BRAZIL

ACTIVE WITH
BRAZIL: an active key partner
for the OECD
The OECD is proud to have Brazil as a Key Partner. Over the past two decades,
Brazil has been a source of valuable policy experience, as it has moved up
the ranks of the world’s largest economies. Most importantly, it has done so
while tackling both poverty and inequality, something very few countries
have previously achieved.
While Brazil has maintained high levels of employment, growth has slowed down in recent years, underlining the
need to boost productivity and cost competitiveness. This requires measures to address infrastructure bottlenecks,
continue to raise education attainment and the performance of students, boost labour force skills, streamline the tax
system and reduce regulatory complexity. For Brazil, as for many other major economies today, further economic and
social progress implies continued efforts to “go structural, go social, go green and go institutional”.
The Brazilian government has demonstrated strong commitment in facing these challenges and the OECD stands ready
to support the related reforms. Our expertise in a wide range of policy areas and the strength of a network of global
policy communities are all at Brazil’s disposal. Our partnership extends to many policy areas, and includes joint work on
international fora, such as the G20. This brochure illustrates the mutually beneficial character of our co-operation, as we
benefit from Brazil’s perspectives in finding joint solutions to common global challenges.
Brazil participates actively in a number of key OECD Committees, as well as in various areas of OECD work, including
our initiatives to reshape economic thinking (New Approaches to Economic Challenges, NAEC), and to foster inclusive
and sustainable growth. It is now Vice-Chair of the Governing Board of PISA and of the OECD Steel Committee, and its
leadership has also opened avenues of dialogue with the rest of Latin America. This year, for example, two important
regional high-level meetings were hosted in Brazil in the field of skills development, which has encouraged other
Latin American countries to participate in the third round of the adult skills survey, PIAAC.
We look forward to strengthening and broadening this fruitful collaboration, to help design and implement better
policies for better lives for all Brazilians.
ANGEL GURRÍA, OECD Secretary-General
CONTENTS
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INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION 29
Building a knowledge-based economy 30
Promoting a viable global steel industry 31
ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY 32
Promoting sustainable development 33
Improving energy strategy 34
Enhancing nuclear energy and other applications 35
Strengthening chemical and transgenic safety 36
Promoting good water governance 37
A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER 38
Partnering with Latin America 39
Promoting effective development co-operation 41
Finding global solutions at the G20 42
Reaching out to the business community, foundations
and trade unions 44
ANNEXES
Instruments: facilitating international coordination 46
Brazil’s participation in OECD bodies
and related organisations 47
THE OECD AND BRAZIL 2
SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH 6
Strengthening economic growth 7
Increasing agricultural productivity and food security 9
Promoting green growth 10
Upgrading participation in global value chains 11
SMOOTH FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS 12
Promoting trade 13
Promoting sound competition 14
Strengthening consumer protection 15
PUBLIC AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE 16
Enhancing the business environment 17
Improving tax transparency and compliance 18
Enhancing budgeting and public expenditure efficiency 20
EMPLOYMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 21
Creating jobs 22
Promoting social and territorial cohesion 23
Educating and empowering new generations
with the right skills 24
Tackling gender inequality 26
Measuring better lives 27
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THE OECD
AND BRAZIL
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ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL
L Aloizio Mercadante, Minister Chief of
Staff of the Presidency and Angel Gurría,
Secretary-General of the OECD at the
presentation of PISA 2013. October 2013,
Brasilia, Brazil. 1. World Bank, 2012
With a GDP of US$2.4 trillion
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, Brazil is the largest economy
in Latin America and the seventh economy of the world.
Brazil is one of five major emerging economies with which
the OECD has established a key partnership, together with
China, India, Indonesia and South Africa. The mutually
beneficial Brazil-OECD relationship has been evolving
steadily and favourably since the mid-1990s.
Brazil is an active Key Partner of the OECD. The country participates in the substantive work
of many of the OECD’s specialised Committees, where senior officials from member and
partner countries meet to advance ideas and review progress in specific policy areas.
Brazil is an “Associate”, i.e. participating on equal footing with OECD members, in seven
OECD bodies, and is vice-chair of two of them, the Governing Board of the Programme
for International Student Assessment (PISA) and the Steel Committee. This reflects the
leadership Brazil has developed in these fields and is an important signal of its strong
engagement with the policy dialogue that occurs in these and other OECD bodies. In
addition, Brazil is a “Participant” in another eleven OECD bodies (see Annex).
Brazil has also engaged in a productive dialogue with the OECD in the framework of the
G20, which has resulted in initiatives such as the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting project. It
is an active contributor to the New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) initiative,
an organisation-wide reflection process on the causes of the 2008 financial crisis and the
lessons for the future. Brazil strongly contributes to the OECD’s statistical databases and
encourages the wide availability of OECD information and databases for public servants,
researchers and students through a specific agreement which provides OECD iLibrary
access to 200 Brazilian institutions.
Minister Mercadante, who is now Minister Chief of Staff of the Presidency, promoted an
active engagement with the OECD as Minister of Education. In November 2013, after
having given a welcoming reception to the Secretary General in Brasilia, he visited the
OECD headquarters in Paris and shared with OECD ambassadors, directors and staff Brazil’s
advances in education reform and his views on the OECD-Brazil cooperation.
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“Brazil has been engaged in bringing
its own development perspective to the
OECD. Brazilian society, as so many of our
international partners, aims at continued
economic growth with social justice - and,
as is only too natural, this is what moves us
in our participation in the OECD. The OECD
has already started a review of its analytical
models so as to better account for the
interplay of economic efficiency and social inclusion, as well as for the
possible trade-offs implied by structural reforms. I firmly believe that
we would all benefit from the improvement of our analytical tools
and from the increasing diversification of policy views in the joint
activities carried out by the Organisation.”
José Maurício Bustani, Ambassador of Brazil to France
“We have all witnessed the rise of Brazil as
a major economic player in the global arena,
one that has done so with a remarkable
combination of economic growth enhancing
and social inclusion policies. The ambitious
reform agenda of Brazil, not least on
successfully combating poverty, improving
access to well-being at large, is therefore
very relevant for current discussions that
are taking place within the OECD, particularly on what relates to
attain sustainable growth, addressing inequalities and creating
jobs. Also outstanding improvements were made in the fields of
education/skills and the responsible use of natural resources.
Our bilateral cooperation, based on best policies/best practices
sharing, and reliable comparative data and evidenced-based
analysis, is a natural win-win. I am fully confident that our
dedicated Informal Reflection Group will contribute further
to living up to this very promising partnership.”
Paulo Vizeu Pinheiro, Ambassador of Portugal to the OECD,
Chair of the Informal Reflection Group on Brazil
L Left to Right: Aloízio Mercadante, Brazilian Minister Chief of Staff, Paulo Vizeu Pinheiro, Ambassador of Portugal to the OECD, Marcos Bonturi, Director of the OECD
Global Relations Secretariat and Angel Gurría, Secretary-General of the OECD Secretary-General, OECD Headquarters, Paris, November 2013.
THE OECD AND BRAZIL
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“In order to keep playing a key role in
global governance, the OECD must adapt to
globalisation and strengthen its relations with
the rest of the world, especially developing
countries. In this context, Brazil, which plays
a growing role on the international scene, is
a major partner for the OECD. Cooperation
with this country is undoubtedly a priority
for our Organisation.”
Pascale Andreani, Ambassador of France to the OECD, Chair of the External Relations
Committee (which oversees the Organisation’s overall global relations)
“The OECD’s Global Relations Strategy seeks
to make the Organisation a more effective
and inclusive global policy network, through
close co-operation with our five Key Partners
(Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South
Africa) and strengthened engagement with
all regions of the world. In that context, the
OECD welcomes the leadership that Brazil
is taking in certain OECD bodies, such
as the PISA Governing Board, the Steel Committee and its active
participation in NAEC. This engagement has certainly enriched OECD
debates as much as it has allowed Brazil to enrich its policies with the
perspectives of other countries.”
Marcos Bonturi, OECD Director of Global Relations
The worst of the financial crisis that struck the global market in 2008 is now
behind us, but it left its mark on the world economy. With lower commodity prices,
slower growth in China and Europe and a tighter monetary policy in the US, Brazil
will have to “go structural” to improve its productivity and regain international
competitiveness. This will be necessary to sustain high economic growth and to
continue the remarkable advancements made on the social front.
SUSTAINABLE,
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Brazil experienced remarkable growth in the last decade, but
has faced increasing difficulties since 2010. How can Brazil’s
economy continue to grow sustainably?
OECD Economic Surveys identify the main economic challenges
faced by each OECD and key partner country and analyse
various policy options.
The 2013 Economic Survey of Brazil highlighted the importance
of further refinements in the macroeconomic framework and
of continuing structural reforms to improve productivity and
competitiveness. The survey analyses options to build on
Brazil’s successful strategy to reduce poverty and inequality. A
new edition will be published in 2015.
Twice a year, the OECD Economic Outlook analyses the major
trends and forces that shape the short-term economic
prospects of OECD members and selected non-members.
The latest version, published in May 2014, warns that
although unemployment remains at record low levels,
Brazil’s government still has many challenges to address.
The publication highlights increasing inflation rates
and suggests that structural factors underlying weak
manufacturing performance should be addressed, notably by
improving infrastructure through lowering trade barriers and
implementing tax reform.
Strengthening
economic growth
Going for Growth is the OECD’s flagship report highlighting the
main growth challenges and developments in structural policy
reforms. Since 2011, Brazil is included with other key emerging
economies (China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa).
Based on a broad set of internationally comparable indicators
of structural policies and performance, five priorities are
identified for each country with the aim of improving labour
productivity and utilisation. Potential effects of the reforms
on policy objectives other than GDP growth are discussed, in
particular green growth, reducing inequality, public finance and
macroeconomic imbalances.
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“The OECD has been doing important work at the global level, and
has partnered with Brazil at the G20, IMF and other international
bodies, especially in this difficult period which requires action from
multilateral institutions and governments. We have an important
partnership and we have advanced on several issues. At the global
level, our partnership has made advances in tax, finance and
governance; at the national level, the OECD has done important work
on education and finance.”
Guido Mantega, Brazilian Minister of Finance, October 2013, Brasilia, Brazil
L Guido Mantega, the Brazilian Minister of Finance, receives the OECD Economic
Survey of Brazil 2013. Brasília, Brazil, October 2013.
Structural policy reforms essential for increasing long-term
growth in Brazil:
l Enhance outcomes and equity in education. Increasing the
overall education level of the workforce would accelerate
productivity growth.
l Improve incentives for formal labour force participation,
especially among seniors. Reforming public benefit
programmes would raise the currently low formal-sector
participation levels.
l Reduce distortions in the tax system. A less onerous tax
system would contribute to faster productivity gains.
www.oecd.org/eco/surveys/listofeconomicsurveysofbrazil.htm
www.oecd.org/eco/outlook/brazil-economic-forecast-summary.htm
www.oecd.org/eco/growth/Brazil.pdf
SCAN TO READ
THE REPORT
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Strengthening economic growth
As one of the world’s major exporters of primary products,
Brazil’s agriculture relies on a strong and dynamic economy.
Brazil is an active collaborator in the preparation of the OECD-
FAO Agricultural Outlook, which provides 10-year projections
for the major agricultural commodities and biofuels. The latest
report foresees commodity prices, on average, well above the
previous decade due to a strong demand and rising energy-
related input costs; noting that food price inflation remains a
concern in many developing countries. In 2013, the OECD and
the Brazilian Agricultural Research Cooperation (EMBRAPA) signed a
formal Memorandum of Understanding on the annual OECD-FAO
medium-term agricultural outlook, in which the OECD agreed to
provide training and technical advice on policy analysis.
The Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation: OECD
Countries and Emerging Economies publication provides biennial
assessment of agricultural policy support instruments and
policy developments in several countries, including Brazil.
The 2013 edition examined Brazil’s government interventions
in the agricultural sector for the years up to 2012, and the
corresponding impacts on trade and the domestic economy, and
will again be included in the 2015 report.
Increasing agricultural productivity
and food security
SCAN TO READ
THE REPORT
SUSTAINABLE, BALANCED AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH
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L FAO Director General José Graziano da Silva at the launch of the OECD-FAO
Agricultural Outlook 2012-2021 in Rome, Italy, 11 July 2012.
The OECD is the main global reference for the certification and
standardisation of seeds, agricultural and forestry tractors,
forest reproductive material, and fruit and vegetables. The
OECD Agricultural Codes and Schemes facilitate international trade
through the simplification and harmonisation of documentary,
inspection and testing procedures. Brazil has been an active
member of the OECD Seed Schemes since 1999, and hosted the
Annual Meeting in 2006.
“For consumers, especially for the millions of people living in extreme
poverty, high food prices have caused considerable hardship. We
need to redouble our efforts to bring down the number of hungry
people. We must focus on increasing sustainable productivity
growth, especially in developing countries, and especially for small
producers. (…)High real prices for agricultural commodities provide
higher incentives for farmers and rural development, especially where
markets are open and price mechanisms function well, and where
farmers also have the capacity to respond.”
José Graziano da Silva, FAO Director General
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The world economy is slowly emerging from one of the worst
crises in decades, but it is clearer than ever that a sustainable
growth path will only be possible if the world’s natural assets
are preserved.
The OECD Green Growth Strategy offers an opportunity to
re-think our current economic model and equip countries,
including Brazil, to tap into greener and more sustainable
development. Strengthening policy coherence is crucial to address
interconnected environmental challenges, particularly given
the importance of biodiversity preservation, climate change
mitigation and adaptation, and water governance.
Since the launch of the Green Growth Strategy in 2011, the OECD
has been working with countries to integrate green growth
objectives into economic and sectorial policies, and to assist with
monitoring progress through integration of green growth into core
OECD surveillance reports. Several countries in the LAC region –
Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Paraguay, and
Peru – have applied the OECD Green Growth Indicators approach.
The OECD holds an annual Green Growth and Sustainable
Development Forum to focus on cross-Ministerial issues, to which
Brazil and other partner countries are invited. The 2013 Forum
focused on the ways to unlock private green investment and avoid
environmentally wasteful infrastructure decisions.
Building on the findings of the OECD Green Growth Strategy, the
report Putting Green Growth at the Heart of Development explains
why green growth is vital to secure a more sustainable future
for developing countries. Green models for development offer an
alternative that relies on and values natural assets, which are
essential to the well-being and livelihoods of people in developing
countries. The report draws on a range of developing country
examples, including Brazil’s Proambiente programme, which rewards
farmers for more environmentally sound agricultural production
practices, and the Bolsa Floresta payments for ecosystem services
programme in Amazonas State.
Promoting
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SCAN TO READ
THE REPORT
During 2014-2015, the OECD will conduct an Environmental
Performance Review (EPR) of Brazil. EPRs identify good practices
and make recommendations to improve the reviewed country’s
environmental policies and programmes. Over 60 EPRs of OECD
member countries have been conducted. Most OECD member
countries have now been reviewed twice. Some OECD non-
member countries have also been reviewed, including China,
Russia and Colombia.
www.oecd.org/greengrowth/
www.oecd.org/greengrowth/green-growth-indicators-lac-2012.htm
www.oecd.org/development/environment-development
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Trade in intermediate inputs makes up over 50% of goods and
70% of services trade, underscoring the importance of global
value chains.
International production, trade and investment are increasingly
organised within global value chains (GVCs) in which the different
stages of the production process are located across different
countries. The OECD has a long history of studying value chain
dynamics. Most recently, the OECD-WTO Trade in Value Added (TiVA)
database was developed to measure trade in value added terms
to generate new insights about the commercial relations among
economies and the process of value creation. The second release of
the OECD-WTO TiVA database (May 2013) presents indicators for 57
economies (including Brazil) covering the years 1995, 2000, 2005, 2008
and 2009 and broken down by 18 industries. These results show that
even if China is the largest market in gross terms, in value-added
terms the United States are Brazil’s largest export market.
Brazil also participates in the OECD Development Centre’s Initiative
on Global Value Chains which promotes knowledge sharing among
representatives of OECD and non-OECD economies on how to
promote development by facilitating participation in GVCs.
In April 2014, the São Paulo State Industry Federation (FIESP) hosted
a workshop on global value chains with the active participation
of the OECD.
“One consensus that emerged from these
dialogues (with OECD counterparts) is that
Brazilian society is today very interested in
issues of foreign policy and foreign trade.
Another consensus is that Brazilian foreign
trade needs an integrated strategic policy.”
Thomas Zanotto, Director of the Department of
International Relations and Foreign Trade of the
São Paulo State Industry Federation
Upgrading participation
in global value chains
oe.cd/gvc
oe.cd/tiva
www.oecd.org/trade/benefitlib/Trade_Policy_Implications_May_2013.pdf
www.oecd.org/sti/ind/TiVA_BRAZIL_MAY_2013.pdf
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SMOOTH
FUNCTIONING
OF MARKETS
Trade and foreign investment have proven essential for economic
development across the globe. Although economic reforms in the 1990s
have increased the country’s macroeconomic stability, Brazil still faces
challenges in strengthening the functioning of markets, facilitating trade,
enhancing competition and improving the business environment.
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SMOOTH FUNCTIONING OF MARKETS
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Brazil’s performance in ensuring transparency, predictability
and due process in trade facilitation surpasses most other
Latin American, Caribbean and upper middle income countries.
What policies are needed for Brazil to continue to progress?
Speed and efficiency in border procedures is paramount in
reducing trade costs, boosting trade flows and reaping greater
benefits from international trade. To help governments improve
those procedures, the OECD has developed a set of trade
facilitation indicators that identify areas for action and enable
the potential impact of reforms to be assessed. These indicate
that Brazil could draw considerable benefits from continued
efforts in:
l streamlining border fees and charges,
l further simplifying and harmonising trade documents,
l promoting automation and
l streamlining border procedures.
Brazil has been included in the OECD’s Services Trade
Restrictiveness Index (STRI) database. The STRI database is a
unique resource providing internationally comparable current
information on regulatory policies affecting trade in services. It
is also a useful tool both for benchmarking domestic services
sector reform and for preparing lists of commitments during
trade negotiations. The OECD STRI was officially launched on
May 7 during the 2014 OECD Ministerial Council Meeting.
Brazil played a major role in the negotiation and drafting of
the 2011 version of the Aircraft Sector Understanding (ASU),
originally agreed in 2007. This is a path-breaking Aircraft
Agreement among major civil aircraft exporting countries,
which has paved the way for the establishment of a level
playing field among main competitors in the area of civil
aviation. This agreement rationalised government support
for export deals across all commercial aircraft. 2013 marked
Promoting trade
the tenth anniversary of a constant and fruitful engagement
of Brazil in the ASU work. The OECD has benefited, and will
continue to benefit, from the contributions of a major player in
the aircraft industry, committed to maintaining a high value in
ASU disciplines.
Aid for Trade at a Glance, a joint OECD-WTO publication, provides
an analysis of trends and developments in aid that aim to
help developing countries integrate into the global economy
and benefit from trade opportunities. The latest publication,
launched in July 2013, focussed on global value chains and
private sector development, with a view to managing results.
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J 25 February 2011 –
Laudemar Goncalvez
de Aguiar Neto,
Deputy Permanent
Representative from
the Embassy of Brazil
to France, signing the
OECD Aircraft Sector
Understanding (ASU),
OECD headquarters,
Paris, France.
The Competition Law adopted in 2011 is a major step towards
sound competition. The new law completed a process of
reform and modernisation of Brazil’s competition law and
policy started in 2003.
The OECD Competition Committee, which gathers the heads
of the world’s major competition authorities, is a source of
policy analysis and advice to governments on competition
law, effective competition law enforcement, and competition-
friendly regulation. Brazil underwent two Peer Reviews of
Competition Law and Policy carried out by the OECD, in 2005 and
in 2010. Since 1998 the Committee has published peer reviews
of well over 30 countries. These reviews assess how each
country deals with competition and regulatory issues, from the
soundness of its competition law to the structure
and effectiveness of its competition institutions. The review
includes an exam of the country report by an international
panel of experts.
Brazil’s 2011 competition law approval reflects several key
recommendations from OECD peer reviews, including:
l the introduction of a merger notification ex ante as well as a
system of double threshold for merger notification;
l a significant increase in the level of fines;
l tougher criminal sanctions with a fine and a prison sentence
instead of a choice between them;
l a streamlined Brazil Competition Policy System (BCPS).
The OECD also supports policy makers in their efforts to
improve public procurement. The OECD Project to Reduce Bid
Rigging in Latin America was launched in 2007 with projects
in Brazil and Chile. It was designed to assist competition
authorities in detecting and preventing bid-rigging in public
tenders. Cross-agency partnerships were established by the
Brazilian competition authorities, with the support of the OECD,
Promoting sound
competition
to build awareness of how to combat big-rigging practices. As
an example, the OECD examined proposed amendments to the
procurement law and explained the usefulness of Certificates of
Independent Bid Determination, which are now mandatory for
federal and state procurement.
“CADE has undergone major reform in
2012 with the enactment of new legislation
that unified all competition enforcement
activities into one single governmental body
and adopted a pre-merger control system.
We were fortunate to have OECD support
during the whole approval process of the
Bill. Furthermore, OECD materials and
discussions have significantly improved CADE’s findings for the
implementation of an effective competition policy in Brazil”.
Vinicius Marques de Carvalho, President of Administrative Council of Economic
Defence (CADE)
www.oecd.org/daf/competition/fightingbidrigginginpublic
procurement.htm
www.oecd.org/daf/competition/brazil-competition.htm
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Rapidly-changing markets require increasingly high levels of
knowledge and skill in order for consumers to make informed
purchasing decisions. At the same time, consumers expect
ever-greater protection from governments. How can policy
makers meet these expectations and effectively enhance
consumer protection?
The OECD undertakes analysis of policies to support
e-commerce, foster consumer product safety, and better
understand consumer economics. In 2010, the OECD developed
the Consumer Policy Toolkit, a practical guide that provides a
framework for understanding changes in consumer markets
and the related implications for policy making. Drawing on
the Toolkit, the OECD is now drafting recommendations on
improved approaches to making and enforcing such policies.
The OECD has also been actively working on e-commerce
issues. It is currently reviewing its 1999 Guidelines for Consumer
Strengthening
consumer protection
Protection in the Context of Electronic Commerce. Particular attention
is being paid to developing policy guidance on mobile and
online payments, digital content products and participative
e-commerce. Brazil has been involved in this work, which is
closely related to a decree it put forth on e-commerce in March
2013. Brazil also plays an active role in the OECD’s work on
consumer product safety.
In October 2012, the group launched a web-based GlobalRecalls
database, which draws together information on product recalls
worldwide, providing governments, businesses and consumers
with a new tool for addressing safety issues. A second
database is in place which helps to track policy and regulatory
developments; a third will provide a platform for sharing
information on injuries.
www.oecd.org/sti/consumer
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PUBLIC AND
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GOVERNANCE
Brazil has joined many international initiatives
aimed at improving public governance in
fields such as anti-corruption, tax compliance,
transparency and exchange of information
on tax matters, government accounting and
supreme audit institutions.
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Promoting appropriate business conduct by multinational
companies is a real challenge as their operations often straddle
dozens of countries and hundreds of cultural, legal and
regulatory environments.
Brazil has been an adherent to the OECD Declaration and Decisions
on International Investment and Multinational Enterprise since 1997.
The Declaration set standards for transparent investment
policies and responsible business conduct.
As an element of the Declaration, the OECD Guidelines for
Multinational Enterprises are the most comprehensive set of
government-backed recommendations on responsible business
conduct in existence today. The governments adhering to the
Guidelines aim to encourage and maximise the positive impact
MNEs can make to sustainable development and enduring
social progress.
The Guidelines are supported by the unique implementation
mechanism of National Contact Points (NCP) which assists
multinational enterprises to observe the Guidelines. The
Brazilian NCP, an inter-agency body located within the Ministry
of Finance, has participated in the inaugural Global Forum on
Responsible Business Conduct in June 2013. As part of the effort
in promoting the Guidelines, the Brazilian NCP has organised
several international workshops.
Governance is an increasingly important issue in Latin America.
Considerable effort has been made to improve the region’s
investment environment and Brazil has been playing a leading
role with the OECD in this matter.
As a founding member of the Latin American Corporate Governance
Roundtable, which has met annually since 2000, Brazil has
hosted meetings of the Roundtable and its Companies Circle,
which comprises leading Latin American Companies including
five Brazilian companies in a sustained effort to improve
Enhancing the business
environment
corporate governance implementation. Brazil is also an
active participant in the Corporate Governance Committee;
it has agreed to participate as an Associate in the Corporate
Governance Committee’s 2014 review of the Principles of
Corporate Governance and has been invited to participate in the
review of the Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned
Enterprises.
Bringing together senior policy makers, regulators and market
participants in the region’s most active capital markets,
the Roundtable supports governments’ efforts to improve
corporate governance, guiding the role of institutional investors,
board effectiveness, enforcement and codes of conduct. The
Roundtable has also supported the work of several additional
groups. In addition to the Companies Circle, launched in
2005, the Roundtable has supported the establishment of a
Latin American Network on Corporate Governance of State-Owned
Enterprises since 2011. More recently a specialised experts’
task force has issued country-specific recommendations for
preventing the abuse of transactions between related parties.
“The Roundtable meetings have raised
overall awareness of corporate issues,
particularly among Brazilian companies.
The OECD presence has given the subject
a much needed credential, setting it apart
from previous perceptions of mere ‘wish
lists’ for investors”
Mauro Rodrigues da Cunha, Executive Director, Brazil
Association of Investors in Capital Markets (AMEC)
www.oecd.org/corporate/mne/
www.oecd.org/daf/ca/latinamericanroundtableoncorporate
governance.htm


At the request of the G20, the OECD developed an Action
Plan identifying 15 specific actions to tackle BEPS in a
comprehensive and timely manner. The BEPS Action Plan was
fully endorsed by the G20 Finance Ministers at their meeting in
July 2013 and by the G20 Leaders at the St Petersburg Summit on
September 2013.
The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax
Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the
area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried
out by over 120 jurisdictions, which participate on an equal footing.
Brazil has been a member of the Global Forum since September
2009, and it plays an active role in both the Steering Group and
In an increasingly interconnected world, national tax laws have
not kept pace with global corporations, fluid capital, and the
digital economy, leaving gaps that can be exploited to erode the
taxable base and shift profits to low tax environments. Brazil,
within the framework of the G20, has been working hard to
tackle this critical issue.
In May 2013, on the occasion of the OECD Ministerial Meeting,
Brazil signed a Declaration on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS)
along with Argentina, Indonesia, South Africa, Russia and all OECD
countries. The Declaration acknowledges that BEPS is a pressing
issue, as identified in the Report on Addressing Base Erosion
and Profit Shifting released in February 2013, and encourages
coordinated efforts to develop inclusive and effective solutions.
Improving tax transparency
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the Peer Review Group. As a member, Brazil underwent two peer
reviews: on Legal and Regulatory Framework (Phase 1) and Exchange
of Information Practices (Phase 2).
The Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters
is the most comprehensive multilateral instrument available for
all forms of tax cooperation, including automatic exchange of
information to tackle tax evasion and avoidance, a top priority
for all countries. The Convention was amended to respond to
the call of the G20 at its April 2009 London Summit to align it to
international standards on exchange of information. Brazil signed
the Convention on November 2011 at the G20 Leaders Summit
in Cannes, France. The Convention has been signed by 64 states,
including all G20 countries, and 13 jurisdictions are also covered by
the Convention by way of territorial extension.

The Convention has now taken on increasing importance with
the G20’s recent call for automatic exchange of information
to become the new international tax standard on exchange
of information. The Convention provides the ideal instrument
to swiftly implement automatic exchange on a global scale as
requested by the G20.
Brazil and the OECD have been cooperating in tax matters for
some time. To provide coherence and continuity to this joint
work, Receita Federal do Brasil (RFB) and the OECD signed a MoC
in November 2012 covering a wide array of tax policy and
administration areas, particularly international taxation. The MoC
has facilitated the implementation of a structured programme of
technical events in the Escola de Administração Fazendária in Brasilia.
These events provide a forum for discussion among Brazilian
officials and experts from OECD countries, to exchange views on
best practices and effective policies on issues of common concern,
implementing a calendar of events decided jointly by RFB and the
OECD. The MoC has also facilitated further engagement of Brazil
in the work of the Committee on Fiscal Affairs, where Brazil is
now an Associate on BEPS.
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Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters. G20 Cannes, France.
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Building on the momentum generated by the 2013 Public
Governance Review of Brazil’s Federal Court of Accounts
(Tribunal de Contas da União), the TCU continues to
demonstrate its commitment to a more strategic and agile
state through its audit and counselling work.
The OECD and TCU have partnered on a multi-year project
that will assess how Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) can
contribute to strengthening good governance and sound public
management. The project will benchmark practices not only in
the TCU but across SAIs in 12 other countries including Canada,
Chile, the European Union Court of Auditors, France, South
Korea, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, South
Africa and the United States. Further, the project will involve
collaboration with representatives from civil society and from
Brazil’s Executive, demonstrated by members’ attendance at the
launch event held in October 2013.
Recognising that the current role of SAIs is changing, this
timely project is an important plank in the OECD’s whole-of-
government approach to improving institutions and governance
for more effective policy design and implementation – a critical
component of the New Approach to Economic Challenges
(NAEC) initiative.
www.oecd.org/corruption/ethics/publicsectorintegrityreviews.htm
Enhancing budgeting and public
expenditure efficiency
“We have always advocated the realisation of a great pact to
improve public governance so that Brazil is a world leader in
development. This is a challenge that we need to face together:
Union, States, Municipalities and the Federal District.”
Renan Calheiros, President of the Federal Senate of Brazil
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EMPLOYMENT
AND SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT
In the past few years Brazil has been able to sustain economic growth while reducing
social and regional disparities. Social inclusion has been one of the major priorities of
the Brazilian government and its policies have strongly reduced poverty and inequality.
However, with the post-crisis economic slowdown, Brazil will have to redouble its efforts
to keep promoting social inclusion and development.
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Despite a buoyant labour market, Brazilian youth still
face several obstacles. What are these barriers? How can
they be overcome?
The proportion of youth neither in employment, nor in
education or training (NEET) in Brazil is higher than in OECD
countries. A very large portion of the unemployed have been
out of a job for a year or more; the quality of jobs held by youth
is often poor; job turnover is high; and strong inequalities
persist along gender, geographical and racial lines. Building on
the extensive country reviews that the OECD has carried out
previously on the youth labour market and vocational education
and training, as well as on the OECD Skills Strategy and the Action
Plan for Youth, the Investing in Youth publication provides a
detailed diagnosis of the youth labour market and education
system in Brazil, and offers policy options to help improve
school-to-work transitions.
The annual OECD Employment Outlook seeks to identify key
policy actions to foster more and better quality jobs through
an increased understanding of how labour markets function in
OECD and Key Partner countries (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia
and South Africa). In the latest edition of the Employment Outlook,
the OECD has updated its estimates on the degree of stringency
of employment protection legislation, including in Brazil.
Creating jobs
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“The OECD report is a valuable contribution to Brazil, at a time
where we are preparing ourselves to deepen our efforts to face the
historical challenge of creating better jobs for men and women
and, as a central element of a broader strategy to fight poverty and
reduce social inequalities.”
Manoel Dias, Minister of Labour and Employment, October 2013, Brasilia, Brazil
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The Brazilian government has made the fight against poverty
and inequality one of its main priorities. Its efforts have been
rewarded with strong results in this area; however, the social
divide remains significant and needs to be monitored closely.
Over the past decade, extreme poverty dropped from 23.2%
to 5.9% and almost 50 million Brazilians have moved into the
middle class.
The Territorial Review of Brazil shows that Brazil has the
opportunity to achieve sustained economic growth coupled
with a reduction in social and regional disparities. The review
suggests that social programmes targeting the poor need to be
complemented with policies aiming at generating local sources
of new employment and growth. The effectiveness of the
government’s poverty reduction programmes (such as the Bolsa
Promoting social
and territorial cohesion
Familia programme) could be increased if they were combined
and coordinated with regional policies.
Brazil has placed strong emphasis on solving deep-rooted social
problems. While income inequality is one of the highest in the
world, efforts to reduce social disparities have been effective in
recent years.
The OECD has conducted talks including Brazil in its Income
Distribution Database (IDD). The inclusion of Brazil (and other
key partners) involved a revision and adjustment of the OECD
income concept. Estimates for Brazil, based on the National
Household Sample Survey (PNAD), will be included in the next
release of the OECD Income Distribution Database.
www.oecd.org/social/inequality.htm
www.oecd.org/regional/regional-policy
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Equipping citizens with the skills necessary to achieve their
full potential, participate in an increasingly interconnected
global economy, and ultimately convert better jobs into
better lives is a central preoccupation of policy makers.
OECD Surveys on education and skills provide essential
benchmarking to assist in this endeavour. Brazil is an
active participant and has reported great benefits from
its participation.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) assesses
to what extent 15-year-olds have the knowledge and skills
needed to participate fully in their economies and societies.
Brazil has participated in PISA since the first round in 2000, and
has used PISA results actively to drive reforms, both system-
wide and at the local level.
Brazil is the country with the largest performance gains
in mathematics between 2003 and 2012. Much of this
improvement comes alongside greater inclusion in the
schooling system – enrolment rates for 15-year-olds grew from
65% in 2003 to 78% in 2012.
Brazil is now preparing for PISA 2015, and in January 2014
became the first OECD partner country to join the PISA
Governing Board as an Associate. The government has set the
goal of reaching the average PISA score by 2021.

Brazil also participates in the Teaching and Learning International
Survey (TALIS), which sheds light on learning environments and
teachers’ working conditions, and informs policies for better
teaching. TALIS 2008, for example, revealed a high proportion
of Brazilian teachers working under temporary contracts. The
next round of TALIS results will be released in June 2014 and
will allow Brazil to make valuable comparisons between the
countries’ diverse regions.
Educating and empowering new
generations with the right skills
As part of its Programme for the International Assessment of Adult
Competencies (PIAAC), the Survey of Adult Skills measures the
key cognitive and workplace skills needed for individuals to
participate in society and for economies to prosper. Focused on
16-65-year-olds, the Survey monitors not only whether adults
have important skills, but also whether these skills are being
put to effective use in the workplace.
On April 2014, the OECD and Fundacion Santillana co-hosted a
regional conference in Brazil which very successfully launched
a new PIAAC Round for Latin America, with several countries in
the region agreeing to participate.
“We are signing up to PISA and we know
the responsibility of this challenge. We have
several other important partnerships with
the OECD: We are participating in the Talis,
which is the international research project
on teaching and learning that primarily
examines the learning environment and
working conditions of teachers in schools.
We are preparing this year a ministerial
forum on non-cognitive skills with the OECD, which is a major
challenge to evaluate and interpret the development of non-
cognitive abilities in schools. And we also have an invitation to
participate in the PIAAC, which measures the skills and expertise
of adults.”
Aloizio Mercadante, Minister Chief of Staff of the Presidency (Former Minister
of Education)
Social and emotional skills, such as perseverance, the ability to
cooperate with others and self-esteem can be as powerful as
cognitive skills in influencing academic, employment and social
outcomes. The Education and Social Progress (ESP) project aims to
shed light on how these skills are developed.

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In March 2014, the Ministry of Education of Brazil and National
Institute for Educational Studies and Research joined forces with
the OECD and the Ayrton Senna Foundation to host a high level
policy forum that discussed the power of social and emotional
skills in driving children’s success in life. The Forum brought
together education leaders from around the world to discuss
ways in which to better prepare our children for the diverse
socioeconomic challenges of the 21st century.
“This Forum brings novel evidence about the
science of learning and Brazil supports this
debate’s new approach to what contributes
to school success. We believe that social and
emotional competencies need to be reflected
in the ambition of educational public
policies and we will systematise and finance
initiatives that incentivise and develop
social and emotional skills in students”
José Henrique Paim, Minister of Education
www.oecd.org/pisa/
www.oecd.org/edu/school/talis.htm
www.oecd.org/site/piaac/
www.oecd.org/edu/ceri/educationandsocialprogress.htm
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Along with social and regional inequalities, the gender gap in
Brazil has declined in recent years, though there is still much
to be done.
Gender gaps are pervasive in all walks of economic life and imply
large losses in terms of foregone productivity and living standards
to the individuals concerned and the economy. Closing the Gender
Gap – Act Now focuses on how best to close these gender gaps and
specific analysis is presented for Brazil across the report. A country
note in Portuguese and English explores poverty and income
inequality as key social policy concerns in relation to gender.
In May 2013 the OECD adopted the Recommendation on
Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship,
highlighting policy principles and mechanisms through
which Member countries can tackle gender disparities. The
Recommendation also encourages the collection, production
and development of timely and internationally comparable
gender-sensitive data and indicators. The OECD Gender Data
Portal includes international data and analysis on gender
inequalities in education, employment and entrepreneurship.
While Brazil is already included in the OECD Gender Data Portal
wherever comparable data is available, extending the indicators
scope to all areas covered by the Gender Portal would make it
possible to closely monitor Brazil’s efforts to bridge gender gaps.
Discriminatory social norms and institutions are an important
brake on development goals, as the OECD’s Social institutions and
Gender Index’s (SIGI) data and research have shown.
SIGI is an innovative measure of underlying discrimination against
women in over 100 countries. While other indices measure gender
inequalities in outcomes such as education and employment, the
SIGI helps policy-makers and researchers understand what drives
these outcomes. As a composite index made up of 14 unique
variables, the SIGI captures and quantifies discriminatory social
institutions. SIGI 2014 will be published in October 2014.
Tackling gender
inequality
“The (Closing the Gender Gap) report is
indeed a wake-up call. But its main goal
is to propose policy options to rise to the
challenge. Gender inequality has many
different roots, including and importantly in
social norms and practices, as shown by our
SIGI Index. But inequality also stems from
flawed policies, economic incentives, laws
and regulations. And we can impact and
influence policies. This is our raison d’être at the OECD. Our report
is thus about solutions, about policy measures that work. They
exist and they do make a difference.”
Angel Gurría, Secretary-General, OECD.
www.oecd.org/gender/C-MIN(2013)5-ENG.pdf
www.oecd.org/gender/data
www.genderindex.org
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Is life really getting better? How can we tell? What are the
key ingredients to improving life – is it better education,
environment, healthcare, housing or working hours? Does
progress mean the same thing to all people or in all countries
and societies?
The OECD Better Life Initiative focuses on developing statistics
to capture aspects of life that matter to people and that shape
the quality of their lives. This allows for a better understanding
of what drives the well-being of people and nations and what
needs to be done to achieve greater progress for all. The two
core products of this initiative are the Better Life Index and the
How’s Life? report.
The Better Life Index is an interactive web-based tool that invites
you to create your own index based on 11 dimensions essential
to well-being, from health and education to local environment,
personal security and overall satisfaction with life, as well as
more traditional measures such as income.
Measuring better lives
You can then compare well-being across countries and share your
index with other people who have created indexes, as well as with
the OECD. The Better Life Index includes data for OECD countries
as well as the Russian Federation and Brazil and is currently
available in English, French, German, Russian, Spanish and now
also in Portuguese.
How’s Life? Measuring Well-Being is a biannual report. As the
flagship report of the OECD’s work on well-being, it paints a
broad picture of how life is in OECD countries and other major
economies, by looking at people’s material and non-material
conditions and quality of life along the 11 dimensions of the
Better Life Initiative.
This report responds to a demand from citizens, analysts and
policy makers for better and more comparable information on
people’s well-being and societal progress. The second edition of
How’s Life?, released in 2013, includes in-depth studies of four
key cross-cutting issues: how well-being has changed during
the global economic and financial crisis; gender differences in
well-being; the quality of employment and well-being in the
workplace; and sustainability of well-being over time.

www.oecd.org/statistics/howslife.htm
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In recent decades, technology and innovation have been a major source of economic
growth. The IT revolution has made it all the more important for countries to have a
modern and state-of-the-art industrial sector. With more than 1% of GDP invested in
research and development, Brazil is building a knowledge-based economy.
INDUSTRY
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INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION
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Technology and innovation are key factors to sustainable social
and economic development. How can Brazilian policy makers
promote a supportive environment for innovation?
The OECD develops evidence-based policy advice on the
contribution of science, technology and innovation to well-
being and economic growth. Since 2007, Brazil has been an
active Participant in the OECD Committee for Scientific and
Technological Policy (CSTP). Brazil is included in the OECD Science,
Technology, and Industry Outlook, and the OECD works particularly
closely with Brazil on issues related to the bio economy.
The Brazilian intellectual property office (Instituto Nacional da
Propriedade Industrial, INPI) hosted the 2013 Patent Statistics for
Decision Makers conference in Rio de Janeiro on November. This
conference, co-organised by INPI, the OECD, European Patent Office
and the World Intellectual Property Organisation, gathered decision
makers, academics, analysts, and practitioners from all over the
world and discussed the findings of the latest empirical evidence
based on patent and intellectual property statistics.
On the industry side, Brazil’s Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica
Aplicada (IPEA) is involved in a new project to study firm-level
employment dynamics (DYNEMP).
OECD analysis for Brazil and 18 OECD countries for 2001-11
shows that on average young firms (five years of age or less)
accounted for just over 20% of total non-financial business sector
employment, but generated about 50% of all new jobs created.
This period in Brazil was characterised by high employment
growth and by a remarkable dynamism in entrepreneurial
activity. This was shown in the increased birth rate of firms and
a very strong role of young businesses in employment creation,
both in services and manufacturing.
The Committee on Digital Economy Policy (CDEP) closely
collaborates with the Brazilian Centre of Studies on Information and
Building a knowledge-based
economy
Communication Technologies (CETIC) and works with Brazil as a key
partner in a joint project with the Inter-American Development Bank
(IADB) that aims to develop policies in Latin America and the
Caribbean to accelerate broadband roll-out and adoption. Brazil
also actively participates in the CDEP project on “Benchmarking
of Information and Communication Technologies in Health Systems”,
a multi-stakeholder initiative to improve the availability and
quality of health ICT data and indicators.
In April, Brazil hosted a high level multi stakeholder meeting
in São Paulo, NETmundial, where about 800 ministers,
representatives of private sector companies, non-governmental
organisations and others from across the word gathered to
discuss the future of Internet governance.
www.oecd.org/sti/ict
www.oecd.org/sti/stpolicy
www.oecd.org/sti/sti-scoreboard-2013-brazil.pdf
www.oecd.org/sti/sti-outlook-2012-brazil.pdf
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Brazil plays a significant role in the world’s steel and related raw
materials markets. It is one of the largest iron ore producers in
the world and the largest steel producer by far in Latin America.
Nonetheless, steel consumption per capita in Brazil remains
far below the world average, indicating opportunities for
continued growth in this sector.
The OECD Steel Committee has had a long and fruitful
relationship with Brazil, which participates actively in the
Committee’s discussions as an Associate. Brazil joins other
members of the Steel Committee in discussing concerns related
to global steelmaking overcapacity, which weighs heavily on the
financial sustainability of steel producers in Brazil and elsewhere,
restrictive trade policies, government interventions in the steel
sector, and the behaviour of state-owned steel enterprises and
their potential impacts on competition.
Brazil’s engagement with the OECD on steel issues continues to
strengthen, with a representative of the Ministry of Development,
Industry and Foreign Trade recently assuming vice-chairmanship
of the OECD Steel Committee.
The OECD is also committed to engaging with Brazilian steel
industry stakeholders, particularly through the Brazilian Steel
Institute and Latin American Steel Association, who are regularly
invited to meetings and workshops of the Steel Committee
to share their views on the market outlook and to inform
policymakers of their position on trade and structural issues.

www.oecd.org/sti/steel
www.oecd.org/sti/ind/developmentsinsteelmakingcapacityofnon-
oecdeconomies.htm.
Promoting a viable
global steel industry
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ENVIRONMENT
AND ENERGY
Since 1970, the size of the world economy has more than tripled and its population
has increased by over 3 billion people. This unprecedented growth record has brought
prosperity and better life conditions for millions of people; notwithstanding, it has been
accompanied by environmental pollution and natural resource depletion. Without action,
the current growth model could ultimately undermine human development.
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Promoting
sustainable development
To ensure that natural resources are preserved for future
generations, social and economic development must be
accompanied by active green policies.
The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050 provides analysis of
economic and environmental trends and simulations of policy
actions at the global level to address the key challenges in four
priority areas: climate change, biodiversity, water and health
impacts of pollution and environmental damage. As Key Partner
countries, Brazil, India and South Africa actively participated in
some of the preparatory meetings for this report.
The OECD’s Environmental Performance Reviews (EPRs) provide
independent assessments of OECD and key partner countries’
progress in achieving domestic and international environmental
policy commitments. The Brazilian Ministry of Environment has
requested the OECD carry out an EPR of Brazil, with a particular
focus on protected areas and the conservation and sustainable use
of biodiversity. The EPR is expected to be finalised in early 2015.
www.oecd.org/environment/outlookto2050
www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews
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Brazil is at the leading edge of deepwater and low-carbon
energy development. A consistent and integrated energy
strategy – focusing on efficiency as well as supply – is key to
reaping long term benefits.
The International Energy Agency’s World Energy Outlook
(WEO) presents authoritative projections of energy trends and
insights on what they mean for energy security, environmental
sustainability and economic development. The 2013 publication
included a special focus on the outlook for energy in Brazil.
This examined both the growing energy needs of the domestic
economy, as well as the perspective to further develop the
country’s resource base, from renewables and biofuels to the
major offshore hydrocarbon discoveries.
The WEO is widely considered as a key benchmark publication
for data, analysis and projections for the energy sector. Analysis
of consumption, production, trade, investment and energy-
related carbon dioxide emissions is broken down by region or
country, fuel and sector.
www.iea.org/
www.worldenergyoutlook.org
Improving
energy strategy
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Nuclear energy can be a powerful tool to create an
environmentally sustainable society. However, the Fukushima
nuclear accident has focused the world’s attention on nuclear
energy safety.
The Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is a specialised agency within
the OECD that assists its 31 member countries in maintaining
and further developing the scientific, technological and legal
bases required for the safe, environmentally friendly and
economical use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. The
Agency’s membership accounts for 90% of the world’s nuclear
electricity generating capacity.
Brazil has two nuclear power reactors which provide about
3% of the country’s electricity, and a third reactor is under
construction. Its nuclear activities include both uranium
enrichment and nuclear fuel fabrication. Brazil has the sixth
largest uranium ore reserve in the world.
Following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant
accident, all NEA member countries using nuclear power carried
out comprehensive safety reviews of their nuclear power plants.
In Brazil, similar reviews were conducted and gave rise to the
Eletrobras-Eletronuclear Response Plan to the Fukushima
Accident. It includes over 50 initiatives on Protection Against
Hazardous Events, Reinforcement of Cooling Capability and
Mitigation of Radiological Consequences.
In another area of nuclear applications, Brazil participates in
the work of the NEA High-level Group on the Security of Supply of
Medical Radioisotopes, contributing to global efforts to ensure a
reliable supply for patients worldwide. Discussions are currently
underway on a Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of
Medical Radioisotopes and it is hoped that, in addition to NEA
member countries, Brazil will be one of the signatories.
Enhancing nuclear energy
and other applications
Although not currently active in the Generation IV International
Forum (GIF), for which the NEA acts as the Technical Secretariat,
Brazil is one of its founding members. The GIF is carrying out
international research to develop reactors with improved
performance in terms of safety, proliferation resistance,
economic performance, better use of natural resources and
waste minimisation.
www.oecd-nea.org
www.gen-4.org
L The Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two
pressurized water reactors, Angra I, first connected to the power grid in 1985, and
Angra II in 2000. A third reactor, Angra III, is due to enter into service in 2015.
Brazil has made remarkable progress on its chemical and
transgenic industry in the last decade. This development
has been critical to its economic growth and social
improvement; however it is crucial to ensure that safety is
not neglected in the process.
Brazil is an adherent to the OECD’s system for the Mutual
Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of Chemicals,
which allows the results of non-clinical safety tests on
chemicals to be shared across OECD and partner MAD-
adhering countries. Like many OECD countries, Brazil is
involved in the development and use of alternative in vitro
methods for testing chemicals. Brazil is also increasingly
involved with work-sharing arrangements for the review of
pesticides and in the OECD Network of National Competent
Authorities, fighting illegal international trade of pesticides.
Strengthening chemical
and transgenic safety
Brazil benefits from the OECD’s Chemicals Programme which
supports government and industry efforts to manage risks
posed by the production and use of industrial chemicals,
nanomaterials, pesticides, biocides, and novel foods and feeds.
It also addresses related areas of concern, such as chemical
accidents and the development of Pollutant Release and Transfer
Registers (PRTRs) which inform the public about the amount
of hazardous chemicals and pollutants released to air, water
and soil.
Since 2003, Brazil has participated in and played an active role
in two of the OECD’s activities related to the safety of transgenic
crops: the first of which covers environmental biosafety; and
the second which addresses the safety of novel food and feeds.
Given its extensive expertise on the safety of transgenic crops,
Brazil has either co-led or provided expertise for a number of
documents which have already been released or are currently
being drafted.
Brazil is the second largest producer of transgenic crops after
the United States. According to the International Service for the
Acquisition of Agro-biotech Application (Isaaa), Brazil has up to
40.4 million acres of cultivation area of transgenic crops.
These documents have addressed safety concerns for transgenic
crops such as cassava, common bean, cowpea, papaya and
sugarcane and sweet potato. Recently, Brazil has taken on
the responsibility for co-leading a new project on transgenic
mosquitoes for use in the control of dengue fever.
www.oecd.org/env/ehs/mutualacceptanceofdatamad.htm
www.oecd.org/env/ehs
www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/biotrack
www.oecd.org/chemicalsafety/biotrack/latestdocuments
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Promoting good water
governance
ENVIRONMENT AND ENERGY
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In Brazil, each level of government has the authority
to legislate over nature conservation, soil and natural
resources management, environmental protection and
pollution control. This complicates properly identifying the
roles and mission of each actor in water policy design and
implementation, highlighting the importance of having a
good water governance policy.
Brazil is one of the 13 Latin American countries surveyed in
the 2012 Report Water Governance in Latin America and the
Caribbean: a Multi-level Governance Approach. Brazil contributed
as a peer-reviewer to the OECD/CONAGUA Policy Dialogue
Making Water Reform Happen in Mexico in 2013. The National
Water Agency and the Ministry of Environment of Brazil
recently joined the OECD Water Governance Initiative, a multi-
stakeholder network meeting twice a year in a Policy Forum.
An OECD/Brazil Policy Dialogue on Water Governance is
currently led by the Public Governance and Territorial
Development Directorate in partnership with the Environment
Directorate. The project aims to strengthen multi-level
governance to facilitate the implementation of the National
Water Management Pact and the reform of water allocation
mechanisms, particularly in the São Francisco and São Marcos
basins. The project will rely on an extensive consultation
process, and conclude with the release of a peer-reviewed final
report in April 2015.
www.oecd-ilibrary.org/content/book/9789264187894-en
www.oecd.org/gov/water
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The world economy has evolved rapidly, with new global players emerging. Brazil has
played a leading role in this process, acting both globally and regionally.
A GLOBAL AND
REGIONAL PLAYER
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ACTIVE WITH BRAZIL
Partnering
with Latin America
A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER
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In recent years Latin America has experienced a period of
economic growth followed by poverty reduction. However,
the global context that permitted such improvements has
changed and the region will have to intensify its reform
efforts to face new challenges.
The Latin American Economic Outlook 2014 is jointly produced
with the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC) and the Latin American Development Bank (CAF). The
most recent publication sheds light on the emergence of new
poles of development that have significantly transformed the
economic links and external conditions in Latin America. The
report focuses on a number of structural challenges that are
considered a priority for the region in order to achieve more
sustainable and inclusive growth. The report begins with
an analysis of the phenomenon of “Shifting Wealth” and its
implications for development strategies in the region. This
special theme focuses on closing the logistic gap in order to
improve competitiveness and economic development in Latin
American countries. Improving logistics is essential because the
share of logistics – intensive and time-intensive exports in Latin
America, is three times that of OECD economies.
The upcoming Latin American Economic Outlook 2015 will focus
on education and skills for development. The emergence
of the middle class in Latin America envisions the need for
education policies that favour a decrease in inequality and the
promotion of equal opportunities for education. Education is
also crucial for closing the gaps in the region’s productivity and
competitiveness performance.
The middle-income-trap that the economies of the region face
can be partly understood as a skills gap, for which the analysis
of imbalances of supply and demand of skills for economic
sectors is critical.
Revenue Statistics in Latin America is a joint publication by the
OECD Centre for Tax Policy and Administration, the OECD Development
Centre, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
(ECLAC) and the Inter-American Centre of Tax Administrations (CIAT).
The report provides an overview of the main taxation trends
in 18 Latin American countries, including Brazil. This annual
publication examines changes in the level and the composition
of taxation, plus the attribution of tax collection by sub-levels of
government between 1990 and 2012. This publication provides
tax policy officials in the region with essential tools to enable
policy decisions on the overall size of the tax burden, the tax
mix, setting rates and thresholds for individual taxes, and their
attribution by government. The last edition of this publication
was launched at the “Tax revenues, natural resources and green
taxes” session of the ECLAC 26th Regional Seminar on Fiscal
Policy –20th January in Santiago de Chile.
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To be launched this year, the Latin American and Caribbean
Government at a Glance will offer a dashboard of more than
30 indicators to help decision makers and citizens analyse
and benchmark government performance both within the
LAC region and compared to OECD countries. The publication
focuses on four broad areas: budgeting practices; public
sector pay and employment; public procurement and public
finances. Furthermore, the policy chapter develops the
budgetary and fiscal innovations which have taken place
for the LAC region in the past years.
The upcoming publication argues that governments need
to be more inclusive, transparent, receptive and efficient.
Thus, they need to improve among others budgetary,
employment and procurement practices, as well as increase
transparency levels.
OECD engagement with the region has grown steadily since
2001, and gained momentum in 2009, with the launch of
the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Initiative. At present,
a promising policy dialogue is taking place within a number
of Committee-supported networks on a wide range of
issues. Brazil has been actively engaged in several of these
networks, participating in, and holding, events and reviews
in that framework.
The OECD currently supports nine networks in the Latin
American and Caribbean region:
l Anti-Corruption Network
l Senior Budget Officials Activities Network
l LAC Fiscal Initiative
l Network on Corporate Governance of State-Owned
Enterprises
l Latin American Corporate Governance Roundtable
l LAC Investment Initiative
l Latin America Competition Forum
l LAC Innovation Initiative Activities Network
l LAC Water Governance Network
www.oecd.org/dev/americas
www.latameconomy.org/en/outlook
www.latameconomy.org/en/revenue-statistics/11
oecd.org/centrodemexico/theoecdinlatinamerica.htm
oecd.org/centrodemexico/laocdeenamericalatina.htm
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Partnering with Latin America
SCAN TO READ
THE REPORT
Promoting effective
development co-operation
A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER
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With the movement of the world economy’s centre of gravity
from North to South and West to East, Brazil has intensified
South-South co-operation, especially to Latin America and
Lusophone countries.
Brazil places high importance on supporting multilateral
development co-operation and delivers an important share
of its development co-operation through multilateral channels.
Brazil’s development co-operation reached USD 500 million
in 2010, with 46% of this total channelled through
multilateral organisations.
Collaboration between the OECD and Brazil in the area of
development co-operation has been expanding. Brazil has
attended several Development Co-operation Directorate Senior-
Level Meetings and regularly participates in the OECD Global
Forum on Development, as well as the OECD–WTO’s tracking of
aid for trade. Brazil also contributed to OECD reports on triangular
co-operation in 2009 and in 2012. A dialogue on development
co-operation statistics started in April 2011 with former
President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva contributing a chapter to the
Development Co-operation Report 2013: Ending Poverty entitled
“What are the politics of poverty?”
In 2011, Brazil endorsed the Busan Partnership for Effective
Development Co-operation which sets out shared principles,
common goals and differential commitments for improving the
effectiveness of development co-operation. Brazil subsequently
participated in the development of a governance structure for
the Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation in 2012.
www.oecd.org/dac/dcr2013.htm
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contributed by
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da Silva
L The launch of the Development Co-operation Report 2013: Ending Poverty
in December 2013.
G20
The OECD has been an active partner of Brazil, in the
context of the G20, to strengthen the global economy,
accelerate recovery from the crisis and promote a more
inclusive and rules-based globalisation process.
The OECD has supported the work of the G20 on a wide range of
issues, reflecting the diversity of the OECD’s expertise in public
policy. The work is divided into different areas: agriculture,
anti-corruption, development, employment and social policy,
energy, environment and green growth, financing for investment,
financial sector reform, framework for strong, sustainable and
balanced growth, taxation and trade and investment.
In particular, Brazil has shown interest and leadership in tax-
related issues addressed by the G20 with OECD support. The
work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of
Information for Tax Purposes, hosted by the OECD, has been
critical in achieving the remarkable progress registered in the
realm of international tax transparency. Brazil has been an
active member of the Global Forum since September 2009 – it
has been rated “Largely compliant” in phase 2 of the peer review,
which rated the implementation of the international standard
of transparency and exchange of information in practice. Brazil
plays an active role in both the Steering Group and the Peer
Review Group of the Global Forum. It is also a signatory of the
Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters
and, since 2013, Brazil is an Associate of the Base Erosion and
Profit Shifting project.
The OECD has also been an active partner of Brazil in the
context of G20 initiatives on food security, food price volatility
and productivity in agriculture. While chronic food insecurity
remains one of the main challenges to sustainable development
in many growing economies, in less than three decades Brazil
has changed from a net importer of food to a net exporter, due to
increased production and productivity. In the G20 context, Brazil
has actively supported the establishment of the Agricultural
Market Information System (AMIS) and of its associated Rapid
Response Forum, which was launched by G20 Leaders – with the
support of the OECD and other international organisations – at
the Cannes Summit in 2011. Furthermore, the G20 Leaders in the
St Petersburg Declaration emphasized the importance of boosting
agricultural productivity in a food security strategy. In this regard,
and in response to a call by G20 Vice-Ministers of Agriculture in
May 2012, the OECD has developed a framework for analysis of
policies to increase agricultural productivity sustainably with
strong emphasis on innovation as the catalyst. Brazil is one of the
three G20 pilot countries in which this framework is being applied
this year – the other two being Australia and Canada. The first
encouraging results from the implementation of this framework
in pilot countries have been discussed at a workshop jointly
organized by the Australian Presidency of the G20 and the OECD, in
Canberra, on March 6, 2014.
Finally, in order to support the G20 work on phasing out inefficient
fossil fuels, the OECD has prepared an inventory of fossil fuels
in Brazil, which was presented (along with the chapters on India
and Russia) to the Joint Meetings of Tax and Environment Experts
(JMTEE) in November 2013. The study has benefited from feedback
and input from Brazil and is going to be published in the second
half of this year.
www.oecd.org/g20/
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Finding global solutions
at the G20
I G20 leaders: (front row, left to right) Brazil’s President Dilma Rousseff, US President
Barack Obama, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Indonesia’s President Susilo
Bambang Yudhoyono (back row, left to right) Singapore’s Prime Minister Lee Hsien
Loong, OECD Secretary General Jose Angel Gurria, British Prime Minister David
Cameron, World Bank President Jim Yong Kim, and United Nations Secretary General
Ban Ki-moon, pose for the family picture during the G20 summit in Saint Petersburg
on September 6, 2013. © AFP/Getty Images
G20
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Reaching out to the business community,
foundations and trade unions
With the intensification of global market interconnections,
international collaboration should not be restricted to the
governmental level. How do we bring business communities,
foundations and trade unions into the international dialogue?
In 2007, the Development Centre launched its Emerging Markets
Network (EmNet), an initiative dedicated to the business sector
that serves as a platform for dialogue and experience-sharing
among OECD-based multinational corporations and their
counterparts in emerging countries. EmNet promotes exchanges
among its network of executives, bringing policymakers and
OECD experts into the debate. The closed-door sessions aim at
providing frank conversation about common constraints.
The Emerging Markets Network (EmNet) counts three Brazilian
member companies active at a global level:
l Embraer, the aerospace conglomerate;
l Odebrecht, pursuing business in the fields of engineering,
construction, chemicals and petrochemicals;
l and Petrobras, a semi-public energy corporation, operating in
exports to developed and developing markets.
As multinationals are increasingly active in other emerging
regions, they are contributing to the business sector’s dynamism
and strengthening South-South linkages. Through their regular
contributions to EmNet meetings, they share their analyses and
forecasts with policymakers from Latin America, Africa and Asia
and the OECD Development Centre’s experts. In this manner,
they are given a voice within the OECD and can state major
constraints their companies are facing in emerging markets in
exchange with relevant policy makers.
The OECD Global Network of Foundations Working for Development
(netFWD) gathers self-selected foundations committed to
optimising the impact of philanthropy for development
through the sharing of experiences, policy influencing and
the development of innovative partnerships. Recognising not
only the increasingly important role foundations play in the
development arena and the innovative practices emerging from
the philanthropic sector, but also the demand for a platform of
cooperation and exchange, the Development Centre officially
launched netFWD in October 2012.
Co-operation with the Brazilian philanthropic sector has
been strong since the Network’s inception, with two founding
members and associates from the country. Instituto Ayrton Senna,
whose primary area of work is education and non-cognitive
skills, is a role model for successful partnerships with the
public sector, as it impacts 2 million children by collaborating
with Brazilian regional governments. The Worldwide Initiative for
Grantmaker Support (WINGS) is a widely respected network of
associations of foundations, especially for its efforts in making
the philanthropic sector more transparent. The foundations
meet biannually with the Network’s members and associates
to discuss themes of common interest, such as venture
philanthropy and youth empowerment, and identify ways to
enhance their participation in the global development debate.
L The Instituto Ayrton Senna is a non-profit organization that researches and
produces knowledge to improve the quality of education, on a large scale.
© Roberto Fulgêncio / Instituto Ayrton Senna
A GLOBAL AND REGIONAL PLAYER
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The Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) is an international
trade union organisation which has consultative status with the
Organisation and its various committees. TUAC works closely
with the International Trade Union Confederation and the Trade
Union Confederation of the Americas to ensure that the voice of
workers in non-OECD countries is also heard. The Central Única
dos Trabalhadores and other union centres participate in work
undertaken in TUAC to prepare the positions taken by Global
Unions in the G20 and other fora.
The OECD has given the business community a seat at the table
in major policy discussions. The Business and Industry Advisory
Committee (BIAC), serves at the voice of business on behalf of
major industrial and employer organisations. Brazil, represented
by the Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI), interacts
actively with major business organisations from the OECD and
non-OECD member countries. BIAC members participate in
discussions and policy formation through consultation with
leadership, government delegates, committees, and working
groups, and provide first hand insight, advice and industry
perspective. As a result, policies and programs are strengthened
and better positioned to really work in the marketplace.
www.oecd.org/dev/oecdemergingmarketsnetworkemnet.htm
www.oecd.org/site/netfwd/
www.tuac.org
www.biac.org
L Building trade union capacity. IMF, IUF and TUAC join forces on OECD guidelines training, Casablanca, 24-26 January 2012 © TUAC
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Annexes
The OECD has created several legal instruments, which derive
from the substantive work carried out in the Organisation’s
Committees and many of which have become standards
applicable worldwide. They are based on in-depth analysis
and reporting undertaken within the Secretariat and cover
a wide range of topics from anti-corruption to environment.
These instruments are of different types. They can be formal
agreements ratified by countries, such as the OECD Convention
on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International
Business Transactions, standards and models, such as the
Standards of Transparency and Exchange of Information
for Tax Purposes, or Recommendations, for example the
Recommendation on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement.
They may also take the form of Guidelines, for example the
Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
Currently, a concerted effort is being made to further integrate
the perspectives of Brazil and other partner countries in
the OECD’s standard-setting activities. In particular, the
participation of Brazil and other Key Partner countries in the
development of new instruments and the revision of existing
ones is crucial to ensure their global relevance. A first seminar,
linking the New Approaches to Economic Challenges (NAEC) projects
with instruments under revision or development will be held in
Brazil towards the end of 2014.
Brazil currently adheres to 14 OECD instruments:
l Agriculture Schemes and Codes;
l The Bologna Charter on SME Policies Declaration;
l Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in
International Business;
l Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the
Assessment of Chemicals;
l Council Recommendation Concerning Effective Action against
Hard Core Cartels;
Instruments: facilitating international co-ordination
l Istanbul Ministerial Declaration on Fostering the Growth of
Innovative and Internationally Competitive SMEs;
l Declaration on International Investment and Multinational
Enterprises;
l Council Recommendation on Due Diligence Guidance for
Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected
and High-Risk Areas;
l Declaration on Property, Integrity and Transparency in the
Conduct of International Business and Finance;
l Convention on Mutual Administrative Assistance in
Tax matter;
l Statement on the Global Financial Crisis and Export Credits;
l Declaration on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting;
l Multilateral Guidelines – Extract from the Annex to the
Decision Establishing a Steel Committee and
l Declaration on Automatic Exchange of Information in
Tax Matters

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Associate in 7 OECD bodies:
l Governing Board of the Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA) (2007, Vice-chair since Nov 2013)
l Governing Board of Development Centre (2005)
l Working Group on Bribery in International Business Transactions
of the Investment Committee (1997)
l Investment Committee work related to the Declaration on
International Investment and Multinational Enterprises (1997)
l Steel Committee (1996, Vice-chair since Dec 2013)
l Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party
on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology on issues related to
the Mutual Acceptance of Data : the Working Group of National
Co-ordinators of the Test Guidelines Programme; and, the
Working Group on Good Laboratory Practice (2011)
l Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for
Tax Purposes (2009)
Associate in 2 OECD Projects:
l Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) (2013)
l Review of the Principles of Corporate Governance
Participant in 11 OECD Bodies:
l Committee for Agriculture and its subsidiary bodies (1998).
l Working Party on Consumer Product Safety of the Committee on
Consumer Policy (2012)
l Committee on Statistics and its subsidiary bodies (2006).
l Competition Committee and its Working Parties (1997).
l Committee for Scientific and Technological Policy (2007).
l Investment Committee (1997).
l Trade Committee and its Working Party (1997).
l Joint Working Party on Agriculture and Trade (2004).
l Joint Working Party on Trade and Environment (2003).
l Public Governance Committee and its subsidiary bodies (2001).
l Working Party on Private Pensions (IPPC) (2005).
Membership in related organisations:
l Global Partnership for Effective Development Co-operation
l Financial Action Taskforce on Money Laundering.
Annexes
Brazil’s participation in OECD bodies
ANNEXES
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47
The OECD: A Global Policy Network
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) is an international organisation helping governments tackle
the economic, social and governance challenges of a globalised
economy. It provides a setting where governments can compare
policy experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good
practice and work to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.
The OECD Member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium,
Canada, Chile, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea,
Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,
Portugal, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland,
Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States of America.
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Global Relations Secretariat
OECD, 2 rue André Pascal
75775 Paris Cedex 16
France

www.oecd.org/globalrelations
GRS.contact@oecd.org June 2014

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