopper-ore deposits of commercial United States contain on an average somewhat less than 2 per cent copper. In the important ores, copper occurs as the oxide, carbonate, silicate, and sulphide, of which the last named is the most abundant. In some parts of the world, notably in the vicinity of Lake Superior, long weathering of copper ores followed by
iron
ores,

spread.

Compared with

quality are lean.

The

ores of the

reduction of the resulting oxide or the carbonate, or the deposition of copper from solution, has produced large deposits of relatively pure native metal, which was distributed far to the south by the glaciers. Native copper was the only metal (except small quantities of meteoric iron) used by the American Indians for tools and weapons until the

white

man arrived. The production


process,

of high-purity copper from lean sulphide ores

is

complex

but copper exceeding 99.9 per cent purity can be probrief, the process consists of

duced cheaply. In

concentrating and roastto

ing the complex sulphide ore (copper, plus iron, plus other metals)

form oxides and


oxide.

to eliminate

some
is

The

roasted concentrate

and arsenic as the smelted with coke and a flux in a


of the sulphur

reverberatory furnace to remove part of the iron.

The copper and


is

iron

sulphides fuse into a matte containing about 40 per cent copper. This

matte

is

charged into a Bessemer converter and

blown

in a

manner

similar to the refining of pig iron to produce Bessemer steel.

The copper

and the remaining iron sulphides are oxidi/ed, and the iron oxide combines with silica to form a silicate slag. The result of these reactions is
"blister copper" containing 95 to

97 per cent copper and considerable

copper oxide.
'Sec A.
S.

T. M. Standards, Part

2,

1955.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

163

In addition to copper oxide, blister copper generally contains small amounts of sulphur, iron, lead, arsenic, antimony, selenium, tellurium, nickel, and other elements, usually including some gold and silver. In some ores, in fact, the silver and gold are worth so much that the copper
could be called a by-product of the refining of the more precious metals. Although the amount varies, a typical anode melted from blister copper frequently contains 30 oz. of silver and nearly i/ oz. of gold per ton. 2

melting and casting the blister copper into Electrolytic copper contains 99.95 per cent or more copper, with sulphur as the principal impurity. About 25 per cent of the electrolytic copper produced is used for making copperfinal step in refining
is

The

blocks which are electrolyzed.

base alloys; the remainder is melted in a large reverberatory furnace, oxidized to remove sulphur, and then "poled." This consists of inserting green wood poles beneath the surface of the molten metal. In the reaction between the wood and the molten copper oxide
is

enough oxygen removed so that the remainder, 0.03 to 0.04 per cent, when evolved during solidification, exactly balances the normal shrinkage of the metal.
Poled copper
is

known

as "tough-pitch." Its density in the cast condition

approximately 8.5 gm. per cu. cm., compared with 8.94 for the pure metal. Tough-pitch copper is used for wire for electric conductors, for
is

sheets,

and

for

many

other purposes.

Lake (Superior) copper, which constitutes about 15 per cent of the commercial copper in the United States, is-as previously mentioned-a
high-purity native copper
It differs

and does not

usually need electrolytic refining.

it may contain a small amount (which does not affect conductivity) and from 0.002 to 0.04 per cent or even more arsenic, which, in the higher amounts, may reduce relative conductivity as much as 40 per cent.

from

electrolytic

copper in that

of silver

recent development in copper refining

is is

the production of oxygen-

free copper. particles,

Oxygen in tough-pitch copper


this

present as cuprous oxide


solid metal.

which are almost completely insoluble in the


oxide
is

For

most purposes
is is

not harmful, but if extremely high ductility essential, the copper should be practically free from oxygen. The oxide also harmful if the copper is heated in an atmosphere containing hy-

drogen

common one

as this gas diffuses into the metal, reacts with the oxide, and causes brittlencss. There are two types of oxygen-free copper. The more

is produced by deoxidizing the molten metal with phosphorus or some odier element having a high affinity for oxygen. The residual phosphorus, although only about 0.02 per cent is present, reduces

the electric conductivity as

much

as

20

j>er cent.

To
,

produce high-conis

ductivity oxygen-free copper

(known

as

OFHC)

very pure copper

164

Engineering Metallurgy

melted and cast in an atmosphere free from oxidizing gases. A recent innovation consists of granulating brittle copper cathodes, which have been deposited electrolytically and which are free from oxygen, followed

by "coalescing" these in a press at high temperatures, which welds the


particles together

and extrudes

the metal as a solid bar.

Copper is malleable and is hot and cold worked into sheet, plates, and a variety of other shapes. As in the case of most other metals and alloys, cold working increases strength and reduces ductility.
tubes,

9.1. Properties

and Uses of High-Purity Copper


electric conductivity of all the

Copper has the highest

common

metals.

On

a strength

basis, its

conductivity

is

more than

twice that of high-

purity aluminum.
in the

About one half of the 800,000 tons of copper consumed United States in the average peacetime year is used for electrical

equipment and

for wire in light and power lines. When annealed, highpurity copper has a conductivity of 100 per cent according to a standard set up in 1913 by an international commission. Recently improved

methods of purification have resulted


per cent.

in conductivities as high as 102

Copper

is

also the best heat


it

which makes

(and

its alloys)

conductor of any of the commercial metals, useful as cooking utensils and as radi-

ators and other heat-dissipating apparatus. In general, copper and the copper-rich alloys have excellent resistance to corrosion by the atmos-

phere and by water. Owing to this corrosion resistance and to a reasonable price, copper and some of its alloys are widely used by the building

and water hardware and interior fixtures. When exposed to the atmosphere for long periods, copper oxidizes and forms a green patina which is ornamental in addition to being adherent and protecting the underlying metal from further attack. Approximately 10 per cent of the copper consumed annually is used by the building industry.
pipes,

industry for roofing, down-spouts, gutters, screens, drainage

and

for

Copper and copper-rich alloys have a wide range of mechanical propAnnealed high-purity copper has a tensile strength of approximately 30,000 lb. per sq. in., an elongation in 2 in. of about 60 per cent, and a reduction of area of as much as 90 per cent. It is, therefore, weaker and more ductile than high-purity iron. At the other extreme, precipitaerties.

tion-hardened copper-beryllium alloys


190,000
lb.

may have

a tensile strength of

per

sq. in.

with accompanying low ductility.

The tensile strength of high-purity copper may be increased to 65,000 or 70,000 lb. per sq. in. by drastic cold working; elongation is lowered

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


to about 5 per cent.

165

According to Gillett,* the endurance limit of annealed tough-pitch copper is approximately 10,000 lb. per sq. in., and
cold working increases

of elasticity
capacity
is

it to as much as 20,000 lb. per sq. in. The modulus approximately 16 million lb per sq. in. The damping almost as high as that of cast iron.

is

For some applications the low strength of high-purity copper wire is a distinct disadvantage. Unfortunately, most alloying elements added to increase strength reduce conductivity to a fraction of the value for
high-purity
strength

copper.

satisfactory

and decrease amounts of cadmium.

in conductivity results

compromise between increase in from the addition of small

1100

40 50 60 Zinc, per cent

%V
M.

100

Frc. 9.1.

The

copper-zinc phase diagram. (A. Phillips and R,

BricKft

9.2. Constitution of the

Common

Copper-Rich Alloys

None

of the four series of

copper-zinc,

copper-tin,

important binary copper-rich alloys namely, copper-aluminum, and copper-nickel-can be

heat treated in the sense that sterling silver or many of the aluminumrich alloys can be heat treated. Sections of the copper-zinc and the

copper-aluminum diagrams arc given

in Figs. 9.1

useful alloys of copper with zinc (brass)

and 9.2. Most of the and of copper with aluminum

H. W. Gillett, Metals and Alloys, v. 3, 1932, p. 200. \ Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1939, p. 13G7.

166

Engineering Metallurgy
less

(aluminum bronze) contain


per cent
copper.

than 40 per cent zinc and

less

than 10

aluminum

respectively

and

are,

consequently, ductile single-

phase alloys consisting of a solid solution of zinc or of aluminum in If the zinc in brass exceeds about 35 per cent, beta phase appears, reducing ductility and impact resistance. Only one such alloy,
the

Muntz metal, containing -10 ]>er cent zinc, is used widely, and in this amount of beta is so small that ductility is not seriously affected.
Similar to conditions in the copper-zinc system, most of the wrought
per cent per cent

aluminum bronzes are single-phase alloys containing 5 to 9 aluminum (see Fig. 9.2) If the alloy contains more than 9.5
.

aluminum, beta phase appears, reducing the

ductility.

Although the beta


is

phase cannot be retained in solution by quenching, there


10.5 to
1 1

the possibility

of securing transition structures by quenching a wrought alloy containing

per cent aluminum. per


sq. in.

The

result

is

a tensile strength of 100,000

to

110,000

lb.

pared with 65,000 to

and an elongation of 10 to 15 per cent, as com85,000 lb. per sq. in. and 35 to 50 per cent elongaAtomic Percentage Aluminum K> JS 20 2S SO

%
_5

Weight Percentage Aluminum


Fig. 92. The copper-rich portion of the copper-aluminum phase diagram.t Fink, L. A. Willey, and C. S. Smith)

(W. L.

ilbid., 1948, p. 1160.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


tion for the alpha-phase alloy. in the

167
is

No

precipitation hardening

possible

binary copper-rich copper-aluminum alloys.


principal commercial copper-tin
1

The

alloys

are alpha-phase alloys

and contain

to 10 per cent tin

only important binary alloy is per cent tin and which is deoxidized in melting with a small amount (less than 0.5 per cent) of phosphorus. Tin increases the hardness and
cold-rolled phosphor bronze used for springs has a about 100,000 lb. sq. in. with 5 per cent tin; this increases to 120,000 lb. per sq. in. with 10 per cent tin. No heat treatment is possible with commercial copper-tin alloys. Copper and nickel form a continuous series of solid solutions free from any phase change. The strength of the solid solution of nickel in copper increases with the nickel from about 35,000 lb. per sq. in. for very low
tensile strength of

and usually also zinc, lead, or both. The phosphor bronze which contains 4 to 10

strength of copper.

nickel to 80,000 for 60 per cent nickel; elongation decreases from 70 to 45 per cent in 2 in. There are a large number of important copper-nickel

owing to their controllable color, to their corrosion resistance, or to their thermoelectric properties, are used for coinage, ornamental metal work, ship construction ( especially in parts exposed to salt water) thermocouples, and in other special applications. An alloy higher
alloys which,
,

Monel metal-containing 65 per cent nickel and 35 per cent copper-is widely used because of its high resistance to many corrosive
in nickel,

mediums.
9.3.

Nomenclature of the Copper-Rich Alloys

Although the copper industry is no worse than the steel industry in names and in confused nomenclature, so many misnamed alloys are commonly used that some attention to this subject seems advisable. The most common examples of confused nomenclature
the use of trade are calling a copper-zinc alloy bronze if it has a color resembling that of the copper-tin alloys and calling a copper-zinc-nickel alloy nickel silver if it has a silvery-white color. This confusion is regrettable, but in most
cases

years of usage.
alloys
tion,
is

nothing can be done about it, as the names are firmly fixed by The important fact to remember about the copper-rich
that the

name may

be more descriptive of color than of compositin

and that a "bronze" may contain no

and may even be

a brass;

likewise, nickel silver contains

no silver.

The usual name and the typical compositions of some common copperrich alloys are given in Table 9.3. It is evident that manganese bronze
(item 43)
9
,

hardware bronze (item

19)

and

10) are in reality brasses.

The

, and commercial bronze (items only true bronzes given in Table

168
9.3 are items

Engineering Metallurgy
49
to 59,
silver,

which are copper-tin


formerly

alloys deoxidized
silver,
is

by phosthe

phorus.
of a

Nickel

known

as

German

name
of

containing 17 to 42 per cent siderable part of the copper is replaced by nickel.


brasses,

group of

zinc, in

which a con-

The composition

Another example of confused nomenclature is the casting alloy containing 85 per cent copper and 5 per cent each of zinc, tin, and lead. As this alloy contains 5 per cent tin, it is as much of a bronze as it is a brass, but it is called red brass* and is, consequently, sometimes confused with wrought red brass which contains 85 per cent copper and 15 per cent zinc.
is

four of these alloys

given in Table

9.3.

9.4. Characteristics

and Uses of the High Brasses

As shown by the diagram in Fig. 9.1, 39 per cent zinc dissolves in copper at room temperature. Alloys containing less than this percentage of zinc when in a state of equilibrium are, therefore, single-phase solid
as alpha brasses. As shown also by Fig 9.1, about 36 to 39 per cent zinc may have a duplex structure if heated to a high temperature but should be single phase at room temperature. Actually, however, owing to a phenomenon known as coring, cast alloys usually have a duplex structure if the zinc is higher than 31 or 32 per cent. A zinc content of 35 per cent is about the maxi-

solutions

and are known

alloys containing

mum

for an alloy that is to be fabricated as a single-phase material. Although there is a continuous series of alpha brasses containing from 5 to 39 per cent zinc, these alloys are commonly and arbitrarily divided into two classes: high brass, containing 30 per cent or more zinc, and low brass, containing approximately 25 per cent zinc or less (Table 9.3)

Since zinc

is cheaper than copper, it follows that high brass is used as widely as possible, and that the zinc content is usually close to the upper limit, which is about 35 per cent. Although the alpha brasses can be hot worked commercially if they

are free from lead, they are not so plastic at elevated temperatures as the beta alloys. In common with most solid solutions they are, however,
plastic at

room temperature and can be

readily drawn, rolled, or

spun

into a variety of shapes.

In fact, these alloys combine a degree of plasticity, strength, ductility, corrosion resistance, pleasing color, and low cost unattainable in any other material of engineering importance. Alloys 13, 14 2 9 are used for a large variety of cast and wrought sections,
,

especially

hardware and pipe

fittings, for

tubes and pipe, for ornamental

The

and lead
1

casting alloy containing 85 per cent copper and 5 per cent eacli of tin, zinc, is also known as composition metal and in many foundries as ounce metal
1

because the composition corresponds approximately to


oz. of zinc,

lb.

of copper.

oz. of

tin.

and

oz. of lead.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


sections

169

grillwork, springs, screens,


rivets.

and building trim, for cartridge cases, automobile radiator cores, and tor many kinds of nails, screws, and

copper-zinc alloys are used because of their color, as stated They change from warm red copper color of copper to commercial bronzes (Tables 9.3 items 9 and 10) which have a bronze color to red brass (item 11) which is reddish hence its name. Some of these alloys in the above range duplicate the color of gold alloys and are used for manufacture of gold filled metals. Then comes low brass (item
previously.
12)

Many

pinkish, to cartridge brass (item 13) which is yellow, to yellow brass (items 14 and 15) which are greenish-yellow and finally to Muntz metal (item 16) which has the color of cast statuary bronze.
is

whose color

Muntz metal and its modification, manganese bronze (item 16 and 48, Table 9.3) usually contain beta phase at room temperature (see Fig. which reduces plasticity when the alloys are cold. These materials 9.1) are, however, characterized by extreme plasticity at a red heat and can
, ,

readily be extruded or rolled.

Owing

to their resistance to atmospheric


especially

and water corrosion, these two


tubes.

alloys,

are used extensively for extruded or hot-rolled pipes

manganese bronze, and condenser

is used for preheaters, evaporators, air-conditioning equipment, and in other applications where high resistance to salt water, fresh water, oil, or steam is required. Admiralty metal is an alpha-phase alloy and is not so easily

Muntz metal is now being replaced, particularly for condenser tubes in marine equipment, by a brass known as admiralty metal. This contains not less than 70 per cent copper, 1 per cent tin, and the remainder zinc. Other than for condenser tubes, admiralty metal, so called because it was developed by the British Admiralty,

hot worked

as

Muntz metal and manganese

bronze, but

it

is

readily

worked when

cold.
is

In genera], the machinability of the annealed, non-leaded brasses

about the same as that of low-carbon steel, in other words, they are too soft and gummy to be cut readily. Cold working, however, improves machinability, which is also greatly improved by adding lead. Item 29 (Table 9.3) can be machined readily in automatic machines. If
this

given a machinability rating of 100, the same brass containing only 1 per cent lead will have a rating of 70 (determined under the same conditions), and item H without lead-will have a rating of only 30. However, lead reduces the yield strength; it also makes the brass more
is

alloy

difficult to deform cold and makes it virtually impossible to work the alpha-phase alloys at elevated temperatures.

170

Engineering Metallurgy

9.5. Characteristics of the

Low

Brasses and the Nickel Silvers


is

(items 9 and 10 are called bronzes because of their color) are used for hardware, ornamental and architectural sections, wire for screens, and for costume jewelry, in addition to being used for tubes, pipe, radiator valves, and other fittings for lowred.

As the amount of zinc in brass Items 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12

reduced, the yellow color changes to

pressure water and steam.


ing," a
to a

An

advantage of the low brasses


is

is

that,

when

the copper exceeds 80 per cent, the alloy

not subject to "season crack-

phenomenon

prevalent in the high brasses


stress.

when they

are exposed
is

the spontaneous failure of the stressed material after a considerable time in a corrosive environment, especially in atmospheres containing ammonia. The time element depends upon the severity of the stress and the severity of the corrosion. Stress caused

combination of corrosion and

Season cracking

by cold working, or applied


brasses, are readily

externally,

is

necessary for failure of this type.

The low
are difficult
9.3)

brasses, like the


is

high

deformed cold pro-

vided the lead content

Also like the high-zinc alpha brasses, they to hot work although commercial bronze (item 9, Table
low.

truded, provided that

can be rolled or pierced and, to a limited extent, pressed or exmore than traces of lead are absent. Most nickel silvers have a copper content of 45 to 65 per cent. A

fairly

common

alloy

is

the one containing 75 per cent copper, 20 per


zinc,

cent nickel,

and 5 per cent

usually sold under the trade


as

name

Ambrac. All the nickel


nickel.
If the

silvers

can be classed

low brasses containing

only alpha phase.

copper plus nickel exceeds 63 per cent, the alloys contain They can be hot worked readily only if the zinc is

about 40 per cent or less than 10 per cent, but they can be
cold worked easily.

Nickel silvers are valuable because of their white color, a corrosion resistance that is
generally superior to that of
the

common

brasses,

good

f
Fig. 9.3.

*
on the color

mechanical properties, and moderate cost. The effect of composition on color is shown by Fig. 9.3. The nickel silvers
are used chiefly for ornamental

Nickel. per cent


Effect of composition

of nickel silver.

(Kihlgren)'

work as a base for and gold-plated ware.

silver-

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


9.6. Properties of the

171

Wrought Brasses
wrought brass and nickel silver are As the commercial copper-zinc alloys do not

Some
collected

typical tensile properties of


in

Table

9.3.

respond to heat treatment, variations in properties are obtained by cold working and annealing which results, as in the case of some of the alumi-

num

alloys, in various tempers, ranging from soft to half-hard, to hard, and to spring temper. With the possible exception of manganese bronze and nickel silver, the tensile strength of all the annealed brasses is very

similar to that of annealed or hot-rolled low- or medium-carbon steel, but the yield strength is much lower. As the brasses cost five to ten times
steel, the chief justification for the widespread then ease of working cold, their pleasing color, and their corrosion resistance, especially to water and steam. In general, the low brasses are more corrosion-resistant than the higher zinc alloys, especially in impure water and in salt water. The high brasses, in addi-

as

much
is,

as

low-carbon

use

of course,

tion to being subject to season cracking are also subject to "dezincification," or removal of the zinc, when the alloy is exposed to impure water

or salt water.
time.

The

mass of copper.
to this

action is apparently electrolytic and leaves a spongy Dezincification can cause failure in a relatively short
less

Alloys containing 20 per cent or

zinc are not usually subject

form of corrosion. Manganese bronze has high resistance to salt water but may be subject to season cracking and dezincification. The endurance limits of the brasses are low, ranging between 10,000 and 20,000 lb. per sq. in. for 100 million cycles, which is equivalent to an endurance ratio of 0.20 to 0.35, or about half that of steel. Annealed brasses have a definite yield point (as evidenced by the drop of the beam) but cold-worked alloys have not. Values for yield strength reported
in the literature are usually the stresses causing an extension of 0.5 per

cent under load.

These values are usually much lower than the yield strength of steel which corresponds to a permanent elongation of 0.2 per cent of the gage length. The modulus of elasticity (secant modulus,
see p. 65) alloys

varies
for

and

from 15 million lb. per sq. in. for the copper-zinc manganese bronze to about 19 million lb. per sq. in. for

The mechanical properties of brass and of nickel silver are affected by grain size which, in the case of worked material, depends
nickel silver.

on annealing temperature. Material with large grains has lower strength

and higher elongation than


strip)

fine-grained material

(except in very thin

T. E. Kihlgren, Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Cleveland pp. 1443-1445.

1939

172
9.7. Cast Brass

Engineering Metallurgy

and Cast Nickel Silver

There are at least a thousand varieties of brass that are melted and poured into sand molds. Most of these, however, fall into the nine genwhich specifications have been issued by the American Society for Testing Materials, the Society of Automotive Engineers, or by the United States government. Some typical compositions and properties of the most commonly used alloys are collected in Table 9.1* The properties of cast brass are determined on test bars cast separately from the same metal (A.S.T.M. specification B208-46T) and tested either with or without machining their surface.
eral classes of alloys for

As shown by the data

in

Table

9.1, the cast brass,

with the exception

of manganese bronze, are relatively

ductile and have a very low yield strength. Nickel silver has better properties than the copperzinc alloys containing no nickel, and when the zinc is omitted completely,

weak and

as in the case of cupronickel, the properties are


silvers

even better.

The

nickel

are,

however, considerably more costly than the other brasses.

The

cast brasses are easily

considerable lead, as most of


corrosion in
architectural
fittings

machinedespecially when they contain them do and have a high resistance to many environments. They are, therefore, widely used for and ornamental castings, especially hardware and statuary;
to sea, air,

and other parts exposed

and water or steam; plumbing


is

fixtures for water; valves

and other parts in chemical equipment; laundry


a favorite casting

and dairy equipment; and many others. Nickel silver alloy for automobile and household hardware and where alkaline waters or chemicals are encountered.
9.8.

for

industrial use

The Copper-Base Bearing Metals


principal copper-base bearing metals

The

(bearing metals are dis-

cussed more fully in Chapter 10.) are those in Class

On

a tonnage basis this

group

is

According to Clamer.t about 10


dized, or not, with less than
1

C of Table 10.2. more widely used than the others. million lb. of alloy CI (either deoxiis

per cent phosphorus)

used annually in

the United States.

The

leaded bronzes, alloys CI to

are employed by the railroads

and the

C5 and C8 and C9, automotive industry; alloys C2

and C3 are

suitable for small bushings

and bearings; others are better


ed,,

Cast

Metals Handbook, American

Foundrymen's Association, Chicago. 3rd

1914, pp. 604-648.


t

G. H. Clamer, Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1939,

pp. 1428-1429.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


. B 8 8 X

173

ON^

^-

a; -a

r"-c>ooooo-*-oinuiu"iir)

.a

ooooooooooo oooqoooooo ooooooooooo


<nOhtoinifl--QinM O00r-r-r--t-NMNCO

ooooooooooo ooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOO


ooomcnc^icoo>oofn
c

cj

o (S
in

in <- to

B c
a

r.

r- en

M-- O

CO

'5

3 o

CO

"r- n

m mm

^j-

Z
i/lvOsONOh-Wh-OOvOi/I^O

r-cJomcoor^moincs

3.0.0
a
.3 -3

IfI! 1

i -2 si

II zo

174

Engineering Metallurgy
alloy

fitted for general-service bearings;

C5

is

suitable for high speeds

and low bearing

The

moderate speeds and heavy loads. properties of the copper-tin-lead alloys vary with composition.
loads,

and CI

for

At room temperature, the property ranges


are as follows:
Property
Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in Yield strength, lb. per sq. in Elongation in 2 in., per cent

for alloys

CI

to CIO, inclusive,

Range

of values

28,000 to 40,000 14,000 to 18,000


1

to 20

Compression, lb. per sq. in., for a deformation of 0.001 in Brinell hardness (500 kg.)

10,000 to 13,000

55 to 75

(alloys C6 and C7, and alloy CI as well) are used movable bridges and turntables which act as bearings subject to slowly or intermittently applied heavy loads. Most of the alloys in group CI to C7 are used as large bearings ("brasses") in locomotives. Alloys CI, C8, and C9 are used extensively by the automotive

The

hard bronzes

in castings for

industry.

The

high-lead alloys

C10 and Cll

are a fairly recent

development and,

as steel backed, are used in internal-combustion engines for aircraft

and

automobiles, trucks, and tractors.


12,000 to 22,000

These

alloys are

inferior in tensile

properties to the other copper-rich alloys: tensile strength varies from


lb.

per sq.

in.;

yield strength

from 5,000

to 10,000 lb.

elongation from 5 to 12 per cent; and Brinell hardness (500 kg.) from 25 to 40. In general, however, they are superior to the white metals; their melting temperatures are much higher, and their properties
in.;

per sq.

are not so

much
if

affected
is

peated flexure which important,


seizure.

by temperature. They are also resistant to reimportant with present-day engine speeds. Most
which
acts as a lubricant

lubrication fails momentarily, the heat generated by the

friction sweats out a film of lead

and prevents

railroads were the first to use the high-lead alloys on a general adopting alloy C5 for a large number of bearings. In airplane and automobile engines, these alloys are now used for crankshaft, drivescale,

The

shaft,

and connecting-rod
1

bearings.

The most
up

recent development

is

the

addition of

to 2 per cent nickel, or

to 1.5 per cent silver, for conis

trolling segregation and sweating of the lead, which both in the molten and the solid state.

insoluble in copper

9.9.

The Tin Bronzes


industrial copper-tin
little as
1

The most important

alloys

are

the

phosphor
as II

bronzes which contain from as

per cent to as

much

per

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


cent tin.

175

All wrought phosphor bronzes are alpha-phase alloys, deoxidized by adding enough phosphorus to remove all but a trace of oxygen.

used of these alloys (items 51 to 57, Table are the ones containing approximately. 5 and 8 per cent tin; another popular alloy contains about 10 per cent tin. Owing to their high resiliency and endurance limit, these bronzes are used for springs and
9.3)

The two most commonly

diaphragms.

Phosphor bronze

is

hot worked with

difficulty,

but cold working

is

easy and the alloys are available in six tempers. These, and the range of tensile strengths for each temper and each alloy, are given in Table 9.2. The actual tensile strength depends on the thickness of the sheet.
(in 2 in.) varies from 40 to 60 per cent for soft sheet to less than 10 per cent for the harder tempers. The endurance limit in the hard temper is approximately 25,000 lb. per sq. in., and the modulus of

Elongation

elasticity is 15 million copper-rich alloys.

lb.

per

sq. in.,

about the same

as that of other

Table

9.2.

Tensile Strength of Phosphor-Bronzc Sheet

Temper

Reduction by cold
rolling,

Tensile-strength range, lb. per sq.


for bronze containing

in.,

per cent
Soft

5%
40,000 55,000 72,000 84,000 91,000 96,000

tin

8% tin
53,000 69,000 85,000 97,000 105,000 110,000 67,000 84,000 to 100,000 to 112,000 to 118,000 to 122,000
to
to

10%
58,000 76,000 94,000 107,000 115,000 120,000

tin

to

Half-hard...

20.7
37.1 50.0 60.4

to
to

Hard
Extra hard Spring Extra spring
.

55,000 70,000 87,000

to to

to to to to

to

68.6

98,000 to 105,000 to 109,000

73,000 91,000 109,000 122,000 129,000 133,000

Another important copper-tin alloy-which is used in the cast condition-is one containing a small amount of zinc. This alloy, known variously as government bronze, zinc bronze, or more commonly gun
as

metal (in the late Middle Ages it was used for casting cannons) contains 88 per cent copper, 10 per cent tin, and 2 per cent zinc-or 88 per cent copper, 8 per cent tin, and 4 per cent zinc. It is cast 'readily in the foundry, has a red color, and combines fine grain with considerable
,

strength, toughness,

and resistance to salt-water corrosion. Gun metal is used for joints and fittings, bolts, nuts, valve and pump parts, bushings and bearings for steam lines, and especially in naval construction. The tensde strength of cast and unmachined specimens varies from 30,000
to
lb.

45,000

per

sq. in., the yield strength

from 13,000

to 15,000 lb. per sq.

176
in.,

Engineering Metallurgy and the elongation (in 2 in.) from 15 is high. The modulus of elasticity is
to

40 per cent. Impact

re-

sistance

15 million lb. per sq. in.

9.10.

Aluminum Bronze and

Copper-Silicon Alloys

The
by

copper-rich copper-aluminum alloys combine the strength of a

steel with high resistance to corrosion by the atmosphere, by a large number of neutral and acid salts of low concentration, and by sulphuric acid. They are more resistant than manganese bronze to salt water and have good strength and ductility. The single-phase commercial alloys contain 10 per cent or less aluminum. It was noted in 9.2 that, if the aluminum is higher than this, the structure
salt water,

medium-carbon

and properties can be changed by thermal treatment. This is also true of the complex alloys containing 5 to 10 per cent aluminum and several per cent of iron, nickel, or manganese. By controlling the composition and by heat treatment the tensile strength of the wrought alloys can be varied from 65,000 to 125,000 lb. per sq. in., with elongations varying
inversely with the tensile strength
tion
9.3,

from 5

to 70

per cent.

and

typical properties of alloys in

common

use are given in

The composiTable

items 60 to 63.

Aluminum
alloys can

bronze is hard to handle in the foundry. The alpha-phase be hot and cold worked readily, but they are hard to machine.
corrosion resistance,
its

Owing

to

its

strength and toughness, and

its

low

coefficient of friction against steel,

aluminum bronze

is

used for gears,

valve stems, bolts and nuts for propellers, and for various small parts;
as cast,
it is

used for gun mounts, gears, bearings, propellers,


pieces, especially for service in salt air

pump

parts,

and ornamental

and

salt water.

The

copper-silicon alloys, usually

known

as bronzes, of
as

which some 20

to 25 are available

under such brand names

Duronze, Olympic, Ever-

dur, Herculoy, and others, contain 90 to 98 per cent copper, 1 to 4.5 per cent silicon, and small amounts of zinc, iron, or manganese, or if easy machinability is desired 0.25 to 0.50 per cent lead. Strictly speaking,

the copper-silicon alloys are copper strengthened by

to 5 per cent of

other elements.

The

strength

and

ductility of these alloys are approxisteel,

mately the same

as those of

low-carbon

and the corrosion

resistance

and

ease of hot

and cold working


is

are about the

same

as those of copper.

Strength as well as ductility increases as the silicon increases


4 per cent. This
.

up

to

about

shown by the typical properties in Table 9.3 (items 66 to 69) Thermal conductivity and electric conductivity are 8 to 10 per cent of the corresponding values for copper, and the modulus of
elasticity is 15 million lb.

per

sq. in.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

177
is

The
in

principal advantage of the copper-silicon alloys


industrial waters, in sulphuric

their corrosion

resistance in both

marine and industrial atmospheres, in sea water and


in

many

and

chlorides,

and

most

alkalies

and hydrochloric acids, sulphates and alkali salts. They are also re-

and to many organic acids but are readily attacked by and other strong oxidizing agents. The alloys can be used for working stresses up to 10,000 lb. per sq. in. at temperatures of 250F. (120C.) or below, and they can be readily welded by oxyacetylene, metallic-arc, and resistance methods.
sistant to alcohol

nitric acid

The

copper-silicon alloys are

now used

extensively for bolts, screws,

rivets, boilers, tanks,

for fans, ducts,

and sewage disposal, parts and other ventilating and air-conditioning equipment,
for laundries

equipment

chemical and electrical equipment, containers for gases and chemicals, and for many other purposes.
9.11. Copper-Beryllium Alloys

years.

Copper-beryllium alloys are a development of the past twenty-five Their strength and endurance limit, after age hardening, are high
copper-rich alloys.

when compared with other


corrosion resistance that
is

This, combined with a


as of high-purity copper,

practically the

same

and comparatively high


$1,000 a
it is

electric conductivity,

would be responsible

for

fairly extensive use if the cost

pound

in

were lower. Beryllium metal, which cost 1927, had been reduced to less than $40 by 1937, and

estimated that the price could be lowered further to S5 to $10 a pound if there would be more demand for the metal. Assuming, howis $15 a pound, an alloy of 97.5 per cent per cent beryllium would cost between $0.55 and $0.75 a pound in ingot form, which is still too high for extensive commer-

ever, that the cost of beryllium


2.5

copper and
cial use.

At
grain.

present, copper-beryllium

alloys

contain

1.85
is

to

2.25

per cent
refine the

beryllium.

To

some

0.35 per cent nickel or cobalt

added to

The

alloys can

available as sheet, rods, wire,

be hot and cold worked, but not easily, and are and tubes. As indicated, they respond to

If hot worked or welded, they are given a solution treatment by heating to 1425 to 1475F. (775 to 800C.) for 30 min., followed by quenching in water. The alloys are usually cold

precipitation-hardening treatments.

worked
(315C.)

after the solution treatment.

for

to 4 hr.

They are aged at about 600F. depending upon the properties desired. Typical

properties are as follows:

178

Engineering Metallurgy
Table
9.3.

Composition, and physical

NOTE: The

petiftcation

tabulated values arc average and, because of manufacturing limitations, should not be utei for purpoui. Within manufacturing limitations and when o tpceifitd, these products will

be manufactured to applicable current

ASTM

Specifications.

|s

Nominal Composition, per cent


Item No.

Name
Alumi-

l!
<
Others

Copper

Zinc

Tin

Lead

num

Phosphorus

Manganese

C0PPER8
1.

Electrolytic

Tough Pitch Copper-100

99.9+ 99.9+

20
0.02
10 to IS oz. Silver

20 20 20
20 80

3. 4.
6. 8.

Silver Bearing Coppcr-112 Silver Bearing Copper-113

99.9
99.

per Tont
25 to 30 ot. Silver

Phosphorlzed Arsenical Copper-108 Tellurium Copper-127

99.68 99. JO 99.00

0.02
1.00

Pit Ton' Arsenic, 0.30

Tellurium,

0.50.

80

BRASSES
8.

Oilding-4

95.00 90.00 87.50 85.00

5.00
10.

20 20 20 30

00

12.50
15.00

80.00 70.00
14.

20.00

10

30.00 34.00
37 00

30
30 40 40
0.50 2.25 1.75 0.25 0.50 1.60 1.00 0.25 0.50 1. 00 2.00 2.50 3.25 1.80 0.60 1.00 2.00 2.50

Yellow Brass-59

66.00
63 00

60.00

40.00

LEADED BRASSES
17. 19.

Leaded Commercial

llronzo-201

SO. 21. 22.

Hardware Bronze-267 Leaded Tube Brass-220 Leaded Tube Brass-218


Fre- Cutting

90.00 88.50 85.00 66.50 66.50


(10.50

9.50 9.25 13.25

50

Drass-282 23. Leaded Tube Brass-257 24. Threading Brass-223


20. 27. 28. 29.

Tube

Medium- Leaded

30. 31. Leaded Muntz Metal-274 32. Free Cutting Muntz Metal-293 33. Forging Brass-2S0 34. Architectural Bronce-280

Brass-229 High-Leaded Brass-235 Extra-lllgh-Leaded Hrass-238 Freo Cutting Brass-271 High-Leaded Brass-243

66.00 65.00 64.50 04.50 64.00 62.50 61.50 61.50 60.00 60.00 60.00 56.00

33.25 33.00 31.90 33.00 34.75 35.00 34.50 34.00 35.00 35.25
.SvTil

90 90 50 60 90 70
50 60 70 80 100 100

39 in 39.00 38.00 41.50

90 60 70 80 80

1 0.034 to

0.051% Silver.

0.085 to 0.102% Silver.

NOTES
The
values given are to be considered only as a general guide, and variations In properties due to manufacturing variables

must bo expected.
Higher values for strength and hardness arc obtained by a greater amount of cold working but are limited In general to relatively narrow sheet, small-diameter rod and wire, and smalt-diameter thin-wall tubo. Wide sheet and plate, large-diameter rod, and large sizes of wire and tube have. In general properties between those given for hard and soft tempers, (a) These relative vbIucs are given in comparison with Free Cutting Brass-271, arbitrarily given a value of 100, and are only an approximate Indication, there being no ready means for accurately comparing the machinablllty of metals. They arc a reasonable guide to relative tool life and amount of power required for cutting.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


properties of standard copper alloys

179

>.

=
Elongation,

3^.

Applicable

Form
(b)

ASTM

Tensile Strength, psi.

% in 2 In.
( Unless othe wise noted)

Yield Strength

0.5

elon-

gation under
load,
]>si.

Rockwell Hardness No.

r,

g
O
<5

^ 5 fc
o

>

5*>

1 -

ciZ-n

Specifi-

cations

-;==
5
iz

9
v a.

13 l8
Mis?

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(c)

o
Soft

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(c)

Soft

mi
226

(Sheet

B152
B124, B133 BI. B2, B3 B42, B75 B88, Blll.lt
'

JRod
iWire

000 45.000 66,000


4fi.

33,000 32,000 35,000 35,000 33,000

35

1(e)
1

45 35(e) 45 35
351 45 45

40,000 40.000

10,000 10.000

B51

B50 B50
B51
B5I

F35) F35
! '

1083

0.322

.000009b

101. c

(Tube
Sheet Sheet

45,000 46,000

10

B302 B152
B152
B75. Bill B301

40.000
10,000

10,000
10,000

F40

1083
I

0.323 0.322 0.322


0.323 0.323 0.323

.0000098 .0000098 .0000098

85.0
100.5
100. f

197

5 5
10 18
12

F3
F35
F40 F35 F35 F45

1083

223
223 112 215 222

46,000 45,000 45,000 45,000

33,000
35,000 32, 000 32,000

40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000

10.000 10,000 10.000 10.000

1083 1080 1070 1079

Tube Rod Rod


Sheet /Sheet

45

B50 B50 B50


B61

.0000098 .0000098 .0000098

45.0 90.0 99.0

B36
B36, B130 B134

\WIrc
Sheet (Sheet

B36
B134
B-13.

(Wire

(Tube
(Sheet IWiro
(Sheet

Bill,

55,000 62.000 80, 000 65.000 69,000 88,000 69,000 73,000 100,000 76,000 110.000 76,000 73,000 65,000 105,000

35,000 37.000 38, 000 38,000 40,000 42,000 40.000 43,000 47,000 47.000 50,000 47.000 45,000 46,000 50,000 54.000

6 6 J(e)
r.

38 40
40(e)

44,000 47,000 50,000 55,000

11.000 12,000
13,000 15.000 15,000 16,000 17,000 17.000 17,000 17,000

1065
1045

0.320
0.318 0.317 0.316

.0000101 .0000101

56

139

B70
,

B,
.|

43.0 40.0 37.0

108 100

42 45
42(c) 50

B73
B76|

B3 B5
1)5

1035
|

.0000102
.0000104

Kc)
10 8 1(e) 10 1(e) 10

55,000
00,000 62,000

B135 B36 B134


B19, B36
1)131

B76
B81

1025
j

92

(Wire .Tube
Sheet

50 45(e) 65
50(e) 60

B10
f

iooo
1

0.313 0.308

.0000106
.ooooiii

32.5
27

81

B83 B83 BS0

'B20i
955
930

B135

70
69 69

B36
B134

10
20 1(e)

(Rod
(Wire
Sheet

60 60 50(e) 45

62,666 60,000 50,000

B20 BIS
B20'

0.306
0.305 0.303

.0000112 .0000114

26.0 26.0
28.4

B75

920 905

20,000

B'
B70 B58
B.V,

.0000116

73

Sheet

Rod Rod Tube Tube Tube Tubo


Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet Sheet

B121 B140 BI40 B135 B135 B135

"
iii2i

B121

62,000 51,000 52.000 73.000 73,000 73.000 73,000 73,000 73,000 73,000
i3.Wl

B121
3121

Rod
Sheet Sheet

Tube Rod Rod

B16 B121 B171 B13S B124

73,000 58,000 73,000 80.666


1

37,000 37.000 40,000 45,000 45.000 45.000 45,000 45,000 45.000 45,000 45,000 45,000 47,000 45,000 54,000 54,000 54,000
Ml

6 IS 20 10
10

40 40 45 55
55

9 10 9
S

55 55 55
55 52 50

8
/

18 7

60
50

47,000 45,000 43.000 60,000 60.000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60,000 60.000 60.000 60,000 42,000 60,000
6o,'66o'

....

45
40 45 25

rm

12,000 12,000 15,000 17.000 17.000 17,000 17,000 17,000 17,000 17.000 17.000 17,000 18,000 17,000 20,000 20.000 20.000

Bl Bl

B5
B15
1)1.'

1045 1040 1025

B80 B80 B80 B80 B80 B80 B80 B80 B80 B70 B80

935
935

B15 B15 B15


B15 B15 B15 B15 B20 B15 B45 B45 BI5 B65

935 935 930 925


923

920
905

"
B86

895 908 900 900


895

0.318 0.319 0.317 0.307 0.307 0.308 0.307 0.306 0.300 0.306 0.307 0.307 0.307 0.305 0.304
0.304 0.305

884

0.305

.0000101 0000102 .0000104 .0000112 , v Q] | g 0000113 0000112 0000113 0000113 on mis 00OO1I3 0000114 0000114 0000113 0000116 0000116 0000115 0000116
. ,

42.0 42.0
311.0

104

105 93

28.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 20.0 26.0 26.0 26.0 26 25.5 26.0 20.0 26.0 26.5 28.0

68 68
68 68 68

68 68 68
68

62
68

68 68

82
7i

Courtesy American Brass Co.

NOTES
(b)
(c
>

(Continued)
t
'

? 1 conductivity: given for soft annealed metal; in hard temper conductivity Is slightly --.. lower. Klongation of wire, percent in 10 in. for copper is about 10,000,000 psl. The addition of zinc to copper reduces the modulus, to about 14,000,000 psl. for Yellow Brass. Pot most bronzes, the value is " TheEdition of nickel about fWOOO0 >"> "" to copper Increases the modulus, Cupro Nickel, 30%-702 showing about 20.000,000 psi.

YOUX 1'S MODULUS OF ELASTICITY

r< (e)

wlro 008 ta d,ametcr; Tub,, SS&r ?SSm ES&VSST Sl"* M0 thleki Rod ia reduowi about 37% in thioknoss by m rm ^- and grants ERR sr^awasss ssr * PClrlc
ta "
'

'"

'

dlttraeter:

"

'

"'

'

'

J:!

"

>

. .

180

Engineering Metallurgy
Table
9.3
Continued.

NOTE: The

specification purposes.

be manufactured to applicable current

tabulated values are average and, because of mnnhctoring limitations, should not be used tor Within manufacturing limitations and lehen so specified, these products will

>

ASTM

Specifications.

Nominal Composition, per cent


Item

11 $9
Others

No.

Name
Copper
Zinc

Alumi-

Tin

Lead

num

Phos-

Manganese

phorus

SPECIAL BRASSES
94.97
36.
37. 38.
39.

4.00
0.90 10.00 14.00 17.00 18.00 20.98
27.96 29.00
39.25

1.00 1.75

High Strength Commercial Bronze286

0.03 0.10
1.00 Silicon, 1.00

20

Ambronze-421

Manganese Red
Silicon

Red

40.

Trumpet

Brass-507 Hrass-1027 Brass-435


.

41.

Ambraloy-927 (Aluminum -Brass)..


Admlralty-439

90.25 88.00 85.00 82.00 81.00 77.00 71.00


70.00

Nickel, 1.00

80
20

1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00

Arsenic, 0.04

30 30 30 30 30 30 30

42. Arsenical

44. 45. 47.

Naval Brass-450 Tobin Bronze"-452


Leaded Naval Brass-612

60.00 60.00 60.00 60.00 58.50

0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 1.00 6.70 1.76

39.25 38.55 37.60 39.25

30 50

80
0.25
Iron, 1.00 30

PHOSPHOR BRONZES
49. 50. 51 . 52. S3. 54.

Phosphor Phosphor Phosphor Phosphor Phosphor

Bronze-356 Bronze-361 Bronze, (A )-302 Bronze, (A j-303 Bronze-314

98.70 98.24 95.95 95.75 95.17


94.75
. .

1.25 1.75 4.00 4.00 4.00

0.05 0.01 0.05 0.25 0.08 0.25


1.00

20 20 20 20

0.25

Iron, 0.50

20 20 SO 20 20

Phosphor Bronte, (A )-351


Leaded Phosphor Bronze, (B)-379.

5.00
5.00 6.50

65.

93.90 93.20

0.10 0.30 0.25

57.

Phosphor Bronze, (C)-353

91.75

8.00

58.

Phosphor Bronze, (D )-354


Free Cutting Phosphor Bronze-610.
.

89.75

10.00

0.25 4.00
0.10

20

59.

87.90

4.00

4.00

90

ALUMINUM IBRONZE8,
60.

Ambraloy-901

95.00

5.00

20 20
Nickel, 0.50; Iron, 0.60 Nickel, 5.00; Iron, 2.50

61.

Ambraloy-928

92.00
89.25 82.00

8.00
0.40 9.26 9.50
1.00

62. Avlalitc'-915 63.

20 20

Ambraioy-917

'

Trade-Mark Reg. V.

S. I'at. Off.

t 1.25"

and over.

NOTES
The
must be expected.
values given are to be considered only as a general guide, and variations In properties due to manufacturing variables

Higher values for strength and hardness arc obtained by a greater amount of cold working but arc limited in general to relatively narrow sheet, small-dlamcler rod and wire, and small-diameter thin-wall tub*;. Wide sheet and plate, large-diameter rod, and large sizes of wire and tube have, In general, properties between those given for hard and soft tempers, (a) These relative values are given in comparison with Free Cutting Druss-271, arbitrarily rfiven a value of 100, and are only an approximate Indication, there being no ready means for accurately comparing the machinabllity of metals. They are a reasonable guide to relative tool life and amount of jwwer required for cutting.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

181

=
Elongation,

5%

~Q

i?*^

Applicable

Korm
(b)

ASTM
Specifi-

Tensile Strength, psl.

% In 2 In.

Yield Strength

@ 0.5 % elongation under


loud, psl.

(Unless otherwise noted 1

Rockwell Hardness No.


a.

5 1
J3

3h
^S-c

cations

ii 1 ..a J. _M R fi

8*jn

S
*3

KM*

CO

Hard
(0)

Sort

Hard
(e>

Sod

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(o)

Soft

1
a

>S

fcji E = S

ttti

Sheet

no,

ooo

40,000

6 12

40

50,000 60,000

15,000

B70 B80

BS
B15

1060

0.320 0.320 0.316 0.316 0-310


.0.313 0.301

.0000101

38.0 32.0 27.0 22.0


14.7

95
81

Rod Tube
Sheet Sheet

70,000 69,666 90,000 80,000 85,000


86, 000 7(1,000

Tube

Tube
(Sheet

BUI
B171 Bill B291 B171 B21. B124 B21, B124 B21 B2I, B124
B124, B138

\Tube
1

Sheet Sheet

Rod Rod Rod Rod Rod

63.000 63,000 63.000 63,000


75,

000

46,000 40,000 55,000 48,000 52,000 48,000 52, 000 47,000 56,000 56,000 56.000 56,000 56,000 60,000

58
1

7 8 10 10 io 10

46 60 60
65 65

55,000 50,000 60,000

20,666 15,000 20,000

B76 BOO
B85 B83 B65 B65 B6S B66 B85

135

20,000
18,000 20,000 17,000 22.000 22,000 22.000 22,000 22,000 30.000

B35 B25 B30


B25\ B30I

1030 1015 990


1005.

.0000102 .0000104 .0000105


.

69
57

11000 10S

970

.0000108 .0000112
.0000111

27.5 22.6
24.7

39 70

58
64 43 67 67

65 65 40
45

935
945

0.308 0.308 0.304 0.304 0.305 0.305 0.302

62,000 35.000 35.000 35.000 35.000 45,000

B20
B501 B50f

16.0
25.8

30 35
28 2i 20

885 885 890 890 890

.0000119 .0000117 .0000119 .0000118 .0000119

38 35 30

BSD B50 B50

25.8 26.0 26.0 23.0

67 67 58

Sheet

Wire
Sheet

BIOS

moo
B139
11103

Tube Rod
[Sheet

65,000 105,000 80,000 70,000


(15,000

{Rod
(Wire

B139
III.'.9

Rod
Wire
(Sheet

B139 B103 B139 B159 B103 B139 B159 B139 B169


Bill BI69
BI24, B150
1)124,

80,000 65,000 110.000 65.000


120,000 93,000 80,000 130,000 102,000 85,000 145.000

Rod
iwire Sheet [Rod .Wire

40,000 45,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 48,000 52,000 48.000 57,000 00,000 60,000 62,000 06. 000 65,000 68,000

UO
8
15

48
40(c)

50.000

14,000
20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000 20,000

B75
B86 B80 B75 B86 B75

F60

SO 50
50 50 50 40(c) 40 40(e)

30
8

30
1(e)

65.000 58,000 55,000 65.000 55,000


55,000 68,000

B28 B2S B28


B281

1075 1070 1050 1050 1055 1050 1050 1040


1025

0.321 0.321 0.320 0.320 0. 322

.0000099 .0000099 .0000099 .0000100 .000010

43.0 37.8
18.4 18.0 16.4

126

85 47 47 44 47

B28}
1

0.320 0.322 0.319 0.318

.0000099
.0000099 .0000100 .0000101

18.0
18.4 12.0

25

20.000 24,000 24,000

B75
B94 B98

B25

He)
10
30

48 33
30

65 AS
40(c)

B50
BflOl

13.0

He)
12 25

65 65
40(c)

70,000

28,000

B55
1000

0.317 0.320

.0000102 .000010

11.0

29

He)
20

Rod
Sheet

60,000

45,000

B76
22,000 22,000 25,000 25.000 40,000
1

1000

12.2

33

92,000

Rod Tube
Sheet

105,000

Rod Rod
(Plate

80,000
95,000
ios.ooo

55,000 55,000 60,000 65.000 65,000 80,000 90,000

65

65,000

B92

B3.il

65
60 7 30 16 12

B35j

1060
101(1

0.295
0.281

.0000099

17.0 14.8 12.8 7.S

46
41 85 22

60 65 22
12

65.000 50,000 55.000

BM

BSOl

B50!

.0000099
.0000094

B150

1042

0.274 0.274

B171
B124, B150

Rod

60.000

BIOS

1055

.000009

NOTES
(b)
(c)

(Continued)

for which properties are given: Sheet, 0.040 in. thick; Rod, 1 in. dlumeter; Wire, 0.080 in. diameter; Tube, 1 In. diameter x 0.065 In. wall thickness. Hani temper: values arc for soft sheet that has been subsequently reduced about 37% In thickness by cold rolling; and for Rod, w ire and Tube of commercial hard drawn temper. (d) Electrical conductivity: given for soft annealed metal; in hard temper conductivity is slightly lower. (e) Elongation of wire, per cent In 10 in. S OF ELASTICITY for copper is about 16,000,000 psl. The addition of zinc to copper reduces the modulus, to about 14,000,000 psi. for Yellow Brass. For most bronzes, the value is about 15,000,000. Tho addition of nickel to copper Increases the modulus, Cupro Nickel, 30%-702 showing about 20,000,000 psl.

Form

YOUNG

MODULUS

182

Engineering Metallurgy
Table
9.3
Continued.

NOTE. The

specification purposes.

be manufactured to applicable current

tabulated values are average and, because of manufacturing limitations, should not he met lor Itliin manufacturing limitations and when so specified, these products will

ASTM

Specifications.

22

Nominal Composition, per cent


Item

II
Others

Name
Alumi-

No.

Copper

Zinc

Tin

Lead

Nickel

num

ManSilicon

ganese

M
20
20

CADMIUM BRONZES
64.

Hltenso'-901

99.00

66. 11 ltenso--965

98.60

0.60

Cadmium, Cadmium,

1.00...

0.80.

COPPER-SILICON ALLOYS
66. 67.

Everdur"-1010

95.80
95.60 98.25 90.75
7.25

3.10
0.40

1.10

30 60

EvordurM012
Everdur'-1015

3.00
1.60 2.00

1.00

68.

0.26

30
60

69.

Evcrdur'-IOM

CUPRO NICKELS
70.

Cupro Nickel, 10%-755 Cupro Nickel, 30%-702

88.35 68.90

10.00

0.40 0.60

Iron,

25

20 20

71.

30.00

Iron. 0.50

NICKEL SILVERS
72.

Nickel Silver, 10%-76I


Nickel 8llver. 18%-719 Nickel Silver, lS%-724

65.00

25.00 17.50

10.00 18.00

20 20

73.

64.50

74. 7S.

55.00 45.00

27.00 42.00
1.00

18.00

20
2.

Leaded Nickel

Sliver, 10%-25

10.00

CO

60

8PECIAL ALLOYS
76. 77.

Calsun Bronze*-951

95.50
99.05

2.00

2.50

20 0.10

Chromium Copper-999
Trade-Mark Reg.

Chromium,

0.85.

20

\>.

8. Pat. Off.

NOTES
The
values given are to be considered only as a general guide,
for strength

and

variations In properties

due

to

manufacturing variables

and hardness are obtained by a greater amount of cold working but are limited In general to "** ft 1 d srooll-dlamcter thin-wall tube. Wide sheet and plate large^an, SfEZi H&t^fffiS ""f eter rod, and large sizes of wlro and tube have. In general, properties between those given for hard and soft tempers (a) These relative values are given in comparison with Free Cutting Brass-271, arbitrarily given a value of 100,' and are only an approximate indication, there being no ready means for accurately comparing the macliinabllity of metals They are a reasonable guide to relative tool life and amount of power required for cutting.

Higher values

SSfSR

SS

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

183

i
Elongation,

"3

*
"31*.

JSd"-

Applicable

form
(1))

ASTM
Specifi-

Tensile Strength, psi.

% in 2 in.

Yield Strength

(Unless otherwise noted)

@ 0.5 % elongation under


loud, psl.

Rockwell Hardness

o
&
6fi

6
S.

i.

N 0.

a o C

JS
>,

cations

= 2 IS SS o' -#=K

w; _ 3 S~
St"*

2---

"3

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(c)

Soft

Hard
(o)

Soft

<3wS.

IShcet

\Wirc Wire
Sheet

B105 B105

55.000 90.000 95,000

37,000 40.000
42. 000

1(e) 1(c)

50 40(e) 40(e)

48.000

12,000

B65

F471

1076

0.321

.0000098 .0000098

87.0 60.0

199 13S

1070

0.321

1)96,

B97

Rod
Wire

B98, B124

Rod
Sheet

Rod
'

B99 B98 B97 B98


B99, BIOS
BJ24,

95.000 90,000 145.000 90.000 65,000

58,000 58.000 60.000

7 18

Me)
18 8 IS

60 70 50(e)

60,000 60,000 60,000 50.000 55,000 50,000

22,000 22,000

B92 B90
1)90

B35'.

B35
I

1019 1019

0.308 0.308 0.316 0.278

.0000100 .0000100
.00000911

6.5

19

Wire

Tube Rod Tube


1

BlW

70,000 122,000 65,000

40,000 40.000 42,000 40.000 95,000

6.5
11.0

IS 31

46 50
40(c)

15.000 15,000

B77
1)80

F55 F55

Ke)
8

1055
1005

50 25

15,000 53.000

B71

F55 B87

.000010

9.2

as

Bill
B122, B171

Sheet

Rod
1

Wire iTuhe
Sheet Sheet

BUI
B122 B122
lll.il

60,000 77,000 70, 000 95.000 70.000

44,000 55, 000 55, 000 58,000 55,000

15

40

25

40 40
35(e)

57,000 70,000 60,000


60,000

22,000 22,000 22.000


22,

BOS B84 B80

B25 B35 B35


B35.

U45
1225

0.323 0.323

.0000093 .0000090

9.2

26
17

Ke)
10

4.6

45

000

B80
B87 B85 B93 B85

Rod
Wire
Sheet

Rod
Wire

B206 B122 B151 B206

Rod
Wire Rod B105
(()

88,000 85.000 70.000 110.000 99,000 80,000 130, 000 70,000

55,000 58,000 58,000 60,000 00,000 60,000 65,000

4
20

42 40

70.000 70.000

20,000 22.000

45
40(C) 45 45 40(0)

B30 B40 B40 B45 B45

1010

0.313 0.316

.0000091

8.4

27 IB

1110

.0000090

6.0

Ke)
4

20

75,000 60. 000 40,666

22,000 22,000

1055

0.314

.0000093
.000011

5.3

17
21

Ke)
IS

B70

925

0.303

7.0

135,

000

02, 000

\Rod

72,000

000 000 03.000


52, 35,

Ke)
20 25

40(e)

40 25

57,666 61,000

15.000

45.000

B70 B77

Fgq

1054 1075

0.308
0.321 0.321

.0000099 .0000098

B65

1075

19.0 50 u 40.0 80.0 187

NOTES
(b)
(c)

(Continued)

for which properties are given: Sheet, 0.040 in. thick; Rod, 1 in. diameter; Wire, 0.080 in. dia ncter; Tube, 1 In. diameter x 0.065 in. wall thickness. Ilard lemper: values arc for soft sheet that has been subsequently reduced about 37% in thickness by cold rolling; and for Rod, \\ Ire and Tube of commercial hard drawn temper. (d) Electrical conductivity: given for soft annealed metal; In hard tempor conductivity is slightly lower. (e) Elongation of wire, per cent in 10 In. (f) Properties after heat treatment (alloy 77). YOUN'O'S OF ELASTICITY for copper is about 16,000,000 psi. The additon of line to copper reduces the modulus, to about 14,000,000 psl. for Yellow Brass. For most bronrts, the value Is about 15,000,000. The addition of nickel to copper increases the modulus, Cupro Nickel, 30%-702 showing about 20,000,000 psi.

Form

MODULUS

184

Engineering Metallurgy
Typical Propcrlics of Copper-Beryllium Alloys

Tensile

Yield
strength, lb.

Condition

strength, lb.

per sq. in.


Soft

per sq.

in.

Elongation in 2 in., per cent


45 6.3

Brincll

hardness

Average treatment

Maximum

treatment ....

70,000 175,000 193,000

31,000 134,000 138,000

2.0

110 340 365

The endurance
in.

limit

is

usually between 35,000 and 45,000 lb. per sq.

depending on the treatment.

The endurance ratio varies from approxiof elasticity averages 18 million lb. per

mately 45 per cent for the unhardened alloy to about 20 per cent for fully

hardened material.
sq. in.

The modulus
alloy.

In these properties the copper-beryllium alloys are far superior to

any other copper-rich

They also have relatively high wear


to

resistance
resisting

and corrosion

resistance

and are superior

phosphor bronze in

metal-to-metal wear

when run

against steel.

to a limited extent for springs, gears,

At present they are used diaphragms, bearings, and for


a

other small parts in the electrical and the aircraft industries.

Chromium copper (Table


which
is

9.3,

item 77)

is

heat-treatable

alloy

extensively used for welding electrodes,

grid support rods,

and

for lateral wires in electronic

vacuum

tubes.
silver,
1

A
iron,

copper-silver-iron

alloy
is

containing 6 per cent

per cent

copper remainder,
S.

also a heat-treatable alloy

used by the Signal

Corps of the U.
9.12.

Army

for field telephone wire

during the Korean war.

The Copper-Rich Copper-Nickel

Alloys

Copper and nickel dissolve in each other in all proportions in the solid and their alloys are free from phase changes. Some of the most widely used industrial alloys contain from 2 to 30 per cent nickel (the
state,

cupronickels)

or 45 per cent nickel

(Constantan)

Of

the important

nickel-rich alloys, the best

known

is

Monel, containing 68 per cent nickel.

This group

is

discussed briefly in the next chapter.

Nickel increases the tensile strength, the yield strength, and the en-

durance limit of copper,

as

Even the strongest


per cent in 2
to white.
in.

alloys are ductile

shown for annealed alloys in Fig. 9.4. and have an elongation of 45 to 50

tion of increasing

As noted in the discussion of nickel silvers, the addiamounts of nickel to copper changes the red color 15 per cent nickel alloy has a faint pink tinge, and a 20 per

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


cent nickel alloy white.
is

185
practically

The

five-cent coin of

United States, the is an alloy of 75 per cent copper and 25 per cent
the
"nickel,"
nickel.

The most common


trial alloys

indus-

contain

15, 20,

30 per cent nickel.


bullet jackets

The

15

and and

20 per cent alloys are used for

and
high

for a large

variety of parts in

which the
ductility,

white
value.

color,

and corrosion

resistance are of

They were formerly used for condenser and other


tubes for marine engines and
oil refineries,

plications

but in these apthey have largely

been replaced by the 30 per cent alloy. This material can


40 SO Nickel, per cent

readily be hot and cold worked and can be soldered, brazed, and welded. It is one of the most resistant of the

Fig. 9.4. Effect of nickel on the mechanical properties of copper-nickel alloys (Wise)

copper-base alloys to salt water and to many of the cor-

rosive solutions of the chemical industry.

The

cupronickels are generally

resistant to the atmosphere, to industrial waters,


alkalies.

and
1

to

many

acids

and

The

30 per cent alloy, containing also


is

per cent manganese


ells, tees,

and

per cent iron,

cast into

a large variety of couplings,

and other

fittings for valves,

pumps, and other similar applications.

The cupronickels do not respond to heat treatment. As in the case of most solid-solution alloys, high strength can be attained only by cold working with concomitant loss of ductility. Cold working with reduca

tion of 60 per cent increases the tensile strength of a 30 per cent nickel alloy from 50,000 to 85,000 lb. per sq. in. and reduces the elongation

from

50 to 4 per cent in 2

in.

Some

of the copper-nickel alloys have important electric properties.


9.5,

As shown by Fig

the electric resistance

is

at a

peak and the tem-

186

Engineering Metallurgy
is

perature coefficient of resistance

practically zero in the alloy contain-

known as Constantan, has high and uniform thermoelectric force against copper and iron and is used extensively for thermocouples for the accurate measurement of temperatures below 1800F. (985C.)
ing 45 per cent nickel. This alloy,

40
Nickel, per cent

Fie. 9.5.

Effect of nickel

on the

electrical properties of copper-nickel alloys.

(Wise)

It

should be evident from the discussion in

this

chapter that the en-

gineer has available a wide variety of wrought and cast copper-rich alloys

and machines. There are so many of these alloys an intelligent choice of a specific one is sometimes difficult, especially in view of the fact that a large number of them are proprietary alloys for which extravagant claims are occasionally made.
for use in his structures

that

9.13.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


is

in

Powder Metallurgy
young
science.

Powder metallurgy
iron was formed into

a very old art and a very


a

Sponge
dis-

weapons
steel,

thousand years ago, but when

man

he discarded the more cumbersome method of powder metallurgy, and the art was lost until relatively recently. With the exception of filaments for the electric-light bulb, which have been
covered
to

how

melt

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys

187

made by powder-metallurgy methods


powder metallurgy has come

for fifty years, and the perfection of hard carbide tools twenty -five years ago, most of the development in
in the past fifteen years.*

The process underlying the production of powder compacts is well known and need not be reviewed here. Broadly it consists or preparing
metal or nonmetal powders of the proper size and physical characteristics, forming them into the desired shape, compacting under high

and sintering at the proper temClose tolerances can be maintained and no machining of the finished part is ordinarily necessary. Despite the high cost of the equipment for carrying on the various operations, great savings result in many
perature.
applications, especially for a large
difficult

pressure

(10 to 100 tons per sq. in.),

number

of identical parts that are

or expensive to machine from solid metal. The properties of a part made from powder depend on the character of the raw material and upon the pressing and sintering-in other words,

on the homogeneity and the absence (or presence) of voids in the finished part-and they range from about 50 per cent to practically the same
as for the solid metal or alloy.

One

of the great advantages of powder

or metals and nonmetals, that do not alloy in melting can be readily combined into an article having unique and often very desirable properties. Of the several million pounds of copper, for example, that are compacted by the methods of powder metallurgy a large proportion goes into porous "oilless or "self1

metallurgy

is

that

dissimilar metals,

lubricating" bearings for electrical machinery, automobiles, machines, and household appliances. More than a billion such bearings are in use.
oil less bearingf is made by compacting 87.5 to 90.5 per cent copper powder, about 9 per cent tin powder, and about 1.5 per cent graphite. These bearings are made with a controlled number of

The most common

voids (by regulating the density)


15 to 35 per cent

lubricant and, if machine. Sometimes

when installed, they contain they are, therefore, both bearing and properly made, will function as such for the life of the
,

so that,

impregnated

oil;

3%

lead

is

added for improved properties.

Engrs.,

meetings in the field were held at Massachusetts Icchnology in 1940 ami 1941. The papers presented were published in Urgy '" edited by John Wu,ff Am i(an Society for Metals, Cleveland ,Lo 1942, !L 622 pp. The first conference of the Powder Metallurgy Committee of the In * titute of Mini "S a"* Metallurgical Engineers was held in February, foTT^K 1944. The 12 papers presented were published in Trans. Am. Inst. Mining Met
Inst.ti.te of
'

'The

first

general technical

"

y. 161, 1945. pp. 524-634. See also Seminar on Theory of Sintering" and other papers in rrans. Am Inst. Mining Mel. Engrs., v 166, 1946, pp. 474-587. See also Proceedings of Com. B-9 of A.S.T.M.

fA^.T.M.

specifications

B202-51T.

188

Engineering Metallurgy

Copper and copper-base alloys compacted with graphite are also used and other parts of motors and generators, to take advantage of the antifrictional character of the graphite and the current-carrying capacity of the copper. Depending on the strength required, the amount of graphite may be 50 per cent or more. Thousands of contacts for making and breaking electrical circuits are produced by compacting copper and refractory metal, such as tungsten or molybsuccessfully for brushes

denum or the carbides of these metals. The principles underlying the art of producing powder compacts

are

not simple. Not only must such variables as particle size, pressure, and sintering temperature be controlled carefully to secure the density, hardness,

tural

and strength desired (all of which arc changes resulting from diffusion must

directly related)

but struc-

also be taken into account.

The
size
size

structure should resemble that of the solid metal or alloy, the grain

fine, and the voids (if present) should be uniform in and distribution. Powders of an alloy may, when compacted, have a structure and properties different from those resulting when the powders of the metals are used and alloying is accomplished during sintering. On the other hand, prealloying may cause increased resistance to compression and result in less dense compacts. Whether the compact is prepared by hot or cold pressing, whether the powders contain gas, whether they oxidize easily all of these are important factors and none has been

should be

thoroughly studied.
its

In general the metallurgy of producing metal parts from powder is in infancy and considerable advance can be expected in the next few

years.

Other than

for the

manufacture of hard carbide

tools, discussed

in a subsequent chapter, the process has been used successfully in produc-

ing parts of iron,


steel,

steel,

iron phis graphite, steel plus copper, stainless


alloys,

copper and copper-base


iron-nickel

and economic
loys,

alloys and

factors are favorable

aluminum and aluminum-base allist is growing rapidly. Where the future of powder metallurgy seems
the

secure.

QUESTIONS
1.

2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

What are the properties of copper that make it useful commercially? What are the composition and properties of common brass? What is Muntz metal? Commercial bronze? Name two methods for making copper alloys free-machining.
Define dezincification.

7. 8.

What What

are nickel silvers


is

intended

when

and their most valuable property? the term "high brass" is used in the

brass industry?

Give the eutectic composition of the copper-zinc alloy system.

Copper and Copper-Base Alloys


9.

189

10.

11.

manganese bronze, and what is its principal use? Compare the composition and properties of cast brasses, and cast manganese bronze.
is

What What

is

red brass? Admiralty metal?


Is it

a true bronze?

cast nickel silvers,

12.

What

are the principal metals in the copper-base" bearing alloys? Name their principal characteristics and uses. What are the uses for highlead, copper-base alloys? Mow do those compare as bearings with the white metals?

some of

13.

What What What

is

the effect of phosphorus

on the properties
the properties

of copper-tin bronzes?

arc the phosphor bronzes? phor bronzes.


is

Name

and some

uses of phos-

14.

amounts of cold working and varying amounts phosphor bronzes? What is the approximate composition of gun metal? What are the properties and uses of gun
the effect of varying of tin

on

the tensile strengths of

metal?
15.

What

16.

aluminum bronze? Indicate some of its and uses. Indicate the approximate composition and some of the applications of
is

the general composition of

characteristics

copper-silicon alloys.
17.

Indicate the approximate composition, properties before and after precipitation-hardening, and applications of the copper-beryllium alloys. What is the

18.

What

reason for their limited use? is the effect of increasing amounts of nickel on the tensile properties and endurance limit of copper? What are the properties of copper-nickel alloys? Name some of the copper-nickel alloys.

19.

What

general classes of materials may be combined by powder metallurgy Name and give the properties of some articles made by powder metallurgy methods from copper combined with other materials.

methods?
20.

How

are metal-powder compacts

erties of articles

made by

the methods of

made? What variables determine powder metallurgy?

the prop-

CHAPTER

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys


William H. Tholke,
Instructor
of
B.S., in

10

Metallurgical Engineering,
University
of Cincinnati,

Metallurgy,

Cincinnati,

Ohio

1 HE preceding chapters on the light metals, copper, and copper base alloys have dealt with the two largest nonferrous metal industries. Before taking up the complex field of iron-carbon
and the metallurgy associated with the working and manufacturing of these materials, it would be well to look briefly at the remaining commercial nonferrous metals and their alloys, how they are used, and the part they play in the overall metals picture.
In terms of density or specific gravity most of these metals are heavier than iron. Table 10.1 lists these metals in alphabetical order with their
alloy steels, cast irons

alloys,

Some categorizing may be done in terms of the physical characteristics of the metals, and the metal elements with which they are alloyed. Some of these metals such as Pb, Sn, Sb, Bi, Cd, and In have low melting temperatures. The alloys of Pb and Sn are often referred to as the white metals. Then, there are those metals
which have
high melting temperatures as well as good corrosion resistance. These are the metals Ni, Cr, Co, W, Mo, and Re and their alloys. A third group comprises those metals and alloys which by virtue of scarcity of supply

respective specific gravities.

and semi-precious metals. These arc the metals Pd, and Rh. And, lastly, a new. group which has come into prominence through the development of atomic energy. These are the elements Th, Tm, U, and Zr.
as the precious

are

known

Ag, All,

Pt,

190

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonjerrous Metals and Alloys


Table
10.1.

191

Miscellaneous Nonfcrrous

Heavy Metals and

their Specific Gravities

Specific

Melting

Specific

Melting

Gravity

Temp. F.

Gravity

Temp. "F.
2651

Antimony
Bismuth

(Sb)
(Bi)

Cadmium Chromium
Cobalt

(Cd)
(Or)

Columbian or Niobium Copper Gold Indium


Iridium
[Iron

(Co) (Cb)

6.62 9.80 8.65 7.19 8.90 8.57 8.96


1

1167 520 610 3430 2725 4380


1981

Nickel (Ni) Palladium (Pd) Platinum (Pt)

Rhenium Rhodium
Silver

(Re) (Rh) (Ag) (Ta) (Th)

8.9 12.0 21.5 20.0 12.4 10.5


16.6 11.5 9.35 7.30 19.3 18.7 6.0 7.13 6.7

2830
3224 5740 3570
1761

(Nb) (Cu)
(Au)
(In)
(Ir)

9 32
.

7.31

(1*0

Lead
Mercury

(Pb)

22.5 7.87 11.34


13.6 10.2

1945 314 4450


28021 621

Tantalum Thorium Thulium Tin


Tungsten

5425 3300
449

(Tm)
(Sn)
(VV)

Uranium (U) Vanadium (V)


Zinc (Zn) Zirconium (Zr)

(Hg)

-38
4760

Molybdenum

(Mo)

6170 2065 3150 787 3353

LOW MELTING METALS AND ALLOYS


10.1.

The While Metals


"white metals"
is

The term
tin in

usually reserved for alloys of lead

and

which one or both of these metals may comprise the major percentage of the total alloy content. The remaining alloying elements present may be one or more or the following: antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, indium, silver, and zinc. The white metal alloys are
often
plate, babbits,

more commonly known by their trade names such as pewter, terne and silver solders. Their applications find greatest usage

in the fields of (1) bearing materials, (2) type metals, and (3) low-melting fusible alloys such as the solders and safety fuse plugs.

The bearing metals must meet many requirements


qualify as a good bearing material.
is

before they can

These may be divided into three principal classes. First in importance proper structure, that is, a soft matrix with sufficient plasticity to conform to slight irregularities in the machining and alignment of the shaft, to allow any abrasive particles in the lubricant to become embedded in
, ,

the bearing metal (to prevent scoring of the steel journal) and to retain (to prevent mctal-to-metal contact) combined with a number of uniformly distributed particles which resist wear. Some metallurgists,
oil

however,

now

good bearings and

claim that wear-resisting particles are not necessary for that the structure is of minor importance. Such claims

192

Engineering Metallurgy

are strongly supported by the successful use of the steel-backed silver

bearings

and by

the

cadmium

bearings.

Second, the mechanical properties must be satisfactorily balanced.

The

bearing must
strength,

resist the shock of impact loads,

and

it

must have

sufficient

ductility,

and

resistance

to

compression not to crack or to

squeeze out under heavy loads, especially at the operating temperatures,

which may be 200 to 300F. (95 to 150C.) and in the modern airplane
even higher.

The

third requirement
properties.

is

easy melting

and casting and, most important,

good bonding
as a backing

In other words,

when

cast in a strip as thin as

0.01 in., the metal

must adhere firmly

to the steel or

bronze piece used

and should not

spall off or separate

from the backing during

For some purposes, especially for large railroad bearings, it must be possible to remelt and recast the bearing metal without excesoperation.
sive loss

by oxidation.

In addition, the bearing metal should have high thermal conductivity,

by the lubricants used, and it should be cheap. bearing metals. Typical compositions of some common alloys in these different classes, with the specification numbers adopted by the American Society for Testing Materials and the Society of Automotive Engineers, are given in Table 10.2. The white metals include the tin-base (class A, Table 10.2) and the lead-base (class B) alloys. The 14 alloys in these two groups and the numerous unimportant modifications that have been advocated from time to time are old and well known. The tin-base alloys, commonly called babbitts, are widely used in automobile engines and in a large variety of machines where speeds are high and loads are light or at most only fairly heavy. Lead, added (alloys A4 and A5) primarily to reduce the cost, is objectionable if operating temperatures are high as it forms a fusible eutectic with tin and lowers the temperature at which incipient melting takes place. The following illustrates the effect of lead: the temperature at which alloy A5 (18 per cent lead) is completely liquid is about 565F. (295C.) the corresponding temperatures for alloys Al and A2 (no lead) are 680 and 670F. (360 and 355 C). The properties of the tin-base alloys vary somewhat with composition but are usually within the following ranges:
resistance to corrosion

There are four

classes of

Properly Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in., at 70"F. (20C.) Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in., at 200F. (95C.) Yield strength, lb. per sq. in., 70F. (20C.) Yield strength, lb. per sq. in., at 200F. (95C.) Brincll hardness (500 kg.) at 70F. (20"C.)
Brincll hardness

Range

of values

12.800 to 17,500

6,700 to 10,000 4300 to 6500 2.100 to 3,200 17 to 27

(500 kg.) at 200-F.

(95C.)

8 to 14

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys


Table
10.2.

193

Typical Compositions of

Some Common

Bearing Mclals

Specification

Nomina] composition, percent


Sn
91

Class

A.S.T.M.

S.A.E.
10 110

Sb
4.5 7.5 8.3
12 15

Pb

Cu
4.5 3.5

Zn

Cd

Others

Al
2 3 4
5

B23-46T1
2 3

89

4
5 11

83.3 75
65

8.3
10
18 3

87 20

6.8
15 15 15 15

2 5.7
1.5

Bl
2

B23-46T6 7
8

14

10
5

3 4
S 6 7
8

10
11

63.5 75 80 83
85

15
10 15
1

12

90
84

15
19

15

86
10
7 9

CI
2
3 4
5

B144-46TA

792

10 7
5

80 83
85 78

0.0 to 0.9 P
3
1

D
E
B22-46TA B
791

7
5

15

25

6
7 8

19

16
4 4 4 8

70 80 83
89 85
3 3

0.0 to 0.9 0.0 to 0.9

P P

9
10

n
Dl
2
3
1

793 48 480

30
35

70
65

17P* 17C* 17R*


18

180
98

0.6

98.5 98.3 +

99.75+ Ag 98.50+ Ag 99.75+ Ag


1.2 Ni 0.7 Ag
t

* t

17P is plated, 17C is cast, and 17R is 0.5% Ca, 0.5% Na, 0.1 % Li + Al.

rolled,

In the case of these alloys, the "tensile strength" is the stress producing a deformation of about 25 per cent, and the "yield strength" is the stress producing an elongation of 0.125 per cent of the gage length.

The

lead-base white metals (class B,

Table

10.2)

are cheaper than the

tin-base alloys but are not so satisfactory for operation at high speeds

and

194

Engineering Metallurgy
loads.

medium

They

are used extensively by the railroads for freight-

passenger-car bearings, in electric motors,

and

in

and some machines. Alloys

ties of this

B2 and B4 are used in a number of bearings in automobiles. The propergroup of alloys also vary with composition, usually within the

following ranges:
Property
Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in., at 70"F. (20C.) Tensile strength, lb. per sq. in., at 200F. (95C). Yield strength, lb. per sq. in., at 70-F. (20"C.) Yield strength, lb. per sq. in., at 200F. (95-C.) Brinell hardness (500 kg.), at 70F. (20"C.)
Brinell hardness (500 kg.), at 200F. (95 C.)
.'

Range

of values

12,800 to 15,500 5.00 to 8,000 2,800 to 3.800 1,200 to 2.000


15 to 22

6 to 11

It is

evident from these values that the lead-base alloys are inferior in

properties to the tin-base metals.

strength of the white metals decrease


lb.

As the temperature increases above 200F., the tensile and the yield still more; values of 2,000 to 4,500
per
sq. in.

are

common

for tensile strengths at 300 F.

(150C.)

Elongation and reduction of area increase with temperature as, for example, from 15 to 30 per cent and from 18 to 40 per cent respectively.

The

constitution of the white-metal alloys


Essentially, the structure
(Fig.

is

complex and

is

imperfectly

known.

10.1) consists

of a solid-solution

matrix in which needles or. cubes of a hard constituent, probably an intermetallic compound such as SbSn, are embedded. Considerable work has been done recently to determine the effect of
small amounts of

cadmium on

the tin-base alloys. Apparently,

per cent

cadmium

increases the tensile strength

and hardness 10

to 20 per cent at

normal temperature and at 200 to 300F. (100 to 150"C.) The copper base bearing materials as listed in class G of Table 10.2 have found wide application particularly in the automotive and other
transportation
fields.

The

leaded bronzes

(alloys of copper, tin,

and

lead) in general are slightly superior to the white metals; their melting

temperatures are much higher and their properties less affected by the operating temperature range encountered by bearings of this type. They also have better fatigue life which is affected by repeated flexure.

Recent trends
or

in bearing materials

have been

in the direction of silver

cadmium based alloys, the oilless bearing as made by powder metallurgy, and aluminum base alloys with tin as one of the principle alloying
more complete picture of bearing
is

elements. For a
tion

alloys, their

composi-

and

properties, the reader

referred to the

ASM Metal's

The
tin

type metals are a series of lead based alloys

Handbook. with minor amounts of

and antimony which arc used

in the printing industry.

The

choice of

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

195

Fie 10.1. Structure of tin-base bearing metals (A) containing 86 per cent tin, 6 per cent antimony, and 8 per cent copper; and (B) containing 82 per cent tin, 10 per cent antimony, and 8 per cent copper: etched. 150x- (Courtesy of O. W. Ellis)

on the printing method used. In linotype machines it is advantageous to have an alloy that freezes at nearly a constant temperature, hence the use of the ternary eutectic mixture of 84% lead, 12% antimony, and 4% tin. This alloy freezes at 462F. and makes possible close temperature control as well as good delineation of the type characthe cast strip. In other printing methods a harder alloy may be and this may be obtained by adding copper in small amounts to the type metal or by solution heat treating and precipitation hardennecessary
ters in

alloy depends

The

ing an alloy which has the necessary amounts of tin and antimony. artificial aging operation often times can be accomplished in one hour at 185F. or 1 minute at 212F.
alloys are ideal for these applications since they must have low melting temperatures, (2) low cost, and (3) good casting characteristics. Tin imparts to the alloy fluidity which makes for ease of casting,
(1)

These

and the antimony increases the hardness and decreases contraction during freezing. Both elements together lower the melting point of the alloy and makes possible precipitation hardening if needed.

The fusible alloys are those which are noted principally for their low melting temperatures usually in the range of 125 to 450F. The solders, which are primarily mixtures of Pb and Sn, could be included

196

Engineering Metallurgy

in this category; although their melting range is usually considered as being from 360 to 570F. However, when alloying elements such as

antimony bismuth, cadmium, and Indium are alloyed with lead and
tin,

the melting temperature of the resulting alloy


alloys are used in the vital parts of safety safety

may be

as

low

as

I7F.

These

mechanisms

in fire

and

equipment. They are alloyed to melt or yield at specified temperatures thus releasing fire doors or sprinkling equipment. However, caution should be exercised in using these alloys where static
explosion
tensile loads are applied.
tures, they similarly

Since these alloys have low melting temperahave low recrystallization or cold working temperatures. Hence, most of these alloys will under go creep at room temperatures under static loading. Other uses for these alloys include patterns in precision casting methods, forming dies for aluminum and magnesium,
filler

material inside thin walled tubes during forming operations, cores


electroplated,

and forms on which other metals may be in tanks and cylinders of compressed gas.
10.2.

and

safety plugs

Lead and Tin

as

Engineering Materials
alloys of lead

While the preceding discussion has dealt with the


tin,

and

both metals are used

in considerable quantities in

commercially pure

form.

Lead is a soft metal (tensile strength of 2,000 psi) which is easily formed by most fabricating methods. Part of this ease of fabrication results from the crystal structure of the metal which is face centered cubic, and part from the fact that it will recrystallize at room temperature. Thus all forming operations at room temperature results in hot working the lead. Aside from its formability, lead is primarily noted for its corrosion resistance both to atmospheric conditions and to the acids sulphuric and hydrofluoric. As such it is used in relatively pure form as sheet and pipe in plumbing and building applications, in acid plants, and in the handling of chemicals. Lead or its alloys is rarely used in strength applications where static loads exist, since it will undergo creep at room
temperatures.
as tetraethyl

The

principal uses for lead are

(1)

in storage batteries (2)

lead in gasolines (3) as a cable sheathing material (4) as alloying element in solders and (5) as a building material. This is in the

order of the total yearly amounts used.


alloying with small

Lead may be strengthened by amounts of cither antimony or calcium which pro-

duces a precipitation hardenablc alloy. The resulting room temperature tensile strengths are as high as 12,000 psi.

Terne Plate, which is a lead based alloy containing 15 to 25% dipped onto sheet steel, is a competitor to zinc-coated products.

tin
It

hot has

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

197

the good corrosion resistance of both lead and tin and the bright appearance and formability of tin plate at a much lower cost than tin plate.

Tin in the commercially pure form has essentially only one application, the tin can. This involves depositing a thin layer of tin uniformly over a steel sheet by either hot dipping or electroplating. The latter,
while

more expensive, has helped conserve tin by producing a thinner coat. Tin has good corrosion resistance particularly to foods and fruit juices hence its use in the packaging and canning industries. However, on
steel the coat

lytic cell

must be continuous to be protective. Otherwise an electrowould be established and the steel would corrode preferentially.

10.3. Zinc

and Zinc Base Alloys as Engineering Materials

Zinc may also be considered as one of the low melting point metals, having a melting temperature of 787F. This plus its good atmospheric and salt water corrosion resistance are the characteristics which gives

The largest use of commercially pure in the galvanic protection of steel products-ga/wmzzmg sheet, tube, and wire. The protective coat is applied either by hot dipping the steel in molten zinc or by electroplating. The latter produces a
its
is

zinc

place in the metals industry.

zinc

and without forming a brittle between the zinc and the steel which will crack and flake off when the product is bent. In recent years, over 40% of the zinc used in the United States has gone into galvanized
intermetallic

thicker coat providing longer protection

compound

at the interface

products.

Second, in importance in the use of zinc is the die casting industry. Here, zinc alloys containing up to a combined 6% of aluminum, copper,
alloying

and magnesium are used. An increase and some dimensional stability

in strength
is

is

achieved by this

taining copper.

The

attained in those alloys condie casting alloys have a characteristic of shrinking

due to some phase change which occurs upon aging. Approximately two-thirds of the total shrinkage occurs in the first month, and this is often times made to occur at an accelerated
rate by heating the

in size apparently

parts 3 to 6 hours at 212F.


largest user of zinc die

The automotive industry is probably the castings. Many of the accessories, functional parts,

this method. It is an easy and economical way of producing precision parts which need little in the way of finishing operations. Quite often they will be chrome plated to enhance their appearance. The other applications where zinc die castings are used are in household appliances, office equipment, radios, toys, and telephone apparatus.

and decorative trim are produced by

198

Engineering Metallurgy
properties

The mechanical
similar to those of

of

the

zinc

and

zinc

base

alloys

are

aluminum and magnesium. Pure


psi.

zinc has a tensile

strength of about 20,000


a

The

high strength die casting alloy has

psi. However, this is not imply that zinc may be used for strength purposes. For at room temperature, zinc and its alloys undergoes creep at loads exceeding 6,000 psi. This is as may be expected from its low melting temperature.

tensile strength
to

of approximately 52,000

meant

The

fatigue strengths for these metals are of the


psi

same order being from


this

700 to 8500

depending upon the

alloy.

The

fabricating characteristics of zinc are

good considering

metal

has a hexagonal close packed crystal structure.


cation arises from the fact that pure zinc
at

Some

of the ease of fabri-

is hot worked when fabricated room temperature. Zinc and its alloys may be fabricated by practically all of the known methods rolled, drawn, spun, extruded, and cast. Some

difficulties are

encountered

in the joining of zinc,

but with proper techni-

ques

it

may

be gas welded or soldered.

Other uses for zinc include (1) use as an alloying element in brasses, photoengraving plates, (3) dry batteries, (4) weather stripping and building materials, and (3) more recently as expendable anodes for cathodic protection of underwater steel structures.
(2) in

HIGH TEMPERATURE METALS AND ALLOYS


was in steam In these applications the operating temperatures were in the range of 1000 to 1200F. Other uses at slightly higher temperatures were in ore roasting furnaces. Howearly use of metals for high temperature usage
in

The

power generation and

the petroleum industry.

and economy are of primary consideration while mechanical strength of secondary importance. More recently with the development of the gas turbine, jet engines, and atomic energy, the operating temperatures have been edging upward and the emphasis is more on mechanical strength along with corrosion resistance. The early high temperature metals and alloys involved the alloy steels and the nickel base alloys. As temperature and strength requirements have increased the trend has been toward nickel, cobalt and chromium based alloys. With the development of the cermets a new
ever, in these applications corrosion resistance

approach to high temperature alloys has been made. In cermets, the high temperature strength is attained from an intermctallic compound
usually a carbide of tungsten, titanium, chromium, tantalum, or

noibium
is

embedded

in

a matrix of cobalt or nickel. Other examples involve

metal oxide embedded in a metallic matrix.

The problem

here

one
is

of improving the creep resistance of the metal or alloy.

To

do

this it

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

199

necessary to produce a continuous matrix or network which has very good strength and corrosion resistance, hence the carbides or metal oxides. This then is surrounded by a metal which has good oxidation and corrosion resistance.

10.4. Nickel

and Nickel Base Alloys


is

The
Hence
differs

metal nickel
will

in

many

respects similar to iron.

Its

mechanical

properties,
it

modulus of

and atomic diameter are quite similar. alloy with many of the same elements found in steels. It
elasticity,

its corrosion characteristics. It resists oxidizing conditions very well but will be susceptible to attack in reducing condi-

principally in

tions particularly if sulfur

is

present.
will

It

resists
it, is

quite well

and

often,

where price

permit

atmospheric corrosion used as a cladding ma-

terial on other metals for this purpose. Nickel termediate layer in the chrome plating of steels.

is

also often used as

an

in-

Nickel Alloys. As aforementioned, nickel will alloy with many of the other metal elements. It forms a continuous series of solid solution alloys with copper. It has a high solubility for such other metals as Co, Cr, Fe,

Mn, Mo, Ta, W, and Zn. The elements Al, Be, Si, and Ti have only limited solubility and alloys of Ni containing small quantities of these metals often exhibit precipitation hardening characteristics. Some of the
better

known

nickel base alloys are as follows:

Monels are a series of nickel-cop[>er base alloys containing approximately 65% Ni and 30% copper with small amounts of silicon, aluminum, manganese and sulfur. The Monels are primarily noted for their strength and corrosion resistance.

The Inconels contain appreciable quantities of chromium and iron with smaller amounts of titanium, aluminum, and niobium. These alloys find application where high temperature corrosion and oxidation resistance is important.
at high temperatures.

The Nimonic alloys were developed as a series which had high strength An early alloy containing 80% Ni and 20% Cr had

appliances.

as a heating element in electric furnaces and Modifications of this alloy gave rise to the present Nimonic series. The latest developments in this series has large quantities of cobalt in place of the nickel and small amounts of molybdenum, titanium,

been used quite successfully

and aluminum.

The

Hastelloys are another series of high temperature alloys developed

by the Haynes

Stellite Company and originally were nickel base alloys containing appreciable quantities of molybdenum and iron. However, the newer alloys showed decreases in the iron content with this being

200

Engineering Metallurgy
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Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys


replaced by larger amounts of chromium, tungsten,
precipitation
alloys

201

and

cobalt.

Some

have been made containing small amounts of titanium and aluminum. The Hastelloys are fabricated by the normal working methods but due to their high strengths and good oxidation
resistance require heavier fabricating equipment or higher temperatures to obtain the desired deformation. Table 10.3 lists some of the typical alloys falling in these various categories. They find application where operating temperatures are in the range of 1300 to 1800F.

and corrosion

10.5. Cobalt Base Alloys

The element cobalt finds its greatest application in alloy form. It is used in other metal systems to increase strength and corrosion resistance and, combined with chromium forms a series of alloys known as Stellites. The stellites will have cobalt contents ranging from 67% down to 37.5%, and with chromium contents ranging from 20 to 27%. The remaining elements present will consist of varying amounts of the following elements, Ni, W, Mo, Nb, Ti, and Fe. In addition to the above elements, these alloys will all contain carbon percentages from 0.1 to 0.5%, and the carbon will be present in carbide form making these alloys very hard and brittle. As such, with one or two exceptions, these alloys are usually
By virtue of their physical properties they are primarily used where high strength and abrasion resistance is required at high temperatures. Their normal operating temperature range ,s from 1350 to 1800F. Other uses for cobalt are in magnetic materials where it is alloyed with Al, Fe, and Ni in "Alnico," and Fe plus r High Temperature Metals and Alloys
cast directly to their final shape.

V in Vicalloy.

10.6. Other Miscellaneous

temperature applications in the range of 1800 to 2000F. Some of these metals and alloys will only be mentioned briefly here but will serve to show possibilities and shortcomings. Recent work with alloys of iron, chromium and aluminum; or iron, molybdenum, and aluminum whose alloys are known as "Ironals" have shown promise as good high temperature alloys. It is important that little or no carbon be present. Operating temperatures will be limited to approximately 2100 to 2300F. Chromium base alloys are also possibilities, but chromium is difficult to melt due to its high vapor pressure and is very reactive with oxygen and nitrogen which makes the alloy very brittle. Experimentation with the metals molybdenum, niobium, rhenium, tantalum and vanadium
all of

Recent experiments have indicated the direction in which future research must be aimed in the development of alloys for future higher

which

202

Engineering Metallurgy

have high melting temperatures, as can be seen in Table 10.1, are for the most part limited in use at high temperatures due to their oxidation reactions. The oxides of Mo, V, and Re all volatilize at temperatures

below 1200F., while Ta and Nb form spongy oxides quite rapidly at or above this temperature. It therefore appears that if these are to be used for high temperature applications they will have to be clad with another
metal or ceramic which will keep oxygen away from the base metal.

OTHER METALS AND ALLOYS


10.7.

The Precious and Semi-Precious Melals and


and

Alloys

The
They

metals and alloys which find themselves in this group are here by
their usage as coinage

virtue of their scarcity in nature

and

jewelry.

are the metals

silver, gold,

platium, and the allied platium

group-

palladium, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and ruthenium. Most of the metals are found in nature in the metallic form or alloyed with the ores
of copper, lead, nickel, or zinc.

Usually they are present in very minor

amounts and thus are obtained as by-products and only when the economics of the operation make it worth while. Silver. The element silver in the pure form is a soft white metal with good corrosion resistance and high electrical conductivity. Since it is
quite soft,
it
is

rarely used as a

pure metal except perhaps


it is

as a plating

on jewelry items.
the

When

used as a base metal,

alloyed with copper,

common
Silver

alloys being with

10%

copper
tents.

as sterling silver.
is

The

silver solders

copper in coinage, and with 7.5% have still higher copper con-

also used in

with tungsten and

an amalgam in dental alloys and is combined molybdenum by powder metallurgy for use as heavy
As aforementioned,
it
is

duty

electrical contacts.

used rather widely in

electroplating of hardware, light reflectors and costume jewelry.

The

amounts used here are quite small and their cost is negligible. However, they add materially to the eye appeal and reflectivity of the base metal and improve the oxidation resistance of the part. Gold, like silver, is quite soft and corrosion resistant. Similarly, it is rarely used in pure form due to its softness, the one exception being as gold leaf in sheet form with a thickness of approximately 0.00005 inches. In this form it can be used in lettering, display, and decorative
applications.

More

often

it

is

alloyed with copper, silver, or platium for

jewelry applications.
it

When

alloyed with platinum, palladium, and nickel

takes on the characteristic white color and becomes white gold. Gold can also be plated on jewelry either by dipping on the molten metal or

by electroplating.

The

latter yields heavier coats. Still thicker coats are

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

203

obtained by cladding with sheet material by rolling, soldering or brazing the sheet to the base metal. The other application for gold is as a medium of exchange on an international basis, for it is accepted throughout the world.

The platinum
lysts,

metals while better

known

for their jewelry applications,


as cata-

in actuality, find greater application in

commercial uses such

high temperature corrosion resistant materials, electronics, and the chemical industry. With the exception of palladium, the other metals platinum, iridium, osmium, rhodium, and rutheniumall cost more per ounce than gold. Of this group, only platinum is used in pure form. The others being used as alloying elements in platinum. Platinum is used in

making chemical and medical apparatus usually


iridium.

as an alloy containing In pure form, platinum wire is used for a platinum-rhodium alloy wire as a high temperature thermocouple. This couple readily

high temperatures and oxidizing atmospheres that cause other Rhodium is sometimes used as a replacement for silver on plated articles which will be subjected to sulfur atmospheres. Rhodium has a silvery appearance but will not tarnish under these conresists the

metals to

fail rapidly.

ditions.

10.8. Metals

and Alloys in Atomic Power Applications

While considerable interest has been shown in recent years in the application of atomic energy for power purposes, much of the information has of necessity been withheld due to security reasons. However, the part metals play in this new industry can be broken down into four fields: (1) as fuel elements, (2) as structural materials or moderators, (3) as control materials, and (4) materials which can be irradiated and
ber

come gamma ray


In the
first

emitters.
it is

category, as fuel elements,


fission.

necessary that the material

undergo atomic

While many of the elements high in the period table in terms of atomic number are radioactive, only uranium and perhaps thorium may be used as fuel elements. It is necessary that the fuel material be rather plentiful in nature and undergo fission at a rapid enough rate to make it economically feasible as a source of energy. In the second category, the structural materials in an atomic reactor should be able to withstand the temperatures involved, should not trap or absorb neutrons, and should have good corrosion resistance. The metals which meet these requirements are aluminum, beryllium, and zirconium. Zirconium seems to be the preference particularly where high temperatures are encountered.

204

Engineering Metallurgy
fission

In the third category are those metals which actually control the
rates in a reactor.

The boron
and

steels are the materials

commonly used by
nature
being

virtue of availability

ease of fabrication.
is

Hafnium, which has a


as prevalent in
is

greater capture cross section than the steels,

not

and hence
veloped.

is

not as widely used.

However,

this

a field which
all

is

thoroughly investigated and other alloys will in

probability be de-

In the fourth category are the metals cobalt, cesium, thulium, and iridium. These metals when irradiated become radioactive and isotopes of these metals are used as gamma ray emitters. The metal isotopes and their halflife periods are listed in Table 10.4.

Tablc
Isotope

10.4 Radioactive Isotopes

Av. Energy*

Radiation Output mr/hr*

Half Life

Cesium 137
Cobalt 60
Iridium 192

670

1200

KV KV 375 KV

3750
14000
5950

27

yrs.

5.3 yrs.

75 days

Approximate
**Milli-roentgcns per hour at a distance of 12 inches.

These metals find wide usage in radiographic examination of metal


parts for internal defects.

In

many

applications they have advantages

over x-rays. In general they are less costly, have greater portability,

and

can be used in smaller places. ler than a cube 14 inch on each side. Exposure times for the radiographic films are about the same as for high voltage x-rays.
is

The gramma

ray source usually

smal-

QUESTIONS
which are noted primarily for their low melting temperatures? 2. What are the "white metals," and for what are they principally used? 3. What are the principal requirements of a bearing alloy? 4. Why is a eutectic alloy used in linotype machines? 5. How does tin and antimony affect the casting characteristics of alloys containing these elements? 6. What are the principal uses of lead, tin, and zinc? 7. Which of the metal elements do we consider as being high-temperature
1.

List five metal elements

materials
8.

What

is

cermet?

How

is

strength at high temperatures attained in a

cermet?

Miscellaneous Heavy Nonferrous Metals and Alloys


9.

205

10.

What are the better known nickel-base alloys, alloying elements in them? In what ways is the element cobalt like nickel? cobalt?

and what

are the principal

What

other uses

is

made

of

11.

of the elements have high-melting temperature; be used as high temperature metals or alloys? 12. Why are the metals gold, silver, platinum, palladium,
13.

Many

why can

they not

14.

etc. so expensive? are the four categories for metals with respect to atomic energy? are the requirements of metals that arc used as fuel elements in atomic reactors?

What What

is it important that the structural materials in atomic reactors not absorb neutrons? How do they differ from the control materials? 16. Which of the elements are commonly used as gamma ray emitters in radiographic examination?

15.

Why

17.

How

do gamma

rays differ

from

x-rays?

206

Engineering Metallurgy

Manufacture of Metals

207

CHAPTER

The Manufacture and Composition of Carbon and Alloy Steels


Howard
P.

11

Davis,

M.S.,

Associate

Professor,

Depart-

ment of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming Floyd Sheldon Smith, M.S., Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama

MAN
years.

For almost half of this time he used

has been using iron for at least 5,000 it as a precious metal which

came from heaven as meteorites and which was seized when found and laboriously worked into jewelry, charms, and amulets. These he wore for personal adornment or to ward off the evil spirits that harassed him daily. For the last 2,500 years, he has had terrestrial iron, reduced from its ores, and it is characteristic that the first use he made of it was to fashion weapons. Damascus swords, made by the Moslems in the Middle Ages from steel imported into the Near East from India, and by the famous families of Japanese sword makers between a.d. 500 and 1500, are the finest specimens of the early steelmakers' art which have come down to us. They were made by welding alternate strips of high- and low-carbon steel into a bar, forging out this composite material, doubling it over and reforging again and again until a laminated strip of the finest quality resulted. This was drawn out into a sword or dagger blade, heat treated, sharpened, and finally etched with a dilute acid to bring out the laminations. Such a blade is shown in Fig. 11.1, in which the blade and scabbard are photographed against a background of the damask pattern near the dagger point, magnified eight times. Man's next use of iron was to fashion tools, so that he could make life easier for himself. Since the beginning of large-scale manufacture about 1870, steel production has increased greatly each decade; by 1953 the world was using over 258 million tons a year. Of this the steel industry of the United

States has

been producing about 100 million tons annually.

208

The Manufacture and Composition

209

Fie. 11.1. Damascus steel dagger. The background is a photograph of the etched damask pattern of the blade. 8x- (Ziegler, Mining and Metallurgy, v. 20, 1939, p. 69)

The

use of chemical analysis for determining the composition of steel

and cast iron did not become general until about seventy years ago, more than a decade after large-scale steelmaking by the Bessemer and the open-hearth processes had been introduced. For many years the analysis of steel and cast iron consisted of the determination of carbon, manganese, sulfur and phosphorus, silicon, if present, and alloying elements when these were specially added. Only in

210
the past few years has

Engineering Metallurgy

it been realized that these common elements tell only a part of the story of the composition and that in addition some ten or twelve other metals, metalloids, and nonmetals may be present. As a

result, the

chemical composition of unalloyed

steel is
it
is

seemed thirty years ago; on the contrary, worthy of considerable attention.


as
it

no longer as simple very complex and

many

Despite the fact that commercial carbon steels and cast irons contain other elements in addition to carbon, metallurgists look upon them

as alloys of the metal iron

the greatest effect on their structure

and the metalloid carbon because carbon has and properties.

Commercial carbon steels contain, in addition to carbon, varying amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur and phosphorus, and small percentages of oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Occasionally they also contain small amounts of copper, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, lead, arsenic, aluminum, and tin. Some of these are added intentionally to improve the quality, but most of them are picked up from the raw
materials used in the various processes. Steel

men commonly

divide these

elements into three

classes:

harmful, beneficial, and neutral.

11.1. Definitions of Ferrous Engineering Materials

For many

years

committees

of

metallurgists

in

English-speaking
steel,

countries have been trying to define carbon steel, alloy


concisely, but
It

cast iron,

pig iron, wrought iron, and other products of the industry precisely and

with

little success.

would be a waste of space, and probably even confusing, if the complex definitions for the numerous products of the iron and steel
industry were
all set

down

at once.

containing

defined as a commercial alloy of iron and carbon than 2.0 per cent carbon, less than about 1.30 per cent manganese, less than 0.5 to 0.6 per cent silicon, small amounts of adsteel
less

Carbon

may be

ventitious elements, and


alloy contains

no intentionally added special element. If the 2.0 per cent carbon and is poured direct from the blast furnace into cast iron molds of uniform size, or is used in the molten condition as an intermediate product, it is called pig iron; and if this pig iron (usually with the addition of scrap) is remelted and poured

more than

into a sand mold, thereby assuming the desired shape of the finished
section,

alloy containing

iron

as cast iron. This means that whether an iron-carbon more than 2.0 per cent carbon is called pig iron or cast depends upon whether the material is an intermediate product or a
it is

known

finished product.

The Manufacture and Composition


Pig iron and cast iron have been some of the necessary distinctions

211

differentiated here chiefly to indicate


in formulating definitions of ferrous

products. Pig iron is of little interest to the engineer; cast iron is an important engineering material and is discussed in some detail later.

Ingot iron

is

a commercially pure iron. It contains between 99.75

and 99.90 per cent iron. The common elements, carbon, manganese, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus, account for about half the impurities; the occasional elements make up the other half. Ingot iron resembles carbon steel in that it is melted and refined by the basic open-hearth
process, but
it is

lower in carbon (about 0.02 per cent) than the lowest

carbon

steels
is

made

Ingot iron

industrially, which range from 0.04 to 0.08 per cent. used chiefly in the form of galvanized and enameled sheet.

The

iron is a low-carbon material and is no longer widely used. nature of the refining is such that this material contains a larger proportion of solid nonmetallic inclusions than low-carbon steel made
processes.

Wrought

by the usual

to the nature of the process and the comwrought iron when rolled has relatively low strength but is ductile and tough, and is easily welded. It is used for staybolts, rivets, some grades of pipe, boiler tubes, and especially for heavy chains and hooks. Wrought iron has well-marked directional

Owing

position of the inclusions,

properties.
is no precise and concise definition of alloy steel, but practically seldom any difficulty in distinguishing between carbon and alloy steels. The practical criterion is: if an element, not used primarily for deoxidation or degasification, is added to carbon steel or is present adventitiously in the amount required to produce a desired specific effect, the resulting material is an alloy steel.

There
is

there

why the dividing line between carbon placed at exactly 2.0 per cent carbon. Although this percentage is fixed primarily for convenience, it has considerable scientific justification. The 2.0 per cent carbon concentration marks the maximum
It

may

be asked legitimately

steel

and

cast iron is

solid solubility of
this

carbon in iron

at

concentration graphite a

common

very high temperature, and below form of carbon in cast iron is

not ordinarily present under normal conditions of treatment.

For convenience, the commercial iron-carbon alloys may be divided


into four classes:
Low-carbon steel Medium-carbon steel High-carbon steel Cast iron and pig iron
Less than 0.25 per 0.25 to 0.65 per 0.65 to 1.70 per 2.50 to 4.50 per
cent carbon

cent carbon
cent carbon
cent carbon

212
11.2. Iron

Engineering Metallurgy

Ore and the Manufacture of Pig Iron

four essential raw materials of the iron and steel industry arc iron ore, coke and coal, limestone, and scrap steel and scrap cast iron. The iron
ore used in the United States
(Fe 2
is chiefly hematite, an impure ferrous oxide containing between 45 and 55 per cent metallic iron and between 20 and 35 per cent earthy matter, known as gangue, which is made up of silica, alumina, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, and water, plus

The

g)

varying small amounts of phosphorus and occasionally sulfur. Hematites and other usable iron ores are widespread throughout the world; the commercial ores in the United States are estimated at more than 10 billion tons, of which 90 per cent is located near Lake Superior and in Alabama. Iron ores
are graded by phosphorus content into

WOT
800'f

and non-Bessemer (basic) As phosphorus is not removed in the blast furnace, the ore must not contain more than approximately half the amount of this element permitted in Bessemer steel.
ores.

Bessemer

Iron ore
blast

is

reduced by coke in the

furnace, limestone being used to

flux the

The raw

gangue and the ash of the coke. materials, in the approximate

ratio of 2 tons of ore (frequently includ-

ing some scrap steel or cast iron) to 1 ton of coke and i/ ton of limestone, are 2
air,

charged into the top of the furnace, and preheated to 1000 F. (540C.) or
is

above,
a

blown into furnace through


of
nozzles
(called

number

tuyeres)

near the bottom.

The

blast

furnace,

Fig. 11.2.

Cross

section

of

modern

blast furnace

showing tem-

perature and chemical reaction levels. (Based on Camp and Francis)

is a with firebrick; 90 to 100 ft. high, 17 to 20 ft. in diameter at the top, and 24 to 28 ft. in diameter at the bosh (just above the tuyeres) Operation is entirely continuous: The

shown
steel

in cross section in Fig. 11.2,*

shell

lined

raw

materials,

carefully

weighed and

Based on

J.

M. Camp and

C.

analyzed, are charged into the top at B. Francis, The Making, Shaping and Treating of
cd., 1940, p. 288.

Steel,

Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, 5th

The Manufacture and Composition


Limestone 774

213

't5fi8

Coke 1954

Row

materia!^

B^^3gfi

Ore, elc. 3925

Air

8500+

5000

10000

Sasesl2,000

_]

Products <

Kj

Slag 867

Ftc. 11.3.

the

modern

blast furnace.

Relative proportions by weight of the raw materials and products of (Boylston)

frequent intervals and slowly settle to the bottom, the downward pressure being slightly greater than the upward blast pressure plus the friction of the burden on the walls of the furnace.

As the charge

settles,

the temperature increases


is

(Fig. 11.2)

until near

and the spongy iron is heated to incandescence. Here it starts absorbing carbon, which lowers the melting point. The iron then becomes pasty, absorbs carbon more rapidly, and finally melts, trickling down over the remaining unburned
practically all reduced

the bosh the iron ore

incandescent coke into the hearth.

forms

a fusible slag that

and

that floats

The calcium oxide in the limestone lower in specific gravity than the iron on top of the molten metal in the hearth from where it is
is

much

drained

at regular intervals. The molten high-carbon iron is drained from the hearth into ladles every 5 or 6 hr. and then is either poured into

molds to solidify as pig iron or used in the molten condition in the manufacture of Bessemer or open-hearth steel. A modern blast furnace produces between 800 and ,200 tons of pig iron every 24 hr. and, barring shutdowns for economic conditions, will operate continuously for years.
1

The average proportion of the raw materials entering the blast furnace and of the resulting products is shown graphically in Fig. 11.3.* The slag is mostly waste and must be disposed of, a considerable problem in some plants. As Fig. 1.3 shows, an enormous volume of gas is given off. This gas, which totals more than 100 million cu. ft. a day for a single furnace,
1

contains 20 to 25 per cent carbon

monoxide and has


Sons, Inc.,

a heating value of
York, 1935, p. 71.

H. M. Boylston, Iron and

Steel,

John Wiley &

New

214
90 to 100 B.t.u. per cu.
to generate

Engineering Metallurgy
ft.

It

is,

consequently, used to heat the blast and


blast furnace
is not efficient. by-product and to the

power.

Thermally the iron

Owing, however,
iron
is

to the value of the gas as a


is

operation of large units, the over-all efficiency

relatively high,

and pig

made

cheaply.

Chemistry of the Blast Furnace.

The

preheated
lb.

air,

which
in.,

into the furnace under a pressure of 15 to 20

per sq.

blown comes into


is

immediate contact with incandescent coke forming large volumes of carbon monoxide gas. This gas, together with the carbon in the coke,
reduces the iron oxide by two general reactions:

Fe 2 O s

+ 3 CO * 2 Fe -f 3 C0
+ 3 C *
2 Fe

2,

(1) (2)

Fe 2 O s

+ 3 CO.

Both reactions are reversible and may proceed in either direction depending upon the temperature and other conditions prevailing at the

The net result, however, is reduction of the oxide to metallic iron. Both reactions are progressive: the Fe 2 O s is reduced first to Fe 3 4 then to FeO, and finally to Fe. Reaction (1) predominates
various levels in the furnace.
,

upper part of the furnace (see Fig. 11.2) beginning at a temperature of about 400F. (210C.) reaction (2) begins at a temperature of apin the
, ;

proximately 1200F. (650C.) and continues until the iron oxide


pletely reduced in the zone of the bosh.

is

com-

The chemical reactions in the blast furnace are essentially reducing so that any easily reducible oxides in the iron ore or the coke (in addition to the iron oxide) are also reduced. Thus, all the phosphorus and most
of the manganese will be found in the iron. Oxides of silicon and sulfur are more stable but are partially reduced. The remaining oxides of

calcium, magnesium,
acted

and aluminum are very refractory and are not upon by the carbon or carbon monoxide even at the highest

temperature of the furnace.

To

flux these refractory oxides, the necessary


calcines in

amount

of limestone (CaCO.,)

must be charged. The limestone

the upper part of the furnace and, together with the calcium and magnesium oxides in the ore, combines chemically with the alumina and with

part of the

silica to

form a

fusible slag

composed of calcium, magnesium,

and aluminum

silicates.

The
carbon,

pig iron, tapped from the furnace, contains about 4 per cent all the phosphorus, and most of the manganese in the raw ma-

terials. The amounts of silicon and sulfur in the iron are controlled to some extent by a careful selection of raw materials but chiefly by regu-

lating the chemical characteristics of the slag, that

is,

by controlling the

proportion of calcium oxide to

silica,

and by controlling the tempera-

The Manufacture and Composition


ture.

215

The

latter

of the blast, the

amount

depends upon the amount of coke, the temperature of water vapor in the blast (the humidity)

and other

variables. The operation of a modern blast furnace and the production of cheap pig iron of satisfactory quality is an art which demands long experience and skill of a high order.

Operation and Use of the Cupola. The cupola is a vertical, cylindrical type of furnace, consisting of a steel shell lined with firebrick. Usually the charging door is located 10 to 25 feet above the bottom of the furnace. Air enters the cupola through the tuyeres, located near the lower end of the cupola. Fuel, metal, and flux enter the cupola through the charging door. The initial charge of coke is known as the "bed charge." The metal is deposited on the coke. Then alternate layers of coke and iron are added. Generally a limestone flux is charged on the coke. The purpose of the flux
is

to

form

a slag

with the

dirt,

impurities in the metal,

and

the coke ash.

The metal charge ordinarily consists of local gray iron scrap, purchased gray iron scrap, pig iron, and steel scrap, where increased strength is
desired.

The proportions of various metals in the charge are governed by the type of castings desired. The base of the charge is pig' iron. Since the pig iron is of known composition, the greater the amount of pig iron and the smaller the amount of scrap, the more uniform will be the
composition of the resulting castings. For high grade castings, such as automobile cylinders, the percentage of pig iron will range from 25 to 50 per cent of the charge, while for low grade castings, almost no pig iron will be used. Fluorspar, soda ash, and a number of proprietary fluxes are sometimes used in combination with the limestone to thin the slag and
also to aid in the removal of sulphur.

Air is introduced into the cupola to aid in the combustion of the coke, which in turn melts the metal. Under ordinary conditions the blast pressure will range from 8 to 20 ounces per square inch, depending on the height of the cupola and the number and character of the metal charges. The ratio of the coke and metal charges are ordinarily one pound of coke to eight pounds of iron. The charges are very carefully weighed. As the metal charge becomes molten it trickles down through the bed charge of incandescent coke and is collected in the crucible zone of the furnace. The liquid slag which collects above the molten metal is drawn
off

iron

through the slag notch located just below the tuyeres. The molten is drawn off through the tap hole, located at the bottom of the

cupola, into crucibles


iron castings.

and poured into sand molds

to

form gray

cast

216
11.3. Acid

Engineering Metallurgy

and Basic Processes


and
the manufacture of steel are chemical
in large-scale industrial operations in that the

The

reduction of iron ores

processes

and are unique

chemical reactions involved take place at high temperatures, nearly always above 2000F. (1100C.) and usually in the range 2500 to 3500F. (1370 to 1925C). Few refractory materials withstand such temperatures. The only ones that are available cheaply arc the oxides
of silicon, calcium, and magnesium.

These are

relatively inert at

normal

temperatures but become active chemically at steelmaking temperatures: silica (Si0 2) becomes an active acid, and calcium and magnesium oxides

become

active bases, reacting at high temperatures; thus,

CaO + SiOs - CaSiO s MgO + Si0 2 -> MgSi0 3


.

(3) (4)

It is characteristic

of silicates such as these that they fuse at temperatures

much

lower than the fusing temperatures of the oxides.


slags

Molten metals are refined by

which are

essentially silicates of

calcium, magnesium, and iron and are formed by a reaction between


definite amounts of a basic oxide and the acid oxide silica. Depending on whether the basic or the acid constituent is in excess, the slag will have a basic or an acid reaction at steelmaking temperatures. The character of the refractories used in the furnace which is decided by economic considerations determines the character of the slag and thus determines whether the process is basic or acid.

has an acid lining, the slag must be acid and destroy the furnace lining. Thus, in an acid process the slag must contain an excess of silica, and in a basic process, where the lining is magnesium oxide, the slag must contain an excess of calcium oxide. The advantages of acid and basic steelmaking processes may be summed up as follows: Advantages of Acid Process. Acid slags contain less free oxide than basic slags. Consequently, if all other things are equal, acid steels will be cleaner and of higher quality than basic steel. Acid refractories are much
It is
if

obvious that,
it

a furnace

in character or

would

attack

cheaper than basic refractories.

Advantages of Basic Process. The basic slags will remove phosphorus steel. Therefore, lower priced scrap and pig iron can be used since it is not necessary to avoid small amounts of phosphorus and sulfur.

and sulfur from the

basic, acid, or neutral

Fluxing materials used in the steelmaking process are classified as according to their chemical activity at elevated
Silica
is

temperatures.

the only substance that

is

classified as a strictlv

The Manufacture and Composition


acid fluxing material.

217

Sand, gravel, and quartz are available in large

be used as acid fluxing materials, but normally they are not used because the lining of the furnace will furnish all that is required. In basic processes, silica might be used as a flux if excess lime has been charged or where the raw materials are too low in silicon.
in sufficiently state to

amounts and

pure

Iron and manganese oxides act as basic materials


processes,

when

present in acid

but they are not normally added for this purpose and therefore are not classified as fluxing materials. The most common basic fluxing materials are limestone and dolomite, limestone being mostly CaO, while dolomite

double oxide of calcium and magnesium. "Burnt" lime, is usually added in the basic open hearth when more than the amount furnished by charged limestone is found to be needed
is

a calcined limestone,

at a later stage of the heat.

In order to

make

the slags less viscous without changing their acid,

basic, or oxidizing properties,

point such as flourspar (mostly 11.4. Bessemer Processes

a neutral substance with a low melting CaF 2 ) is most commonly used.

Forty years ago, 25 to 30 per cent of the so-called tonnage steels were

made

in the
steel,

Bessemer converter.

The

price differential

in

favor of

Bessemer

averaging S2 to $4 a ton, disappeared some years ago owing to the increasing scarcity and higher cost of low-phosphorus ores. This
condition, coupled with the disadvantage that Bessemer steel containing

more than about

0.20 per cent carbon

is

to be inferior in quality to steel of

considered by many metallurgists comparable carbon content made

by the basic open-hearth process, has resulted in the decline of Bessemerproduction to about 3 to 4 per cent of the total. During the past 15 years it has leveled off to between 3 to 6 million tons per year. The Acid Bessemer Process. The acid Bessemer converter is a pearshaped steel vessel lined with silica brick and mounted on trunions by
steel

which

it

can be

tilted 180 degrees.

The bottom
making
steel

contains a large

number

of tuyeres to admit the blast. In the converter

by the Bessemer process

is tilted forward, and 15 to 25 tons of molten pig iron are poured into the belly of the vessel. It is then turned upright, and at the same moment the blast is turned on. Refining begins immediately. No
is needed as sufficient is generated, by the reaction oxygen with the carbon and other elements in the pig iron, to raise the temperature several hundred degrees.

external source of heat


of

The

blast of air entering the converter forms large


it

oxide as soon as

strikes the

volumes of iron molten metal, which immediately oxidize

218

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 11.4.

Bessemer converter

in operation.

(Courtesy o\ Jones and Laughlin Steel

Corporation)

the manganese and silicon.

The phosphorus

is

oxidized; but as there

is

no excess of lime, stable phosphate is not formed, and none ment is removed from the metal. Sulfur is also unaffected.

of this ele-

The
color

progress of the chemical reactions

is

followed by observing the

and length of the flame shooting from the mouth of the vessel. Refining is complete in 10 to 15 minutes when the manganese, silicon, and carbon in the pig have been reduced to a low percentage, after which the converter is tilted forward and the metal is poured into a ladle from

The Manufacture and Composition


which
it is

219

poured into ingot molds. Harmful oxides are eliminated as and the proper amounts of carbon and manganese are secured by adding an alloy of iron, manganese, and carbon to the ladle as
far as possible,

the contents of the converter are transfered to the ladle.

of

slag-making materials are added; the slag formed is composed silicates of iron and manganese oxidized from the pig iron plus some silica eroded from the lining. It is acid in character.

No

compound

Owing to the rapidity with which die reactions occur and to the large volume of iron oxide formed, acid Bessemer steel usually contains more
iron oxide than basic open-hearth steel. The production Bessemer plant of three vessels is 5,000 to 6,000 tons in 24 hours. To produce the same tonnage of basic open-hearth steel, a battery of twenty 100-ton furnaces is needed.
dissolved

from

For many years, the Bessemer process has been important in the steel industry, but, in contrast to the open-hearth process, little attention has
been paid
to the chemistry or

metallurgy of refining. In 1940, however,


steel instituted a

some of
process,
cell is

the larger plants

making Bessemer

study of the

and some noteworthy developments


to

resulted.*

photo-electric

determine precisely the end of the blow, and a removing phosphorus by treating the molten metal in the ladle. Very recently a method has been worked out for deoxidizing Bessemer steel, so that it is apparently equal in quality to open-hearth steel of approximately the same composition, with the object of using this deoxidized material for seamless tubes and pipes.
process has been developed for

now being used

Basic Bessemer Process. This process is not used in the United mainly because the iron ore being used, and consequently the pig iron being produced from it, is not suitable for this process. It is
States,

The

necessary that there be at least 2% phosphorus present in the pig iron in order that the oxidation of the phosphorus during the afterblow can maintain the temperature of the bath high enough to prevent solidification.

The

silicon content

must be low in order that the expensive

basic

lining last as long as possible.

operation of the basic process is similar to that of the acid process is added, so the slag formed is basic and the phosphorus will be removed. After the manganese, silicon, and carbon have been oxidized out there is the additional afterblow during which the
except that lime
phos-

The

phorus

is

oxidized out of the

steel.

These developments in Bessemer steel arc described in papers by Graham. Work. McGinley and Woodworth, Yocum. lulton. Bowman, Wright, and Dunkle in Transactions, Iron and Steel Division, American Institute ot Mining and Metallurgical En-

gineers, 1941, 1942, 1944. 1945.

220

Engineering Metallurgy
cost of the basic process
life
is

The

higher than the acid process due to the

higher cost and shorter

of the basic refractory lining, the longer

blowing time and the fact that lime has to be added to the process. In Europe, where this process has been used with success, the high phosphorus ores necessary are available, and there is also a market for the slag as a fertilizer, which helps overcome the higher cost of the process.

Cut-away model of a modern open-hearth furnace showing roof con(upper left), bottom and port construction (lower left), cutaway checker chamber showing brick construction (lower center), and stack (right). (Courtesy H. W. Graham, Jones and LttUgMitt Sled Corporation)
Fie.

11.4A

struction

11.5.

Open-Hearth Processes

Description of the

Modern

Plant.

The

typical open-hearth furnace has

a capacity of 100-150 tons, with the largest furnace in the United States

having a capacity of 350 tons. The furnace is a chamber about 80 ft. long and 18 to 20 ft. wide. The hearth is shaped like an elongated saucer, the inside dimensions being about 40 ft. long, 14 to 18 ft. wide, and
in. deep at the center. The hearth lining consists of a mixture of burned magnesite and basic slag sintered into place. The furnace is fired

20 to 30

The Manufacture and Composition

221

ftC,

I1.4B

tesy \y of Carnegie-Illinois Steel

Pouring molten blast-furnace iron into the open-hearth furnace. (CoxrCorporation)

with
is

gas, oil, tar,


is

or powdered

used, this

also pre-heated.

coal, using preheated air, and if a lean gas At the center of the back wall is the tapping

hole, 8 in. in diameter, in such a position that when opened it will drain all the steel from the hearth into the ladle. There is a hole for the slag

runoff at the top level of the hearth and toward one end of the furnace. walls are made of silica brick, 13i/ in. thick, and extend 8 ft. above the charging floor level. The charging doors make up most of the front wall of the furnace and are lined with silica brick and have water cooled

The

222

Engineering Metallurgy

frames, the bottom of the doors being just a few inches above the slag line.

The

arched roof

is

12 in. thick,
it

made

of silica brick,

and

is

built in-

dependent of the walls so that


rebuilding the furnace.

can be replaced without completely

To

attain the high temperature necessary to


is

make

steel,

the regenera-

tive principle

used. White-hot exhausi gases from the furnace are led

through

a series of brick

checker-work chambers on the way to the stack.

After about 15 minutes, these exhaust gases are diverted to another set of

checker chambers at the other end of the furnace, and the cold air is led through the heated checkers on the way to the furnace. The direction
of the exhaust and incoming gases
is

reversed every 15 minutes initially,

and the time interval


ally controlled

is

reduced

as the

temperature of the furnace apreversal of the gases


is

proaches the tapping temperature.

The

automatic-

depending on the temperature of the checkers and the furnace. The regenerative process makes it possible for the gases to attain a temperature of approximately 3500F. (1925C.) as they sweep
across the hearth, in addition to creating a saving in the

amount

of fuel

used in the furnace.

hot metal mixer

is

usually located in the


It is

same area with the bank

of open-hearth furnaces.
storing as

a large refractory-lined vessel capable of

molten metal from the various blast open hearth. Some are equipped with heating devices but mostly they depend on the heat from the hot iron as it comes from the blast furnace to maintain a molten condition in the mixer. The mixer makes it possible to have a molten metal with a more consistent chemical composition available to the open hearth, so that a wide variation in the charge is not necessary, and also to decrease the time from charge to tap of the furnace, because of the retained heat. This also tends to cut down on the fuel used. Operation of the Process: Charging. The order of charging the maas 1500 tons of

much
it

furnaces until

is

needed

in the

terials into the

furnace
it

is

quite important.

The

limestone

is

charged

first

in order that

will not enter into the slag reaction until the desired
is

time.

Any

ore charged into the furnace

placed on top of the limestone.

The
light

limestone and ore protect

the hearth

from damage during the


II

charging of the scrap iron which follows immediately.

the scrap

is

and bulky

it

may be

necessary to melt part of

it

down

in order to

charge the rest into the furnace.

When

the furnace reaches a temperature

somewhat higher than the melting point of the pig iron, the molten iron is poured into the furnace from a ladle, using a spout placed in
one of the charging doors.

The

ratio of the

amount

of steel scrap to pig iron in the charge

varies according to the price of the scrap.

When

the price of scrap

is

low,

The Manufacture and Composition


the charge might consist of

223

75%

or

more

scrap and

but
iron

if
is

the price of scrap


possible.

is

high, then a charge of

25% or less pig iron, 25% scrap and 75% pig

Melting the Charge. As soon as the steel scrap is charged into the it is heated with a hot oxidizing flame that will cause the scrap to melt and become oxidized. This oxidized material later becomes infurnace,

strumental in the purification of the pig iron by oxidizing out the impurities. If enough oxides are not provided by the oxidation of the
scrap, additional oxidation
is

obtained by the ore that

is

charged

in

on

top of the limestone hot metal

in

the charge.

This oxidation usually

takes place

for about two hours after the start of charging,


is

when

at that time the

added

to the furnace.

The Ore Boil. As soon as the hot pig iron is added to the furnace the oxides present begin to react with the impurities in the iron. First to be removed are silicon and manganese, forming SiO and MnC) which, along
a

with FeO, combine to form the early slag. At the same time the oxygen is combining with the carbon in the pig iron to form CO which, when
escaping, causes the slag to "froth" and increase in volume to such a degree that a considerable amount will overflow through the slag runoff hole.

In this

manner much
is

of the silica that

would have
less

to

be

neutralized by the limestone

eliminated, requiring

limestone to be

charged into the furnace. It is interesting to note that a good deal of iron is lost here (as FeO in the slag) and that sometimes this slag is recharged into the blast furnace to recover both the iron and the
,

man-

ganese from their oxides.

The Lime Boil. After the ore boil has subsided, the temperature of the furnace has reached the point where limestone will calcine, giving off large volumes of C0 2 This characterizes the "lime boil," which is much more
.

violent a boil than the "ore boil." At the same time the lime formed by calcination rises from the bottom of the hearth and replaces the iron and manganese oxides in the slag, with any excess of lime tending to make the slag more basic. The basic property of the slag makes it more capable of retaining phosphorus in the slag as a phosphate. This lime boil also tends to mix thoroughly the contents of the hearth so that the chemical composition and the temperature are more uniform from top to bottom.

The Working
specific aims.

Period. During the working period there are several These include: (a) lowering of the phosphorus and sulfur

content below the

maximum

values specified, (b) eliminating the silicon


(c)

and manganese residue not oxidized out during the melting period,

eliminating the excess carbon as quickly as possible, (d) conditioning the slag so that it will be of the proper viscosity and have a basic chemical

224
composition, and

Engineering Metallurgy

(e) raising the temperature of the bath to approximately 150F. above the melting point of the steel to be tapped.

Tapping

the

Heat.

When

the carbon

content has been reduced

to the desired

amount and

the temperature of the steel has been raised to


is

the tapping temperature, the heat

ready to tap.
is

The

clay plug

and a
the

portion of the dolomite that

fills

the taphole

removed.

The

rest of

dolomite is burned out with an oxygen torch, and the taphole is cleared by using tapping rods from the front of the furnace. The center of the ladle is placed off center in order to cause a swirling action and to insure rapid
melting and good mixing of the ladle additions.

Ladle Additions. Usually included in the ladle additions are alloys manganese to remove oxygen and sulfur, alloys of silicon that also remove oxygen, and aluminum which is added to further the deoxidizing
of
process and also to control the grain size. In order to increase the carbon content of the steel after tapping, some carbon is recovered from the

manganese alloys, and if more is needed it can be obtained by adding ground anthracite coal to the ladle. Other intentionally added elements may be added either in the furnace or in the ladle. All ladle additions should be added before any slag comes from the furnace, otherwise they become mixed with the slag causing high alloy losses and a possible phosphorus reversion. By using varying amounts of these alloying elements, high quality steel of any desired carbon and manganese content can be made.
Chemistry of the Basic Process.
process.
is

Oxygen

used to

basic open-hearth is an oxidation some form of iron oxide (iron ore) oxidize the carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and part
in the air or in

The

of the sulfur in the charge.

In the basic open-hearth process limestone


scrap and pig iron; and
to lime
slag.

(CaCO s )

is

charged with the

when

the metal

is

melted, this limestone, calcined

(CaO) by the heat,

rises to the

top of the molten bath to form

Iron oxide in the form of iron ore


rust,

oxide which, in the form of


reactions
Si

iron oxide oxidizes the silicon

is added to augment the iron was on the scrap and pig iron. The and manganese first, according to the

+ 2 FeO '-* SiO a +

2 Fe,

(5) (6)

Mn + FeO -> MnO + Fe, MnO + Si0 2 - MnSiOg, FeO + SiO, -* FeSiO.,.
The manganese and
iron silicates, of low melting point

(7a)

(7b)

and low

specific

gravity, rise to join the slag.

The

phosphorus

is

then oxidized:

The Manufacture and Composition


2

225
(8a)

4- 5

FeO - Pa

5 Fe,

5 + 3 FeO (FeO) ,PaOB + 3 CaO

Pa

- (FeO) a P3 B , - (CaO) 3 P s O., +


(8b)
is

(8b)
3

FeO.

(8c)

The

iron phosphate

formed by reaction
is

unstable, but in the

presence of an excess of lime, reaction (8c)


stable calcium phosphate

takes place,

formed and

also leaves the metal

and the more and joins


low

the slag.

Reactions

(5)

to

(8)

are exothermic
is

and take place

at relatively
is

temperatures, as the charge

melting or just after melting


Fe,

complete.

The

oxidation of carbon,

C + FeO - CO +
by reaction
is

(9)

endothermic and takes place only at high temperatures. (9) When all the impurities have been eliminated as far as possible or desirable, the molten metal usually contains less than 0.10 per cent
carbon,
less

than 0.20 per cent manganese,


less

less

than 0.01 per cent silicon

and usually

Sulfur drops from above 0.04 or 0.05 to 0.025 or 0.035 per cent. As the result of these oxidizing reactions the molten metal also contains a relatively large quantity of dissolved iron oxide which, as discussed in Section 11.10, is harmful.

than 0.03 per cent phosphorus.

contains too little manganese to combine with the sulfur. To remove harmful oxide and to ensure the presence of sulfur as manganese sulfide, manganese is added to the molten metal in the furnace or as it is tapped from the furnace. This reacts with dissolved iron oxide, Mn + FeO - Fe + MnO, (10) to form manganese oxide which is insoluble in the molten metal and which rises to the top to join the slag. The Acid Open Hearth Process. The open-hearth used in the acid
It also

process
smaller,

is

similar to that used in the basic process except that


slag
is

it is

usually
is

and since the


ore
is

acid, the lining of the furnace hearth


initial

made

of acid material also.


scrap.

No

charge consists of cold pig iron and added because the iron oxide is basic and would react

The

with the lining of the hearth. For this same reason scrap alone is not used as a charge, for it would oxidize and have the same detrimental effect on the furnace lining. Only manganese, silicon, and carbon can be removed readily; therefore a premium grade of pig iron and scrap
that
is

low in both phosphorus and sulfur

is

necessary.

This tends

to increase the cost of acid steel over the basic type.

The

acid slag tends to

be less oxidizing than the basic slag, and for this reason there are fewer oxide inclusions in the steel when it is poured, resulting in a "cleaner" steel. The acid steel is usually tapped at a higher temperature, in order that the steel may stand in the ladle for 30 minutes or more, thus

226

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 11.5.

electrodes (Courtesy of

Heroult electric furnace tilted for tapping, showing American Bridge Company)

arrangement of

giving what inclusions are present a chance to rise to the surface and
enter the slag.

11.6. Manufacture of High-Quality Steels

High-quality carbon and alloy steels are

by the Electric Processes made by the acid open-hearth

and the acid and basic electric process (Table 11.1). Most carbon tool steels and special alloy steels are made in the basic-lined electric furnace.
Selected steel scrap
furnace,
is

shown

in Fig. 11.5,

melted in an arc or induction furnace. produces most of these materials

The

arc

in lots of

The Manufacture and Composition


5 to 70 tons; the induction furnace, with a capacity
chiefly to melt high-alloy steel

227
to 5 tons,
is

up

used

scrap without

loss of costly alloying metals.

The
steels

large arc furnaces are used chiefly for the production of low-alloy

by duplexing, that is, by refining further a charge of molten steel that has been partly refined by the acid Bessemer or the basic open-hearth
If

process.

the scrap contains too

much carbon and

phosphorus, these elements

are oxidized together with the silicon

and manganese, under conditions similar to those outlined for the basic open-hearth process on p. 224. When oxidation is completed, the slag is removed and a new one is added, composed of lime, fluorspar, and silica sand or crushed ferrosilicon.

This
is

slag,

which

consists principally of calcium silicate

when

melted,

deoxidized, and strongly reducing conditions are established

in the furnace by scattering


face.

powdered coke or

ferrosilicon over the sur-

Since slag and metal tend to be in equilibrium, eliminating iron

oxide from the slag also deoxidizes the metal. Furthermore, a strongly reducing slag will remove sulphur almost completely from the metal.

Owing

to the

complete deoxidation of the slag and

to the absence of

oxidizing gases a condition attained only in the basic electric process-

much sounder

steel can be made by this process than by either the acid Bessemer or the basic open-hearth process where gases and slag are

strongly oxidizing at all times.

The acid electric process combines the nonoxidizing character of arc heating with the lining and slag of an acid process. Acid electric steel is
usually not so well deoxidized as basic electric
steel,

but

it

is

cheaper.

The
for

small acid electric furnace

is

especially suitable for intermittent


arc, is

operation and, owing to the high temperatures of the

widely used

melting

steel for

small high-grade castings.

The acid process is also used to produce ingots, high-quality forgings, ordnance and alloy steel. The furnace charge is usually all scrap, and practically the same purifying procedure is used as in the acid The steel can be more thoroughly deoxidized since the oxidizing effect of the furnace gases on the slag is eliminated. The process is used mainly to melt and refine carefully selected scrap low in
open-hearth.

phosphorus and

sulfur, as the process will

remove

neither.

The

general features of the various steelmaking processes arc sumin

marized
11.7.

Table

11.1.

Wrought Iron
iron
is

Wrought
with
1

a ferrous material of highly refined iron incorporated


silicate slag.

to

4 percent of a ferrous

Two

primary methods are

228

Engineering Metallurgy

The Manufacture and Composition


used in
its

229
(2)

manufacture:

(1)

the puddling process, and

the Aston or

Byers process.

In the puddling process, a charge, weighing about 600 pounds, of iron


scrap, pig iron, iron ore,

and mill scale are melted and refined in the puddling furnace. The fuel used for heating and refining the charge is
bituminous coal burned on grates at one end of the furnace. After the charge is molten, it is mixed by the operator, using the puddle bar. During the refining period, the oxidization of the carbon, silicon, and man-

ganese

is

brought about by reaction with the iron oxide. As the refining

progresses, the melting temperature rises, so the temperature within the


is not sufficiently high to keep it molten, and it becomes a plastic mass known as a puddle ball. The puddle ball is then removed from the furnace, squeezed and rolled into bars to eliminate much of the en-

furnace

trained slag.

The
is

bars,

known

as

"muck"

bars, are cut into short lengths,

fastened together in piles, reheated to a welding temperature and rolled.


If
this

process

repeated a second

time,

the product

is

known

as

double-refined iron.

The Aston
silicon

or Byers process consists of melting Bessemer grade pig iron

in a cupola and refining

it in a Bessemer convenor until the carbon, and manganese are removed. At the same time, an iron silicate slag of the same composition as that produced in the puddling operation is prepared in an open-hearth furnace.

predetermined rate into a ladle, called The temperature of the metal is higher than that of the slag and the former rapidly solidifies. Gases are liberated during the solidification period and the metal disintegrates into
is

The

refined metal

poured

at a

a thimble, containing the molten slag.

small globules sinking to the bottom of the thimble to form a spongy mass. This operation is known as shotting. The excess slag is then poured

and the solidified ball of metal, containing slag, is transferred to the squeezer and rolls where the same procedure follows as in the case of puddled iron. Wrought iron is a highly ductile material and is used for
off

pipe and pipe

fittings, bolts, sheets, bars,

and

plate.

11.8. Special Steel-making Processes

The acid Bessemer and the basic open-hearth Most of the carbon and all of the silicon and manganese are oxidized in the converter and then the metal is transferred to the basic open-hearth where the phosphorus, sulfur, and the remainder of the carbon are removed. Under good conditions an open-hearth may produce up to twice the tonnage per week by the duplex process.
Process.

The Duplex

are used in succession.

230

Engineering Metallurgy
Super-refining Process. This
is

The

is

a special

duplex process

in

which

purified basic open-hearth metal

transferred to a basic electric furnace,

deoxidized, and finished into high-quality electric steel. Care is taken to have the residual manganese as high as possible in the open-hearth

product.

Carbon

is

added

to

bring

this

component near the required

no further oxidation is required the basic carbide slag is immediately charged, and dcoxidation and de-sulfurization are carried out by the carbide and the residual manganese in the metal. The Triplex Process. This process is carried out in two ways: (1) a combination of the acid Bessemer and two open-hearths in succession, or (2) a combination of the duplex and super-refining process. The first is used when pig iron is very high in phosphorus. The open-hearth is tapped and charged into another open-hearth where a new slag is built up and the rest of the phosphorus and carbon removed. The Talbot Process. This is a process that results in a very large tonnage of metal in a very short period of time. The increase in capacity is obtained by using a bath of metal forty or more inches in depth. The first charge, usually consisting of pig and scrap, is worked down to the desired composition, and about one third of the metal is tapped. Ore and limestone are added to the bath to produce a very basic oxidizing slag. Molten pig iron, equal to the metal tapped, is poured through the
finishing range. Since

The reaction is so rapid that the silicon, manganese, and most of the phosphorus is removed. The charge is then worked down to the required carbon and phosphorous content as the temperature is raised. For a period of from 3 to 6 hours, the bath is purified, and another heat is tapped
slag.

The

slag

is

reoxidized,

the end of a

more pig added, and the procedure repeated. At week the furnace must be drained and the lining patched,

making

the process very expensive.

The Duplex Talbot Process. This process is a combination of the Talbot and Duplex processes. Metal from the Bessemer converter, free of
is poured through the oxidized slag, the phosphorus being removed almost immediately. The addition of pig iron raises the carbon content and aids in deoxidation.

carbon, silicon and manganese,

The Monell Process. Limestone, ore, and sometimes steel scrap, are charged upon a basic hearth and heated until pasty. Molten pig iron is then added. The low temperature will remove the phosphrous very

The silicon, manganese, and carbon is worked down in the usual manner. The Campbell Process. A charge of pig and scrap is melted in a Campbell tilting basic furnace and the phosphorus, silicon, manganese and part of the sulfur are removed. The furnace is tapped and the metal
rapidly with a violent reaction.

The Manufacture and Composition


charged into an acid open-hearth furnace. An acid slag the heat is finished by the usual acid procedure.
is

231
built

up and

The Crucible Process. The crucible process consists of melting properly proportioned scrap, fcrro-manganese and charcoal in a closed crucible.
This
to
is

primarily a mixing and refining process. Each crucible holds 50


is

100 pounds of metal, which

heated

in

a gas fired regenerative

furnace for approximately four hours for complete refining.


11.9. Mechanical

Treatment of

Steel

Ingot molds: Types, Sizes, Shapes. Most of the steel made in the United States is cast into ingot molds of one type or another, irrespective of the type of steel, for further fabrication into desired shapes. This is done, rather than casting into desired shapes directly, because of the
better physical properties obtained,

and because

it

can be done

much

more

cheaply.

Two
is

general types of ingot molds are used in the United

States: the big-end-up

and the big-end-down. As their names imply, the

big-end-up
the bottom.

mold

larger at the top,

and

the big-end-down

is

larger at

Most

steel is solidified in

the big-end-down type mold, since

it is suit-

able for the cheaper semi-killed steels

and

for the

rimming-type

steels.

These steels avoid shrinkage or actually increase in volume in the molds by the evolution of gases on cooling, thereby avoiding the formation of "pipe." By the use of a "hot-top," a refractory collar added to the mold, killed steels may be poured into big-end-down molds because the steel in the hot-top section is kept molten and will fill any cavity produced by
shrinkage.

Big-end-up molds tend to produce less pipe since there is a larger volume of steel at the top of the ingot, and it remains molten longer. However, when used with killed steels, a hot top is generally used. Big-end-up ingot molds are more costly and are generally reserved for high-quality and alloy steels.

Bottom-poured ingots are those in which the metal is introduced from the bottom, usually into big-end-up molds with refractory hot-tops. Due to the complicated arrangement for pouring, they are more expensive and are usually reserved for high-quality and high-alloy killed steels.

Hot Working. After the ingot has solidified, it is transferred to a soaking pit or heating furnace to equalize the temperature and to heat it to a temperature at which the steel is very plastic. It is then hot
worked by
product.
rolling, pressing, or forging
it

into a finished or semifinished


steels

few special carbon and alloy

used in very heavy sec-

232

Engineering Metallurgy

tions, such as large guns, axle shafts, armor plate, and the like, and a few tonnage products are worked from the ingot directly into the finished section. It is, however, considered better practice, whenever the size

of the finished product permits, to reduce the ingot to a section known as a bloom, slab, or billet, which is reheated, either with or without

intermediate cooling and inspection, and

is

rolled into finished products.

These may be

rails,

structural shapes, plates, sheets, strip, pipe


sizes

bars, or rods of a

wide variety of

the large rolling mill, especially into a multitude of small articles.

and tubes, and forms. Finished sections from bars and rods, may be fabricated further

Hot working has two primary objects: (1) to produce various shapes and sizes economically, and (2) to improve the structure and properties by breaking up the coarse crystal structure of the ingot. Cold Working. A large tonnage of hot rolled bars, rods, sheets, pierced tubing, and other hot rolled products are worked at room temperature. This operation is known as cold working. Cold working is a finishing operation and the articles coming to this stage have been roughly shaped by hot working. The general methods of cold working are cold rolling, cold drawing, cold pressing, or stamping. Hot rolled shapes are finished by cold rolling and cold drawing processes to produce smooth surfaces, accurate dimensions, and increased strength. The drawing of hot rolled rods through dies is used principally in making wire and in finishing seamless steel tubing. In the cold pressing or stamping process, plate and sheet for various purposes are often shaped between dies by means of a
heavy hydraulic
press.

Cold working also has two primary objects: (1) to produce sections, sizes, and shapes that cannot be produced economically by any other method, and (2) to produce certain combinations of properties, especially very high strength accompanied by considerable ductility, that also cannot be secured economically by any other process. The mechanical treatment of steel is an art that has been perfected
mechanically until
it is

now

in a relatively high state of development.

Hundreds of millions of

have been invested in rolling mills and forging plants that are marvels of mechanical efficiency and low-cost production. Modern rolling mills, such as the recently developed condollars

tinuous strip mill, are, in

fact,

such marvels of costly perfection.

Although the mechanical equipment used and the methods of hot and cold working are a fascinating field for discussion, they are of little con-

who uses steel and who does not care whether strip on a continuous or a hand mill so long as it has the properties he requires and is cheap enough for him to use economically. The effect
cern to the engineer
is

rolled

The Manufacture and Composition


of hot and cold working
interest to

233

on the structure and properties, a subject of great most engineers, is given more consideration elsewhere in this

book.

and other metallic materials that have been hot or cold worked some instances, cast) frequently must be joined together to form the finished structure. The principal methods of joining are welding and riveting. The equipment and the methods used for joining are of much interest to engineers but are hardly wilhin the scope of a book on elementary metallurgy and are, therefore, not discussed further here.
Steel
(or, in

11.10. Harmful Elements in Carbon and Alloys Steels

The five so-called harmful elements present in all steels in varying amounts, but mostly in small fractions of 1 per cent, are phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen. Phosphorus. In the amounts usually present in carbon and alloy steels phosphorus is combined with the iron as iron phosphide (Fe 3 P) which
,

dissolves in solid iron as sugar dissolves in coffee.

Although metallurgical

opinion is not wholly unanimous, most available data, plus many years of experience with acid steels containing 0.07 to 0.12 per cent phosphorus, indicate that this element makes steel cold short, in other words, brittle

when

cold, particularly in its resistance to impact. This brittleness is more marked in high-carbon steels than in low-carbon grades and is apparent if the amount of carbon plus phosphorus is above 0.30 per cent. The
static ductility
is

not appreciably affected.

Because of the brittleness caused by phosphorus, the maximum amount permitted is usually given in engineering specifications. This varies from
a

per cent in rails and railway materials, structural and other products of the basic open-hearth process. In tool steels and other high-grade high-carbon and alloy steels, the maximum permitted is usually 0.03 and occasionally even 0.02 per cent.
shapes, sheet, strip,

to a

maximum of 0.10 to maximum of 0.045

0.12 per cent in low-carbon acid Bessemer steels

The
Table

average
11.1.

amount

of

phosphorus in various grades

is

shown

in

Despite the fact that, in general, phosphorus has a bad name and for nearly a hundred years has been considered a nuisance that should be
it has been discovered lately that it has its good the tensile and the yield strength and improves other proj>erties, including the resistance of steel to some varieties of corrosive attack. Some of the new low-alloy high-strength steels contain about 0.10 per cent phosphorus used together with small amounts of copper,

kept as low as possible,


points.
It raises

nickel, or

chromium. The carbon, however,

is

low.

234
Sulfur. In a

Engineering Metallurgy

manner analogous

to that of

phosphorus, sulfur will com-

bine with iron to form iron sulfide (FeS), which dissolves in molten iron.

However, manganese, if present, having an affinity for sulfur which it does not have for phosphorus, will rob the iron of its sulfur to form manganese sulphide (MnS) This compound is almost completely insolu.

ble in solid iron. Consequently,


fide
is

when

the iron solidifies, manganese sul-

present in the mass of metal as discrete particles.

These

particles,

together with oxides and silicates, are

known

to the metallurgist as solid

nonmetallic inclusions
the mill by the
present,
at a

or,

more simple,

as inclusions,

and

to the

man

in
is

more

expressive term dirt. If insufficient manganese

some

of the sulfur remains as iron sulfide.

This compound melts

with the result that the

temperature lower than the usual temperatures for rolling or forging, steel is likely to crack during hot working. This
is

brittleness or fragility at elevated temperatures

known

as hot shortness.

Practically all commercial steels contain plenty of manganese, so that

engineers

who

use steel at elevated temperatures need not worry about

hot shortness caused by sulfur.


the fact that manganese sulfide

Of much more
if

interest to engineers

is

particles are always

present and that


is

they

may be

present in large amounts

the sulfur

high.

If these

particles segregate in vital areas, they

may have

a deleterious effect

on the

impact resistance may be greatly reduced. Any particle of dirt in the metal, if large enough, if the shape is favorable, and if it is strategically located, may act as a stress raiser and cause failure, especially by fatigue, much sooner than would normally be
ductility of the steel; in fact,

expected.

Sulfur has few virtues


phorus,
Its
is

it

is

a real nuisance
is

when present in steel. Compared with phosand is, therefore, kept as low as possible.

only benefit, so far as


present in the proper

known now, is that, if the manganese sulfide amount and is well distributed, it makes the

steel easier to

machine. Steels that are machined automatically at high

speeds and that are used for parts that are not subject to high impact
stresses

contain 0.080 to 0.150 per cent, or even more, manganese sulfide.

With higher sulfur percentages the manganese is frequently increased from the usual amount in low-carbon steels, namely 0.30 to 0.60 per cent,
to O.fiO to 1.65 per cent to ensure that

no iron
II. 1.

sulfide

is

present.

The
the

average sulfur percentages for various grades of steels


different processes are

made by

shown
the

in

Table

amount
tions.

of the range

is

maximum

In general, the higher permitted by the usual specificaspecial variants of the basic
slags that are essen-

Oxygen. All

steel,
is

except that

made by some

electric process,

melted and refined by gases and

The Manufacture and Composition


tially oxidizing.

235

At the high temperatures used, oxygen combines avidly with iron, carbon, manganese, silicon, and some other elements that may be present, forming a variety of gaseous or liquid oxides. Some of these dissolve in molten steel and are thrown out of solution when the steel solidifies, others are deoxidized by later slags or by alloys added especially

The result of these deoxidizing reactions, which are some processes than in others (see Table 11.1), is to produce a steel which is more or less free from oxygen and its reaction products. Even under the best conditions, however, the steel is never
for this purpose.

more

effective in

wholly cleansed; hence,

all steels when solid contain a larger or smaller quantity of gas cavities or solid inclusions bearing oxygen in some form. These oxides or combinations of oxides (silicates) form, together with

sulphides, the most


dirt

common
if

source of the solid nonmetallic inclusions or


steels.

found

in

commercial'

Like

sulfide

inclusions,

oxides and
act as stress

silicates, if

segregated or

present in large particles,

may

raisers or as loci of

weakness where, under favorable conditions, failure

may start.
Inclusions that are entrapped in the steel ingot
solidifies arc usually in the
size

(or casting)

when

it

form of small rounded


to those

particles varying in

from those which are submicroscopic


a polished surface

which can be seen

on

with the unaided eye. At high temperatures most

of the inclusions are plastic. Consequently, when the ingot is rolled or forged, they elongate into stringers or threads. It should be emphasized
that inclusions, once they are entrapped in the steel, may be distorted, elongated, or otherwise changed in form by hot or cold work, but they

cannot be removed or even diminished in amount by any treatment. No commercial carbon or alloy steel is wholly free from dirt. The amount present and the degree of dispersion of the particles depend to a considerable extent

upon

the nature of the melting process.

As indicated in

Table

inherently the cleanest, acid electric steel ranks next, and acid Bessemer steel ranks lowest. The process itself is,

11.1, basic electric steel is

however, not the only factor. Also important are quality of the raw materials used and the skill of the man who makes the steel.
It

has been well

known
if

for

many
is,

years that most ferrous materials

exhibit directional properties, that


resistance, are lower

some properties, notably impact determined on a specimen cut at a right angle to the direction of rolling than if determined on a specimen taken longitudinally. Elongated inclusions are an important factor in causing this

difference in properties.

Owing to the impure raw materials available to the iron and steel industry and to the necessity of using-except in a few restricted cases-

236

Engineering Metallurgy

oxidizing reactions to get rid of these impurities economically, one of the chief problems of steel men has been to eliminate the harmful effects of

oxygen and

its compounds by deoxidizing as thoroughly as possible. For more than sixty years one of the principal tenets of metallurgists has been "the more complete the deoxidation, the better the steel." Within the

past twenty or twenty-five years, however,

it has been found that the phrase "for certain steels" should preface this doctrine of deoxidation. McQuaid, Bain, and other investigators in this field have shown that

a certain degree of oxidation


alloy steels in

may be very desirable in some carbon and which a control of the grain size is advantageous. The amount of oxygen in solid steel varies from a trace to as much

as 0.02 per cent: few steels contain less than 0.005 per cent; the average

amount
grades.
as

in commercial carbon steels is probably between 0.01 and 0.015 per cent, with the higher amounts found normally in the lower carbon

Most of the oxygen probably all of it in most steels is present an oxide or silicate. Small amounts of oxygen are difficult to determine accurately by chemical analysis, and it is even more difficult to determine in what form it exists in the metal. Nitrogen and Hydrogen. Although the mechanism is not well understood, it is generally conceded that the presence of either nitrogen or hydrogen in carbon and alloy steels will tend to increase their brittleness.

11.11. Manganese in Carbon and Alloy Steels

Manganese
sulfur to form
sulfide;

is

grades of steel because

an essential and it performs

beneficial

a vital

manganese

sulfide, a less

element in nearly all dual role: It combines with obnoxious impurity than iron

it deoxidizes the .metal by reacting with oxygen to form an oxide which is less soluble in molten steel than iron oxide and which, therefore, will leave the metal more readily. The amount used varies with the grade of steel and with the amount of oxidation in melting; enough is added to most steels so that, after its

and, as noted previously,

purifying action has been completed, 0.30 to about 0.75 per cent, occasionally as

of manganese also increases the strength of steel. Either alone or, preferably, in combination with relatively small amounts
small

much as amount

1.00 per cent, will be left in the metal.

of other alloying elements,


properties
that

it

the

so-called

produces such a favorable combination of intermediate-manganese alloy steels are


fields of

finding increasing use in

some

engineering, especially for

rail-

road rolling stock and in bridges.


the

They were

also widely used during

war

as a substitute for low-alloy steels containing considerable nickel.

The Manufacture and Composition

237

The amount
per cent.

of manganese in these steels ranges from about 1.00 to 1.90 There is considerable confusion, even among metallurgists, about the dividing line between these steels and carbon steels as some steels that are made and used as intermediate-manganese alloy materials may contain 1.00 per cent or even less, and a few steels that have for years been classed as plain carbon steels rails are an example contain as much as 1.00 per cent or even more manganese. If carbon steel and intermediate-manganese steel cannot be differentiated by their manganese content, they can sometimes be classed according to the industrial application for which they were made. This is a glaring example of the

slipshod terminology that has


steel industry

grown up over the years in the iron and and that confuses maker and user, metallurgist and engi-

neer, alike.

11.12. Carbon Monoxide, and

Rimming and

Killed Steels

between oxygen and carbon in the molten metal large volumes of carbon monoxide gas are formed. Most of this gas is given off during refining; some of it, however, remains entrapped and, unless removed by silicon or other degasifier as described in 11.13,

As a

result of the reaction

Most of this remaining carbon monoxide escapes during solidification. Owing, however, to the viscosity of the metal just before it solidifies, some of the gas remains entrapped to form cavities of varying size in the ingot or casting. These
it starts

will be

still

in the metal

when

to solidify.

cavities-blow holes as they are commonly called-will usually weld in rolling or forging, especially in low- and medium-carbon steels, and will disappear. If, however, the inner surface of the cavity becomes oxidized, which frequently happens in heating for rolling when the cavity is near the surface or if the steel is high in carbon, the surfaces of the cavity do

not weld and the result

is
1
1

a defect

known

as a

seam

(Fig.

.6).

Seams

are usually located on the surface of the rolled section where they can be

detected and removed by machining, chipping, or grinding; but they may

be internal, and
failure will start.

if

so they

inclusions, act as loci

may, like where premature

Kic.

11.6.

Scams on the surface of a

steels are frequently classiaccording to the method of removing gas cavities or rendering them innocuous, as killed, or rimming

Carbon

fied

shaft.

2x-

types.

238
Killed
steels,

Engineering Metallurgy
which nearly always contain more than 0.25 or 0.30 per

cent carbon, are those which must be thoroughly sound and free from

The descriptive adjective comes from the action of the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold: it lies perfectly quiet with no evolution of gas; there is neither bubbling nor churning of the upper surface of the metal. Killed steels are degasified by silicon, alumigas cavities.

num, or other
killed.

degasifiers. All plain


steels,

carbon forging

steels,

all

rails,

all

high-carbon tool and spring

and

all alloy steels

are thoroughly

Rimming
of
solid
(Fig.

steel so called from the rim

metal next to the mold wall


low-carbon
basic
is

11.7) is
steel in

openpartly

hearth

which deoxidation
not degasified.

completed in the furnace or in the ladle


but which
steel
is

is

When
a

the

poured into the ingot mold and


is

begins to solidify, there

brisk but

controlled evolution of gas which results


in

an ingot having a sound gasfrec surface

and

in locating the blow holes so far below the surface that there is no danger of their becoming oxidized when the ingot is heated for rolling (Fig. 11.7). The blow

holes will weld completely in rolling,

and

the result
face free
especially

is

a material with a clean sur-

from seams. Rimming steels are suitable for sheet and strip, notably for thin, deep-drawing stock used in large tonnages for automobile bodies

and

fenders.

Close control of the slag

composition (particularly the amount of


iron oxide)
steel that
,

slag viscosity,
is

and the pouring


to

temperature,

necessary

produce a
it

rims properly

when

solidifies.

Most
ing
Fig. 11.7. Cross section of

basic

open-hearth

steels

contain-

less

made
an
in-

than 0.15 per cent carbon are so that they rim; steels containing
f

0.15 to about 0.25 per cent carbon, used


jd
, '

got of rimming steel about onetwentieth natural size. (Courtesy of American Rolling Mill Company)

structural shapes
<

and plate, "

'

are killed or are partly killed.

The Manufacture and Composition


11.13. Silicon and Other Degasifiers

239

Like manganese, silicon is beneficial and is added to carbon steel as a purifier and, in larger amounts, as both purifier and alloying element.
It
is

effective in

removing oxygen and

is,

therefore,

added

to those grades

of steels (usually containing more than 0.30 per cent carbon)


gas cavities do not weld readily or are otherwise harmful.

in

which

is so used in a fe"' medium-carbon and high-carbon basic open-hearth steels

Silicon

(for

example,

rails)

in practically all acid open-hearth


It
is

steels,

and

in all basic electric steels.

and acid electric added rarely to such lowsteels

carbon basic open-hearth

steels as structural material, wire, sheet, plate,

and

which are used for monoxide gas is silica (Si0 2 ), which reacts readily with manganese oxide and iron oxide, forming silicates. These are insoluble in the molten metal and are of such low specific gravity that they readily leave the steel. Silicon thus
pipe and tinplate.

strip or to those

low-carbon Bessemer

The

reaction product of silicon with carbon

carries deoxidation farther than


degasifier.

Enough

is

added

to

manganese and is in addition an effective complete the purifying reactions and leave

0.10 to 0.40 per cent in the finished steel.

There is occasionally some confusion but not so much as in the case manganese in distinguishing between a silicon-treated carbon steel and a silicon alloy steel. Some specially deoxidized open-hearth steels
of

used in bridge construction, containing around 0.25 per cent silicon, have been and still are termed silicon steels by civil engineers. This is unfortunate, and it is hoped that the tendency to call a material silicon
steel

only

if

the silicon

is

0.50 per cent or

more

will

spread.

Steels containing 1.50 to 2.25 per cent silicon

per cent manganese are used widely for springs,


0.5 to 5.0 per cent silicon
in the construction of

become more wideand about 0.75 and steels containing

and small amounts of other elements are used dynamos and other electric apparatus. Small amounts of aluminum and titanium are added to some grades of carbon steel as final deoxidizers and degasifiers. It has been discovered recently that aluminum, probably through the agency of minute alumisize of carbon and one of the major recent developments in ferrous metallurgy, it receives detailed attention elsewhere in this book. Both aluminum and titanium are also used, in much larger amounts than is necessary for deoxidation and degasification, as alloying elements.

num

oxide particles, can be used to control the grain

alloy steels.

As

this

is

11.14. Other Elements


Since the introduction of alloy steels some
fifty

years ago there has


steel

been a gradually increasing contamination of carbon

by nickel.

240

Engineering Metallurgy

copper, and other alloying elements owing to the inadvertent mixture of alloy-steel scrap with the other scrap. In the case of elements that oxidize
readily, for example,

chromium, vanadium, aluminum, titanium, and a


is

few others, the contamination

not serious, as they are largely oxidized


refining, leaving usually not

and removed during melting and

traces in the steel. In. the case of such alloys as nickel

more than and copper, which

do not

normally increase slowly over a is not of such serious consequences for steels made by a process that uses also a large proportion of pig iron, which is normally free from nickel and :opper, as it is in steel made using a large percentage of scrap (Table
will

oxidize, the

amounts present

period of years.

The amount

of these elements in the scrap

11.1). In the latter the scrap may contain an unsuspected 0.10 to 0.25 per cent nickel and 0.05 to 0.10 per cent copper, sometimes even enough to

affect the properties materially.

recent development in free-machining steels

is

the addition of lead

This element is insoluble in carbon steel, but by special methods of addition to the molten metal it may be incorporated as a suspension so finely disseminated throughout the metal that it is not easily visible in an unetched section with the microscope. These submicroscopic particles of lead apparently act as an internal lubricant and in addition cause the chips to break up readily. Recently reported data
indicate that a lead content of 0.10 to 0.25 percent greatly increases ease

to low-carbon material.

of machining but has no appreciable effect

on mechanical properties. Carbon steel may be contaminated with small amounts of arsenic, tin, and antimony, traces of which may be present in iron ores and may persist through melting and refining. These metals may also be picked up from scrap containing bearing metals or tin cans. The amounts present
little is known about the small amounts of most of these adventitious elements. According to the present state of our knowledge, their effect, with the possible

are small, rarely exceeding 0.05 per cent. Very


effect of

exception of that of antimony, which is assumed to be harmful, may be called neutral. During the war, when some detinned scrap was used in the manufacture of open-hearth steel, considerable attention was given
to the effect to tin. It was found that small amounts of this metal do not cause hot shortness in rolling; they do, however, increase hardness and reduce toughness. Tin, therefore, may be considered definitely harmful in

some grades of

steel, especially in

those used for deep drawing.

11.15. Low-Alloy Steels

A large number of metals (and some metalloids and nonmetals) have been alloyed with carbon steel, either alone or in various combinations, and the resulting properties have been studied more or less completely.

The Manufacture and Composition

241

These include manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, molybdenum, copper, and phosphorus as the more common alloying elements and cobalt, aluminum, zirconium, titanium, nitrogen, lead, boron, and selenium as the less frequent additions. Steel may also be coated or plated with zinc (galvanizing) tin, lead, chromium, or nickel,
,

but such products are not classed as alloy steels. There are two general classes of alloy steels:
neering
the
steels

(1)

the low -alloy engicorrosion-

and

(2)

the high-alloy tool and die

steels,

and

heat-resistant steels
is

and special-purpose alloys. In tonnage, the first class more important; in value to man, both are probably of equal importance, for both have played a vital role in the development of our
Before

present-day machine-age civilization.

World War II there were several hundred low-alloy engineering which some 70 to 80 were considered as standard by the Society of Automotive Engineers. These steels were divided into eight main
steels, of

classes:

intermediate-manganese, silicon-manganese, nickel, nickel-chronickel-mo-

mium, molybdenum (including chromium-molybdenum and

lybdenum), chromium, chromium-vanadium, and tungsten steels. There were also a large number of low-alloy structural steels, most of them developed between 1933 and 1939, that contained small amounts (usually less than 1 to 1.5 per cent) of nickel, copper, chromium, manganese,
silicon,

binations.

phosphorus, and molybdenum in various proportions and comThese were developed to satisfy a demand for a material of
"Irish stew steels"

better properties than carbon steels but cheaper than the S.A.E. grades.

These have been nicknamed


accurate designation.

by

Gillett, a

happy and

11.16. High-Alloy Steels

There are almost


classes.

as

many

varieties of the high-alloy steels as there are

of the low-alloy grades.

These

special materials

can be divided into three

The

first

includes the well-known high-speed steels


steels.

and

the

closely allied die

and valve

The primary

requirement

is

hardness,

especially at elevated temperatures,

(10 to 25 per cent) of tungsten,

smaller amounts of
relatively

which is attained by large amounts chromium, and occasionally cobalt, plus vanadium, molybdenum, or silicon, together with

high carbon percentages.

all the highly alloyed steels used primarily because of their corrosion resistance or scale resistance at normal and at high temperatures. The basic element in these steels is chromium, in

The

second class includes

amounts ranging from 10 to 35 per cent, either alone or together with varying amounts of silicon, manganese, nickel, copper, or molybdenum. The best known steels of this group are the cutlery steels, containing

242

Engineering Metallurgy

stainless steels,

about 0.35 per cent carbon and 14 per cent chromium, and the soft containing low carbon, 15 to 25 per cent chromium, and 6 to 20 per cent nickel, which are used widely for building trim, hardware and fixtures on buildings and automobiles, various kinds of utensils and

more recently, in the construction of railroad equipment and aircraft. Not so well known but just as important are the highly alloyed steels containing nickel, chromium, molybdenum, cobalt, and other alloying
metals, used in steam plants, oil refineries, gas turbines, including jet

engines, and in other applications where high stresses

and high temperathe re-

tures are encountered. Also in this second class are the alloys containing

up

to 65 per cent nickel, 15 to 20 per cent or


iron.

more chromium,

mainder being
resistivity

These are the

heat-resistant alloys of high electric

that are used for the heating elements of all our domestic

and

industrial heating appliances.

The

third class includes a large


uses.

number

of alloys of highly specialized

but important

They

arc the steels with special magnetic and electric

properties, alloys with special expansion characteristics, steels with ex-

ceptional wear resistance, and


that by

are not manufactured in large tonnages,

means of them

the

Although these materials some are of such importance communication and other industries have
others.

many

experienced a veritable revolution in the past twenty or twenty-five years. Nearly all the high-alloy materials are made in electric arc or induction furnaces. Alloy steels are much more costly than carbon steels so that
care
is

exercised to keep the quality as high as possible. Selected scrap


is

is

used, deoxidation

carried farther,

and sulfur and phosphorus are usually


steels.

required to be lower than in carbon

QUESTIONS
1.

Name
What

the four principal

raw materials

of the iron

and

steel industry.

Name

the two
2.

main

classes of final products.

are the general principles underlying the reduction of iron ore in

Name the two principal reactions in the blast furnace, and give the approximate temperatures at which each reaction takes place
the blast furnace?

most readily.
3.

In the manufacture of pig iron, describe how the amounts of phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon are controlled in the product.

4.

What

is

blast furnace slag,

and where does

it

come from? What

are

its

principal (unctions?
5.

Describe the acid Bessemer process. What are die raw materials used? Describe the principal oxidizing reactions. How does the cost and quality of the Bessemer process compare with the basic open hearth?

The Manufacture and Composition


6.

243

7.

8.

9.

Sketch briefly the general features of the basic open-hearth process, and compare it with the acid open-hearth process in (a) raw materials, (b) slags, (c) chemical reactions, (d) general quality of the product. Give two advantages of acid open-hearth steel production over basic openhearth production. Give two advantages of basic open-hearth production over acid open-hearth production. Describe the regenerative principle of the basic open hearth. Give two reasons for its use. Differentiate between the "ore boil" and the "lime boil" by describing the
reactions in each.

10.

Describe
silicon,

how

the

impurities,

such

as

phosphorous, sulfur,

manganese,

and carbon are eliminated

in the basic

11.

12.

13.

Give four advantages of the electric steel. Do they have any disadvantages? Describe the manufacture of wrought iron. What are its uses? How does wrought iron differ from ingot iron? What stcelmaking process would you recommend for the production of
steel for the following:

open hearth. processes for making

14.

wire for suspension cables? (b) sheet steel for for airplane engines? (d) rails for mainline railway track? (e) armor plate for a battleship? (f) small highstrength castings? (g) tools for machining automobile connecting rods? Compare the usual amounts and the principal effects of sulfur and phos(a)

tin

cans?

(c)

alloy-steel

crankshafts

15.

16.

phorous in carbon and alloy steels. Describe the principal functions of manganese and silicon when added to carbon steel. Why is manganese a valuable alloying element? Describe the essential differences between rimming and killed steels. How

do
17.

these two classes ordinarily differ in carbon content? Give a practical definition of low-alloy steels. Define high-alloy

steels

and

give the characteristic property of the classes of high-alloy materials.

The Constitution of S tee I


CHAPTER

12

Hollis Philip I.eighly,

Jr.,

Ph.D., Chairman, Depart-

ment

of Metallurgy, University of Denver, Denver,

Colorado

John Stanton Winston, M.A., M.S., Chairman, Department of Metallurgy, Mackay School of Mines, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada

are those referred to as steels.

carbon

in

most common group of alloys in use today These alloys consist primarily of iron plus varying amounts, to which may be added various alloying ele-

1 HE

ments to achieve the desired properties. Steel is used in tremendous quantities to produce necessities and luxuries; without steel our civilizanot intended to indicate, historically On the contrary, steel was produced as early as 1200 B.C. However, it is only within the past century that methods have been developed to produce steel in large quantities cheaply enough to make it a material of very common usage.
tion

would be quite

primitive. It
is

is

speaking, that steel

new

material.

12.1.

The Allotropy of Iron


effects of

The

carbon additions to iron are intimately associated with

the allotropy of iron. In the process of freezing and cooling to atmospheric temperature, iron undergoes two allotropic transformations. Upon solidification at 2802F.

(1539C.)

iron assumes a body-centered cubic struc-

At 2552 C F. (I400C.) this structure transforms into a facecentered cubic structure (y Fe). This structure persists clown to 1670F. (910C.) where it transforms back to the body-centered cubic structure (a Fe). Actually, 8 and a iron are the same form of iron. They are often regarded, however, as distinct modifications because of the two ranges in temperature in which the body-centered cubic structure is stable. The transformations of iron from one crystal structure to another are accompanied by changes in various properties; such as, density, electrical conductivity, and thermal change. The thermal change consists of an
ture
(8 Fe).

244

The

Constitution of Steel

245

Time
Fig.
12.1.

Cooling curve for pure iron.

absorption of heat during heating and an evolution of heat during cooling. Fig. 12.1, the cooling curve for pure iron, illustrates how the measurement of the changes in a given property at transformation may be used for determining the temperature of transformation.
12.2. Iron-Carbon Phase

Diagram

In the previous chapter it was shown that iron is reduced from its ore by means of carbon and that the resulting product, pig iron, contains approximately 4% carbon. Two effects of the carbon immediately evident are that it lowers the melting point of the iron and makes the resulting
alloy brittle. It

process

is

to

was also shown diat the chief function of the steel making lower the carbon content to the proper level in order to

obtain a certain combination of desired properties. The effects of carbon are so strong that its content is specified in hundreths of a per cent.

The
alloys

is

best approach to understanding the nature of the iron-carbon to study the phase diagram of the system shown in Fig. 12.2.

as cementite

In pure iron-carbon alloys, the carbon not in solid solution usually occurs (Fe3 C) which contains 6.68 per cent carbon by weight.
,

Although cementite
such that
in steels

metastable and decomposes, given sufficient time at elevated temperature, into iron plus graphite, conditions are generally
is

and pure iron-carbon alloys the carbon is present as Therefore the phase diagram chosen for study concerns the equilibria between iron and cementite; and thus, in reality, is the ironiron carbide diagram. Although this diagram covers a small proportion of the possible combinations of iron and carbon, it includes the entire range of commercial iron-carbon alloys (plain carbon steels and cast irons)
cementite.

246

Engineering Metallurgy
Atoms per
4 6
cent, carbon

10

12

14

16

IS

20

\"Hypoeutectoid\Hyptreutectoid
/rons-r*

Stee/s

Fie. 125.

Iron-carbon equilibrium diagram.

Carbon

is

soluble to a limited extent interstitially in each of the allo-

tropic forms of iron.

Inspection of the iron-iron carbide diagram shows

that a-iron can dissolve a

maximum
0.1

of 0.025

per cent carbon, y-iron

up

to

2 per cent
in

and 8-iron up to alpha, gamma, and delta

per cent. These solid solutions of carbon

iron are

named

ferrite, austenite

and

l-ferrite,

respectively.

The greater solubility of carbon


is

in face-centered

gamma

iron

than in body-centered alpha or delta iron


size

probably due

to the larger

and more favorable location of the


little

interstices in the face-centered

structure.

Since delta iron has

to

do with
it

the final microstructure of ironit

carbon

alloys,

sidered further.

and

0.5

be conbetween 0.1 It should be noted, however, that in alloys per cent carbon content austenite is formed by a periiectic retransforming as
does to austenite,
will not
fall

action.

and 2 per cent carbon more than 2 per cent carbon a eutectic reaction occurs producing austenite and cementite. The typical eutectic structure which forms is known as iedeburite. Alloys containing this brittle structure cannot be hot- or cold-worked but must be cast, and are therefore known as cast irons.
Alloys whose compositions

between

0.5

solidify as austenite.

For those

alloys containing

The Constitution

of Steel

247
6.68 per cent carbon

All alloys with compositions between 0.025

and

undergo
pearlite,
12.4)
.

a eutectoid reaction at 1333F.

(723C.)

when

austenite con-

taining 0.8 per cent carbon decomposes, at constant temperature, into

an intimate mixture of
less

ferrite

and cemcntite
is

(Figs.

12.3F and

plain carbon steel of this composition

called a eutectoid steel.

Steels

having

carbon or more carbon than


respectively.
(Fig.

this are called

hypoeute-

rtoid

and hypereutectoid

From

the cooling curve for pure iron

12.1)

it

is

evident that

arrests are experienced

when

the transformations occur.

Such

arrests

are also present in the cooling curves for iron-carbon alloys.


tures at
critical

The

tempera-

which

these transformations in the solid state occur are called

temperatures or critical points.

The

loci of these

points (lines)

on the phase diagram are given symbols. In hypoeutectoid alloys, A 3 and Aj are the upper and lower critical temperatures (lines GS and PS Fig. 12.2); in the eutectoid alloy and hypereutectoid alloys, A. and A,
t

coincide (line

SK

Fig. 12.2)
is

and, therefore,

is

designated

A ll3 The
.

zone

between

A3

and A,

known

as the critical range.

Some

of the other lines appearing on the phase diagram have also been

given symbols.

The

plus cementite (line SE)

curve separating the fields austenite and austenite is designated A,., and the line of temperatures of

transformation of B-iron to y-iron (line

AHJB)

is

called A^. the iron-iron

An understanding

of the phase relationships


final

shown by
is

carbide diagram and the

microstructures attained

best obtained by

following the process of solidification


representative alloys of the system.

and subsequent cooling


Steels

of several

12.3. Phase

Changes of Slowly Cooled Plain Carbon

the completion of solidification all steels consist of austenite while atmospheric temperature they consist of ferrite and cemcntite. Their microstructure depends upon the relative amounts of ferrite and cementat

At

and the way upon the carbon


ite

in

which these are arranged.

This, in turn, depends

content.

The phase changes in carbon steels cooled slowly from a high temperature can be illustrated by three steels containing (A) 0.30 per cent carbon, (B) 0.80 per cent carbon, and (C) 1.30 per cent carbon. These
are indicated in Fig. 12.2 by lines xx', yy'

and

zz'.

is a solution of carbon in molten iron. Upon slow cooling, there is no change until the solidification temperature 2768F. (1520C.) is reached. Here solidification of S iron

At 2820F. (1550C), the

first steel

(xx')

begins and progresses with further cooling until at 2720F. the peritectic reaction of S + liquid - austenite occurs with an excess of liquid in this
case.

Further cooling causes ihe liquid to disappear so that at 2687F.

248

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 12.3.

(B) 0.20 per cent carbon steel;


steel;

Microstructures of slowly cooled iron-carbon alloys: (A) low-carbon iron; (C) 0.40 per cent carbon steel; (D) 0.80 per cent carbon (E) 1.3 per cent carbon steel; (F) pearlite at high magnification; etched. A to
F,

E,

lOOx:

1.000X-

The
(1475C.)

Constitution of Steel

249

solidification of austenite is complete.

The

white-hot

steel,

which consists wholly of a solid solution of carbon in gamma iron, cools unchanged until a temperature of 1512F. (822C.) is reached. At this point on line A 3 (GOS) the austenite is saturated in iron (ferrite) If the temperature falls slightly, the excess iron is precipated in the form of alpha phase. Since the austenite loses no carbon during the process,
,
.

the loss of

some

iron as alpha phase by the austenite

is

equivalent to in-

creasing the carbon content of the austenite. ues to


fall,

As

the temperature contin-

precipitation of alpha iron


is

and

increase of carbon content of the

austenite (since there

progressively less austenite for a constant

amount

of carbon) occur continuously.

When

the temperature reaches that of the

A i (PSK)

the austenite

is

saturated with carbon. Further cooling results

in simultaneous precipitation of alpha iron

and carbon

(as

iron carbide)

This process goes

to

completion, which

is

to say that the austenite dis-

appears completely. If the cooling is very slow through the temperature interval from line

A s (GOS)

to just below line A (PSK), the excess ferrite which is first formed assumes the shape of discrete polyhedral grains, and the remainx

ing austenite, containing 0.80 per cent carbon, transforms to the pearlite

aggregate in which the ferrite and cementite particles are in the form
of relatively large laminated plates.
steel consists of 36
If

The

structure of the slowly cooled

per cent pearlite and 64 per cent excess ferrite.*

a piece of slowly cooled carbon steel is polished and etched with and examined with the microscope, the relation between the carbon content and the amount of free ferrite (etches light) and pearlite
dilute acid
(etches dark)

Micrograph
carbon;
it

clearly evident. This relation is shown in Fig. 12.3. shows the structure of iron containing practically no consists wholly of polyhedral grains of ferrite. In B, the steel
is

containing 0.20 per cent carbon, the dark grains of pearlite are numerous, and in C, the material containing 0.40 per cent carbon, they are still more

numerous.
F,

The

parallel plates of cementite

and

ferrite

making up

the

pearlite aggregate are

shown

clearly at high magnification in


is

and when viewed by

the electron microscope, as

micrograph evident from Fig.

12.4.

Referring again to Fig. 12.2 (line yy'), at 2820F. (1550C.) a steel containing 0.80 per cent carbon is a solution of iron carbide in molten iron. As the molten metal cools, it is unchanged until a temperature of 2670F. (1468C.) is reached where solidification of the austenite begins.

This

is

not complete until a temperature of 2520F.

(1380C.)

is

0.30 per cent carbon is equivalent to 4.5 per rent Fe C. Since 1 part of Ke is 3 aC associated with 7 parts of ferric to form pearlite. 4.5 per cent Fe,C plus 31.5 per cent ferrite form 36 per cent pearlile.

250
reached.
is

Engineering Metallurgy
It will

be noted that with higher carbon the solidification range

wider.

in
is

After the steel has solidified completely, the solution of cementite gamma iron cools unchanged until a temperature of 1333 (723C.) reached. Owing to the fact that the steel contains 0.80 per cent carbon

and, therefore, the exact amounts of cementite (12 per cent) and iron (88 per cent) to form the aggregate pearlite, there will be no preliminary precipitation of alpha iron from the saturated austenite, as was the case with the 0.30 per cent carbon steel described in the previous section.
steel cools through the A x temperature of 1333F. (723C.) the austenite undergoes precisely the same change as was described for the last stage of transformation of the 0.30 per cent carbon steel, that
is, simultaneous precipitation of alpha iron and iron carbide. There is no further structural change as the steel cools from A x to room temperature, and if cooling through the A temperature is slow, the cementite and ferrite form well-defined plates as shown in Fig. 12. 3D and, at high magnification, in Figs. 12.3F and 12.4.
x

As the

In the case of a steel containing 1.3 per cent carbon (19.5 per cent cementite), represented by line zz' in Fig. 12.2, the changes taking place

during slow cooling are fundamentally analogous to those taking place in a 0.30 per cent carbon steel. The essential difference is (in addition to a wider solidification range) that the A cm line marks the preliminary
separation of excess iron carbide rather than excess alpha iron. When a steel containing 1.3 per cent carbon cools slowly, at 1640F (893C.) the austenite is saturated with carbide. Further cooling results in precipitation of this excess carbide from the saturated austenite, which continues as the temperature falls from 1640F. to 1333F. (the A x tem-

perature) The remaining austenite, which now contains 0.80 per cent carbon (12 per cent cementite) here transforms to pearlite, as in the preceding case. At room temperature, the structure is made up of grains
. ,

of pearlite (etches dark)


(light)
.

with a network (or needles) of excess carbide

This structure

is

shown

in Fig. 12.3E.
all

The

discussion to this point has

been concerned with slow cooling.


changes take place.

In heating carbon

steels, the reverse

For example,
per cent

a 0.30 per cent carbon steel

that has been cooled slowly consists at

room temperature of a

structure of 36 per cent pearlite


is

and

(>4

excess ferrite. If this steel

heated slowly, no change takes place until a


is

temperature of 1333F. (723C.)


of the pearlite transforms to

just exceeded.

Here, the alpha iron

gamma

iron

and the cementite goes into

solution. As heating

is

continued, the excess alpha iron changes to

gamma

The

Constitution of Steel

251

Fie. 12.4.
lica.

mm.

Electron micrograph of pearlite in eutectoid steel. Polystyrene-silica rep20,000x. etched. Approximately i/ i micron 0001 A in. on the micrograph

(Courtesy of C.

S.

Barrett)

iron and is absorbed by the austenite. At 1512F. (822C.) , these changes are complete, and the steel, now a solid solution of 4.5 per cent cementite in gamma iron, remains unchanged to the melting point.

12.4. Isothermal Transformation in Steel

Considerable work has been done in studying the effect of continuous


cooling

upon

the structure

and properties of

steels.

The

effect of the

various alloying elements was

known

in a rather general way, however,

available. In 1930, Davenport and Bain # presented a paper describing the results of a study of the isothermal transformation of steel. This paper resulted in a further extensive study of many iron-carbon alloys, which gave a better understanding of the mechanism

no good explanation was

of austenite decomposition

and the part played by the alloying elements.


published in the Atlas of Isothermal

The

results of these studies are

Transformation Diagrams.^
E. S. Davenport 117-154.

and E. C. Bain, Trans. Amer.

Inst.

Min. & Met. Eng


Steel Corp., 1951.

90 1930

p.

Atlas of Isothermal Transformation Diagrams, U.

S.

252

Engineering Metallurgy
1 1 1 1

Avsrtvit
.

aunt
_

A, TCMPOIAIVfiC

jurtrmre

A is
V
-

"

\
\

\
\
\

WLHSTC W*J

[.....!._..
130000

ICCOO00

10OMITHMIC TIUC

Fig.

12.5.

Schematic Drawing of a Typical Isothermal Transformation Curve Re-

vealing Significant Features.

The
form
to as

results of isothermal transformation studies are presented in the

of diagrams such as the

one

in Fig. 12.5.

These are usually referred


with time as the
left

TTT

curves

(time-temperature-transformation)
as the ordinate.

abscissa

and temperature

The

curve indicates the

beginning of transformation with the right curve showing the completion. In the case of high or low carbon steels, the formation of the pro-eutectoid cementite or ferrite is usually indicated on the diagram as an additional
feature.

To

construct a

TTT curve,

it is

necessary to heat thin specimens of the

desired steel into the austenite region for sufficient time to obtain a

homogeneous structure. The specimens are then quenched into a pot of molten lead or salt which is maintained at some constant temperature, i.e., isothermal, below the austeniti/.ing temperature. These specimens are kept in the molten bath for varying time intervals from second to as much as 10 5 seconds or longer. At the end of the desired time interval, the specimen is quenched into cold water causing the isothermal trans1

formation
is

to be- terminated. Any austenite not transformed isothermally transformed by quenching to martensite. The specimens quenched

isothermally at a particular temperature are prepared metallographically

and etched.

Microscopic examination will reveal that the isothermal


field.

transformation product appears as dark areas in a white

The

The

Constitution of Steel

253

el

<

'

Fie. 12.6.

Micrograph of coarse pcarlitc formed by isothermal transformation


(left)

at

I275F. 600X.
Ftc.
12.7.

Fine

pcarlitc

formed by isothermal

transformation

at

1200F.

600X.

(right)

Fig. 12.8.

specimen

is

Nodular pearlitc formed by isothermal transformation at 1100F. This only partially transformed. 600X. (left)

Fig. 12.9.
is

Bainite formed by isothermal transformation at 850F. This specimen only partially transformed. 600 X. (right)

254
white
ing.
field

Engineering Metallurgy
represents the untransformed austenite prior to water quench-

time associated with the specimen showing the smallest amount of dark area is assumed to be the time lor the beginning of isothermal
transformation at the particular temperature while the end of transfor-

The

mation
surface.

is

determined by the specimen showing

completely darkened

By repeating the experiment

at several different temperatures,

enough data are obtained to make similar to that shown in Fig. 12.5.

possible the construction of a

diagram

The

transformation products obtained arc a function of the transforma-

tion temperature.

Near the eutectoid temperature very coarse

pearlite

forms as
ture
is

is

shown

in Fig. 12.6 while finer pearlite forms as the tempera-

reduced

(see Fig. 12.7) until at the

"nose" of the curve a very fine

pearlite forms in nodules giving nodular pearlite, Fig. 12.8.

Below the

temperature of the nose, a product forms, which only occurs during


isothermal transformation, bainite, Fig.
material
is

12.9.

The

exact nature of this

not well understood but it appears to be some sort of very fine mixture of fcrrite and cemeiuite. The above description applies to
those alloys
ferrite

which do not

yield a pro-cutectoid constituent.

Pro-eutectoid
is

or pro-eutectoid cementite forms before pearlite

formed.

12.5.

The

Effect of Cooling Rale

Upon

the Resulting Structure

steel was However, during the heat treatment of most steel parts, it is not possible to remove the heat within the extremely short time as is done for obtaining a TTT diagram. As a result, the surface may be very severely quenched whereas the interior may cool very slowly. Such varia-

In the previous section, the isothermal transformation of

discussed.

tion in cooling rate will certainly result in different structures.

was observed that isothermal transformation just below the austentemperature caused the austenite to transform very slowly into coarse pearlite. As the temperature was reduced, the transformation was
It

itizing

more rapid and

the pearlite

became

finer.

In Fig. 12.10 there

is

shown

schematic drawing of a portion of an isothermal diagram with some typical continuous cooling curves. Curve A shows very slow cooling, such as might be expected in furnace cooling. The austenite exists until the curve reaches the beginning of transformation at which lime coarse pearlite begins to form. It continues to form until the transformation is complete. Now curve B shows moderately slow cooling that might be expected in
still

air cooling of steel. Austenite exists until the

curve meets
pearlite
is

the beginning of the transformation curve at

which time medium

begins to form and continues to form until the transformation


plete.

comfiner

The specimen

cooled as shown by curve

C would

have

still

The Constitution
i

of Steel
1

255

4vsr/riir StablC

*00

"\
_-A_.
_i

*l ItltPCHASVBj

. -

400*

--*. -\

\r/stc

w
w
OC*
-

Itf^Rtfl

\
*"%^

400"

00

IMMITHMIfi IIMt

**

SCO*DS

Fig. 12.10. Schematic Representation of an Isothermal Diagram and Various Continuous Cooling Curves.

critical cooling rate as shown by curve D shows that the would transform into martensite without any pearlite forming. Martensite begins to form at the temperature shown as 3 and increases as the temperature is reduced. Any cooling rates more rapid than

pearlite.

The

austenite

will result in

complete transformation into martensite, Fig.

12.11.

w
*-..

'

-*

\f
......

--"'

Fie. 12.11.

Martensite formed by water quenching after austenitizing. 600x-

256

Engineering Metallurgy

12.6. Effect of Alloying Elements

Upon

the Iron-Carbon Diagram

In Section 12.2, the iron-carbon phase diagram was discussed in detail. the effect of the common alloying elements upon the eutectoid temperature and composition will be discussed as well as the effect of the alloying elements upon the physical properties of steel. Alloying ele-

Now,

ments tend to divide themselves into two groups: those that widen the
range of
ture

gamma

stability by increasing the S-y transformation

tempera-

and lowering the y transformation temperature and those that narrow the range of gamma stability by lowering the 8-y transformation temperature and raising the y transformation temperature. The common gamma stabilizers are manganese, nickel, cobalt, copper, nitrogen and carbon, while the common alpha stabilizers are silicon, chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphorus, vanadium, titanium, aluminum, boron and sulfur. Nickel and manganese are such strong gamma stabilizers that it is

possible to have stable austenite at

as occurs in the austenitic stainless steels

room temperature such and Hadfield steel respectively.

Certain of the alpha stabilizers reduce the gamma region to a narrow loop and may result in ferrite existing continuously from the liquidus

temperature to room temperature. By an element being an alpha or


raises

gamma

stabilizer

means

that

it

either

or lowers the eutectoid temperature respectively.

cated previously, nickel and

manganese

are

gamma

As was indistabilizers and thus

reduce the eutectoid temperature, nickel being a bit more effective than manganese. The other gamma stabilizers have a similar effect however rather reduced. By the same token the alpha stabilizers raise the
eutectoid temperature, thereby reducing the region of

gamma

stability.

Titanium has the greatest effect in raising the eutectoid temperature followed by molybdenum, tungsten, silicon and chromium in decreasing
order.

Most alloying elements have an

effect in

reducing the carbon content

This results in a completely pearlitic alloy with less carbon than indicated by the iron-carbon diagram. Again, titanium has the greatest effect in reducing the eutectoid carbon content with molybdenum, tungsten, silicon, manganese, chromium, and nickel in descending order. This effect reduces the amount of cementite and causes the steel to be softer and less brittle. Most alloying elements have a useful effect upon the heat treating of steel; certain alloying elements have other useful properties. One of the
necessary for the eutectoid composition.

properties

is

the ability of strengthening the ferrite to obtain sheet


for the fabrication of high strength, lightweight obvessels, railroad cars,

and plate materials


jects

such as pressure

truck bodies,

etc.

These are

The

Constitution of Steel

257

usually referred to as high-strength, low-alloy steels being sold under


several trade names.

They

rely

on the

fact that phosphorus,

manganese,
strength-

copper, titanium and silicon form solid solutions with ferrite and thereby

strengthen

it.

Nickel,

molybdenum, and aluminum are mild

ened.

Another property that alloying elements have is their ability to form carbides. These carbides may have a grain refining action on the
austenite during heat treatment to prevent excess grain growth.
also

They

may

help block creep in high temperature applications. In the case

of certain types of stainless steel,

columbium and titanium are used to form a more stable carbide than chromium and thus enhance the
steel.

corrosion resistance of the

Columbium, titanium, zirconium, vana-

dium, tungsten, molybdenum, and chromium are considered as strong carbide formers while manganese is only moderate. Phosphorus, nickel, sulfur, cobalt, and copper have no effect in the formation of carbides while aluminum and silicon tend to cause the carbides to decompose,
precipitating graphite.

12.7. Effect of Alloying Elements

on the Isothermal Transformation

of Steel
Referring back to Fig.
labeled pearlite
is

12.5,

and
if

bainite.

we see that there are regions on the diagram By comparing this figure with Fig. 12.10, it
it

apparent that

thick sections are to be completely hardened,

will

be

necessary to displace the curve to the right, thus requiring a longer time to elapse before the beginning of transformation. This is precisely the
effect of alloying

elements on the
it is

TTT

curve.

By

suitable selection of

alloying elements,

possible to displace the curve


air cooling.
is

enough

to

permit

complete hardening of quite large pieces by


Usually the
of
its

effect of

an alloying element

determined as a function

ability to displace the pearlite or bainite region to the right. In the

case

of the pearlite region, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, and chromium have the greatest effect in that order, while silicon, nickel, and copper have much smaller effects. The displacement of the bainite
is

region to the right


Silicon, nickel,

greatest with

manganese, phosphorus, and chromium.


ability while

and copper have reduced

molybdenum

has

no

effect

on the bainite region.

It is interesting to
left.

note that sulfur has a

slight tendency to displace the curve to the

By

careful selection of

proper alloying elements, the beginning curve for transformation can be displaced considerably to the right. It should be noted that small additions of several alloying elements are more effective than one large addi-

2 J

Engineering Metallurgy

tion. This is evident in the alloys that have been developed recently with their multi-element additions.

The

treatment of
line labeled

addition of alloying elements has another effect in the thermal steel. In Fig. 12.5 it can be seen that there is a horizontal

s.

This

is

the temperature at

form.

It

continues to form as the temperature

which martensitc begins to is reduced. Most of the

common

alloying elements tend to reduce the M, temperature, carbon being quite strong in its ability. The other elements reduce the M, in the following order; manganese, vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, molyb-

denum,

aluminum and cobalt tend Alloy additions may lower the M, to such an extent that complete transformation of austenite to martensite mav not be possible
tungsten. Silicon has no effect while
to raise the

by quenching to room temperature.


cooling in order to form martensite.

It

may

require subatmospheric

12.8. Effect of

Hot Working on Structure

So far, the discussion in this chapter has been confined to the phase and structural changes in carbon steels when they are heated or, more
important, cooled at varying rates between the temperature where ausIt was stated that there is no change in the austenite if it is heated or cooled between the transformation temperature and the melting point. This is true. There is no change

tenite

is

stable

and room temperature.

in the internal structure of the austenite grains, but there

may be

a great

change

in the size of the grains.

If

carbon

steel is

heated above the trans-

formation temperature, the austenite grains grow, and the higher the temperature the larger the grains.
Small-grained steels are generally considered to have better properties than coarse-grained material of the same composition. Since grain size at room temperature depends largely upon the grain size of austenite when it is ready to transform, the grain size of austenite should be small. One of the important factors affecting the grain size of austenite, and of
pearlite

and

ferrite, is

mechanical working.
usually begins by crystallization
is

When
it is

molten

steel cools, solidification

at the wall of the

mold, and
if

if

the temperature of the steel


is

high

when

poured, and
is

the ingot or casting

large

and

of favorable shape,

these crystals

may become
up

very large (Fig. 12.12).

Hot

rolling or forging,
is

which
plastic,

ordinarily carried out at temperatures at which the metal

breaks

the large crystals and elongates the fragments in the


is

direction in

which the work

applied. These elongated grains, together

with elongated inclusions, give carbon and


directional properties.

many

of the alloy steels their

The

Constitution of Steel

259

Large columnar crystals in a steel ingot, natural FIG. 12.12. Schroder, Atlas Metallographiats, Berlin, 1927)

size.

(Hanemann and

Austenitc grains, even

when

plastically

broken and deformed, have


is

the tendency to grow together again. This tendency

the greater the

higher the temperature. Hence, if the finishing temperature of hot working is much above the transformation temperature, grain growth may

occur while the

steel is
is

cooling to the transformation temperature, espeis

cially if the section

so large that cooling

slow.

For

this reason,

if

hot-

rolled or forged steels are to be used without subsequent heat treatment,

and if a fine grain is desirable, the hot-working temperatures and the amounts of reduction are controlled so that the finishing temperature will not be much above the transformation temperature. Thus, the steel will cool below this teni]>erature before appreciable grain growth has taken place. The effect of hot working in breaking up the coarse grain structure of cast 0.20 per cent carbon steel is shown in Fig. 12.13B.
12.9. Effect of Cold

Working on Structure

Cold working is usually defined as mechanical deformation of steel at temperatures below the transformation temperature. In practice it is

260

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 12.13.
rolled; etched.

Structure of a 0.20 per cent carbon steel:

(A) as cast,

and

(B) as hot

100x-

generally carried out at


at these bars,

room temperature. If steel is plastically deformed low temperatures as in drawing wire, cold rolling or extruding or cold rolling sheet the pearlite and ferrite grains are elongated
which work
is

in the direction in

applied.

This mechanical distortion


is

results in rapid increase of hardness

and

brittleness.

At atmospheric temperature, the


lizing into their

rigidity of the steel

so great that

the distorted grain fragments cannot rearrange themselves by recrystal-

normal equiaxed shape. Hence,

if

cold working

is

con-

tinued, the hardness and brittleness accompanying the fragmentation of the grains will increase with the the steel
steel
is

annealed,

it

will fail.

amount of deformation until soon, unless The amount of cold deformation that
its

will

stand depends upon

ductility,

which, in turn,

is

related

directly to chemical composition

and prior heat treatment. Thus, annealed low-carbon wire will withstand more reduction by drawing before failure, or before reheating for recrystallization becomes necessary, than
annealed medium- or high-carbon wire. The unstable structure of cold-worked steel* and its accompanying hardness and brittleness are caused by the distortion of the ferrite and

and not, as in quenched steel, by the presence of submicroscopic particles of carbon in a distorted alpha-iron lattice. But, as
pearlite grains
The structure of severely cold-worked steel is unstable in that the fragmented grains will recrystallize if given the opportunity; that is, if the steel is heated to the

proper temperature, which is considerably below the A transformation. Actually, x however, owing to the rigidity of the material at room temperature, the fragmented
grain structure will persist indefinitely.

The

Constitution of Steel

261

Fig. 12.14.

as cold- worked

Structure of a 0.20 per cent carbon steel and annealed; etched. 500 X-

(A) as cold-worked

and

(B)

the stability of quenched steel can be increased by tempering (see Chap. 13), so can the stability of structure of cold-worked steel be increased by reheating below the transformation temperature. This is known as process

annealing.
Structural changes which occur are not gradual.

when cold-worked

steel

is

reheated

Cold-worked steel is softened by heating to 800 to 1200F. (425 to 650C), the exact temperature depending on the com-

and the amount of cold work. Reheating at the proper temperature effects complete recrystallization and restoration
position, si/e of the section,

of the original structure and properties. The material can then be cold worked again until grain distortion and its accompanying brittleness have again become so serious that another reheating is necessary. The effect of cold working on the structure of a 0.20 per cent carbon steel (whose structure as hot-worked is shown in Fig. 12. ISA) is illustrated in Fig. 12.14A. The effect of reheating on the distorted grain structure is shown in Fig. I2.14B. Note that after annealing the grains are equiaxed, and all indication of distortion has disappeared.

QUESTIONS
1.

Describe the changes taking place in cooling from 3,000F., iron-carbon alloys having the following carbon contents, 0.3%, 0.8%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.3% and 5.0%. When crossing a two phase field, indicate how each phase changes in quantity and composition.
the lever rule, give the composition and amounts of the phases present in the above alloys at the following temperatures, 2,500F 2 000F 1,500F., and 1,000F. Describe the crystal structures of delta iron, austenite, and ferrite. What is the crystal structure of pearl ite? How does it differ from the previous mentioned phases?

2.

Using

3.

262
4.

Modern Metlallurgy
Give the range of carbon contents for carbon diagram, give one reason that
ductility.

jor Engineers
steel cast

and

cast iron.

From

the iron-

irons frequently

have limited

5.

6.

diagram. What is the Describe in detail, the method of constructing a white constituent which is present in specimens which are only partially transformed? Where does it originate? Sketch the curve from Fig. 12.5. Superimpose on this diagram curves representing your opinion of the transformation curves for alloys containing manganese, silicon, phosphorus, nickel, copper, chromuim, and molyb-

TTT

TTT

denum. Sketch
7.

the position of the

M,

also.
12.2.

Sketcli

the iron-carbon diagram from Fig.

Superimpose on

this dia-

gram, the position of the eutectoid temperature and composition for alloys containing, titanium, molybdenum, tungsten, silicon, manganese, chromium,

and
8.

nickel.

9.

10.

Define the term carbide former. Give several examples of carbide formers. Define alpha and gamma stabilizer. Give examples, why gamma stabilizers are important. What are columnar crystals and how are they formed? What is the effect of hot working on the crystals? Why should the finishing temperature of hot working be just above the transformation temperature? What is cold working? How docs it affect the structure and properties of
hot worked steel? What happens to die structure and properties when cold worked steel is reheated to 800 to 1,200F.? Define the terms, hypoeutectoid, hypereutectoid, and eutectoid as used in
steel.

11.

Describe the difference that will occur when such steels are slow cooled from the austenite region. 12. Sketch the unit lattice cells for austenite and ferritc. Point out the differences. Which is the closest packed cell? Since carbon is an interstitial atom, indicate where it fits in the austenite unit cell. 13. From the iron-carbon diagram in Fig. 12.2, point out the various reactions which occur. Indicate the reactants and products. 14. From the iron-carbon diagram, indicate the amount of pearlite present in alloys containg 0.3%, 0.8%, 1.2%, and 1.9% carbon. What is the other
15.

constituent in each of the alloys? Cast iron is quite extensively used and is rather inexpensive as compared with cast steel. From the material presented in this chapter, give reasons

to explain this situation. Describe the changes that take place during the solidification and subsequent cooling of molten pure iron. Compare these charges with those that occur in copper. 17. Define the term ferrite strcngthener. Why are these important? Give ex10.

amples of
18.

ferrite strengtheners.

Describe the formation of martensite. Upon what variables is martensite formation dependent? 19. When steel is cold worked, how arc the mechanical properties affected? Describe applications where cold worked steel is superior to annealed steel. 20. Describe the solidification of steel in a large ingot mold. Consider the differences which would occur at the surface and interior of the ingot.

CHAPTER

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment of Steel


Abram Eldrkd HoSTETTER,
lurgy,

13
Ph.D., Professor of Metal-

Kansas State College, Manhattan, Kansas

JL

HE

process of quenching

and tempering

steel to

improve

its

hardness and wear resistance has been used for at least

3,000 years.

Some

of the early tools and


Little

weapons

testify to the skill of the

was known, however, regarding the nature of the changes taking place in the steel during heal treatment, and the success of these early metal workers is a tribute to their patience and persistence in developing the art of heat treating. Medieval literature is filled with the magic heat-treating processes developed by these early iron

early metal smiths.

The Spanish swords of Toledo, for example, gained world renown because of the supposedly mysterious properties of the water in which they were quenched; the famous swords of Damascus were heated to the color of the rising sun and were quenched by plunging them into the belly of a fat Nubian slave. A favorite quenching medium was urine, and this is understandable since
we know
that chloride brines and other salt solutions extract heat from red-hot steel 10 to 20 percent faster than water alone.
to the heat treatment of steel is somewhat more has been learned about the complex reactions taking place during the heat treatment of steel and various factors such as alloy content, cooling rate, tempering temperature, etc. are much better underscientific.

workers, especially for the treatment of swords.

Today our approach

Much

stood today.

Our knowledge of the structural changes taking place in by no means complete, but with the knowledge we have, heat treatment processes can be prescribed to give desired properties with a
metals
is

minimum

of "trial

and error" procedure.


263

264

Engineering Metallurgy

1650'

1530 K

0.6

0.8

Per cent carbon

Fig. 13.1.

Schematic representation of the grain

size of

carbon

steel as affected

by

heating.

(Stoughton)

13.1. Grain Size

and Grain Growth

two means by which the grain size of carbon steel can be first is by cold working the metal and annealing it at a temperature below the critical range. This is called process annealing. The grain size thus produced depends mainly on the extent of cold working and the annealing temperature. The second method is by heating the metal above the critical range where, as described in Chapter 12,
are

There

changed.

The

austenite

is

produced. With the formation of austenite, recrystallization


13.1

takes place, resulting in a fine grain structure (Fig. 13.1)

with raising temperature is coarse-grained hypoeutectoid steel is slowly heated, grain refinement starts at the lower critical range (1330F.) and gradually proceeds throughout the critical range. Grain refinement is then complete at the upper critical temperature. This is In Fig.
the change
in

grain

size

indicated by varying sizes of circles.

If a

not a reversible process however. That is, on cooling, the grain size does not revert back to the original large grain size, but remains the maximum
size

reached while above the

critical range.

On

cooling, the austenite

grains convert to ferrite and pearlite or martensite, depending on the

cooling rate. In either case the grain


reflects

size

observed at room temperature


In the case of eutectoid and

the prior austenitic grain


steels,

size.

hypereutectoid

grain refinement takes place at the eutectoid tem-

perature as shown in Fig. 13.1.

In case a steel has a fine grain at

room

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment of

Steel

265

temperature there will be little or no change in grain size when it is heated through the critical range. If a steel is heated to produce fine-grain austenite and then heating is continued several hundred degrees higher, the fine grains of austenite

grow

to a larger size as

shown

in Fig.

13.1.

Time

also plays a part in

determining the final grain size. At higher temperatures the grain growth is rapid, while at temperatures just above the transformation range, there is little tendency for grain growth. The eventual grain size of steel therefore depends on both the temperature to which it is heated and the time it is held at this temperature. The effect of temperature on grain growth is shown in Fig. 13.2. Two pieces of steel containing .40% carbon were heated above the critical range and cooled slowly. Sample A was then heated to 1550F. (in the
fine grain range Fig. 13.1) and held there for 30 minutes, and sample B was heated to 1900F for 30 minutes. The samples were cooled slowly, well below the critical cooling rate, and as a result, both samples are soft and consist of grains of ferrite and pearlite. The grain size of sample B,

however, is much larger then that of sample growth at 1900F.

because of the grain


the hardness and the
rate,

When
Chapter
rate,

austenite

is is

cooled to

room temperature,

resulting structure
12.

dependent on the cooling


is

If

cooling

as indicated in slower than the critical cooling rate, pearlite

if quenched faster than the critical cooling produced. The grain size in both cases, however, is the same if they were heated to the same temperature. Thus the grain size depends on the temperature to which a steel is heated, but the hardness depends on the cooling rate and is quite independent of the grain size.

would be produced, and


martensite
is

may be hard or soft, depending on the cooling rate, and be fine or coarse grained, depending on the temperature to which the steel was heated.
Steel

13.2. Controlling

and Classifying Grain Size

When

steel

certain range of temperature (Fig. 13.1)

gram growth.

gradually heated above the critical range, there is a where there is little tendency for Above this range, grain growth becomes more and more
is

apparent as the temperature rises. It has been found, however, that by adding definite small amounts of aluminum or other deoxidizers to carbon and alloy steels, the tendency for grain growth at elevated temperatures can be controlled. That is, the fine-grain temperature range
(Fig. 13.1)
is

broadened so that a carbon

steel

containing the proper

amount

of

aluminum can be heated

to 1830F.

and

still

remain

fine

266

Engineering Metallurgy

grained, whereas a similar steel without the

aluminum would quickly become coarse grained at this temperature. The research work of McQuaid and Elm, along with other investigators,

has served to emphasize the importance of grain


steel.

size in the

heat

For many and every precaution was taken in hot working and heat treatment to avoid it as far as possible. This idea is now known to be wrong in some cases. Coarse-grained steels machine more easily and harden more deeply than fine-grained steels. On the other hand, finegrained steels do not crack so readily when quenched and in general have greater toughness at low temperatures. The grain size of steel can be classified in terms of a standard scale established by the American Society for Testing Materials. The graintreatment of
years a coarse-grained structure was con-

sidered to be undesirable

size class are

numbered to 8. In this system the number of grains per square inch at 100X is 2"1 where n is the grain-size numbers. Photo1

graphs of each of the grain-size

handcomparing books, and the grain size of a sample is readily obtained by the grain size of these photographs with that of the sample when viewed or photographed at 100X. Table 13.1 lists the ASTM grain-size numbers
classes are available in metallurgical

and the corresponding grains per square inch. Three sizes are shown in Fig. 13.3 as they appear at 100X.
Table
A.S.T.M. Grain-Size Numbers

different grain

13.1.

Grains per Sq. In. at 100X

A.S.T.M. Grain-Size Number


Average
1 1

Range
1 J/

or
to
to

less

2
3
4

2 4
8

lj^to 3
3
6

6 24

to 12 to 48 to

5 6 7

16

12

32
64 128

24 48
96

96

or

more

Another system standards. This set


to coarse grain.

for

classifying grain

consists of ten

The

grain size
its

ing

it

and

visually
is

matching

size is the Shepherd fracture broken steel specimens graded from fine of a sample is then determined by breakgrain size with one of standard specimens.

This method

especially useful

where metallographic

facilities are

not

Fundamentals

of

Heat Treatment

of Steel

267

MM

5&isik
etched. IOOx-

;i"i^jj

Fie. 135. Structure of 0.40 per cent carbon steel (A) heated just above the transformation temperature and slowly cooled and (B) overheated and slowly cooled;

available.

The

fracture standards are prepared by hardening

breaking them.

The sample

and then being tested or compared to the standards


to get a valid

must
It

also be in the hardened condition must be remembered that the grain


is

comparison.

size referred to
si/e.

above the transsteels,

formation temperature
ever, little austenite
is

austcnitic grain

In most carbon

how-

alloyed

steels,

and

at

room temperature, except room temperature we are concerned with


retained at

in highly

grain size

of the transformation product

bainite etc.)

on cooling (martensite, ferrite, pearlite, By proper polishing and etching of martensite, the previ-

ous austenitic grain


condition

size is revealed since the grain size of the martensite follows that of the previous austenitic grain size. Steel in the martensitic

may also The broken surface

be notched and broken to display the grain size. many small facets. The facets follow the fracture planes through the grains and thus their size gives an indication of the martensitic grain size. On slow cooling hypoeutectoid steel, the
consists of

austenitic grain size

is

reflected

in

the grain size of the ferrite and

pearlite since the proeutectoid ferrite forms at the austenitic grain


aries
as

bound-

and the pearlite forms shown in Fig. 13.2b.

in the

body of the parent

austenitic grain

13.3. Effects of

Hot Working on Grain Size


hot worked at temperatures around 2000F., the grains

When

steel

is

are broken

up

into finer grains. This fragmenting process keeps the grain

268

Engineering Metallurgy

Fig. 13.3.

(B) grain size 5;

Typical structure of slowly cooled carbon steel having (A) grain and (C) grain size 8; etched. 100X-

size 2:

size fine

even though there

is

a great tendency for grain growth at this

temperature.

The two

factors thus offset each other,

and the grain

struc-

ture remains fine during the hot working. If, however, the hot working is stopped and the metal held at the hot working temperature for a short time, grain growth takes place rather fast, and after cooling to room temperature, the grain would be coarse. In this case the steel should be reheated to a temperature above the critical range in order to refine the grain. Hot working may be continued as the temperature falls to a point just above the critical range. In this case there is little chance for grain growth, and the grain remains fine. When steel is cast as an ingot, the grain size is very large and columnar. Hot working is employed
this coarse condition and produce a improve the physical properties. thus greatly

to

break up

fine grain structure

and

'

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment

of Steel

269

1600

1600.

K
1400
1200 1000
si 800
Q-

1400

vV"

(200

VK
V
\

1000
-T 800 o.

K^
MS
l)

\ CV
1

\
Ms\

600

400
200

E * 600

400
200

\
Mf

\\

x\ *)
\ Mf
.

Time
A
Fig. 13.4.

Time
B
typical

alloy steel.

A. The Cooling curve

ing curve

carbon steel. B. The curve for an the cooling rate on the outside of a bar. Coolrepresents the cooling rate in the center of a bar.

TTT curve for a O represents

TTT

13.4. Hardenability
If a one-inch bar of carbon steel containing .70% carbon is quenched in brine, the outside of the bar will be hard (close to Rc65) while the center of the bar %vill be only Rc30 to 35. Such a steel is said to have low harden-

The structure on the outside would be martensite because the cooling rate on the outside portion of the bar was faster than the critical cooling rate as shown in curve O, Fig. 13.4A. The structure of the center of the bar would be pearlite since here the cooling rate is much slower than the
ability. critical

hardened

cooling rate as shown in curve C, Fig. 13.4A. How deep the outside shell will be depends upon the critical cooling rate since all of the steel that is cooled at the critical cooling rate or faster will be hard. If a one-inch bar of an alloy steel is quenched, as just described for a
steel,

carbon

and only martensite has high hardenability (hardens deeply). The actual cooling rate of the two steels at a given distance from the surface is essentially the same, but the curve for the alloy steel would be observed. Such a
steel

the bar will be hardened to the center,

TTT

shown in Fig. 13.4B. In this case the cooling rate represented by curves O and C are both faster than the critical cooling rate because the TTT curves plots sufficiently far to the right. Thus a
plots to the right as

comparison of the relative position of the curve for various steels on the time scale affords a quick qualitative means of comparing their

TTT

270
relative hardenability.

Engineering Metallurgy

The

role of alloying elements in determining

curve has been covered in Chapter 12. There are applications in industry where only surface hardness needed and high hardenability is not important. For such applications
the position of the

TTT

is
it

carbon steels. For certain uses, however, such as aircraft parts, uniformly high strength and hardness is generally required through the part. In these cases it becomes necessary to use an alloy steel such as S.A.E. 4140 in order to have sufficient hardenability. When a steel has high hardenability, a slower quench (oil quench) can
usually
is

good economy

to use

hardness in a rather large section. Since this is the case, it is unwise to use a brine quench because such a quench is much faster than necessary and greatly increases the chances of cracking the part. Such steels are referred to as oil hardening steels, and steels with low

be used

to obtain full

hardenability arc called water hardening

steels.

13.5 Grain Size and Hardenability

When carbon steel is heated to a temperature just above the critical range and quenched in brine, very shallow hardness is obtained. If, however, the same steel is heated high enough to produce a coarse grain before quenching, the hardness is much deeper. The increased depth of hardness
indicates a slower critical cooling rate as explained earlier.

his

would

mean that an increase in grain sizes makes the transformation more sluggish, and transformation is slower in starting at a given temperature. The

TTT

curve

is

thus

moved
effect

which is the same added to the steel.


a

when the observed when certain


to the right

grain size

is

increased,

alloying elements are

Because of the shallow hardening feature of fine-grained carbon steel, coarser grain may be desirable even though coarsening of the grain may induce some brittleness. The actual grain size desired in carbon

somewhat

may therefore be a compromise of moderately fine grain in order to avoid the severe brittleness associated with a very coarse grain and not have the low hardenability associated with the very fine grain. In alloy steels, however, this dilemna is not encountered since hardenability
steels
is

afforded by the proper alloying elements.

13.6.

Quenching and Properties of Martensite


12, increasing progressively

As discussed in chapter

the speed of cooling,

up

to a certain rate,

sively

from 1333 F.
it

lowers the A, transformation temperature progresWhile (723C.) to approximately 1020F. (550C.)


.

this increase in rate affects the

forms,

does not affect

speed with which the gamma iron transthe completeness of the transformation. The

Fundamentals

of

Heat Treatment of

Steel

271
finer.
If,

increased cooling rate causes the pearlite lamella to

become

however, the cooling rate

enon

occurs.

The

more, an important phenomtransformation temperature is suddenly depressed


is

increased

still

to 480F. (250C.)

or lower,

and

the steel, especially

if it

contains

more

than about 0.30 per cent carbon, becomes very hard and brittle. The rate of cooling that is just fast enough to suddenly depress the A^ temperature to 480F. is known as the critical cooling rate and is attained by quenching a high-carbon steel in water or an alloy steel in oil. The changes taking place when high-carbon steel is cooled at the
critical rate

are not wholly understood.


follows:

or faster are in general simple, although some of the details In brief the mechanism of quenching is as
(723C.)
,

At a temperature above 1333F.

the structure In cooling

is

austenite, the solid solution of carbon in

slowly than the critical rate, the

iron changes to body-centered alpha iron and the carbon is thrown out of solution as iron carbide. If cooling is faster than the critical rate, the change of facecentered gamma iron to body-centered alpha iron is arrested and an in-

gamma iron. face-centered gamma

more

termediate crystal structure, the body-centered tetragonal, is formed. The carbon, instead of being wholly expelled from solution, is entrapped in the tetragonal lattice as a supersaturated solution. The result is a highly
strained, very unstable crystal structure containing a multitude of en-

trapped submicroscopic particles.


Steel fails under stress by slipping or gliding along crystallographic planes of relative weakness; these submicroscopic particles act as keys and help to prevent easy slip (Fig. 13.5). The result is much higher

strength

and hardness, accompanied, however, by increased

brittleness.

lowering of the transformation temperature to about 480F. (250C.) and the increased hardness and strength are accompanied by the formation of a structural constituent known as martensite,
characterized by an angular, needlelike appearance
(Fig.

The sudden

13.6).

The

n
:cc -^CFC^ J3T h =D=

<)

\=Q-r^^^ 6\ Q. -Or 0=

Fie. 13.5.

Schematic representation of a crystal containing


particle,

(A)

no hard panicles.

(B)

one large

and

(C)

many

small particles.

272

Engineering Metallurgy

needlelike formation, while


of small cross section,
is

common

in rapidly cooled high-carbon steels

constituent;

its

by no means universal. Martensite is a transition composition, hardness, and appearance under the micro-

scope depend primarily upon the


tion,

amount of carbon, the size of the secand the quenching treatment. Depending upon the carbon content, the strength of steels which are chiefly martensitic in structure may vary from 150,000 to more than 350,000 lb. per sq. in., and such steels may be as brittle as glass or may show considerable toughness.
Metallurgists are generally agreed that the primary cause of the hardness of martensite

(and drastically quenched medium- and high-carbon


solid solution

steels)

is

the precipitation of submicroscopic particles of carbon or iron

carbide from the

gamma

and the retention of these

particles

as a supersaturated solution in the tetragonal alpha-iron

lattice,

where

they act as a multidude of keys effectively preventing slip. Some authorities, thinking that this explanation does not account for all the hardness,

have postulated

lattice distortion, internal strain,

and the

fine grain size as

important contributing causes.*

The

internal structure of martensite

and

Fig. 13.6.

Structure of martensite
(B) 3,000x; etched.

in

high-carbon steel quenched in iced

brine.

(A)

500x:

A complete and wholly satisfactory explanation of the hardness of martensite will not be available until more is known about the atomic forces that hold the crystal lattice together and about the nature and magnitude of the strains produced by an

entrapped stranger atom in a

lattice.

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment of


the causes of
its

Steel

273

hardness are of

much

interest to the physical metallurgist

but are

of only passing interest to the engineer


is

who wants a

basic knowl-

edge of heat treatment. Far more important


bility of structure that results

a realization of the insta-

from quenching.
Steels

13.7.

The

Instability of
steel
is

Quenched Carbon

When

carbon

cooled slowly through the transformation temis


,

perature, all

phase changes take place and the carbon

completely

precipitated as large particles of iron carbide (cementite)


structure, laminated pearlite, that
is
is

resulting in a
steel

very stable.

If,

however, the

cooled very rapidly, phase changes are arrested before completion, the
is

carbide

entrapped in the crystal


is

lattice as exceedingly

minute

particles,

and

the lattice

strained, resulting in a structure, martensite,

which

is

very unstable.

As is characteristic of an extremely unstable condition, there is a very strong tendency for quenched steel to become more stable under the
slightest

provocation.

Re-

heating to 500F.

(260C.)

or above will give the atoms

enough mobility so that instability and the strained


structural condition are reless comdepending on the temperature and the time.

lieved

more or

pletely,

The

instability

after

quenching is accompanied by high internal stresses, so


high that frequently a small
piece of

high-carbon

water-quenched steel, though

undisturbed, will crack (Fig.

go with explosive violence hours or even days


to

13.8) or will, occasionally,

pieces

after

quenching.

To
to

relieve

these stresses
at
F.G. 13.7. Quenching cracks in the spline of a shaft, natural size, etched.

and

produce

the same

time a more
condition,

end

Stable

ural
steel is

quenched

always

re-

274
heated.

Engineering Metallurgy
This
Is

known

as

tempering

or, colloquially

and somewhat

in-

accurately, as

drawing*

13.8. Retained Austenite

and Cold Treatment

When steel is quenched, the cooling must be continued to the a temperature before austenite will start to transform to martensite and before complete conversion takes place the temperature must lower to or
below the

temperature

(Fig.

13.4).

If

cooling stops between these


rise to

temperatures only part of the austenite transforms giving


called retained austenite.

what

is

The

temperature level of the

tion of alloying elements

Chapter 12. If the quenching to room temperature will result in only part of the austenite being transformed and the remainder being retained as austenite. If however the steel is quenched and then cooled by refrigeration well below
f

M, and are both lowered by the addiand increase of carbon content as indicated in temperature is below room temperature then
t

temperature the transformation of the austenite r be made fairly complete.


the

to martensite

can

Since martensite

is

much harder

than austenite the hardness, strength

and wear

be improved by eliminating the retained austenite by cooling the steel down to about minus 100F. This can easily be done by placing dry ice in a container of acetone and using this as the
resistance of steel can

cooling medium.

This kind of cold treatment


ite

is

often used to reduce the retained austen-

particularly in the case of tool steels

retained austenite

and hardness and wear


where dimensional

where alloy content encourages resistance must be especially


stability
is

high or

in steel gages

important.

13.9. Structural

and Other Changes

in

Tempering

steel is reheated, two things happen: The unstable tetragonal crystal structure of the martensite transforms to the more stable body-centered cubic lattice of the ferrite, and

When

a drastically

quenched high-carbon

at the
it
is

same time internal


steels the

stresses are relieved.

To

produce such changes,


(100 to 200C.)

only necessary to reheat to about 200 to 400F.

for

temperature of boiling water is sufficient. Tempering at these low temperatures produces only a very slight mobility of the iron and carbon atoms, and it is likely that the only effect, in addition
to relief of stresses,
lattice as it
is the escape of the carbon atoms from the tetragonal changes to body-centered cubic. As a result low-temperature

some

The terra drawing for tempering originated from the old blacksmith's expression "drawing the temper." Drawing in its correct sense means pulling a wire through a

die to reduce the cross section.

Fundamentals of Heat Treatment


tempering produces no appreciable change
400F.
(200C.) or lower
steels
is,

of Steel

275
at

in hardness.

Tempering
for

high-carbon tool
internal stresses.

quenched which must be very hard but should be free from


therefore,

commonly used

tempering medium and high carbon steels in this low temperait has been established that some sort of transition carbide (not Fe 3 C) is precipitated. The composition of this carbide seems to have the composition approaching Fe 2 C or Fe^C.,. As the tempering temperature goes higher this first carbide is absorbed and reture range of 180 to 480F.,

When

precipitated as cementitc (Fe 3 C)

When

drastically

quenched carbon

steel

is

tempered

at

500F.

(260C.) or higher, the particle size of the iron carbide increases.


far this return to stability proceeds

How

depends upon the tempering temperature and to a lesser extent upon time. Most of the growth of carbide particles at any definite temperature occurs in the first few minutes; the reaction then slows down but continues for some time. In practical heat treatment the time for tempering is rarely less than 30 min. for each inch
of cross section.

As the carbide
ness

particles

grow

larger, it follows that there will


.

of them to act as minute keys to prevent slip (see Fig. 13.4)

be fewer Hence, hard-

and strength decrease, and

ductility, as

measured by elongation and

reduction of area, increases.


larger the carbide particles
Finally,

The

higher the tempering temperature, the


stable the resulting structure.
is

and the more

within a few degrees of the A, transformation temperature, the cementite has grown to particles so

when

the tempering temperature

Fie. 1S.8.

at 575-F.

(300C.)

Structure of high-carbon steel quenched in ice water and tempered and (B) at 1100 o F. (595C); etched 500x-

(A)

276

Engineering Metallurgy

low magnificaand the properties are practically the same as those of a steel of corresponding carbon content cooled slowly through the A x temperature. Structural changes in tempering can be followed by microscopic examination of polished and etched specimens but not so closely as by dimensional changes and other methods. Martensite which has a structions,

large that they are readily visible with the microscope at

ture similar to that


etches slowly.

shown in Fig. 13.6 is white after etching, that is, Tempering at 575F. (300C.) produces, for the same
of the carbide particles.

degree of etching, a dark, almost black, structure indicating precipitation

and considerable growth


1100F.
(595C.)
,

After tempering at

the particles have increased in size so that they are

visible in the microstrucfure. Tf

These two

stages are

shown
is

in Fig. 13.8.

quenched

steel

contains retained austenite and

not cold treated

tempering is somewhat go through the various stages of tempering just described. However, the retained austenite will, at about 450F. to 500F., transform to a dark etching bainite, %vhich is quite hard,
to transform the retained austenite to martensite,
will

more complex. The martensite

and may

result in a little increase in hardness.

QUESTIONS
1.

What happens

to the structure of a small piece of

.8% carbon
it

steel con-

taining a mixture of large

and

small grains

when

is

subjected to the

following treatments:

(a)

heated slowly to about 1400F., held 80 min.,

2.

3.

and cooled slowly to room temperature; (b) heated slowly to 2000F., held 30 min., and cooled slowly to room temperature; and (c) heated slowly to 2000F., held 2 hr., and cooled slowly to room temperature? Define grain-growth tendency. Compare grain-sue control by submicroscopic particles and by controlling the heating above the critical. Why is the former method preferable? What ,is critical cooling rate? What is its effect on the austenite-pearlite transformation and on the resulting structure of high-carbon steel? Is a cooling rate of 600F. per sec. more or less than the critical cooling rate
for eutectoid steel.

4.

When
is

a high-carbon steel is cooled faster than at the critical rate, what the effect on the crystal structure, the appearance under the microscope, and the properties? What is martensite, and why is it hard?

5.

Why

is

high-carbon steel that

is

drastically

sirable conditions

may accompany

this instability

quenched unstable? What undeand how may they be

6.

7.

avoided? Describe the changes in structure and properties that take place when drastically quenched steel is reheated to (a) 350F.; (b) 600F.; and (c) 1200F. What effects have the alloy elements on the temperature at which austenite transforms to pearlite? How are these effects related to heat-treatment?

Fundamentals
8.

of

Heat Treatment

of Steel

277

variables affecting the hardness of quenched other factors are constant, which will be the harder one as quenched: (a) steel containing 0.30 or 0.60 per cent carbon? (b) steel containing 0.60 or 0.80 per cent carbon? 9. Define hardenability. What is its relation to grain size and to the alloying elements present? Distinguish between shallow-hardening and deep-hardening steels. 10. In what classes of steel is deep hardening important? Why? 11. Describe process annealing.
steel.
If

Name

the three principal

12. 15.
14. 15. 16. 17.

How
What What What

does grain size effect hardenability? factors determine the grain size of steel after process annealing? is the relationship between grain size and toughness?

are two standards for classifying grain size? Describe the effects of hot working on grain size.

What

factors

determine the amount of retained austenite after quenching?

CHAPTER

The Operations of Heat Treatment


Moore, M.S., Associate Professor of Chemical Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Alabama Robert E. SHAFFER, M.S., Associate Professor of Engineering, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York
C.

14

Omar

Engineering,

1 HE
world's steel tonnage that
is

phasized in previous chapters, has

value of heat treatment to mankind, emlittle relation to the proportion of the

treated.

This tonnage amounts, in the

United States, to possibly two or three million tons annually, certainly less than 5 per cent of the total amount of steel used. Heat treatment is most valuable for tools and dies, which are in turn a very small proportion of heat-treated steel.

Heat treatment is ordinarily an expensive operation, because costly quenching baths, apparatus for controlling the atmosphere in the furnace, and temperature-recording and -controlling equipment are necessary. Some treatments cost as much or more than the steel itself, but this is no criterion of the value of the operation. Moreover, the cost of steel and of treatment is usually a very small part of the cost of the finished article and is even a smaller proportion of the value of the article to industry. One example will indicate this. The steel in a die may cost $2 and the heat treatment may increase this to $4. On this $4 die, the machine work frequently costs $100, but the completed die will turn out thousands of pieces of a finished product at a cost which is a very small fraction per piece of the cost of a similar product turned out, one by
furnaces,

one, by hand.

economic value of a properly heat-treated article and to machine work to prepare this article for use, it is poor economy on the part of the engineer to take chances on the quality of the steel or the heat treatment so that a few cents may be
to the

Owing

the customary expense of the

278

The Operation
saved.
It
is,

of

Heat Treatment

279

furthermore, poor practice for the engineer to design ex-

pensive tools, dies, or other parts without requesting the metallurgist to


advise whether the finished article will or will not survive the heat treat-

ment
tools

satisfactorily.

Thousands of
which

dollars are wasted every year because

ing.

much to machine, crack in quenchSuch waste can usually be prevented by the intelligent selection of the proper steel and by avoiding, in the design, sharp corners or reentrant angles where stresses concentrate. This factor is discussed in some detail
and other
articles,

cost

later in this chapter.

The

operations of heat treatment discussed in this chapter are those


steels,

used for carbon

most alloy

steels,

and some nonferrous

alloys.

Modifications of these operations used for a few high-alloy


certain other iron alloys,

steels, for

and

for a

number

of nonferrous alloys are

described in the chapters where these materials are discussed or in the

chapter on precipitation hardening.

14.1. Heating Cycle

Uniform and
if

consistent results from

any cooling

cycle can be obtained

the proper care has been taken in the heating of the steel prior to the of cooling.

method

The

steel

must be heated slowly

to the proper tem-

perature range and held at this temperature long enough for homogenization of the austenitic structure.
Color Orange-

The
are

temperature used and time required


functions of the chemistry of the

steel, section size

and shape, prior grain

Salmon
Bright-

900

size,

original condition of the steel, prior

Red
Cherry

850 heat treatments, or mechanical working. boo

The

750

usual time requirement at heat for homogenization of the austenite for a


is

Medium\ Cherry ]

TOO forging or casting,

Dork

650 of section thickness.


0.40 0.80

one hour per inch This is not a firm

Cherry )

Percentage
FlC. 14,1.

120 Carbon

1.60

rule
ever,

and

is

frequently neglected.

How-

Temperature

for

the heal,

ranges treatment of carbon

adequate time at heat must be provided for solution of carbides, and


if uniformity of product is to be achieved upon cooling for the diffusion

also,

steels.

(Metah Handbook)

of carbon and alloying elements from areas of high concentration into the lean areas.

Modern heat

treating

equipment should provide some means of

sur-

face protection for the steel during the heating cycle.


trolled atmospheres in heat treating furnaces
is

The

use of conprac-

becoming standard

280
tice.

Engineering Metallurgy
If

during heating the


it

steel is

exposed

to

combustion gases or air in

the furnace,

will oxidi/e, dccarburize, or both.

An

oxidized surface

is

and can be removed by machining or grinding. Decarburization does not show and will result in low surface hardness and poor
easily detected

mechanical properties if not removed. Protective atmospheres are provided by several different methods and a number of different gases are used, including hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.* With the proper selection and composition
control of the furnace atmosphere
parts free of scale
it is

possible to produce heat treated

and decarburization.

14.2. Annealing
Process annealing is the recrystallization of a cold-worked steel, by heating below the A t transformation temperature, usually in the range between 800 to 1200F., the exact temperature being governed by the

amount
Heating

of cold working, composition, grain


to the

proper temperature

affects

size, and time held at heat. complete recrystallization and

restores the original structure

and

properties.

Too

high a temperature or

too long time at heat

may produce

a coarsening of the grain size with a

subsequent

loss of toughness, hardness, and strength. For full annealing, the steel is heated slowly to from 50 to 100F. above the A 3 transformation (Fig. 14.1) held at this temperature until uniformly heated, and then slow cooled to room temperature. The cooling may be done in the furnace, or in an outside pit covering the steel with
,

asbestos, sand, lime or cinders. 5 to 20F. drop per minute.

The

rate of cooling

is

in the

range of

The
and

objects of annealing are to soften the steel for machining, to re-

fine the grain structure, to relieve stresses

from cooling or machining,


it

to increase ductility.

In hypoeutectoid steels
for castings

produces the poorest

strength and wear resistance of any structure except spheroidizing.

An-

nealing

is

commonly used

and forgings

to reduce the coarse

grain structure prior to machining.

14.3. Normalizing

The
air.

steel

transformation (Fig. 14.1)

The

least 100F. above the A s or A cm proper time, and then cooled in still cooling rate can be varied by changing volume of air or air
is

heated slowly at

for the

Discussion of controlled atmospheres and equipment is outside the scope of this book. For a more complete description see: American Society for Metals, Metals Handbook. The Society Cleveland, 1948.

The Operation
temperature.

of

Heat Treatment
is

281

The normal

rate of cooling

the range of 120 to 200F.

per minute, depending on section size and air conditions. Normalizing of low carbon content steels is usually done for
grain
size

stress relief,

refinement, to improve toughness and to increase strength and

ductility.

Steels containing over


tures,

1%

carbon, slowly cooled from high tempera-

may have

the excess carbides forming in a network around the


is

heating to the annealing and hardening temperatures

and unaffected by re(Fig. 14.1). This carbide formation will increase machining costs and produces an undesirable condition in the heat treated part. By heating above the A cm
grains of pearlite. This carbide network
stable

temperature and normalizing, insufficient time


pearlitic structure.

is

available for the excess

carbide to form a network around the grains or to form large plates in the

Some

finished parts, castings, forgings,

and rolled shapes


section.

to be

used after

a normalizing treatment should be given a temper to relieve cooling


stresses resulting

from non-uniformity of cross

usually give a noticeable


in hardness or strength.

improvement

in ductility with little or

This temper will no change

14.4. Spheroidizing

The

spheroidized structure, ferrite


3 to 8
,

and

carbides,

is

usually produced

by prolonged heating,

hours at a temperature slightly above or

below the A! or

A3

transformation.

The prolonged

heating causes

the carbides to coalesce into spheres, completely destroying the pearlitic

formation and resulting in a matrix of ferrite with the carbon in the form
of spheroidal carbides.
a

The time for spheroidizing normalizing treatment prior to spheroidizing.

is

usually lessened by

In medium and high carbon steels the spheroidized structure has the lowest hardness, strength and wear resistance, but the best machineability,
toughness, and ductility.

ing,
if

Though the spheroidized structure is desirable for machining and formit may cause some difficulty in heat treatment. The carbide material, in large spheres, may not go into solution when a simple heating and
cycle
is

quenching

used, resulting in spotty

and low hardness.

It is desir-

able to give steels of this type a normalizing treatment prior to the

hardening cycle to help break up and to dissolve the excess carbide areas. A similar structure of a ferritic matrix with spheres of undissolved carbides will result if a martensitic structure is tempered at a high temperature 1200 1250F. This method of producing the spheroidized structure is not recommended because of the problems involved in quenching higher carbon steels.

282
14.5.

Engineering Metallurgy

Quenching for Hardening


sieel is

For hardening, the


range
the
(Fig. 14.1).

slowly heated above the A. t transformation

The hardening

temperature range for carbon

steels is

same as the full annealing range. The steel is usually held at heat long enough to insure uniform heat distribution in all sections. It is then removed from the furnace and immediately quenched in the cooling medium.
In carbon steels
it is

generally true that the faster the heat

is

extracted,

the harder, stronger,

High hardness is quenched high-carbon

and more wear resistant the finished part will be. frequently accompanied by excessive brittleness. Water
steels will often crack or shatter
if

dropped, or

if

allowed to stand overnight before tempering.

The common quenching media


Selection of the proper
of the steel, section size

are air, oil, water, and brine solutions. quenching medium is based on the chemistry and shape, and the final mechanical and physical

properties required. Air has the slowest cooling rate, and brine solutions

the fastest rate. the

The

cooling rate of a quenching

medium

will vary with

at 65F. is considered to have a cooling rate of one; brine solutions have as much as twice the cooling rate of water; oils vary in rate of water.*

amount

of agitation, temperature,

and composition. Water


from 15%
to

50%

of the cool-

maximum
the steel

Hardening of a steel is usually required because of the demand for the of one or more of the mechanical or physical properties that
is

tion in cross section, or

capable of assuming. Sometimes because of size, shape, variasome production problem, a compromise must be

maele. If this must be done, a careful study of the different cooling media should be made in order to select the one best suited to produce the best compromise of mechanical and physical properties.

For lower carbon


steels, oil is

steels,

water

is

usually used because of


In

its

low

cost,

easiness of handling,

and

availability.
it

medium and

high carbon

often used because

cracking than with a water quench.


instead of water,

maximum

less warpagc, distortion, and However, by using an oil quench hardness, strength, and wear resistance may

produces

not be obtained.

When

the heated steel

steps or stages of heat

is quenched in a liquid, there are two distinct removal that are passed through before reaching

the temperature of the quenching

medium.
of the cooling cycle
in contact with the

Step One:
the

The vaporization period. In this period quenching medium will vaporize when it comes

American Society for Metals Handbook. The

Society, Cleveland, 1948. pp. 616-619.

The Operation
steel.
If

of

Heat Treatment

283

the vapor

is

quenched, the cooling rate

allowed to form a film around the part being is slow because the vapor film insulates and
steel.

blocks off contact between the cooling liquid and the

By breaking
vapor film
is

up the vapor film and allowing the liquid to vaporize and be carried away,
the fastest cooling rate
is

achieved.

The

breaking up of

this

accomplished by proper agitation or circulation of the quenching


or by agitation of the parts being quenched, or both.

liquid

Step

Two: The
is

liquid period.
is

cient heat so that the liquid

removal of heat
heat loss
is

now

relatively fast

After the quenched pari has lost suffino longer vaporized upon contact, the simple problem of heat transfer and the rate of as compared with the vapor cycle.

The
ing.

difficult

and

critical

period in quenching

is

the elimination of

the vapor film. Prolonging this step

may

result in unsatisfactory harden-

The

part

may have

areas which arc low in mechanical properties, or

the entire microstructure

may be

unsatisfactory

and

fail to

produce the

required mechanical properties.

The
surface

internal stresses introduced by


(2)

quenching are the

result of

(1)

dimensional changes in cooling,

large temperature gradients between

and

center,

and
to

(3)

the change in
If

volume accompanying the


is

change from
carbon
build
steels

gamma

alpha iron.

the steel

ductile, these changes


stress.

cause slight plastic flow of the grains which relieves the

In high-

where no
in

plastic

deformation takes place these

stresses

may

up

to a high value.

Stress distribution

quenching
it is

is

complex and

difficult

to analyze

accurately.
stress
steel.

In

many

instances,

certain that the

sum

of the induced

and the working stress is near or above the tensile strength of the Thus, it was found* that in hollow cylinders the stress that was introduced by quenching at the inner surface of the hole was about 150,000 lb. per sq. in. As the working stress on these cylinders was 100,000 lb. per sq. in., the total stress was 250,000 lb. per sq. in. or close to the actual
tensile strength of the steel.

Internal stresses

may

affect the strength

and

ductility

and frequently
is

cause warping and cracking.

The magnitude

of these stresses

de-

and shape of the piece, the kind of steel, the quenching temperature, and the coolant. When the stress builds up to a value higher than the tensile strength, the steel cracks. There are two types of such defects: (1) local cracks, which are usually external and start at sharp comers or deep tool marks, and (2) internal cracks, which follow the major axis of the piece. Quenching in water is more likely to
pendent on the
size

O. V. Greene, Trans.

Am

Soc. Steel Treat., v. 18, 1930, pp. 369-403.

284

Engineering Metallurgy
oil

cause cracking than quenching in

or

air.

Coarse-grained

steels

crack

more

readily than fine-grained material.

Localized heating in grinding

frequently causes cracking, as does increasing the temperature from which

the steel

is

quenched.
fillets

quenching cracks are as follows: (1) where the contour changes and avoid tool marks which may act as a notch; (2) avoid rapid heating, especially through the transformation range, which may cause cracking because of the uneven expansion; (3) temper immediately after quenching; and (4) quench in oil instead of water wherever possible.
use generous

The

best procedures in avoiding

14.6.

Tempering

The previous discussions of the principles underlying quenching included details of structural changes and related changes in properties.
Some
larly

of these changes in physical properties are often desirable, particu-

where hardness and wear-resistance are of importance. However, this and wear-resistance is at the expense of ductility because, in most instances, the brittleness has also increased. The extent of brittleness, coupled with hardness, etc., depends on the severity of quench and the percentage of carbon in the steel. Tempering lowers the hardness and strength and decreases wear-resistance; it also increases
increase in hardness, strength
ductility.

The purpose
restore ductility

of tempering

is

not to decrease hardness but rather to

A way of doing this and at the same time retaining the original hardness and strength would be desirable. However, since tempering does decrease the hardness and strength, but at the same time restores ductility, it would be well to consider what is
and improve toughness.
desirable in the

way

of strength.
it is

Generally a structural part


it is

is

not sub-

jected to deformation until

breaks;

the stress capacity without

permanent deformation which

important.

Tempering should be
comparable to
ness

carried out at the highest temperature that will

insure retention of sufficient strength so that the part can withstand loads
its yield strength. The higher the temperature, the tougher the product, but this will necessarily be at the expense of hard-

and

strength.

For tempering, the hardened steel is reheated in a furnace, in heavy oil, in molten salts, or in molten lead, and held long enough for the
heat to penetrate to the center. For most
steels,

the speed ol cooling after

tempering
pering
is

is

of little consequence, provided the steel was not heated

to the transformation temperature.

In practice, the cooling after tem-

usually in the

air.

The Operation The


ment

of

Heat Treatment

285
dis-

metallographic structure of tempered steel will be further

cussed in Section 14.7,


processes.

where tempering

is

compared

to other heat treat-

14.7. Isothermal Treatments

One
which

result of the study of the subcritical transformation of austenite,


also led to the S. curve,

by Bain and

his associates*

was the

dis-

covery of austempering, a process of interrupted quenching whereby

high-carbon and low-alloy steels of suitable composition and cross section can be hardened without cooling to atmospheric temperature, thus eliminating the possibility of introducing high quenching stresses with possible
distortion or cracking.
tensitic structure, as

The process cannot be used if a very hard marobtained by water quenching high-carbon steels and

tempering at 200 to 300F. (100 to 150C), is desired; but it may be used to obtain a structure corresponding to tempered martensite of any required degree of fineness, such as is usually attained by cooling rapidly

room temperature followed by reheating to 400F. (200C.) or above. At any temperature below the A\ transformation and above the temperatureabout 400F. (200C.) where martensite is formed, the austo
tenite transforms to pearlitej of definite structure at a definite rate.
If,

therefore, small specimens of high-carbon steel are heated above

the

transformation temperature and are quenched very rapidly into a bath maintained at any intermediate temperature, for example, 500 to 800F.
(260 to 425C.)
,

and

if

the specimen

is

held in this bath for a definite

time, the transformation of the retained austenite


ture

and the resulting

struc-

may be

controlled closely. Steels so treated are

similar steels cooled rapidly to

more ductile than room temperature and tempered at a

temperature that produces a corresponding structure.

The

hardness and

strength of the austempered steel are about the same as

if the steel had been quenched and tempered in the usual manner, but elongation, reduction of area, and impact resistance are usually higher. The explanation advanced for the higher ductility in the austempered steel is its freedom

from submicroscopic cracks that are caused by drastic quenching (to form martensite) and not subsequently healed by tempering. A schematic representation of austempering is shown in Fig. 14. 2. t To prevent any transformation of the unstable austenite to pearlite,. the specimen must be small enough to cool past the nose of the S curve very rapidly; for the steel whose diagram is given in Fig. 14.2, it must cool
E. C. Bain and E. S. Davenport, U.S. Patent 1.924,099, Aug. 29, 1933. f Based on diagram by F. J. McMulkin, Iron Age, v. 157, June 27, 1946, p. 58.
% (or Bainite)

286

Engineering Metallurgy
1400

I30C

1200

MOO
-11000

900,
800".

700

| "
E

600

500 400

300

Mostly \morfensife
I5min.30min.
I

200
Bhr.
Icty
.

Ihr.
I

100

1000

10,000

100.000

Time,
Fig.
14.2.

sec.

curve,

Schematic T-T-T diagram for carbon steel showing critical-cooling-rate temperature, and temperatures for austempering and martcrnpering. (Mc-

Mulkin)

through the temperature range of 900 to 1000F. (480 to 540C.) in about 1 sec. The specimen is therefore quenched rapidly into a bath maintained at the desired temperature-600F. (315C.) in Fig. 14.2-and held in the bath until the transformation to bainite (emulsified ferrite and cementite)
about 45 min. Structural changes are now comat any rate, to room temperature. A process that carries the principles underlying the subcritical decomposition of austenite farther than austempering is martempering, which was developed a few years ago by Shepherd.* In this process the
is

complete, that

is,

for

plete,

and the specimen may be cooled,

Shepherd has described martempering in a number of papers. A lucid which also includes an elementary discussion of the transformation of austenite to martensite in quenching and isothermally, as mapped by the S curve, is contained in two arUcles by Shepherd in Production Eng., July, 1945, p. 438, and Aug.,
F.

* B.

description,

1945, p. 515.

The Operation
steel
is

of

Heat Treatment
it

287
will pass the nose

quenched

at

its

critical rate or fasterso that

of the S curve without any transformation of the austenite into a bath

maintained
just

at a temperature slightly above the s point, in other words above the temperature where martensite starts to form. This temperature varies with carbon content and slightly with the amount of alloying elements present, but for high-carbon and many alloy steels it is ap.

proximately 400F. (200C.) The steel is held in this bath just long for the temperature to become uniform throughout the cross section, after which it is removed and cooled in air. A schematic representation of martempering is shown in Fig. 14.2. The specimen is quenched at the critical cooling rate or faster into a bath maintained at about 450F. (230C.) and held in this bath for a sufficient time to be heated through (about 1 min. for a small specimen of the steel shown

enough

in Fig. 14.2)

It

so long that the line

should be noted that the specimen should not be heated where bainite begins to form is crossed by the time

axis at this tempering.

Martcm|>ering is based on the principle that, if austenite is retained by rapid cooling down to the temperature where martensite begins to
form, the austenite-martensite transformation will proceed, regardless of the cooling rate from this temperature down to atmospheric temperature;

and

that

on cooling

slowly, as in air,

result without the concomitant high internal

are characteristic of drastically

from about 400F. full hardness will quenching stresses which quenched high-carbon or alloy steels. AcThe method can be used for heavy which often crack in the usual

cording to Shepherd,
especially ductility

this

treatment improves the mechanical properties,

and toughness.

sections

and

for pieces of irregular shape

hardening operation.

Martempering resembles austempering only in that the quenching is interrupted at an intermediate temperature; but the steel is not held at
this

to transform.

temperature long enough for any appreciable amount of the austenite In martempering, therefore, the austenite transforms to

hard martensite, while the steel is cooling slowly from this intermediate temperature to atmospheric temperature; in austempering the steel is held at the intermediate temperature long enough for the austenite to
transform to a ferrite-carbide aggregate of desired structure and properties.

Patenting is a very old process used to heat treat medium- and highcarbon rods which are to be cold drawn into high-strength wire. The rods or the wire (if patenting is used as an intermediate stage in drawing coarse wire to finer sizes) are heated to a temperature considerably above
the

A3

transformation temperature, so that some grain growth takes place,

288

Engineering Metallurgy
in air or

and cooled

850 to 950F. (455 to 510C).

quenched in a bath of molten lead maintained at The object of patenting is to produce a

fairly coarse austenitic grain that transforms in the air or at the lead-bath

temperature to large pearlite grains which are made up of fine ferrite and cementite. Such a combination of controlled overheating and finely dispersed carbide and ferrite in the pearlite is essential for the steel to withstand the cold work to which the wire is subjected in drafting and
is

also essential if satisfactory quality

is

to

be secured.

Patented and cold-drawn wire for use in cables in suspension bridges is fairly high in carbon and has a final strength of around 225,000 lb per sq. in. and an elongation of about 2 to 6 per cent in 10 in. Patented

and cold-drawn wire

is

the only suitable material found thus far for

suspension-bridge cables.

high-carbon wire, cold drawn and then


it

quenched and tempered


is

so that

has the same mechanical properties,


is

unsatisfactory.

The

reason for this

not

clear,

but the

first

attempt

to use heat-treated wire instead of patented

and cold-drawn material

ended

so disastrously that

again." Patented

bridge cables for

it is doubtful whether it will ever be tried and cold-drawn wire has been used for suspensionmany years, and failures are unknown. The most that

can be said

is

that apparently the equiaxed structure of the heat-treated

resist so well as the elongated "fibrous" structure of the cold-drawn material the propagation of minute cracks on the surface, formed when the wire is bent around the anchorage shoes.

wire does not

Some emphasis should be given to the advantages of austempering and martempering as compared to tempering a martensitic steel. A tougher, more shock-resistant steel is obtained in austempering or martempering.
Tempering
involves the decomposition of martensite to granular mix-

and ferrite in which the cementite particles tend to be round rather than lamellar as in pearlite. Temperature and time,, primarily temperature, are important factors, along with the amounts of alloying elements in the case of alloy steel, in determining the size of the separated carbide particles. At very low tempering temperatures the resulting decomposition products are hardly discernible under the microtures of cementite

scope.

Tempering

at progressively higher temperatures results in micro-

structures that can be resolved

under the microscope; the carbide

par-

The wire used in the construction of the Mt. Hope Bridge, at Providence, and the Ambassador Bridge, at Detroit, both ot which were suspension bridges, contained 0.80 per cent carbon and was oil quenched and tempered. Although the mechanical properties were satisfactory, the wires began to fail soon after the cables were spun; the bridges had to be dismantled and rebuilt with the usual patented and cold-drawn

wires in the cables. See E. E. No*. 1, 2, and 3.

Thum, Metal

Progress, v. 21, 1932, No. 6; v. 22, 1932,

The Operation
tides are progressively larger,

of

Heal Treatment
eacli

289
is

and

micro-structure

softer

and

tougher than the preceding one.


cementite,

The

structure in which the divorced

embedded
is

in the ferrite matrix, can be seen with

moderate

magnification

termed spheroidite.

is

In the practice of austempering, the formation of martensite structure avoided by suddenly cooling the heated steel to a predetermined temit

perature at which only bainite forms and by holding

there for sufficient

time to complete the transformation of austentite to bainite. Thus a product having ductility (toughness) comparable to that of a tempered steel is obtained in a single operation and without subjecting it to the quenching necessary to produce martensite.

Martempering, which produces a hard martensitic structure, avoids the high internal quenching stresses produced in a fully hardened steel

by

drastic quenching. Attention should be called to the commercial limitations of austem-

pering and martempering.

In practice, small section sizes (plain steel)

up

to

y
4

inch respond best to the above

method because of the


is

necessity

of suppressing the austenite-to-pearlite transformation.


size that

The maximum

can be effectively treated, though,


characteristic S-curve of the alloy.

determined by the composi-

tion

and

14.8. Case

Hardening Processes

There are many important industrial products, such as gears, camand the like, which should have a hard, wear-resistant surface and a tough core. Carburizing is the most widely used method
shafts, piston pins,

of securing such a combination of properties.

In this process, unalloyed

low-carbon or low-carbon alloy steel is heated in contact with a carbonaceous material, from which the steel absorbs carbon. The depth of
absorption depends on temperature, time, the alloying element present

and the carburizing compound. With a commercial compound, % in. deep is obtained by heating for 8 hr. at 1700F. (925C). Two general methods are in use: pack carburizing and gas carburizing. In the former, the steel article, fully machined and finished except for a small allowance for grinding, is packed, together with the compound, in
(if

any)

a case

a heat-resistant alloy box.

The

carburi/ing
is

compound

is

coke or charcoal

mixed with an

usually barium carbonate. At the carburizing temperature, the barium carbonate dissociates into barium oxide and carbon dioxide; the latter reacts with the carbon in the charcoal to form carbon monoxide gas (CO a + C = 2CX)) This gas reacts with the iron at the surface of the steel to form iron carbide. By diffusion, the carbon then penetrates below the surface. In the other method, used
"energizer," which
.

290

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie.

in the transition zone


is

Structure of slowly cooled carburized steel (A) at the surface and (B) between surface and core. The structure of the low-carbon core shown at the bottom of B; etched. 100x14.3.

is heated in a retort furnace into which composed of hydrocarbons or carbon monoxide is introduced. This method is more rapid than pack carburizing, and the case depth can be more closely controlled.

chiefly for small articles, the steel


a gas

After carburizing for a sufficient time at the proper temperature (both


of which have been standardized)
,

the carbon at the surface varies from

This grades off uniformly with increasing distance from the surface, until at a depth of >/ or s/ in. the 4 A structure is unaffected. Typical structures of slowly cooled carburized
0.8

about

to about 1.1

per cent.

steel, at

the surface

(A)

and

in the transition

zone (B)

are

shown in

Fig. 14.3.

Carburized

steel is

always heat treated to produce the required hard-

ness of the case

may

usually to improve the ductility of the core, which be too coarse-grained from the long heating at high temperature.*
is

and

After heat treatment, the case of carburized steel articles


structure

martensitic in

and very hard, and the core has the

ductility of low-carbon

Sec Metals Handbook,


Epstein,

The

Company,

1948, pp. 681-G85, for a detailed description. See also S. Alloys of Iron and Carbon, Vol. I, Constitution, McGraw-Hill Book Inc., New York, pp. 335-340, for a discussion of principles.

The Operation
steels.

of

Heat Treatment
resistance,

291

Even greater toughness and shock

combined with a hard


steel, especially

surface, can be secured by carburizing a low-carbon alloy one containing 3 to 5 per cent nickel.

Austenite grain

size is

important

in carburizing steels.

After carburiz-

ing and heat treatment, a coarse-grained material has a uniformly hard surface, but the core may not have such high impact resistance as is
generally desired.

Fine-grained steels, on the contrary, are prone to carburize irregularly and develop soft spots on the surface after heat treatment. These conditions can frequently be avoided by special quenching techniques, most of which use a spray of water under pressure, or

by

the use of alloy steel.

Nitriding, an established process for producing a hard surface on steel, uses nitrogen as the hardening agent instead of carbon. It was in-

Germany about thirty years ago and is now used where widely in applications a superhard surface combined with considerable corrosion resistance and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures is desired. It is used by the automotive and aircraft industries for valve seats and for guides, gears, and piston pins of internal-combustion engines and in a number of applications in steam plants and oil
vented by Adolph Fry
in

refineries.

The

process consists of heating the finish-machined article in a closed

container into which


into nitrogen

ammonia

gas

is

forced under pressure. At a tempera-

ture of 850 to 1000F. (450 to 540G.) the

ammonia

is

mostly dissociated

and hydrogen. The former combines with the iron and other elements in the steel to form complex nitrides which diffuse into the surface layers. This diffusion is slow; a case varying in depth from
0.0005 to 0.02
in. is

obtained after 5 to 25 hr.

Unalloyed carbon steels cannot be nitrided successfully. Some alloying element which forms a stable nitride must be present. The steels used for nitriding, therefore, contain chromium, aluminum, molybdenum, and

vanadium
effective

in various combinations.
in

elements

Aluminum and chromium are the producing high hardness, while molybdenum and
and
also increase the

vanadium

increase the toughness of the steel

depth

of penetration of the nitrogen.

Nitriding steels are usually heat treated


steels

before nitriding to obtain the desired mechanical properties, which are

not affected by the treatment with ammonia, provided that the

were

tempered prior to nitriding at the same or higher temperatures than used during the treatment with ammonia.

The
wear

outstanding advantage of nitriding


to ferrous metallurgy.
It

resistance.

is high surface hardness and This surface hardness cannot be equaled by any other

method known

averages a Vickers hardness

292

Engineering Metallurgy
of 1200 as

number
steel of

compared with 650


is

to 700 for

quenched high-carbon

maximum

hardness.

Another advantage
as
it

is

for carburized steel.

increase in the size

no subsequent heat treatment is necessary, Nitriding is, however, accompanied by an of the section. This growth is dependent upon the
that

is constant for a given set of averages 0.001 to 0.002 in. for the usual temperatures and for nitriding periods of 15 to 20 hr. To allow for this growth, parts that

time and temperature of the operation but


It

conditions.

are to be nitrided are machined so that they are undersize by the amount of the expected growth. If it is desired to prevent the absorption of nitrogen in certain areas, these are plated with nickel or coated

with

tin.

place, special alloy are necessary; in the second, nitriding equipment is expensive. A nitrided camshaft, for example, costs from 5 to 15 times as much as a comparable article which has been carburized and heat treated. Since the
first

Nitriding

is

a relatively costly process.

In the

steels

cost

in cost

depends largely upon the quantity treated, an appreciable reduction would result if the demand for nitrided steel would permit largeis

scale production.

Cyaniding
process
uses

another method used to produce case hardening. This molten sodium cyanide, sodium chloride, and sodium

carbonate as the bath in which the steel is immersed. The case produced is very thin, seldom over 0.002 of an inch, and the temperature required is from 1300 to 1600F. (700 to 870C).

modification of the cyaniding process


salt

through the molten chapmanizing.

is to bubble ammonia gas bath, thus liberating nitrogen faster and inis

creasing the nitrogen content of the case. This modified process

termed

Carbonitriding involves both carburizing and nitriding in a single by heating the steel (1 200-1 600F) in a carburizing gas (CH 4 GjH 8 etc.) containing ammonia. This process has gained wide acclaim and many steel parts are being case-hardened by this method
operation
, ,

today.

Lower temperature processing

results

in

a case similar

to a

nitrided steel.
steel.

Higher temperatures produce a

case like a carburized

Nitrided cases are very stable; the hardness is unaffected by long heating at temperatures as high as 750 to 850F. (400 to 455C.) and is not affected by heating for short periods at temperatures as high as 1000 to 1 100F. (540 to 595 C C.) The surface is resistant to such corrosive agents as the atmosphere, alkalies, crude oil, tap water, salt water except when
.

it is

moving, ethyl gasoline, and

many

to mineral acids. It has the highest

others. It is, however, not resistant wear resistance of any ferrous material

The Operation

of

Heat Treatment
this

293
property
is

and is finding increasing use in applications where prime importance.


14.9.

of

Flame Hardening and Induction Hardening

There are a number of applications for steel articles that should be hard only in a relatively small area on the surface. For such uses, it is not economical to heat treat a section weighing 100 lb. or more by the usual method of heating in a furnace followed by quenching and tempering, or by carburizing to harden the whole surface. In some cases, heat
treating

complex section by the usual method causes too much


Also,
it is

distortion.

the treatment of a single piece. For heat treatment


as these, flame
recently.

not generally economical to operate a furnace for under such conditions

hardening and induction hardening have been developed

Flame hardening consists of heating above the Aa transformation temperature any desired external spot of the finished steel article, as for example
is

the teeth of a gear (Fig. 14.4),* with an oxyacetylene torch. This adjusted for flame composition so that the steel does not oxidize. The

distance of the torch from the

controlled so that the steel does not

work and the time of heating are also become overheated to the point
is

where grain growth is serious. As soon as the surface area temperature, it is quenched and immediately tempered to
ing
stresses.

at the

relieve

proper quench-

Two

general methods are used. In the

first,

the steel piece

is

fixed

and

the torch moves across the area to be heated at a predetermined rate. This must be controlled carefully as the temperature of the oxyacetylene flame is approximately 6300F. (3500C.) but the piece to be hardened
,

should not be heated higher than 1475 to 1550F. (800 to 850C.) In the second method, the torch is stationary, and the steel piece moves
.

slowly under the flame.


is

The hot
just

area

is

usually

quenched

in water,

which

conveniently conveyed through one tube of the torch and flows out of
orifice

an

under pressure

behind the flame.

In addition to economy under certain conditions, flame hardening has


it has no effect on hardens only at the surface and to a depth of not more than \/ 4 in., and distortion is minimized. Its disadvantages are that it is more costly than the usual methods if large numbers of identical pieces are to be treated, and that high-carbon steels and very coarse grained steels cannot be treated, as they arc likely to crack at the surface.

other advantages.

It

does not scale or pit the surface;


it

the chemical composition;

R. L. Rolf, Trans.

Am.

Soc. Metals, v. 27, 1939, pp. 43-00.

294

Engineering Metallurgy

Fie. 14.4.

Flame hardening the

teeth of a large gear.

(Rolf)

most suitable for flame hardening are carbon steels containing and low-alloy steels containing 0.25 to 0.50 per cent carbon. Such articles as alloy-steel gears which have been heat treated so that they have optimum strength and toughness can be effectively hardened on the surface of the teeth by this method. Differential hardening by induction is a recently developed method for securing high hardness on a relatively small bearing surface and is especially applicable to heavy-duty crankshafts* and to gear teeth, the ends of shafts, pins, hubs, and similar sections that act as thrust bearings. The surface to be hardened is enclosed in a perforated induction block that surrounds the steel but does not touch it. A high-frequency current of 2,000 to 200,000 cycles (from 25 to 50,000,000 may be used) is passed through the block, inducing eddy currents which rapidly (in to 5 sec.)
Steels

0.35 to 0.60 per cent carbon

The method

is

described in detail by M. A.

Tran and W.

Am.

Soc. Metals, v. 25, 1937, p. 935. Sec also Induction

E. BcnninghofT in Trans. Hardening, American Society

for Metals, Cleveland, 1946, 172 pp. practice.

This

is

a series of lectures covering theory and

The Operation

of

Heat Treatment

295

Fie.

145.

Cross section of a crankshaft showing hardened

(while) bearing surfaces,

etched. (Tran

and BenninghofJ)

heat the surface to be hardened to a temperature above the upper transformation temperature. As soon as this occurs, water under pressure is

sprayed onto the hot surface through the holes in the induction block. The heating and quenching cycle and other conditions are controlled,
so that
if

steel of the

proper composition and grain

size is used, the bear-

ing surface will have a hardness of about 60 Rockwell


to a

(600 Brinell)
dis-

depth of
of the

i/jj

in.

or more,

and decarburization, grain growth, and


in the

tortion will be prevented.

manufacture of incombination of high hardness and wear resistance on the bearing surfaces and ample toughness and relatively easy machinability for the rest of the shaft. This problem has been solved by induction hardening. The shaft can be heat treated by quenching and tempering at a high temperature, or even by
most
difficult

One

problems to solve
is

ternal-combustion engine crankshafts

how

to secure a

normalizing, to obtain a structure of fine pearlite, which has satisfactory toughness and ductility and can be machined fairly easily. Hardening by

induction heating produces a bearing surface with ample hardness and

wear

resistance

and

leaves

the

fillets,

where the

stress

concentrates,

ductile

and

relatively stress-free.
is

An

induction-hardened crankshaft
surfaces are readily apparent.

etched cross section of a heavy-duty shown in Fig. 14.5. The hard bearing

Heat treatment by induction heating has

expanded rapidly in the past few years; at present approximately one third of all the quenched and tempered parts used in the United States are hardened by this method.*
E. L. Cady, Materials and Methods, v. 24, Aug., 1946. pp. 400-410. This excellent summary with emphasis on the economic aspects.
is

an

296

Engineering Metallurgy

QUESTIONS
1.

2.

is complete Austenization of hypoeutectoid steels essential for full hardening? Why is only partial austenization sufficient for hypereutectoid steel to be hardened? What is process annealing? What is full annealing? Explain the difference between these two annealing processes on the basis of prior processing, temperature required, changes in micro constituents, cooling rates and general usage.

Why

3.

What

4.

are the objects of normalizing low carbon steels? Of normalizing high carbon spheroidized steels? Compare air, oil, water, and brine as quenching media. What is the mass
in quenching? What other conditions proper quenching medium?
effect affect

the selection

of

the

5.

What

6.

quenched steels? Why should these internal be relieved? How is spheroidized structure obtained? What are the reasons for spheroidizing? What problems arise in the heat treatment of a spheroidized structure for full hardness?
causes internal stresses in
stresses

7.

What

is

the overall

objective

tempering
properties.
8.

has

on

the

of tempering? Correlate the effects that hardness, brittleness. strength, and toughness

List the metallographical structures

produced in tempering a

steel

when

9.

martensite decomposes at progressively increased temperatures. Compare the physical properties of these different structures. What is meant by austempering, and what are its advantages and limitations?

10. 11.

Compare martempering with austempering.

Why
is

is carburizing limited to low-carbon or low-carbon alloy carburizing accomplished?

steel,

and how

12.

Compare

the processes: cyaniding, nitriding,

and

carbo-nitriding.

CHAPTER

Carbon Steel Engineering


Arthur
lurgical Engineering,
Illinois
J.

as

an Material

15

C. Forsyth, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Metal-

University of Illinois, Urbana,

cal

Krai.ss, M.S., Head, Department of MechaniTechnology, New York City Community College, Brooklyn, New York

Edward

Jf
tire stock of ferrous

OR

a thousand years before 1850 man's en-

metals consisted of cast iron, wrought iron laboriously

made in small quantities at high cost, and a few high-carbon steel tools made even more laboriously and at still higher cost. These were valuable
materials

and represented a long step forward from the metals of the bronze age, but they were too costly or too low in quality to be used in building railroads, bridges, buildings, and ships. Between 1850 and 1860

Henry Bessemer
discoveries
steel

in England and William Kelly in the United States made which led to the development of a process for making carbon in quantities large enough and at a cost low enough to spark a cen-

tury of industrial progress.

reasonably accurate understanding of this progress can be obtained

from the following production

figures: 800,000 tons in 1870, 28 million tons* in 1900, 119 million tonsf average world production between 1935 and 1939 (42 million tons in the U. S.) and 253 million tonsj between
,

1951 and 1955 (103 million tons in the U. over 100% in the last twenty years. Before

95 per cent of the

steel

This shows an increase of II approximately produced in the world was carbon steel. This perS.)
.

World War

Estimate by Sir Robert Hadfield, The (London) Times Trade and Engineering Supplement, Jan. 28, 1953. f Steel, Jan. 4. 1943. p. 357, Average Production of Steel (1935-1939) for Ingots and Steel for Castings, 119,454,600 toss. Same period for the United States, 42.176,600 tons. t Steel, Vol. 140, No. 1, p. 172, Average World Production of Steel (1951-1955) for Ingots and Steel for Castings, 253,032,163 tons. Same period for the United States,
103,065,068 tons.

297

298
centage has

Engineering Metallurgy

now dropped
steel is still the

to

but carbon
basis.

about 90.8 per cent (in the United States) , most important metallic material on a tonnage

steel produced annually is poured into form the metal assumed in the mold with no further mechanical treatment. The remaining 98.7 per cent is poured into ingots that are hot worked by rolling, forging, or pressing into a large variety of finished or semifinished products. Most finished wrought sections receive no further treatment, but a few are subjected to some form of heat treatment before use. Some semifinished wrought products

About
-

1.3

per cent of the carbon


in the

castings )-

which are used

are processed further by additional hot working; the rest are fabricated

into the desired


steels

may

or

may

form by cold working. (See Section Cold-worked .9.) not be heat treated before being used.
1 1

There
steel:

are, therefore,

four major classes of finished products of carbon

castings,

hot-worked products, cold-worked products, and heatIt is impossible to decide

treated products.
is

which of these four


life,

classes

the most important in present-day economic


role
for

since each plays a

definite
I

which there

is

no understudy.

Without hot-rolled

beams, there would be no skyscrapers; without heat-treated tools they

could not be built; without cold-drawn wire for elevator cables, they could not be used; and without castings for steam and water
they
lines,

would not be
carbon
its

habitable.
is

It is

the same in most other industries: each


is

class of

steel

indispensable, and the cost or tonnage

no

criterion of

value to man.

15.1. Carbon-Steel Castings as Engineering Materials

Unalloyed

steel castings

have many industrial

uses.

Despite the fact

that their mechanical properties are generally inferior to those of hot-

worked

steel of the

same composition, the proportion of castings to rolled

or forged material remains substantially unchanged year after year.


reasons for this are twofold:
ficult or
(1)

The

Sections that are so complex as to be dif-

duced readily at low


forgings
if

even impossible to fabricate by rolling or forging can be procost by casting; (2) castings are cheaper than
a few pieces of a fairly intricate shape are desired.
is

nomical production of such articles by forging


Steel, Vol. 140, No. 1, p. 174, Average U. and Castings, 9,488,097 tons (1951-1955). + Steel, Vol. 140, Xo. 1, p. 178, Average U.
S.

possible

The ecoonly when a

Alloy Steel Production, Total Ingots

S.

Production of Carbon Steel Castings,

(1951-1955) 1,216,948 tons.

Carbon
Table
15.1.

Steel as an Engineering Material

299
for

Chemical Composition and

Minimum

Mechanical Properties

Medium

* Strength and High Strength Steel Castings

Chemical Composition
(per cent)

Tensile
t

(maximum)
Grade

Strength (lb. per


sq. in.)

Yield Point (lb. per


sq. in.)

Elongation in

Reduction in

in.

Area
(per cent)

(per cent)

Mn
0.75

Si

Nl

N2 N3
U.
60-30 60-30 65-30 65-35 70-36 80-40 80-50 90-60 105-85 120-95 150-125 175-145

0.25 0.35 0.25 0.30 0.30 0.35

0.60
1.00

0.80 0.80
0.80 0.80

0.75 0.60 0.70 0.70

0.80 0.80

60,000 60,000 65,000 65,000 70,000 80,000 80,000 90,000 105,000 120,000 150,000 175,000

30,000 30,000 30,000 35,000 36,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 85,000 95,000 125,000 145,000

22

24
20
J

24

30 35 30 35

22
18

30
30
35 40 35 30

22 20
17 14
9

22
12

A.S.T.M 1955 Standards, Part One, Ferrous Metals, 27-55, and A148-55, pp. 1026 1027 and 1035-1036. f Maximum sulphur 0.06 per cent; maximum phosphorus 0.05 per cent. For each reduction of 0.01 per cent carbon below the maximum specified, an increase of 0.04 per cent manganese above the maximum specified will be permitted to a maximum of 1.00

per cent.
is

X When agreed upon by the manufacturer and the purchaser, and when full annealing required by the purchaser, the yield point value of the 65-35 class shall be 33,000 psi instead of 35,000 psi.

large

number

of pieces of a simple shape are produced thus spreading

thinly the cost of the expensive forging dies.


Steel for castings

in

Table

11.1.

Most of

may be melted by any of the processes enumerated it is made by the basic or acid open -hearth or the

acid electric process.

The

open-hearth process
is

is

used for melting


to its flexibility

steel

for large castings; the acid electric process,


to the high temperatures obtainable,

owing

and

favored for small castings, espe-

used for railroad equipment, especially for underframes of cars, for agricultural and excavating equipment, various parts of machines, electric equipment, and a large
cially those of intricate shape. Steel castings are

variety of small parts

and

fittings.

which specifications have been issued by the American Railway Association, the United States
several grades of steel castings for

There are

300

Engineering Metallurgy

government, and a number of technical societies. Typical specifications for chemical composition and minimum tensile properties are given in

Table
For

15.1.

80,000 lb per sq. in. tensile with the exception of maximum percentages of sulphur and phosphorus, is not specified; the foundryman is permitted to adjust the percentages of carbon and manganese and to
castings
strength), the chemical composition,

high-strength

(above

use alloying elements,

if

necessary, which,

when combined with

a suit-

able heat treatment, will result in the desired properties. (See Table 15.2.)

15.2. Factors Affecting the Properties of Carbon-Steel Castings


Since the properties of carbon-steel castings are greatly improved by

heat treatment,

many

nealed, or normalized

now annealed, normalized and anand spheroidized. Quenching and tempering of


castings are
is

castings of such shape that distortion

not likely to be serious, are used

more and more frequently.

Table

15.2.

Mechanical Properties of Steel Castings*

Steel castings are generally specified

by mechanical

properties, leaving to the producer

control of the chemistry within certain limits, t

Structural Grades

Carbon Steel
85,000
100,000

Tensile Strength psi

60,000

70,000

Mechanical Properties J

Mod of Blast in Tension, psi: Tensile Strength, 1000 psi: Yield Point, 1000 psi: Elong in 2 in., %: Reduction of Area, %:
Hardness, Bhn: Impact, Izod, Ft-Lb: (70 F) (-50 F) Fatigue Str, (End Limit), 1000

30.1 x 10 60(a)

30
32
55

30.0 x 10 6 70(b) 38

29.9 x 10" 85(c) 50

29.7 xlO6 100(d)

120
30 8 25

28 50 140 30
10
31

24
40 175 20 10 38

70 20 46 200
30
15

Psi:

47

No.

Selected data from "Materials Engineering File Facts." Materials and Methods vol. 38, 4, 1953, pp. 153. Data sheets include current specifications, physical and mechanical

properties, thermal treatment etc. for carbon and alloy steel castings. found in Materials f "Summary of Standard Specifications for Steel Castings" may be and Methods, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1952, pp. 121 and 123. Minimum mechanical properties and

maximum
X

chemical compositions are

listed.

Normally expected values

in the production of steel castings for the tensile strength


(c)

values listed.
(a)

Annealed, (b) Normalized,

Normalized and Tempered,

(d)

Quenched and

Tempered.

Carbon

Steel as

an Engineering Material
SxSJC

301

^
V

'&N*S?

Fie. 15.1. Photomicrographs of Typical Microstructures o Small Steel Castings containing 054% C, 0.60% Mn., 0.84% Si., 0.032% P. and 0.036% S. Notice the change in grain size due to the following heat treatments. A-as cast, B-normalized 1700F. (926C). C-annealed 1700F. (926C), and D-quenched from 1700'F. (926C.) tempered at 1200F. (651 C). Nital etch lOOx. Courtesy of the Mining and Metallurgy Depart-

ment, University of

Illinois.

Large castings cool so slowly in a sand mold that a very course angular
not too large, simple annealing will refine the grain and improve the properties (Fig. 15.1C) , but such treatment does not effect complete homogenization in large castings.
structure results.
If the casting is

These are subjected


refining treatment.
(Fig.

to high-temperature normalizing followed by a grain-

Quenching and tempering produce the finest structure 15. ID illustrates the structure for small castings) and the best comsize is directly related to the rate

bination of properties.*

Grain

of cooling from the solidifica-

tion temperature to the

A 3 transformation

temperature.

It

follows, there-

Table 152 shows the normally expected values for mechanical properties in the production of steel castings for the tensile strength values listed.

. ,

302
fore, that a
ties

Engineering Metallurgy
small casting usually has smaller grain size and better properthan a large casting; moreover, if the casting is not heat treated, it is
at the center, f

also true that in large castings the properties are better near the surface

than
is

The

factor of greatest

importance

to the properties of cast

carbon content.

If other things are equal, increasing the

carbon steel carbon inre-

creases the tensile

and the yield strength and decreases elongation,

duction of area, and impact resistance.


0.50 per cent, the casting
is

When

the carbon

is

higher than

usually so brittle, even after heat treatment,

used only for a few specific applications for example, rolls and dies where hardness and wear resistance are the most important propthat
it is

erties.

In general, carbon-steel castings of satisfactory mechanical properties

made readily by regulating the carbon content and by using a simple annealing or normalizing treatment. The minimum properties
can be
given for
in

medium strength

castings are conservative

and are

easily attained

commercial production (compare properties in Table 15.1 and 15.2) Cast carbon steels containing 0.20 to 0.40 per cent carbon have an

endurance ratio between 0.40 and 0.50. In the cast condition the ratio is usually between 0.40 and 0.43. Heat treatment (that is, annealing, normalizing, or quenching and tempering) improves the ratio, but it is usually somewhat lower than the endurance ratio of a comparable steel that has been hot worked. Heat treatment also improves the yield ratio, elongation, and reduction of area of cast carbon steel and increases the resistance of the material to single-blow impact. The added cost of heat
treatment
is

usually justified

if

castings are to be subjected in service


15.2).

to stresses of considerable

magnitude (Table

15.3.

Hot-Worked Carbon

Steels as Engineering Materials

Most hot-rolled or forged carbon steels contain between 0.05 and 0.30 per cent carbon and are used for sheet, plate, strip, tubes, pipe, various structural sections, tinplate and other coated sheets, and a large number of semifinished sections that are hot or cold worked into bars, wire, sheet, and tubes. Also included in this class is the well-known "machine steel" (containing about 0.20 per cent carbon and 0.40 per cent manganese) which is used for a wide variety of low-stressed machined parts and is the mainstay of every crossroads blacksmith shop in the world. Mediumcarbon steels containing between 0.30 and 0.70 per cent carbon are used for railway materials, especially rails, for a large number of forgings, and
fOwing to the mass elfect and lo segregation, it is frequently a serious to cast a test specimen that has properties truly representative of ihe casting.
problem

Carbon
for high-strength wire.

Steel as an

Engineering Material

303

The

higher carbon grades, containing 0.70 to 1.30

per cent carbon, are used largely for tools and cutlery and to a lesser
extent for springs and wire.
the medium-carbon grades

Low-carbon
or

steels are rarely

heat treated;

may

may

not be heat treated, depending

upon

their use;

the high-carbon steels are almost always used in the

hardened and tempered condition.

The

properties of hot-worked carbon steel are affected by


(2)

(1)

the
(3)

composition,

the several variables present in hot working,

and

the rate of cooling from the rolling temperature. Except for deep-drawing
sheet, this third factor
is

not important for low-carbon


steels,

steels; in

the case

of small sections of

medium- and high-carbon

air cooling

may

cause enough hardening to mask any effect of moderate changes in composition or of variations in the hot-working operation.

The

effect of

composition

is

discussed in the next section.

herent in hot working direction of temperature the first is the most important. In general, specimens cut longitudinally and transversely to the direction of hot working have about the same tensile strength and yield strength, but the elongation, reduction of area, and impact resistance of the transverse specimens are lower than those of the longitudinal specimens. This difference in directional properties is present even in clean steels, but it is accentuated by inclusions which are plastic at hot-working temperatures and which are thus elongated into fibers by the mechanical work.
15.4. Effect of Composition

Of the three variables inwork, amount of work, and finishing

on

Static Properties of

Hot-Worked

Carbon

Steels

open-hearth

carbon on the tensile properties of hot-worked basic containing between 0.30 and 0.60 per cent manganese and between 0.02 and 0.04 per cent phosphorus is shown in Fig. 15.2.*
effect of steels

The

The

center line of the hatched area represents the properties to be ex-

pected most frequently.

The

top and bottom boundaries of the hatched

area give the limits of the properties to be expected at least 95 per cent of the time in the testing of commercial rolled or forged basic open-hearth
steel of these carbon percentages. The data used for plotting Fig. were obtained mostly by statistical analysis. It is safe, therefore, to clude that of 1000 specimens of 0.20 percent carbon steel about 700 have a tensile strength of between (53,000 and 65,000 lb. per sq. in.,

15.2

conwill

and

given by F, T. Sisco, in A. anil Include not only laboratory investigations and other data but also the data obtained in Germany by statistical analysis of more than 100,000 individual tests.

The values in Fig. 15.2 are a summary of all the data The Alloys of Iron and Carbon, Vol. II, Properties, Chap. 4,

304

Engineering Metallurgy

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Carbon, per cent


Fie. 15.2. Effect of

carbon on

tensile properties of

hot-worked carbon

steels.

about 970 will have a tensile strength (60,000 to 68,000 lb. per sq. in.) which falls within the hatched area for steel of this carbon content. There will, however, be about 30 specimens, or 3 per cent of the whole, with a strength falling above or below the limits shown. These proportions should hold for steel of any carbon content between 0.05 and 0.70 per
cent.

The
on

a 2-in.

elongation values used for Fig. 15.2, if not originally determined gage length, were converted to this gage. In connection with
it should be noted that the usual flat specimen for plate, and similar products has a gage length of 8 in.; hence, values

the elongation
sheets,

given in Fig. 15.2 are some 20 to 30 per cent higher than would normally be obtained on an 8-in. gage* The increase in Brinell hardness with inIf standard flat specimens of basic steel of about 60,000 lb. per sq. in. tensile strength and with gage lengths of 2, 4, and 8 in. are tested, the respective elongation values will be approximately 45, 35, and 30 per cent, respectively.

Carbon Steel

as

an Engineering Material

305

creasing carbon approximately parallels the increase in tensile strength:

each 0.10 per cent carbon raises the hardness 20 numbers, from about
100 for 0.10 per cent carbon steel to 220 for 0.70 per cent carbon
steel.

Although both manganese and phosphorus affect the tensile strength, the influence of the former is unimportant in most carbon steels. For
example,
if

a basic open-hearth steel containing 0.20 per cent carbon

and

0.50 per cent

manganese has a strength of 65,000


in.

lb.

per

sq. in., in-

creasing the manganese to 0.80 will increase the strength only 3,000 to

Phosphorus increases the tensile and the yield per sq. in. for each 0.01 per cent present. In basic open-hearth steels, this element is commonly so low that it has little effect; in acid steels, however, there is usually enough present so that it exerts considerable strengthening action. Thus, acid steel is usually stronger, with lower elongation and reduction of area, than basic steel of the same carbon content.
4,000
lb.

per

sq.

strength about 1,000

lb.

15.5. Effect of Composition

on Other Properties
resist-

Increasing the carbon of hot-rolled steel decreases the impact

ance; low-carbon basic open-hearth steels have an Izod value of 50 to 60


ft.-lb.;

for hot-rolled steels containing 0.50 to 0.80 per cent carbon,


less

it is

usually

than 20

ft.-lb.

Increasing the phosphorus decreases the im-

pact resistance; an acid Bessemer steel is not so tough as basic openhearth steel of otherwise identical composition. The brittleness induced

by phosphorus is discussed in 11.10. In connection with impact resistance it should be emphasized that this property is greatly affected by grain size, direction of hot working, amount and distribution of inclusions, and other factors (aside from chemical composition) related to
the structure.*

These

factors

may have

so

much

influence

on the impact

resistance that

the effect of variations in composition

may

be completely obscured.

limit of hot-worked carbon steels increases with the Owing, however, to the fact that high-carbon steels have less plasticity under load than low-carbon steels, and are more likely to contain internal stresses, the endurance ratio is usually between 0.35 and 0.42, compared with 0.50 to 0.60 for wrought iron, ingot iron, and steels containing less than 0.35 per cent carbon. The modulus of elasticity of carbon steels is between 29 and 30 million lb. per sq. in and is not greatly affected by composition and heat treatment. Some of the other physical constants and most of the electric and magnetic properties are affected, more or less, by changes in composition.
tensile strength.

The endurance

Also see: Temper Kmbrittlement in Plain Carbon Steels, by Powers and G. Bhat, Trans. A.S.M. Vol. 44, 1952, pp. 1058.

J.

F.

Libsch, A. E.

306

Engineering Metallurgy

Since these properties are not of great importance to most engineers, discussion of them is omitted here.

15.6.

Cold-Worked Carbon

Steels as Engineering Materials


First,

Cold working has two advantages.


nomically by
products, in
this
fact,

sections

of certain

sizes,

shapes, or surface finishes can be produced

more readily and more ecomethod than by any other. Some important industrial

cannot be produced at all except by cold working; it would be economically impracticable to produce by any other method wire small enough to be woven into screens or in quantities large enough for modern telegraph and telephone systems. In addition, cold working is the most effective and the cheapest method of securing a smooth surface and accurate size. Second, certain combinations of properties characteristic

of

cold-worked material

cannot be secured

process; for
in.,

example a tensile strength of 300,000 to 400,000 combined with considerable ductility, can be attained
value of cold-worked carbon steel
is

by any other lb. per sq.


readily.

by the an average year about 3 million tons of wire* 12 million tons of sheet* and strip, and 1.8 million tons of bars* and other cold-worked products are made in the United States. Sheet, strip, tubes, and bars are cold worked primarily to obtain certain sizes, shapes, and surface finishes
attested
fact thai in

The economic

economically.

High

strength

is

usually of secondary importance. Furtherstrip,

more, most cold-rolled sheet and


cially the

and some cold-drawn wire, espelines,

low-carbon grades which are used for screens, fences, barbed

wire, nails, screws

and

nuts, telegraph

and telephone

and for many

other

common

applications, are annealed before use.


effect of cold

Because annealing

completely destroys the


terial

work, the properties of such ma-

need not be considered further here.


steels that are cold

Carbon
to

produce special shapes and

worked to secure high strength as well as sizes and are not subsequently annealed
engineering materials.
affects

comprise an important
these steels

class of

The

properties of

and how cold working

them
is

are,

therefore,

worthy

of considerable attention. This class of material includes


sheet, strip,

some low-carbon

and wire, but the most important

wire containing about

and dental instruments, music (piano) wire, springs, rope and cable wire, and numerous other purposes where high quality and reliability combined with high tensile strength and considerable ductility are required.
0.25 to 1.00 per cent carbon used for needles, surgical
Estimated from -Shipments of Steel Products". Steel Vol. 140, No.
1,

1957, pp. 176.

Carbon Steel

as

an Engineering Material

307

10

20

JO

40

SO

60

70

SO

SO

92

Reduction by cold working, percent


Fig. 15.3. Stress-strain curves of

cold-worked low-carbon steel

(Kenyan and Burns)

15.7.

The Important Properties


static properties ordinarily

of Cold-Worked Steel

determined on cold-worked steels are and elongation, usually with a gage length of 10 in. for wire and of 2 or 8 in. for sheet and strip. Owing to the small cross section of most cold-worked materials, reduction of area, which is a valuable
tensile strength

The

measure of

ductility,

cannot be determined accurately. Yield strength

is

rarely determined

on cold-worked wire and sheet or strip; but for coldrolled bars of large enough cross section so that accurate measurements are possible, yield strength and reduction of area are frequently reported. Cold working increases the yield strength; with reductions in cross section of 30 to 70 per cent
it is

at least

90 per cent of the

tensile strength,

and with higher reductions it may for practical purposes be the same as the tensile strength. As shown by Fig. 15.3,* the stress-strain curve of
severely cold-worked steel
therefore, very low
is

curved from the origin; the elastic limit


zero.

is,

and may be

Several unstandardized tests are used to determine the ductility of

cold-worked wire and sheet. Some of these are crude, but in experienced

hands they give


regularities.

reliable indications of excessive brittleness or local

ir-

The most common


size,

of these

is

the

bend

test in

which a

speci-

men

of definite

clamped

in a vise

and bent 180

deg. over a definite


is

radius,

must not

crack.
S.

In another
Burns, Trans.

test,

a specimen
v.

bent back and

R. L. Kenyan and R.

Am.

Soc. Metals,

21, 1933. p. 595.

308

Engineering Metallurgy

forth 90 deg. over a mandrel until failure occurs. bends before failure is a measure of the ductility.

The number

of 90-deg.

Another
it fails

able length

of the ductility of wire is the twist. specimen of suittwisted in a machine, which has one revolving head, until by shear. The number of 360-deg. revolutions of the movable head
test
is is

of the machine
the twist
is

the

number

of twists.

Some

metallurgists consider that


its

a good measure of ductility; others believe that

principal

value

is

to detect local irregularities or flaws in the wire.

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Reduction of area in drafting,percent

Fie. 15.4.

Effect of cold

working on ihe

tensile strength of

carbon

steel,

(l.egge)

15.8. General Effects of Cold

Working on Strength and

Ductility

effect

These particular properties are markedly affected by cold work and the it produces on grain structures. Cold work rapidly increases the tensile strength while decreasing the ductility. The latter is evident by
the decrease in elongation.

The change

in these properties

is

directly

Carbon

Steel as

an Engineering Material

309

10

20

30

40

50
in

60

70

80

90

100

Reduction of area

drafting .percent

WW.

15.5.

Effect of cold

working on the elongation of carbon

steel.

(Legge)

amount of cold work. Figure 15.4* gives an indication of the effect of cold working on the tensile strength. The effect of cold work
related to the
is

directly related to the

carbon content of the

steel.

increases, the tensile strength increases

more rapidly and

As the carbon content to a greater

degree for each increment in the reduction in area. The converse effect is evident when the elongation is considered. This value reduces sharply with small amounts of cold work and does not vary
greatly with the carbon content (Figure 15.5). As the reduction in area* is increased, the effect on the elongation is very much smaller.

One should bear in mind that the figures referred to only approximate the properties resulting from cold work. While the amount of cold work is the prime varible having an effect on strength and ductility, it is not the
The term reduction of area is used in cold working to signify the amount that the cross section has been reduced by the cold working operation. It should not be confused with the same term used in tensile testing.

310
sole factor.

Engineering Metallurgy
Composition
is

important, and the structure of the material

medium and high carbon steels. Another factor that causes variation in total effect is the cross-sectional area. Table 15.3 indicates the variations that exist as a result of this
has an
effect,

particularly for

factor.

Obviously a 1" bar

is less

affected at the center than a wire

would

be.

Table

15.3.

Effect of Cold Rolling

on the Tensile

Properties of a Steel Containing

0.14 Per Cent Carbon.

Property

Annealed

Reduced 30 per cent by


cold rolling

Reduced 60 per cent by


cold rolling

58,800 34,040 27,500 41.7


65.8

80,600 75,300 15 600

98,100
t)e>

inn
10 5 43

-ininn

22
58

Since the degree of cold work cannot be equal in


grain shape
is

all directions, the changed, mechanical twinning occurs, and preferred orien-

tation of the grains also results.

same
cal

While cold working generally has the on the properties of sheet and strip as it has on wire, mechanidirectionality shows up in sheet and is usually undesirable.
effect

Tensile
strength,

Yield
strength,
lb.

Condition

lb.

per

per

sq. in.

sq. in.

Elongation in 2 in., per cent


28
2

Hot-rolled strip Cold rolled 50 per cent

Annealed

40,000 96,000 33,000

38

The

effect

on the properties

varies with the carbon content.

reduc-

tion by cold rolling of 60 per cent has the following effect


Carbon,
per cent

on

strip:

Increase in tensile
strength, per cent

Decrease in
elongation, per cent

0.10 0.20 0.30 0.50

65 63
61

70
70 68 67

57

Carbon Steel

as

an Engineering Material

311

15.9. Variables Affecting the Properties of

Cold-Worked Wire

variables which affect the properties of cold-drawn Only a few may be referred to at this point. Approximately 85 per cent of all wire used today is drawn from either acid Bessemer or basic open-hearth low-carbon steels. Hard-drawn Bessemer wire is from 10 to 15 per cent stronger than the hard-drawn open-hearth wire. The tensile strength of Bessemer varies from 90,000 to 150,000 lb. per square in. while the open-hearth varies from 80,000 to 125,000 lb per sq. in. for similar sizes. A slightly increased elongation and a greater
are

There

many

carbon

steel wire.

ability to withstand twist

is

characteristic of the basic open-hearth wire.

The

effect of cold

able in wire.

work on the grain structure is particularly noticeThe fragmentation and distortion of the grains occurs
sections.

throughout the material since we are dealing with small cross

The

effect of galvanizing

low-carbon cold-drawn wire


is

in tensile strength, an increase in elongation, but this

a reduction complicated by
is

the induced brittleness as shown in a twist

test.

This

brittleness

is

probably caused by the formation of a brittle iron-zinc compound at the interface between the steel and the zinc coating. Here failure starts
easily

under the torsional

stresses.

High-strength wire for cables, ropes, and springs and for music wire
is

usually

made from
is

high-grade deoxidized

steel.

The steel
is

rolled into rods


ductility

tion of strength

and

medium and high-carbon which are patented. The best combinaresults from drawing a lead-patented rod.

Air patenting

cheaper, but the properties of the wire are not as good.

Wire drawn from either lead- or air-patented rod is, however, much superior to that drawn from a hot-rolled rod. Hard-drawn music and cable wire drawn from lead-patented rod has a strength of 160,000 to 220,000 lb. per sq. in. in sizes of 0.2 to 0.3 in. and of 280,000 to
400,000
lb. per sq. in. in sizes smaller than 0.1 in. in diameter. Despite the high strength and low elongation (0.5 to 1.5 per cent in 10 in.), the wire is very ductile and withstands many 90 bends and can be wrapped

around

itself

or rolled into long springs of small diameter without

cracking.

The wire used for the cables of large suspension bridges is an acid openhearth steel containing about 0.80 per cent carbon, 0.50 percent manganese, and low sulfur and phorphorus. The wire is drawn from patented
rods,

and the usual

size is

6 gage (0.192 in. in diameter)

It

has an average

tensile strength of 215,000 to 225,000 lb.

per

sq. in., a yield strength for a

permanent

set of 0.75 in. in 10 in. of 160,000 to 175,000 lb. per sq. in., an elongation of 3 to 7 percent in 10 in., and a reduction of area of 25 to 30 percent. Rope or cable formed from high-strength wire has, owing to its

312

Engineering Metallurgy
which
is

construction, a breaking strength

and usually only 70

to 80 per cent, of the

never more than 90 per cent, sum of the breaking strength

of the individual wires.

15.10. Effect of Cold

Working on Dynamic Properties

As has been pointed out previously the transition temperature has an effect on these properties. Although cold working increases the endurance limit by about the same percentage as it increases the tensile strength, this means relatively little because most cold-worked material has such a
small cross section that standard highly polished specimens usually can-

not be

tested. For specimens of wire tested with the surface produced by the die, the endurance ratio varies from about 0.50, for material containing 0.05 per cent carbon, to 0.25 to 0.35, for high-carbon wire having a

tensile strength of 275,000 to 350,000 lb. per sq. in.

hard-drawn high-carbon wire


reheating the wire to effect
grains raises the ratio.

The low value for due to high internal stresses as a partial or complete recrystallization of the
is

largely

Cold working also decreases the resistance of carbon steel to impact. of this decrease depends primarily upon the amount of cold work and the carbon content high-carbon steels are embrittled to a greater degree than low-carbon materialsand upon other variables.

The magnitude

actual Izod impact value may be as low as 5 to 10 ft. -lb. In general, however, notched-bar impact resistance is not an important property of cold-worked material.

The

15.11. Heat-Treated Carbon Steels as Engineering Materials

As we approach the problem of heat treatment, it would be well to The two treatments that we are particularly concerned about are annealing and normalizing. Annealing is a process involving heating and cooling, usually applied to induce softening. Normalizing is a process in which steel is heated to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and is cooled in still air at room
review a few definitions.
temperature.

With

the

exception of carburizing and annealing of cold-worked

material, low-carbon steels are seldom heat treated.

Quenching generally

improves the properties but hardly enough to justify the cost. Mediumcarbon steels are frequently heat treated; the general improvement in

and ductility, in machinability, or in some other property due to thermal treatment is usually well worth while. Since high-carbon steels are used primarily for tools where high hardness is the chief requirement, these materials are always quenched and tempered. Frequently they are
strength

Carbon

Steel as an Engineering Material

313

also annealed or normalized to

improve machinability or the structural


steels

condition prior to quenching.

The

effect of heat

treatment on the properties of cast

having

been treated earlier in this chapter and carbon steels being more easily presented in the chapter on tool steels, it remains only necessary to briefly cover the properties of medium-carbon
steels after

the characteristics of treated high-

heat treatment.
it is

Referrring to our definitions as a basis,

easy to point out that

annealing

used primarily to improve the machinability of mediumcarbon steels. Comparing steel in the 0.30-0.60 per cent carbon range, we
is

find very small differences in the physical properties.


yield strengths are 6,000 to 10,000
lb.

The
is

tensile

and

per

sq. in.

lower while the elongaeffect

tion

and reduction

in area are a bit higher.

While no

evident on

the endurance ratio, slight increases in impact strength are apparent.

Hot-rolled
the

same

tensile properties.

carbon

steels

and normalized medium-carbon steels have practically This can be attributed to the fact that most after hot working are air cooled from temperatures very
structure,
it

Since normalizing produces a can be justified, economically, for large cross sections after forging or rolling. In addition to producing a finely divided evenly distributed carbide, it eliminates directionality due to mechanical
close to the normalizing temperatures.

homogeneous

fibering of inclusions such as oxide, slag, etc.

Owing to
steels are

the residual stresses introduced by quenching, medium-carbon seldom used in the quenched and untempered condition. The
little interest.
If,

properties of such materials are therefore of

however,

the internal stresses are relieved by tempering,


steels
If

quenched medium-carbon

become valuable
quenched
steel is

structural materials.

tempered

at a

temperature high enough so that

the particle size of the carbide changes, strength and hardness decreases

and

ductility increases almost uniformly as the

tempering temperature

in-

creases.

This

is

shown

in Fig. 15.6,

which

gives the ranges of properties

(included within the hatched bands) that result 95 per cent of the time

from tempering water- and oil-quenched 0.40


at increasing temperatures.

to 0.50 per cent carbon steels

Charts showing the quenched carbon and

effect of

tempering on the

tensile properties of

alloy steels of varying carbon content are widely

number of handbooks. It should be emphasized, however, that these charts, while undoubtedly of value in
available in the literature and in a

indicating the properties to be expected most of the time, should never be used for specification purposes as individual specimens frequently vary

considerably from the average shown on the chart.

314

Engineering Metallurgy

Tempering temperature, deg.


600
_l_

F.

800

1000

1200

600

800

500

600

700

300

400

500

600

700

Tempering temperature, deg. C.


Fic. 15.6. Effect of tempering on the properties of 05 in. bars of water-and oil-quenched 0.40 to 0.50 per cent carbon steel (S.A.E. 1045). (Sisco, The Alloys of Iron and Carbon, Vol. II, Properties, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York,

1937, p. 200.)

Carbon
steel

per cent) are shallow hardening.


result that

containing the usual amounts of manganese (0.30 to 0.90 The time available to quench a carbon past the nose of the S-curve is usually less than a second, with the
steels

pieces or

even on severe quenching martensite forms only in very small on the surface of larger sections. Consequently, the structure of

a carbon steel
little

quenched in oil or even in water generally consists of a mixed with a relatively large amount of a ferritecementite transition structure. It will be shown in the chapters on hardenability that the mechanical properties of a quenched and tempered steel
martensite
are in general better
if

the structure before tempering was almost wholly

martensite rather than a mixture of martensite and one or more transition


constituents.

The primary reason why low-alloy steels are favored for quenched and tempered parts is that the alloying elements increase hardenability and thus increase the likelihood that martensite will be formed in large quantities when the steel is quenched in oil.

Carbon

Steed as an

Engineering Material

315

15.12. Effect of Section Size on the Properties of Heat-Treated

Medium-Carbon
It is

Steels

well

known

by metallurgists generally, but by surprisingly few

engineers, that the properties of steel determined

on a small heat-treated
is

bar of

steel

may

not be representative of the average properties on a

large bar similarly treated.

The

effect of

mass on properties

important.
it

Since in

many
the
is

industrial applications large sections are used,

may be

more some

essential for the engineer to


cases,

know

the average properties or, in

surface. It

minimum properties than to know the properties at the not always practicable to test full-sized I beams or locomo-

tive axles; hence, data that indicate the effect of increasing size of section

are of considerable value.

heavy section cannot be cooled

as rapidly as a thin section; the in-

surface, transforms not only at a later time but at a higher temperature and therefore to a softer product than the surface. This results in differences in properties

terior of a heavy section, cooling

more slowly than the

between the exterior and the interior, possible distortion, residual stresses, etc. If we were to heat and quench a series of bars of SAE 1045 steel of " to 5", the smallest piece would cool most different diameters from \/ 2 rapidly and each succeeding piece more slowly
Size of

Bar

Surface Hardness

0.5"
1.0

59 58
41 35

2.0
3.0 4.0

30

5.0

24

study of the surface micros tructu re reveals that for the hardest
is

material the microstructure


ness decreases, the

predominately martensitc, and

as hard-

amount

of martensite decreases rapidly and pearlite in

survey taken of the cross section,


rate

varying degrees of coarseness appears. If the bars are cut and a hardness it would show the variation in cooling

from outside edge

to center by the variation in hardness. (Fig. 15.7).

In most large sections the cooling rate upon quenching decreases as if other variables do not enter importantly, hardness and strength decrease and ductility increases
the distance from the surface increases and,

Data for medium-carbon steel are given in Fig. 15.7. The effect is more pronounced in water-quenched than in oil-quenched material, and for the same quenching treatment the effect of mass is less pronounced with high tempering temperatures than with lower
slightly.

of mass

temperatures.

316

Engineering Metallurgy

Diameter
Fie. 15.7.

Hardness of

series of

SAE

1045 steel bars heated

and quenched.

quenched and tempered carbon steels is 0.50 quenching treatment has introduced stresses which were not wholly relieved by tempering. When such stresses are present the ratio may be as low as 0.30 or 0.40. Quenching and tempering usually have a favorable effect on impact resistance, which, in general, is much
ratio of

The endurance

0.05 unless the

higher than that of a rolled steel of corresponding composition. Tempering increases the impact resistance of a quenched steel: if the Izod value
of a water-quenched 0.30 per cent carbon steel to 25
ft.-lb.
is

10

ft.-lb., it

will be 20

after

tempering at 700F. (400C.) and 45


.

to 65 ft-lb. after
elasticity

tempering at 1100 to 1200F. (595 to 650C.) The modulus of is, of course, unaffected by thermal treatment.*

QUESTIONS
1.

By what per cent has


the last twenty years?

the steel production in the United States increased in


steel in the

2.

Why
less

now

should the per cent production of carbon than it was before World War II?

United States be

* Sec footnote, p. 305.

Carbon
3.

Steel as an

Engineering Material
steel
is

317

Give two reasons why a large tonnage of


castings every year.

melted and poured into

4.

melted? What is the general relation between structure, heat treatment, and properties of cast carbon steel? Does carbon steel have a low or high hardenability? How does the per cent of carbon in steel castings affect the hardness of the

How

is

steel for castings usually

5.

martensite produced when the castings are quenched? content in steel castings would be most likely to cause cracking during the quenching cycle? If cracking during quenching were a real possibility, what heat-treating cycle could be used to prevent cracking?

What carbon

6.

How

would the

rate of cooling

from die rolling temperature

affect

the

7.

properties of hot worked carbon steel? Name the three general classes of hot-worked carbon steel, and give the principal industrial uses of each class. Which of these three classes leads in

tonnage?
8.

List the principal variables that affect the properties of hot-rolled carbon steel. What tensile properties would be expected 95 per cent of the time

from hot-rolled
carbon
9.

steel

do manganese and phosphorus


steel?
is

containing 0.15 per cent, 0.30 per cent carbon? How affect the tensile strength of hot-rolled

50.

11.

the effect of carbon on notched-bar impact resistance? on endurance limit? on modulus of elasticity? Why are steels cold worked? What properties are ordinarily determined on cold-drawn wire and on cold-rolled bars? What is the effect of cold working on the yield point? How is the ductility of cold-worked wire usually determined? What is the general efTect of cold working on tensile strength and elongation? If a hot-rolled rod containing 0.15% carbon has a tensile strength of 60,000 lb. per sq. in. and an elongation of 25% in 10 in., what strength and elongation would be expected in drawing to wire with (a) a reduction

What

12.

40%? (b) a reduction of 70%? What percentage increase in tensile


of

strength can normally be expected

if

automobile fender
tion

steel

is

cold rolled

50%? What

is

the effect of this reduc(a) of

on the elongation? Give


(b) of
is

typcial tensile properties

small

sizes of

music wire, and


13.

wire for suspension bridges.

What

the general effect of cold working

on the impact

resistance

and on

the endurance limit of carbon steel?


14.

What

general classes of carbon steel arc heat-treated? What is the advantage of either annealing, or normalizing, or quenching and tempering such steels? What is the general effect of tempering on the tensile properties? For a tempering temperature of about 1000F., what would be the expected properties of a 1-in. round bar of 0.45% carbon steel (a) when quenched in water? (b) when quenched in oil?
If

15.

a small specimen of hot-rolled carbon steel containing 0.45% carbon has lb. per sq. in., a yield strength of 54,000 lb, per sq. in. an elongation of 20% in 2 in., and a reduction of area of 85%. what treatment can be used to increase these values to 103,000: 70,000; 25; and
a tensile strength of 93,000
60; respectively?
section,

With

these latter tensile properties for a heat-treated small


at the center of a 4-in.

what would be the corresponding properties

bar?

Low A Hoy
-

Steels as

CHAPTER

Engineering Materials
Robert E. Bannon, S.M., Professor of Metallurgy, Newark College of Engineering, Newark, New Jersey
Sic>fUND Lever.v Smith, M.Met.E., Professor of Metallurgy, College of Mines, University of Arizona, Tucson,

16

Arizona

Al.I.OY

steels are

about seventy years

old.

The

pioneer investigations of the effect of the various alloying elements on carbon steel were made between 1875 and 1890 in England, Germany,
France, and, to a lesser extent, the United States. Owing to the high price of alloying metals, the only use for these materials on a relatively
large scale was in armor plate. By 1910, alloying metals were much cheaper, and from then on industrial applications multiplied rapidly,

between 1915 and 1918 when there was an abnormal demand war materials. This demand, together with the approximately simultaneous development of the first "stainless" steel, stimulated metallurgists all over the world to investigate the effect on carbon steel of all possible combinations of many alloying elements. The result has been alloy steels by the hundreds steels containing one alloying element in addition to carbon, and steels containing half a dozen. Before World War II much of the research work on alloy steels was of the hit-or-miss type or was carried out to develop a steel that would
especially

for high-quality alloy steel for

duplicate the properties of a patented composition without actual infringement. One result of this frenzied research between 1910 and 1950

was a phenomenal growth of metallurgical literature; another was the development of many unnecessary alloy steels which, with slightly different compositions, duplicate the characteristics of

some of the older and better-known steels. However, some remarkable developments have resulted from this mass of hit-or-miss research, including several new steels and special ferrous alloys with splendid properties and of much
value to industry.
It

has also shown to engineers that alloy

steels

make

318

Low-Alloy

Steels as

Engineering Materials

319

possible the design of certain structures that

would be impossible with unalloyed carbon steels and cast irons. Without alloy steels the modern airplane, the streamlined railroad train, the modern automobile, and many other important developments would never have been brought to
their present efficiency.

The most
steels to

characteristic indication of the increasing value of alloy


is

the engineering professions

that their production has increased

in 1910 was was more than 3,000,000 tons, or about (i per cent of the total output of the steel industry. During 1944, when total steel production in the United States reached 89,642,000 net tons of ingots, alloy-steel ingot production was 10,630,000 net tons, which is 12 per cent of the total. The demand for alloy steels in the average prosperous postwar year, for example 1960, cannot be foreseen now; probably it will average about 8 or 10 per cent of the total. The amount of published data on alloy steels and cast irons is so large at a greater rate than total steel production.

The output

600,000 tons, or 2 per cent of the total; in 1939

it

that

it is

now

impossible for a metallurgist to


it is

know

everything that

is

going on

in this field;

a hard job even to keep

up with developments

in a single branch.*

To

present status of knowledge of alloy steels


of course, quite impossible to give

summarize adequately, in a single book, the is a difficult task, and it is,

many

details of their properties in

three short chapters. Consequently, the discussion in this

and the next


fundamentals
steels.

two chapters

is

restricted to a brief description of the characteristics of

these materials

and

to a concise outline of the metallurgical

in the relation of the

common

alloying elements to carbon

16.1. Balanced Compositions in Low-Alloy Steels

workable definition of alloy

steels

and a general
including

classification of

these materials into low-

and high-alloy

steels,

sitions for the low-alloy grades, are given in


steels,

Chap.

11.

common compoMany low-alloy

under specifications that give desired ranges for the various alloying elements and for carbon and manganese and usually maximum percentages for sulphur and phosphorus. Widely available in the literature and in handbooks are charts
especially the S.A.E. grades, are purchased

of average, typical, or
steels after definite

minimum

mechanical properties of the various

heat treatments.

Such

specifications

and charts

are

the result of long experience and arc of unquestioned value to engineers.


Alloys of Iron Research, founded in 1930 by The Engineering Foundation of New York, is reviewing this literature and correlating and summarizing the most important of the world's research on alloy steels and cast irons. Results are published in a series

of

monographs.

320

Engineering Metallurgy

In the past few years, however, there has been a trend toward making use of steels of "balanced composition" or of definite hardenability rather than attaching too much importance to rigidly specified compositions and the necessity of accepting the data in mechanical-property charts. Steels of "balanced composition" are those in which the percentages of carbon and alloying elements, as well as the heat treatment (if any)
are varied to produce a desired combination of properties for a particular
application. Assume, for example, that for a structural application a steel

must have a minimum yield strength of 50,000 lb. per sq. must weld readily, and must not air harden after welding.
cent of alloy metal

in.

as rolled,
steel

con-

taining 0.30 per cent carbon, 0.75 per cent of alloy metal A,

per has the required strength and welds readily, but it


0.5

and

air hardens unless specially treated during or after welding. Because this composition is not balanced for this particular application, the carbon
is

reduced to 0.15 per cent, and the amounts of the alloying metals are

increased to 1.0
still

and

0.75 percent, respectively.

The

yield strength

is

well above the required


a better

minimum,

the material

still

welds readily,
the steel

but owing to

balance of the carbon and metals


a definite hardenability

A and B

does not harden in air after welding.

Producing

steel

with

is

primarily a problem in

balancing the composition correctly.


curacy (this

The
is

effect of

carbon and of the


considerable ac,

various alloying metals on hardenability


is

known with

two chapters) with the result that steels having a definite response to quenching can be readily produced by balancing the amounts of carbon and of the one or more alloying metals which are readily available.
discussed in detail in the next

an alloy steel for a specific applieconomy. Any alloy steel is more costly than plain steel of corresponding carbon content and should not be used for a structure or a machine merely because it contains one or more special metals, or because the steelmaker says it is better than some other steel. Alloy steel should be used only if considerable weight can be saved, or if the design can be materially simplified, and only if its total cost meaning the cost of the steel, of its treatment (if any) and of fabrication is less, when spread over the expected life, than the total cost of any competing
final criterion in the selection of

The

cation

is

material.

16.2. General Effects of the Alloying Elements

on Carbon

Steel

The

general effects of the

common

alloying, elements

on the structure and the next

and, consequently, on the properties of carbon steel are discussed in

Chaps. 12 and

13. It is

the purpose of the discussion in this

Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering Materials

321

two chapters to expand this and to show how these alloying elements are used to produce steels which are more satisfactory for certain applications than the unalloyed carbon steels. Hot-rolled carbon steel is low in cost and has excellent properties, and with certain carbon percentages these properties can be still further improved by heat treatment. Carbon steel also has several disadvantages as an engineering material. An important disadvantage is the rapid decrease of ductility as the carbon (and the strength) increases. Another
is

that,

because

it

is

shallow hardening,

optimum combinations

of prop-

can usually be attained only in small sections. A third disadvantage is that carbon steels, whether hot rolled or heat treated, suffer marked deterioration of properties when used at temperatures considerably below or above normal. Alloying elements are added to carbon steels to overcome, partly at least, these disadvantages.
erties in heat-treated material

The

principal effect of the alloying elements in low-alloy steels

is

to

increase hardcnability by heat treatment.

In addition,

all

the

common

alloying elements dissolve in the ferrite

and strengthen

it

to

Five of these elements also form carbides, but of these only

some extent. molybdenum,

vanadium, and tungsten have a strong carbide-forming tendency. Changing the properties of carbon steel materially by the formation of such carbides is important chiefly in the high-alloy and the tool steels, which
are discussed in later chapters.

The ferrite-hardening (and -strengthening) potency of the elements forming solid solutions with iron varies (increasing from chromium to

10

12

It

16

IB

20

22

Alloying

element

in alpha iron,

per cent

Fie. 16.1.

Effect of the

common

alloying elements,

when

dissolved in iron,

on

its

hardness. (Bain)

322
phosphorus),
ing effect
as

Engineering Metallurgy

shown

in Fig. 16.1.*
is

None

of these, with the possible

exception of phosphorus,
is

so potent as carbon.

In

fact,

the strengthen-

small, provided that the carbon content


is

and the structure are


is

held constant. This

shown by the curves


If,

for the furnace-cooled speci-

mens plotted
240

in Fig. 16.2.f

however, the structure

altered by changis,

ing the treatment, that


230
220
210

by taking advantage of the effect of the element on hardenability,


*/

ft
o\

200
190 180
f

V
y
c
i

of
as

amounts an alloying clement may, shown in Fig. 16.2, have


small

0/

a great effect.
16.2

In

fact. Fig.

shows that chromium


so that high tensile-

4 no
I
160
1

increases the hardenability

f>
V

enough

1
/

150
140

/ /
( *

strength values result from

moderately
cooling.

slow

(air)

/
.

8
.130
-n

/
tiro10tr< / curn wee xjicg c

16.3. Effects of Phosphorus, Manganese,

1ri2o

"no J
100

and Silicon
Of the alloying elements which dissolve in the fer__ __ __
0.30

90
80

%c

rite,

phosphorus,
is

as

just

-- ~OJ0

noted,
its

the most potent in

70

strengthening
16.1)
.

action

60

50

12

(Fig.

The

addition

3 4 5 Chromium, percent

of 0.01 per cent of phos-

phorus increases the

tensile

and the
Fie. 165. Effect of carbon, chromium, and cooling rate on the tensile strength of carbon steels.

yield strength ap1,000


is,

proximately
sq. in., that

(Wright and Mumtna)

lb. per by about as

E. C. Bain, Functions of the Alloying Elements in Steel, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1939, p. 66. Data reported by C. R. Austin (Trans. Am. Soc. Metals,
v. 31,
is slightly less, than those Bain's data in Fig. 16.1. Neither Bain's nor Austin's data arc very precise, because the iron used was not of high purity and the slope of the curves shown in Fig. 16.1 may be altered by future work. The ferrite-strengthening cirect of the alloying

in small

1943, p. 331) indicate that the strengthening effect of percentages is greater, and that of chromium

manganese and molybdenum

shown by

elements

is,

however, not of great importance.

t Plotted from data by E. C. Wright and P. F. Met. Engrs., v. 105, 1933, pp. 77-87.

Mumma,

Trans.

Am.

Inst.

Mining

Low- A Hoy

Steels as

Engineering Materials

323

much

by carbon. This strengthening is, elongation and reduction of area than in the case of carbon addition. f Another advantage is that phosphorus, either alone or more intensely if copper is present, increases the resistance of the steel to atmospheric corrosion. Phosphorus is favored as an alloying element chiefly in low-carbon steels that are used in the
as these properties are increased

moreover, attained with

less sacrifice of

rolled or normalized condition.

Manganese, added to steel in amounts in excess of that necessary to combine with the sulphur and to deoxidize the metal 0.1 to 0.25 per cent for most steels partly dissolves in the ferrite and partly replaces iron in iron carbide (Fe a C) to form a carbide that may be represented by (Fe,Mn) 3 C. If the manganese is below 2 per cent, the amount of this carbide formed is small. Moreover, this substance is so much like iron carbide that it has in itself no appreciable effect on structure and properties. The effect of manganese in solid solution is less than that of phosphorus; the amount by which 0.01 per cent manganese increases the tensile strength varies with the carbon content from about 100 to 500 lb. per sq. in.; it increases the yield strength somewhat more than this. A yield strength of at least 50,000 lb. per sq. in., together with good ductility,

0.30 per cent carbon steel by

can be readily attained in hot-rolled structural shapes of 0.20 to adding 1.00 to 1.75 per cent manganese.

effect

Manganese in amounts exceeding about 0.75 per cent has a strong on the hardenability of carbon steel. In steels that are heat treated,
an advantage, since
less
it

this effect is

permits the use of

less

drastic quench-

ing mediums, which means

distortion or cracking. In hot-rolled struc-

tural steel increased hardenability

may

be a disadvantage, unless the

carbon

is

very low, because air hardening

may

occur in cooling from the


In general, manganese
this
is

rolling temperature with serious loss of ductility.

reduces the ductility of untreated carbon the carbon is low.


Silicon in the
Its effect

steel,

but

not serious

if

on
;

tensile strength
it

(Fig.

16.1)

amounts present in low-alloy steels dissolves in the ferrite. is somewhat greater than that of manganese raises the yield strength and yield ratio and does not
Its effect

appreciably reduce ductility.


resistance

so strong as that of manganese. It has

on hardenability is strong but not no appreciable effect on corrosion


In other than the low-alloy
is

when

present in small amounts.


this

structural steels discussed later in

chapter, silicon

used as an

alloying element in one important group of spring steels that contain

about 2 per cent


f

silicon, 0.60 to 0.90

per cent manganese, and 0.50 to


is,

Phosphorus

is

likely to
is

make

steel

cold short, that

brittle

when

cold, unless

the carbon percentage

low.

324

Engineering Metallurgy

140

70

,Reducfion ofarea_

Tensile strength.,
I

per cent
120

Reduction of area.

percent -

601

^
5?

100

50

=9

80

40 c

a c
c

60

30c

o
40

(with

(A) Nickel carbon 0.20%)


I

(B) Chromium
(with carbon 0.20%)
I

20
3 2 4 Alloying element, per cent 2
3

Fig. 16.S.

Effect

of

(A)

nickel

and

(B)

chromium on

the

tensile

properties of

rolled carbon steels.

(Bain and Llewellyn)

0.65 per cent carbon


electric apparatus.

(the S.A.E. 9200 series)

and

in certain steels for

16.4. Effects of Nickel

and Chromium

Nickel dissolves in the ferrite of carbon steel and exerts a strengthening effect that is somewhat less than that due to phosphorus, silicon, or

manganese

(Fig. 16.1)

The
is

effect of nickel

on the

tensile properties of a

0.20 per cent carbon steel the hot-worked

plotted in Fig. 16.3A,* which shows that in

(unhardened) condition nickel has little effect on elongation and reduction of area; it does, however, raise tensile and yield
strengths considerably.

In the heat-treated condition, nickel steels are characterized by high impact resistance, which remains high at low
temperatures.

Nickel does not form a carbide.


steels

It increases

the hardenability of carbon

mildly, being less effective in producing deep hardening than molybdenum, manganese, or chromium. It also increases the resistance
Figures 16.3A

and B are based on data quoted by E.

C.

Bain and

F.

T. Llewellyn,

Trans.

Am.

Soc. Civil Engrs., v. 102, 1937, p. 1249.

Low-Alloy Steels
of carbon steel to

as

Engineering Materials
especially in

325

some forms of corrosion,

combination with

copper.

and also forms carbides if the carbon and 16.2 its ferrite-strengthening effect when in solid solution is weaker than that of any of the common alloying elements, but it increases hardenability greatly, as shown by
dissolves in the ferrite
Figs.
16.1
is

Chromium
high.

As indicated by

the curves for the air-cooled specimens in Fig.

16.2.*

The

effect of

chromium on

the tensile properties of small air-cooled (hot-rolled) secis

tions of a 0.20 per cent carbon steel


sections, the increase in tensile

plotted in Fig. 16. 3B.

In such in

and yield strengths and the decrease

elongation and reduction of area are


ing effects of nickel. Although

much

greater than the correspond-

increases the impact resistance of very

function

is

is a toughening element and low carbon steels, its primary to increase hardenability, decrease the magnitude of the mass if

chromium

effect, and, of course, increase corrosion resistance, especially

3
is

per cent
a

is

present.

Owing

to

its effect

on hardenability,

more than chromium

common
as

addition to the S.A.E. nickel steels in the proportion of

about half

much chromium
is

as nickel.
steels,

Chromium
where
it

used widely as an alloying element in high-carbon

forms a carbide and also dissolves in the ferrite. When these materials are quenched and tempered at a low temperature, they are very

hard and have good wear resistance. They contain about 1.0 per cent carbon and 0.75 to 1.50 per cent chromium and are used for tools, dies, and ball bearings.
16.5. Effects of the

Other

Common

Alloying Elements

The

other alloying elements used in low-alloy steels are copper, molybto a very limited extent, tungsten. Copper, in the
fer-

denum, vanadium, and,


rite,

small amounts added to carbon and low alloy steels dissolves in the

but its effect on tensile and impact properties is small. If more than 0.6 per cent is present, the steels, as noted in another chapter, may be precipitation hardened. Copper is most useful as an alloying clement for

The addition of 0.10 to 0.40 per cent much that a large proportion of lowcarbon sheets, especially when very thin, and many of the new highstrength structural steels now contain copper.
its effect

on atmospheric corrosion.

reduces this variety of corrosion so

low (below 0.08 or 0.09 per ceni), chromium up to approximately on the hardness and strength when steel is air cooled. For example. Franks (R. Franks. Trans, Am. Soc. Metals, v. 35, 1945, p. 616) reported an increase in tensile strength from 55,000 to 70,000 lb. per sq. in. in 0.08 per cent carbon steel when chromium was increased from to 3 per cent. With 6 per cent chromium, the strength was 197,000 lb. per sq. in.
is

* If the carbon

3.0 per cent has only a small effect

326

Engineering Metallurgy
are strong carbide formers.

Molybdenum, vanadium, and tungsten


the

In

amounts present

in low-alloy steels a portion of these three elements


it moderately on austenite grain

dissolves in
16.1).

the ferrite and probably strengthens


is

(Fig.
size.

Vanadium

valuable chiefly for

its effect

per cent are usually fine-grained and are not so readily coarsened by overheating as some of the other low-alloy steels. Molybdenum, vanadium, and tungsten all contribute to deep hardening, and the first two are very effective in small amounts. Molybdenum
or vanadium
is

Steels containing 0.10 to 0.20

used in a

number

of low-alloy steels,

especially

the

S.A.E. grades, usually together with another alloying element, such as

chromium, ability and


ores
is

nickel, or

manganese. Owing to

its

strong effect on harden-

to the fact that the world's largest deposit of

located in the United States, the use of

molybdenum molybdenum as an alloy-

ing element has increased greatly in the last few years. The most important function of tungsten and, to a lesser extent, of molybdenum is to increase the hardness and stability of the structure of alloy steels, especially at elevated

temperature. For this purpose, relatively large amounts

are required, usually in conjunction with


in a later chapter.

chromium. This

is

discussed

16.6. Low-Alloy Structural Steels as Engineering Materials

ing

As noted previously, there are two broad classes of low-alloy engineersteels: the structural steels and the S.A.E. steels. The structural steels
a

have

fully

higher yield strength than carbon steels; they are usually of carebalanced composition and are used for structural purposes without heat treatment other than natural or controlled cooling after hot rolling.
S.A.E. steels are, in general,

The

much more

costly than the low-alloy

structural steels

and should be heat

treated to obtain

optimum

properties.

In contrast to the structural steels, in which the function of the alloying elements is primarily to strengthen the ferrite and to produce a fine

when the material is air cooled, in the S.A.E. steels the alloying elements also affect the response of the steel to thermal treatment and, in a few cases, harden it by forming carbides.
pearlite
steels of high yield strength are forty years old. One of the contained about 0.25 per cent carbon and 1.50 per cent manganese and was used between 1900 and 1915 to reduce dead loads in long-span

Low-alloy

first

bridges

and steamship construction


later, a

in the

United States and

in

little

deoxidized carbon steel

(misnamed

silicon steel)

England. was

developed in the United States. This material contained 0.25 to 0.35 per cent carbon, 0.70 to 1.00 per cent manganese, and 0.20 to 0.40 per cent silicon. In the hot rolled condition the yield strength of these two steels

Low- Alloy
was 45,000
lb.

Steels as

Engineering Materials

327

per sq. in. or higher, and a considerable tonnage was used between 1915 and 1928. A steel o similar yield strength, containing 0.12 per cent carbon, 1 per cent silicon, and 0.70 per cent manganese, was developed in Germany in 1925 but, owing to its variable quality, it was not used long. This German steel is important because it was the first attempt to produce a steel that had high yield strength but was low enough in carbon to be welded readily without the troublesome brittleness in and around the weld that frequently results from welding a steel containing more than 0.20 per cent carbon and 0.75 per cent manganese.
for bridges

About

fifteen years ago, the depression

stimulated steel manufacturers

to investigate the possibility of

tailormade

steel

producing a low-cost, easily weldable, that would have strength properties and resistance to

atmospheric corrosion

much

superior to those of ordinary structural

steel.

The

depression also focused the attention of engineers upon the desir-

ability of reducing cost in certain structures

tions of a steel of higher strength,

The

result

was that

by the use of smaller secand by welding instead of riveting. the steelmakers produced the steels and the engineers
structures.

used them for railway rolling stock, streetcars, trucks, buses, cranes, steam
shovels,

and similar

One

of the essential factors in this adis

vance was the realization that tensile strength


sistance to buckling or crumpling,
essential,

not always the best

criterion of the suitability of a steel for certain structural uses, that re-

which is related to yield strength, is and that increased corrosion resistance is an economic necessity
have,
as rolled,

in

many engineering structures. The low-alloy structural steels


and
a resistance to

approximately twice

the yield strength of low-carbon steel,


weldability,

combined with high ductility, easy atmospheric corrosion which is much

higher than that of carbon steel. In tonnage lots, they cost 15 to 50 per cent more than comparable sections of plain carbon steel. Owing primarily to their high yield strength, it is possible to reduce the size of a
section 25 to 35 per cent
ness.

and

still

design a structure that has ample

stiff-

Despite somewhat higher fabricating and machining costs, it is frequently possible to save 10 to 15 per cent of the cost of a structure by
the use of the properly selected low-alloy steel.

16.7. Composition

and Properties of the Low-Alloy Structural


some
thirty of these steels
less

Steels

The

first

of the present crop of

was made in

1929 and contained 0.30 per cent or

carbon, 1.05 to 1.40 per cent


to 0.60 per cent chro-

manganese, 0.60

to 0.90

per cent
trade

silicon,

and 0.30

mium. Known under the

name

of Cromansil, this steel attracted

328

Engineering Metallurgy

considerable attention, and a number of others followed it quickly under such trade names as Cor-Ten, Man-Ten, Hi-Steel, Jal-Ten, Konik, Yoloy,

and others. As a group, the low-alloy structural steels are characterized by low carbon (to improve ductility and weldability, and to prevent air hardening) and by the presence of at least two, and sometimes as many as six, of the following alloying elements: manganese, silicon, nickel, copper, chromium, molybdenum, phosphorus, boron, and vanadium. During the war titanium was an important minor constituent in these steels. The percentage of alloying elements is usually low. Manganese is 1.70 per cent or less, with an average of about 1.25 per cent. Silicon is per cent or less, the usual amount being between 0.20 and 0.70 per cent. Nickel varies from 0.3 to 2.0 per cent, and copper, owing to its favorable effect on resistance to atmospheric corrosion, is usually at least 0.10 per cent and may be as high as 1.50 per cent. Molybdenum, if present, is less than 0.40 per cent, and chromium is less than .5 per cent. Phosphorus, if used as an alloying element, is between 0.05 and 0.20 per cent, vanadium up to about 0.1, and boron around 0.003 per cent. In all the low-alloy structural steels the composition is balanced to
1 1

Otiscoloy, N-A-X, Tri-Ten, Carilloy T,,

ensure for hot-rolled sections a


sq. in., a tensile strength of

minimum

yield strength of 50,000


lb.

lb.

per

70,000 to 105,000

per

sq. in.,

and an elon-

|>er cent in 8 in., depending upon composition. The impact resistance of most of these steels is satisfactory; usually it is higher than 25 ft. -lb. Claims have been made that the endurance ratio is higher than for carbon steels, but not enough data have accumulated yet to accept this as generally true. As a group, the steels have a resistance to atmospheric corrosion considerably superior to that of carbon steels.

gation of 18 to 30

These

steels are

outstanding in the relation of properties to

cost.

There

be some casualties in the next few years, but it seems certain that some will survive and that the survivors will be widely used as structural materials where a saving in weight is important.
are too of
will

many

them now; probably there

16.8.

The

S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels

Of
the

the alloying elements in low-alloy steels, nickel and

chromium were

used commercially. Steels containing about 3 per cent nickel were forged into armor plate between 1885 and 1890, causing a revolufirst

tion in naval warfare.

Chromium was

0.60 per cent were installed as

main members

used even earlier: steels containing of the Eads bridge over

the Mississippi River at St. Louis in 1874. Extensive use of the steels included in the S.A.E. grades began about 1910. It has been claimed with

Low-Alloy Steels

as

Engineering Materials

329

considerable justification that the availability of these steels at a fairly

reasonable cost was the chief factor in the development of the automotive and aircraft industries, and that without them the weight per horse-

power of internal-combustion engines would be efficiency less than half, what it is today.
Nearly
fifty

at least twice,

and the

years ago, the Society of Automotive Engineers proposed

specifications for the composition of a

number

of low-alloy steels that

were being used at that time by the automotive industry. These specifications were adopted in 1911, and since that time the compositions recommended in the S.A.E. specifications have been used widely in all branches of mechanical manufacturing in the United States and abroad. Revision and extension of the specifications have kept pace with progress in the automotive and steel industries, with the result that engineers generally look upon the S.A.E. steels as the most satisfactory low-cost, high-quality steels commercially available for the production of automotive and aircraft equipment and machine tools, and they know that
these steels will give satisfactory service

when

properly treated. and used.

in 1941, the Society of Automotive Engineers in collaboration with the

American Iron and

Steel Institute

made major changes

in the composi-

These changes consisted primarily of adopting narrower ranges for chemical analysis as made on a specimen representing a whole heat, plus an allowance for check analyses on individual specimens from the same heat. At the same time the American Iron and Steel Institute issued standard analysis specifications for lowalloy steels, which are known as A. I.S.I, specifications and which, in general, follow the same system of classification as is used by the S.A.E.
tion ranges of their standard steels.

The

S.A.E. specifications for low-alloy steels for 1956 cover 114 steels
series.

divided into eight


the

These

are

shown

in

Table

16.1.*

The

A. I.S.I,

specifications cover 170 steels divided into 13 classes, eight of

which are

same and have the same

series

numbers

as the S.A.E. grades.


is

The
16.1.

system of classifying these low-alloy steels

evident from Table


steels;

Series 1300 comprises the

medium-manganese

2300 contains

3.50 per cent nickel;


series

and 2500 contains 5.00 per cent nickel. The 3100 contains nickel and chromium but the amounts are different in

In addition to specifications for low-alloy steels, both the Society of Automotive Engineers and the American Iron and Steel Institute have standardized unalloyed carbon steels. The S.A.E. specifications cover 22 carbon steels (series 10XX) ranging from less than 0.10 to 1.05 per cent carbon, and 10 high-sulphur free-machining steels (series 11XX) containing up to 0.15 per cent sulphur and as much as 1.65 per cent manganese. These specifications are given in the S.A.E. Handbook, 1956 edition, pp. 51-55, and in Steel Products Manual, Sec. 2. Carbon Steel, Semi-finished Products, published by the American Iron and Steel Institute, New York, 3d rev., June, 1943.

330
the 3100, and 3300

Engineering Metallurgy
series.

The 4000

series is

made up

of plain molyb-

denum

chromium-molybdenum, the 4600 and 4800 series are nickel-molybdenum, and the 4300 series which is popular in the aircraft industry contains nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. The last two digits of an S.A.E. or an A. I.S.I, number indicate the middle
steels,

the 4100 series of

of the carbon range; thus, a 2330 steel contains 3.25 to 3.75 per cent
nickel
steels

is

and 0.28 to 0.33 per cent carbon. The larger number of A.I.S.I. due chiefly to more detailed specifications according to carbon
16.1.

Table
A.I.S.I.

Basic

Numbering System and Composition Ranges


*

for

S.A.E.

and

Low-Alloy

Steels

Composition range, per cent


Series

S.A.E.
or A.I.S.I.

Molyb-

Manganese
1300 2300 2500
1.60 to 1.90

Nickel

Chromium

denum

Other

3.25 to 3.75 4.75 to 5.25

3100 3300 4000 4100 4300 4600 4800 5100 5200


6100 8600 8700 9260 9300 9800
0.70 to 1.00

1.10 to 1.40 3.25 to 3.75

0.55 to 0.75 1.40 to 1.75

1.65 to 2.00 1.65 to 2.00 3.25 to 3.75

0.80 to 1.10 0.40 to 0.90

0.20 0.15 0.20 0.20 0.20

to 0.30 to 0.25
to 0.30
to 0.30

to 0.30

0.70 to 0.90
1.20 to 1.50

0.80 to 1.10 0.40 to 0.70 0.40 to 0.70 0.40 to 0.60 0.40 to 0.60 0.15 to 0.25 0.20 to 0.30

0.15 min.

1.80 to 2.00
Si

3.00 to 3.50 0.85 to 1.15 0.40 to 0.70

1.00 to 1.40 0.70 to 0.90

0.08 to 0.1 0.20 to 0.30 0.15 to 0.25

t86BO0

0.40 to 0.60

Boron, .0015 to .0020

'S.A.E.

Steel Products

Handbook, Society of Automotive Engineers, New York, 1956, pp. 50-55; Manual, Sec. 10, Alloy Steels, American Iron and Steel Institute, New York,

3d

rev.,

t xxBxx,

June 1945, pp. 13-30. B denotes Boron Steel.

Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering Materials

331

percentage. For example, in the S.A.E. series 4100 there are 10 steels, cov-

ering a carbon range from 0.17 to 0.53 per cent; in the corresponding
A. I.S.I, series there are 18 steels to cover the same range of carbon. In addition to carbon

and alloying elements, these


it

specifications give

ranges for manganese (regardless of whether


silicon, sulphur,
letters that identify the process

is

an alloying element)

and phosphorus. The A.I.S.I. specifications also carry by which the steel was made: A for the basic open-hearth, D for the acid open-hearth, and E for the electric-

furnace process.

Some
steels,

of the low-carbon S.A.E. alloy steels do not conform exactly to

the ranges the


is

shown in Table 16.1. For example, in the low-carbon 4100 chromium is lower (0.40 to 0.60 per cent) and the molybhigher (0.20 to 0.30 per cent)
0.30 per cent carbon.

denum

than in the

steels

containing

more than

The manganese

in most standard S.A.E.

The 2300 series is typical; manganese is 0.40 to 0.60 per cent in the low-carbon grades, and 0.60 to 0.80 or 0.70 to 0.90 per cent in the higher carbon steels.
steels varies widely.

The

standard S.A.E. and


steels

A.I.S.I. steels are

only a small fraction of the

low-alloy
slightly,

used commercially.

but
16.1.

many

of these other steels vary vary greatly, from the standard compositions given in

Some

Table
by the
is

A
X.

slightly, usually in
letter

few of them, which are widely used and which vary only one element, are given S.A.E. numbers prefixed
is

An example
16.2.

X3140, the nominal composition of which

given in Table

In this steel the

chromium

is

0.70 to 0.90 instead

of 0.55 to 0.75 per cent.

16.9. The S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering Materials Composition, series number, and recommended heat treatment for all the S.A.E. steels are given in the S.A.E. Handbook and in many other

and need not be considered here. These steels more expensive than the low-alloy structural steels, and, furthermore, they must be heat treated to be of the greatest value. They are widely used in the construction of automobiles and aircraft especially engines and for machine tools, particularly for highly stressed parts such as crankshafts, camshafts, axle and other shafts, gears, bolts, studs, steerreadily accessible sources

are

ing knuckles, spindels,

collets, and valves. few of the S.A.E. low-alloy steels are used in the rolled and air cooled conditions; there is one series, discontinued as standard by S.A.E. a few years ago, which contained less than 2 per cent nickel, that was widely used for engine bolts and boiler plate and, to a lesser extent, for

The medium-manganese series 1300 is also used occasionally as rolled and air cooled, and a few of the low-alloy
bridge and ship construction.

332

Engineering Metallurgy

structural steels discussed in


a small

16.7 are essentially S.A.E. 1320 containing

amount

of copper to increase resistance to atmospheric corrosion.

Most of the S.A.E. steels are used in applications, especially in moving where stresses are relatively high, and they must be quenched (usually in oil) and tempered to secure the maximum combination of strength and ductility. When properly heat treated, they combine high ductility with high strength. Compared with carbon steels of the same tensile strength and hardness, heat-treated low-alloy steels have 30 to 40 per cent higher yield strength, 10 to 20 per cent higher elongation, and
parts,

35 to 40 per cent higher reduction of area.


S.A.E. steels
strength.
is

The impact

resistance of the

frequently twice that of a carbon steel of the same tensile


steels as

The most
class
is

important characteristic of the S.A.E. low-alloy


smaller.
It is
is

that they are deeper hardening than carbon steels; in other words,
is

harden large sections of lowMoreover, as the critical cooling rate is much lower, oil quenching can be used to attain high strength and hardness with less possibility of distortion or the introduction of high internal stresses.
the mass effect
easier to

alloy steels throughout than

the case with carbon steels.

Tempering temperature, deg. C.

700
Fig. 16.4.

900

1I0O

1300

800

1000

1200

1400

Tempenng temperature, deg. F.


Elfect of

chromium (S.A.E. {S.AM. Handbook,

3140) and 1941)

tempering on the tensile properties of oil-quenched (A) nickel(B) nickcl-chroniium-molybdenum (S.A.E. 4S40) steels.

Low-Alloy
16.10.

Steels as

Engineering Materials
Steels

333

The New Metallurgy of Low-Alloy

hardness

For many years charts of average or minimum tensile properties and (occasionally impact resistance as well) of S.A.E. and other low-alloy steels, as quenched and tempered at various temperatures, were
published in the S.A.E.

in other readily available sources. by these charts were, moreover, commonly used by engineers in the design of machines and other important equipment. Figure 16.4 shows two such charts.

Handbook and

The

properties indicated

These charts of properties were considered invaluable because of the that each alloy steel had a set of mechanical properties after heat treatment that was characteristic of, and due to, its chemical composition, and that, in general, these properties could be reproduced at will by subjecting any steel of the same specified composition range to the same thermal treatment. This assumption is statistically valid, but the accompanying and widely held assumption that certain low-alloy steels have inherently a better combination of strength and

commonly held assumption

ductility than others

(Fig. 16.4)

is

not valid, at least insofar as the

as-

sumption

is

based on charts of mechanical properties.

Table

16.2.

Per Cent Carbon) Quenched in Oil and

Typical Tensile Properties of S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels (0.35 to 0.45 Tempered at 1000 F. (540 C.) *

Nominal chemical
Steel

composition, per cent

No.

Tensile strength, lb. per


sq. in.

Yield
strength,
lb.

Elongation
in

Reduction

of
area,

per

in.,

sq. in.

C
1340 2340 3140
0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40

Mn
1.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.65
!

Ni

Cr

Mo
141,000 137,000 143,000 155,000 170,000 184,000 151,000 120,000 120,000 119,000 1 30,000 147,000 160,000 131,000

per cent 18
21

per
cent

3.50
1.25 1.25 1.75

52 60
57 55 56

X3140
4140 4340 4640

0.60 0.75
1.00

0.65

1.80

0.20 0.35 0.25

17 17 16
15

52
56

19

Data obtained on standard

test

specimens machined from bars

less

than

.5

in.

in diameter.

Some
(540C.)

typical tensile properties of S.A.E. low-alloy steels containing

0.35 to 0.45 per cent carbon as

quenched in oil and tempered at 1000F. Table 16.2. These properties were collected by Hoyt* and are undoubtedly representative. For a definite heat treatment.
are given in

334
tensile

Engineering Metallurgy
and
yield strengths vary as

much

as 40,000 lb.

per

sq. in.,

and the
is

variation in ductility as measured by elongation

and reduction

of area

considerable.

The

existence of such

lists

of properties

(and published

charts of properties)

makes

it

understandable that engineers designing

a crankshaft for an internal-combustion engine, for instance, believed that there


is

a marked inherent difference in the mechanical properties


in

of heat-treated low-alloy steels.

Two

relatively recent events

ferrous metallurgy were mainly re-

sponsible for the development of what might be called a


of low-alloy steels

new philosophy

our ideas about the relation between composition and properties. They were also primarily responsible for the disappearance of mechanical-property charts from the S.A.E. Handbook (in 1942) and from many other publications and for the almost overnight development during World War II of the National Emergency steels, an accomplishment in which American metallurgists can take much justifiable pride. These two events were the work of Janitzky and Baeyertzf on the similarity in mechanical properties of heat-

and

for changing greatly

treated low-alloy steels,

and the

practical application of the principles

underlying the relation of carbon, alloying metals, and hardenability. The relation among carbon percentage, the amount of alloying ele-

ments present, hardenability and other variables, and the properties of steel is discussed in detail in the next two chapters. In brief, this relation is as follows: If per cent of nickel and N per cent of chromium pro duce a structure of 50 per cent martensite at the center of an oil-quenched 2-in. bar of steel containing 0.45 per cent carbon; and if X per cent of manganese and Y per cent of molybdenum produce the same structure in an oil-quenched bar of the same size and approximately the same carbon content, the tensile properties of the two steels after tempering to the same hardness will for all practical purposes be identical.

16.11. Similarity of Properties of Heat-Treated S.A.E. Low-Alloy


Steels

Some

of the data obtained by Janitzky

in Figs. 16.5

and

16.6.

and Baeyertz are reproduced These investigators quenched 1-in. round bars of

S. I.. Hoyt, Metals and Alloys Data Book, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1943, 334 pp. + E. J. Janitzky and M. Baeyertz, in Metals Handbook, American Society for Metals, Cleveland, 1939, pp. 515-518. The work of Janitzky and Baeyertz on the similarity of properties of heat-treated low-alloy steels was antedated by several years by work done but not published by the metallurgical laboratory of General Motors Corporation which resulted in the removal of the old-style property chart from General Motors Standards several years previously. The first publication of a part of this

work was by A.

L. Boegehold,

Metal Progress, Feb., 1937, pp. 147-152.

Low-Alloy
260

Steels as

Engineering Materials

335

240
y.

^
|220
b

9
"7

200

Yields* -en -jtn- ,

A
G

180
7

t*~
1*160

7
1

Wc ter quenched
1

140

&
&
120
&9

S. A. .1330

2330.

3130

v
a

4130
5130
613

A
240

100

80

120

160

200

Yield strength

thousand lb.pcrsq.in.

40 60 20 Elongation and reduction of area, per cent

Fig.
steels

165. Tensile properties of water-quenched and tempered S.A.E. containing about 0.30 per cent carbon. (Janitzky and Baeyertz)

low-alloy

and oil and tempered them at recommendations given in the S.A.E. Handbook. Yield strength, elongation, and reduction of area were plotted against tensile strength with the result shown in Figs. 16.5 and
a of S.A.E. alloy steels in water

number

various

temperatures in accord with

is little

For tensile-strength values of less than 200,000 lb. per sq. in., there difference in the steels. At high strength values considerable scatter is evident; this is undoubtedly due to internal stresses caused by quenching rather than to any inherent difference in the steels.
16.6.

The data reported by Janiuky and Baeyertz in 1939 have been confirmed since by a number of other investigators. Patton,* for example,
plotted tensile properties heats of 37 grades of carbon

and Izod impact resistance for 409 tests on 180 and low-alloy steels. The steels used were

mostly N.E. and S.A.E. grades, but a considerable number of others were included; all of the steels, however, were of such a composition that it was reasonably certain that the test specimen hardened completely in

quenching. For tensile-strength values of 100,000 to 200,000

lb.

per

sq.

W.

G. Patton, Metal Progress,

v. 43,

1943, pp. 726-733.

336

Engineering Metallurgy

280 260

-r
r

1 9

*H
1
j

j-240
a.

09
n

Yiela'strength>.
A
6*

*
A

//I

_220
"2

A
PI

200
3

_._L--_ (* 3

-a-

?/n

l80
c

Oil quenched

I "160
.s

/
r

* S.AE.234S 3115 3240


.

L
,

140

f-

43104fi-

J
120

^Reduction ow Of area -> .

1/ '

S/15
1 1

h
[a

1
80
120 160

200 240 Yield strength, thousand lb. per sq. in.

40 60 Elongation and reduction of area, per cent 20

tempered S.A.E. low-alloy steels Fie. 16.6. Tensile properties of oil-quenched and containing about 0.40 to 0.45 per cent carbon. (Janitzky and Baeyertz)

in.,

yield-strength, elongation

(in

in.),

and

reduction-of-area values

at least two-thirds of fell close to a line representing expected values in within a band that varied values fell the tests, and 90 per cent of the values. expected not more than 5 per cent from the Of the values that varied more than 5 per cent from the expected
steels values the variation was such that no single steel and no group of steels. It was of or group could be considered superior to any other steel above 200,000 tensile strength evident that steels heat treated to a

also
lb.

were responsible for conwas more erratic than siderable scatter in properties. Impact more from the line of excent or other property values, varying 20 per
per
sq. in.

contained internal

stresses that

resistance

pected values.
recent correlation of mechanical properties, for low-alloy 16.7.* steels containing 0.30 to 0.50 per cent carbon, is shown in Fig.

The most

Courtesy

American Society

for Metals.

Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering Materials

337

100

120

140

160

180

200

Tensile Strength,

1000 psi

Normally expected mechanical properties (heavy line) and average variaquenched and tempered low-alloy steels containing 0.30 to 0.50 per cent carbon (Metals Handbook, 1948, page 458).
FlC. 16.7.

tion (hatched band) of

16.12.

The Engineering

Properties of the S.A.E. Low-Alloy Steels

Some

typical tensile properties of S.A.E.

carbon and low-alloy

steels,

including a few triple-alloy (N.E.)


are given in

steels, collected

from various sources


are given in this
lb.

Table

16.3.

All the steels

whose properties
300)
.

tabulation were heat treated to a tensile strength of 150,000


(Brinell hardness
ties of

number approximately
is

The similiarity
is

per sq. in. in proper-

the low-alloy steels

evident; also evident

the inferior yield

338

Engineering Metallurgy

strength and ductility of the carbon steels which are inherently shallow hardening in the sizes treated, namely, 1- to li^-in. bars.

The

effect of

tempering on the

tensile properties of 1-in.

of S.A.E. low-alloy steels containing 0.30 to 0.35

carbon is shown by the charts of Fig. 16.8. that can be expected 90 per cent of the time if of a size that will harden with a structure of approximately 50 per cent martensite at the center when quenched in oil is tempered at the temperatures shown.

round and 0.40 to 0.45 per These are the properties an S.A.E. low-alloy steel

bars cent

Table
Steels

16.3.

Heat Treated

Typical Tensile Properties of S.A.E. and N.E. Carbon and Low-Alloy to a Tensile Strength of 150,000 lb. per sq. in. *

Nominal chemica
Steel

Tempering
temperature

composition, per cent

No.

Yield strength, lb. per


sq. in,

C
1045 1060 1080 1340 2340 3130 3140
0.45

Mn
0.75 0.75

N1

Cr

Mo

F.

c.

Elon- Reducgation tion in 2 of in., area. per per cent cent

0.60
0.80

0.40
1.75
0.75 0.65 0.75

600 750 950

315

400 510 510 510 455 510 540


595 565

114,000 113,000 111,000 128,000 132,000 128,000 127,000 130,000 130,000 131,000 130,000 131,000 130,000 131,000 130,000 135,000

10
15 16

35

45
47

X3140
4065 4130

0.40 0.40 0.30 0.40 0.40


0.65

0.75 0.80 0.65 0.50 0.75 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.75

3.50 1.25 1.25 1.25

0.60 0.60 0.75

950 950 850 950 1000


0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.35 0.25
0.18

16

20
17 17 17 16

50 59
57 56 55 47 61 57

0.30 0.30 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.50

0.65 0.95 1.00


1.75 1.80

1100 1050

20
20
18 19 19

X4130
4140 4340 4640 5140 6150

0.65 1.00 1.00

1050 1100 1200 1000 1000 1200

565
595 650 540 540

60

57
56 55

18
18

650

54

8640 8740 8750 8950 9440

0.40 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.40

0.90 0.90 0.90 1.00 1.10

0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.45

0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.40

0.20 0.25 0.25 0.40

1050 1100 1200


il200

0.12

1050

565 595 650 650 565

133,000 130,000 129,000 133,000 130,000

17
18 18 18

53

56 54
57

18

57

All test data obtained

in diameter. All

quenched

in oil except 1045,

on standard specimens machined from bars 0.75 which was quenched in water.

to 1.5 in.

Low-Alloy Steels

as

Engineering Materials

339

Tempering temperature .deg.C.


400
500

600

300

400

600

800

1000

1200

60O

800

1000

Tempering temperature, deg.F.


Fie. 16.8. Effect of tempering on the normally expected tensile properties of lowalloy steels containing (A) 0.30 to 0.35 per cent carbon, and (B) 0.40 to 0.45 per cent

carbon.
160 ISO

140 E
130

It"
||II0
|
3100

J -6 90

A. X3I40
'
,

Carbon 0.407. Manganese 015V


Nickel

B. 8b30" Carbon 0.30,

"6

Mawnese 0.807.
Nickel.

0.657.

1.25%
0.157.-

if TO
1.1 so

Chromium

Chromium 0.507. Molybdenum 0.257."

e<fccf/on ofarea

Reduction ofarea

si

||40
^uj
* 30

zo

fjrnaation in

2in.

^pn0jonin2in.

2 3 Diameier of section, in.


I

I 2 3 Diameter of section.in.

Fig.

16.9.

Effect of
oil

through-hardening

quenched in

mass on the normally expected tensile properties of (A) a steel, and (B) a semithrough-hardening (8630) steel, and tempered at 1000F.
(X3140)

340

Engineering Metallurgy

mechanical properties of heavy sections o heat-treated low-alloy depend on how deeply the material hardens in quenching and upon several other variables such as grain size, quenching tenqjerature, and quenching medium. The higher the carbon (up to about 0.60 per cent) the harder and stronger is the material at and near the surface; and, in general, the higher the percentage of alloying metals promoting hardenability, the harder and stronger is the steel both at the surface and throughout the cross section. The effect of section size on two low-alloy steels is shown in Fig. 16.9.* The nickel-chromium steel X3140 could be classed as a through-hardening material, and the triple alloy steel 8630 is undoubtedly semithroughhardening material. Both steels have a relatively high strength (after oil quenching and tempering at 1000F.) in small sections; and in both
steels
,

The

steels

the strength decreases as

the size of section increases,

but the

tensile

and

yield strengths of 8630 decreases to a greater extent

and more

rapidly with increasing section size than those of X3140.

The impact
variables
others.

resistance of the low-alloy steels

including

composition,

grain

size,

depends on a number of thermal treatment, and

Patton, whose data were discussed in the previous section, plotted

and found that the normal expected value decreased from 85 or 90 ft.-lb. for steels with 100,000 to 120,000 lb. per sq. in. to about 20 or 25 ft.-lb. for steels or
the Izod impact values given for the 400 specimens

200,000 lb. per sq. in., leveling off at this value for higher tensile strengths. Because impact resistance is very sensitive to slight variations in structure, Patton

found much more


as,

scatter than in

any of the other properties.


is

The endurance
steels.

ratio of polished specimens of low-alloy steels

ap-

proximately the same

or perhaps slightly lower than, for carbon

Available data in the literature give ratios of 45 to 50 per cent with the average a little below 50. Because of internal stresses, the endurance limits of heat-treated low-alloy steels with a tensile strength of 250,000 lb. per sq. in. or higher do not exceed approximately 100,000
lb.

per sq. in.

QUESTIONS
1.

Why

2.

should low-alloy steels be balanced? Give as many advantages as you can as to why low-alloy
effects of

steels arc

becoming

so popular.
8.

4.

Explain the Explain the

effects of

adding small amounts of nickel to steels. adding small amounts of chromium to steels.
2,

1934; data

Data on X3140 from International Nickel Co., Handbook on Nickel Steels, on 8630 from Republic Steel Corp., Handbook on N. Steels, 1943.

Low-Alloy Steels as Engineering Materials


5. 6. 7. 8.
9.

341
to steels.

Explain Explain Explain Explain

the effects of adding small amounts of


the effects of adding small

molybdenum

the effects

amounts of vanadium of adding small amounts of tungsten


steels.

to steels. to steels.

the effects of adding phosphorus to

10. 11. 12.

What Name

arc the disadvantages of adding phosphorus to steels? three alloying elements that arc carbide formers.

Why

is

the carbon content low for low -alloy steels?


steels

IS. 14.

What advantages do low-alloy when quenched? Name twenty specific uses for
Compare

have compared

to plain

carbon

steels

low-alloy steels.

in chart form the physical properties of low-alloy steels containing


silicon is

0.40 per cent to a plain carbon steel containing 0.4 per cent carbon.
15.
16.

Explain why
obtained.

List various sources

not used to any great extent in low-alloy steels. where physical properties of low-alloy steels may be

17.
18.

What do What do

the letters S.A.E. stand for?

the letters A.I.S.I. stand for?

Hardenability

CHAPTER

17

Walter M. Hirthe,

M.S.M.E., Assistant Professor of

Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Richard O. Powell, College of Engineering, Tulane


University,

New

Orleans, Louisiana

more than a thousand years, hardness has been the most highly valued attribute of iron-carbon alloys; in fact,
the
bility,

r OR

word "steel" has long been an accepted synonym for hardness, duraand reliability. This is natural; to early social groups, with limited

knowledge of the properties of the metals then available, unhardenable wrought iron was no better, and in many instances worse, than properly made and fabricated bronze. When wrought iron was carburized and heat treated, however, the resulting steel was far superior to anything previously available, not only for weapons, but also for plowshares and other tools essential to an agricultural and pastoral society. It is not surprising, therefore, that hardness became a supreme and lasting virtue in metals, and the medieval metal worker who knew how to produce hardened steel was for centuries considered something of a magician. Today, as well as a thousand years ago, no one questions the importance of hardness and its accompanying high strength; in fact, the ease with which hardness and its related properties can be controlled by thermal treatment makes steel man's most important metallic material. Owing, however, to inherent limitations in our present methods of thermal treatment, hardness may be only superficial. Metallurgists have realized for many years that hardenability, which, briefly, is the depth to which martensite will form in definite sections under definite cooling conditions, is often as important as actual hardness, and there are many applications for which steel should be practically as hard and strong at
or near the center as at the surface. Surface-hardened steels are valuable
for

many

engineering uses, but

if

weight

is

to

be saved and high

stresses

342

Hardenability

343

withstood, steels hardened throughout are necessary. In addition and this is equally important a steel hardened throughout by quenching has
properties, as

properties of a steel tempered to the

tempered to a definite hardness, that are superior to the same hardness but not hardened

throughout.
17.1.

Hardness and Hardenability in Carbon Steels

Among engineers who use heat-treated steel there is considerable confusion concerning the difference between hardness and hardenability, that is, between the maximum hardness that a steel attains in quenching
to which it hardens. There is no direct and close relation between the two, despite the fact that hardness is used to measure hardenability. An example or two should make this clear. Suppose that two 1-in. bars of carbon steel containing, respectively, 0.30 and 0.70 per cent carbon are quenched from above the transformation temperature into ice water or iced brine. The surface hardness of the first will be approximately 55 Rockwell C and that of the other one about 65 Rockwell C. Both bars will harden to a depth of about \/ in. A The hardness values of the two steels differ (at the surface), but the
is the same. specimens of either carbon or low-alloy steels are cooled from the proper quenching temperature at the critical cooling rate or faster, so that no transformation occurs before martensite begins to form, the

and the depth

hardenability
If small

0.40

0.5O

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

Carbon, percent

Fjc. 17.1. Relation between carbon content and maximum martensitic hardness (upper curve), and maximum hardness usually attained (hatched band). {Based on data by Burns, Moore, and Archer, and by Boegehold)

344

Engineering Metallurgy
hardness attainable depends on the carbon content. This
Fig. 17.1.*
It
is

maximum
shown by
the

should be emphasized that the upper curve shows

maximum

hardness obtained

when

the specimen

is

entirely marten-

sitic in structure.

In the commercial heat treatment of carbon and lowrarely realized, except with very small sections.
is

alloy steels this

is

Ordi-

contaminated by varying small amounts of transition structures that reduce the hardness appreciably. In consequence, many metallurgists put the highest practical hardness obtainable in the commercial quenching of these steels at 5 to 10 Rockwell C numbers
narily the martensite

below the maximum, as


17.2. Hardness

is

shown by

the hatched area in Fig. 17.1.

and Hardenability

in Low-Alloy Steels
illus-

The

difference between hardness

trated by Fig. 17.2,*

and hardenability is also well shows hardness values over the entire which

cross

quenched bars of various diameters of S.A.E. 1045 (0.45 per and S.A.E. 4140 (0.40 per cent carbon, 1.0 per cent chromium, 0.20 per cent molybdenum) steels. If 1-in. bars of these two steels are quenched in water from above the transformation temperature
section of

cent carbon)

(Fig. 17.2), their

hardness at the surface

is

practically the same; at the

center, however, S.A.E. 4140 has a hardness of 59

Rockwell C, whereas

S.A.E. 1045 has a hardness of only 34 Rockwell C.

This
content

illustration

shows

clearly that

two

steels of

about the same carbon

may have the same hardness at the surface but a different hardenability. They may also have a very different hardness at the surface and a different hardenability, depending primarily upon the relation of the
cooling rate to the location of the nose of the S curve and, consequently,

upon whether

the rate of cooling

is

sufficient to

prevent

much

pearlite

from being formed during quenching.


17.3. Cooling Rate

and Hardenability
gives

In
these

many ways
may
be.

steel is a very

to the treatments

man
like
it

it,

cooperative metal and responds readily no matter how unreasonable or illogical

In other ways, however, or not,

army mule, and,


is

we can do

typical of this characteristic.

We

stubborn as the traditional about it. Heat extraction can put heat into a piece of steel by
it is

as

little

The upper curve of Fig. 17.1 is based on data collected by J. I.. Burns, T. L. Moore, and R. S. Archer, Trans. Am. Soc. Metals, v. 26, 1938, pp. 1-36. The hatched band is based primarily on data given by A. L. Boegehold, S. A. E. Trans., v. 52,
1944, pp. 472-485.
* Based on diagrams published in U. Corporation. Pittsburgh., 1938, 214 pp. S.

S.

Carillory Steels, Carnegie-Illinois Steel

Hardenability

345

S.A.E. 04!

,QUEN :hed
i

in

WA id

1
1 I

/
-

\
V

\ \ s \

\
S

/ J)
'

/ /

-::

;>
*

H : *-- "::z. A ^

~*

--

--H

Diameter of bar.in.

Diameter of bar, in.

Fig.

17.2.

S.A.E.

1045

and

Hardness over entire cross section of bars of various diameters of S.A.E. 4140 steels quenched in water. (U. S. S. Carilloy Steels)

electrical or other

extract the heat


will permit.

methods at almost any rate we choose, but we cannot from the interior any faster than thermal conductivity

No

matter

how

fast

we

chill the surface, the

heat will flow

which is by the composition of the material. This process is complicated by the fact that during quenching the steel conforms approximately with Newton's law of cooling that heat loss is proportional to the temperature difference between the bar and the quenching medium and also by the fact that, quenching mediums vary greatly in their ability to extract heat from the surface of hot steel. And it must be remembered that it is not always desirable to quench steels drastically in water, as this treatment is likely to result in high internal stresses