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1.

0 Introduction
Fire can be form from a chemical reaction called combustion. Usually, fire will spread very quickly around the buildings as fire will react with oxygen and make it grown bigger and spread widely. Knowing the characteristics of fire and understanding how it can spread can help Architect, Engineers and other professionals to formulate strategies on life safety and property protection in building design.

Active fire protection is new systems that are installed at urban development to support the passive fire protection. As now a day new development using the modern and unique material, the application of active fire protection is need in each building. Therefore, this systems need to undergo spectacular inspection, testing and commissioning by a pointed parties. Architect, Engineers and building designers need to design this system according to the Uniform Building By laws (UBBL) to produce standard design plan.

There are 8 type of active fire protection:i. Portable fire extinguisher - Intended for the occupants to use to extinguish a fire during its early stages before the fire gets out of control. ii. External fire hydrant - Fire hydrant installation consists of a system of pipework connected directly to the water supply mains to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet and is intended to provide water for the firemen to fight a fire. iii. Hose reels - Intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of a fire and comprises hose reel pumps, fire water storage tank, hose reels, pipe work and valve. iv. Dry risers -Form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are only required for building where the topmost floor is higher than 18.3 m and less than 30.5m above the fire appliance access level. Dry riser is normally dry and depend on the fire engine to pump water into the system.

v. Wet risers -Form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are always charged with water. Required for building where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5m above the fire appliance access level. vi. Downcomer system -Form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are always charged with water from a water tank located at the top of a building but without any pumps. Downcomers are only permitted for private residential buildings with open balcony approach and where the topmost floor is not higher than 60m above the fire appliance access level and should be adopted for low cost flats only. vii. Automatic sprinkler system -Intended to detect, control and extinguish a fire, and warn the occupants of the occurrence of fire. The installation comprises fire pumps, water storage tanks, control valve sets, sprinkler heads, flow switches, pressure switches, pipework and valves. viii. Automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system -his system consists of carbon dioxide cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat and smoke detectors and a control panel, which monitors the space, activates both visual and audio alarms before releasing the gas.

2.0 Parties Involved Under Inspection, Testing And Commissioning On Active Fire Protection System To Comply With Certificate Of Completion And Compliance (CCC).
Definition of CCC In April 2007, the Government had launched the improvement to the building delivery system to enhance the competitiveness of Malaysia globally. This includes the issuance of the Certificate of Completion and Compliance (CCC) by Professional Architects and Professional Engineers as well as Building Draughtsman registered with the Board of Architects Malaysia (LAM) to replace the Certificate of Fitness for Occupation (CFO) issued by the local authorities. This new system is an effort towards self-certification and self-regulation approach in the construction industry. The CCC will be issued by the professional Architect or Professional Engineer who are register with the respective Board of Architect Malaysia (BAM) or Board of Engineer Malaysia(BEM) acting in the capacity of Principal Submitting Person(PSP).For buildings which require intensive design input, the Professional Architect will function as the PSP while the Professional Engineer will be PSP for projects with high engineering input in the nature.

For bungalows which do not exceed 2 floors in height and 300 square meters in total built up floor area, the registered Building Draughtsman will be perform the role of PSP and will issue the CCC. This is in keeping with the Architect Act 1967. The CCC can only be issued when all the parties concerned are satisfied that the building construction have been supervised and completed in full compliance with the provisions of the law and technical conditions as imposed by the Local Authority(LA) in approving the Planning Permission and Building Plan. PSP is responsible to obtain clearance from 6 technical agencies that will do inspection, testing and commissioning on the building that is: - Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat Malaysia. - Jabatan Kesihatan dan Keselamatan Pekerja(JKKP) - Jabatan Kerja Raya(JKR)/Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan(PBT) - Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) - Jabatan Perkhidmatan Pembentungan(JPP)/Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara(SPAN) - Jabatan Bekalan Air(JBA)
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3.0 Certificated of completion and compliance issuing process


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4.0 Inspection, Testing and Commissioning By CCC Procedure

Stage 1 Mechanical & Electrical Plan

Stage 2 Inspection on site

Stage 3 Letters of Support

During this stage architect and enginner consultant shall indicate the Fire Protection System: *Site Plan (Facilities for Fire Fighting) a) Hydrants located at eccess road must be painted b) Fixed Foam Monitory *Passive Protection a) Fire Resistant Door b) compartment Wall c) Roller Shutter d) Fire Fighting Lobby e) Party Wall * Fire Warning and Active Protection a) Fire Alarm b) Wet & Dry Riser c) Internal Hydrant d) Breaching Inlet

During this stage SP can be apply the application for testing but make sure after: * Architecture Plan and M & E was approved by the bomba. * Water supply approved by 'Jabatan Bekalan Air'. * Have access to electricity supply or generator. * Construction Work and all the condition have been complied with the Bomba and the system can function fully and properly * All parties involve must be attend during the inspection and testing such as architect, consultant engineer, main contractor, fire contractor,

After inspection & testing work done Bomba will issue support of letter, and will be submite to PBT for approved for SP get CCC.

5.0 Duties of Parties Involve

Local Authority Including PBT (Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan), Bomba, JKKP, JKR, TNB, JPP, SPAN, JBA main roles of parties involve in issues of CCC (Certificated of Completion and compliance) following that: To approve the planning permission To approve the building plan To conduct on-site inspection on own initiative or in response to complanints To issue notice to PSP to take action on any matter not in compliance with the provisions of law and the technical conditions imposed in the planning permission and building plan. To issue notice to the PSP to withhold the issuance of CCC until the non-compliance have been rectified. To issue the notice to PSP if non-compliance occurs but not reported to the LA. To charge the professional in court and report to the professional board for any wrong doing To charge the parties who have provided false certificated in the form specified in the UBBL 2007 To ensure that the safety of building exceeding 5 floor and aging 10 years from the date CCC is issue are inspected every 10 years. PSP (Principal Submitting Person) Its qualified person including professional architect, professional engineer, or registered building draughtsman registered they duties as following that: Submit the building plan to the LA for approval using form A Coordinate the preparation commence and submission of other plans beside building plans Inform the LA though form B to construction operation at site To supervise construction works at the site and ensure that the provision of the law and technical conditions imposed are complied with report, and explain the reasons. Submit notice for the resumption of work through form B to the LA Submit the CCC to the owner or developer and copy of the said certificated to the LA and the relevant Professional Board.

6.0 Type Of Active Fire System

6.1 Portable Fire Extinguisher


Portable fire extinguishers are the elementary fire equipment used for the first aid fire fighting during the initial fire incident to prevent escalation of fire to the full scale. The portable fire extinguishers should be selected based on three criteria:

i. Type of fire accordance to the classification ii.The fire size iii. Placed at the suitable location in close proximity to the potential fire hazard

There are four types of portable extinguishers for use against the appropriate class of fire.

a) Water type suitable for class A fires b) Dry powder type suitable for Class A, B and C fires c) Carbon dioxide type suitable for Class E electrical fires d) Foam type suitable for Class B flammable liquid fires

Under the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, the requirement for fire extinguishers is stipulated under ByLaw 227. Portable fire extinguishers should comply with the following Malaysian Standards:

M.S.1179 : Specification for portable fire extinguishers M.S.1180 : Fire extinguishers media M.S.1181 : Recharging fire extinguishers M.S.1182 : Classification of fires M.S .1539 : Specification for portable fire extinguishers (Part 1: Construction and test methodology M.S .1539 : Specification for portable fire extinguishers (Part 3: Selection and application - Code of practice M.S .1539 : Specification for portable fire extinguishers (Part 4: Maintenance of portable fire extinguishers - Code of practice

Inspection: Check to ensure that the extinguisher is in a proper location and that it is accessible (generally located along exit routes besides exit doors and staircase door). Inspect the discharge nozzle or horn for obstructions. Check for cracks and dirt or grease accumulations. Inspect extinguisher shell for any physical damage. Check to see if the operating instructions on the extinguisher nameplate are legible. Check the lock pins and tamper seals to ensure that the extinguisher has not been tampered with.

Determine if the extinguisher is full of agent and fully pressurized by checking the pressure gauge, weighing the extinguisher, or inspecting the agent level. If an extinguisher is found to be deficient in weight by 10percent, it should be removed from service and replaced.

Check the inspection tag for the date of the previous inspection, maintenance, or recharging. Examine the condition of the hose and its associated fittings

Testing and commissioning are made by the manufacturer:

Fire Extinguisher

Checked by JBPM

Pressure Gauge

Visual inspection checklist:

Cylinder body should be red with medium colour coded in respective colour All label marking wordings, diagrams and pictograms shall be in white colour and shall be fully visible from the font Label should carry SIRIM product certificate logo Extinguishers shall have valid Fire and Rescue Department Approval Letter Each extinguishers shall have a valid Fire and Rescue Department H13 certificate Extinguishers meter indication should indicate adequate pressure (Green Zone) within the cylinder Cylinder body and valve should be rust free Safety pin should be in place and secured Discharge Hose should have no cracks

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6.2 External Fire Hydrant


Fire hydrant installation consists of a system of pipe work connected directly to the water supply mains to provide water to each and every hydrant outlet and is intended to provide water for the firemen to fight a fire. The water is discharged into the fire engine from which it is not reliable or inadequate, hydrant pumps should be provided to pressurize the fire mains.

The requirement for fire hydrant is described under By-Laws 225(2) and 225(3) of the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984 and the relevant standards are as follows:

I. II.

B.S.5306 Part 1 or the equivalent Malaysian Standard M.S. 1395 : Specification for pillar hydrant

Water supplies

Inspection: Incoming water supply connection Be refilled automatically from a water supply pipe capable of providing a minimum flowrate of 1200 litres per min. Capacity of water tanks The fire water storage tank should be sized for a minimum effective capacity of 135,000 litre Compartmentation of water tanks, and where applicable. Hydrant tank usually separate from other water storage tanks but may be combined with water storage tanks for other fire fighting systems. Breeching inlet. A four way breeching inlet should also be provided to enable the fire brigade to help refill the tank.

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Testing and Commissioning Pump operating pressure and flow rate The running pressure of not less than 4 bars or more than 7 bars, for any three hydrant operating at the same time. Pump not overheating Pump room should be ventilated by natural or mechanical. Vibration and noise level Testing of electrical wiring system Alternative power supply for electric pumps Electrical cabling should be run in conduit or fire rated type of cable. Batteries for diesel pumps Should be maintenance free type. Fuel for diesel pumps Fuel supply should be adequate for minimum 2 hours operation. Hydrant and Accessories Pillar hydrant should comply with M.S. 1395 and located at not less than 6 metres from the building and not more than 30m away from the entrance to the building. Hydrant outlets are typically of twin or 3 outlets pillar type with an underground sluice valve. Where these are installed within the owners boundry, each should provided with 30m of 65mm diameter rubber lined hose, instantaneous coupling and nozzles, all housed within a steel cabinet beside the hydrant. outlets

Inspection: Spacing of the hydrant Hydrant are spaced at not more than 90 meters apart along access roads of minimum 6 width and capable of withstanding a load of 26 tons from fire brigade vehicles. Physical condition of hydrant, hoses and accessories. Hydrant hose usually rubber-lined, should be provided complete with nozzles at each outlet. meters in

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Testing and Commissioning: Pressure and flow characteristics. Capable of providing 1000 l/min of water at a minimum running pressure of 4 bars but not exceeding 7 bars.

Pipe work

Inspection: Types of pipes used The piping is usually of cement lined steel pipe. However, piping of Acrylonitrile Butadiece Styrene(ABS) material may also been used especially where corrosion is a major concern.

Testing and Commissioning: Hydrostatic testing and pipework Locate leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels. tested to a pressure of 14 bars or 150% working pressure, whichever is the higher for 2 measured at the furthest hydrant. Flushing of pipework Hydrant flushing plays an important role in the operation and maintenance of a water system. Hydrant flushing also provides an opportunity to check the volume of water as well as pressure that is available at each hydrant. The hydrants mechanical operation is also checked to ensure it will be in working order when needed Fire Fighters depend on properly working hydrants with adequate distribution hours,

pressure and water flow. A stuck or poor flowing hydrant could literally make the difference between life and death in an emergency situation.

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External Fire Hydrant

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Pressurized Hydrant System Typical Arrangement Drawing

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Design checklist a) At least one hydrant is provided at location not more than 91.5 m from the nearest point of fire brigade access. b) A minimum flow rate of 500 litres/minute at running preassure of 4 to 7 bars is maintained at each of the hydrant outlet when three numbers of the furthest hydrant are used c) Water source : Pump suction tank Public water main Others _____________________

d) Water tank capacity: ____________________m e) Water supply duration : __________________hours

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6.3 Hose Rail System


Hose reel system is intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of a fire and comprises hoses reel pumps, fire water storage tank, hose reels, pipe work and valves. The requirement for hose reel system is detailed under the Tenth Schedule of the Uniform Building ByLaws 1984. The applicable standards for hose reel systems are following: I. II. III. IV. BS 5306 Part 1 or the equivalent Malaysia standard M.S 1489 : Hydrant system, hose reels and foam inlets M.S 1447 : Hose reels with semi-rigid hose M.S 1488: Semi-rigid hoses for first aid fixed installation.

Water Supplies Inspection: Capacity of water tanks The fire storage tank should be size based on 2275 liters for the first hose reel and 1137.5 liters for every additional hose reel up to a maximum of 9100 liters for each system. Monitoring of water tank level. Compartment and water level indicator should be provided, and minimum flow rate of 150 l/min. Vortex inhibitors for water tanks.

Pipe Work Inspection: Type of pipes used Pipe work for hose reel system is generally 50mm nominal diameter and the feed to individual hose reel should be not less than 25mm diameter. Should be galvanized steel medium grade (class B) minimum for above ground piping and heavy grade (class C) for underground piping. Protection of underground pipe work Painting of pipe work The pipes should be painted with primer and finished with red paint.
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Support for pipe work Pipe sleeves Fire seal

Testing and commissioning: a) Hydrostatic testing and pipe work Located leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels. b) Flushing of pipe work Pipe flushing is done to improve water quality at the tap, increase the efficiency of the system, and help to uncover potential problem with valve.

Hose reel and Accessories Inspection: Isolating valve for hose reel Physical condition of hose reel drum, hose, nozzles, etc The rubber hoses should be to pr EN 694 and are typically 30mm in length and 25mm in diameter. Nozzles should be of the jet and spray adjustable type of different diameters but 8mm is recommended size. Testing and commissioning: Hose reel performance test Each hose reel outlet is to discharge a minimum of 30 l/min of water within 6m of all parts of the space protection.

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Pump Inspection: Protection of rotating parts of pump sets The hose reel pumps draw water from the fire water storage tank and two sets pumps, one on duty and the other on standby, are provided. Testing and Commissioning: Pump operating pressure and flow rate The pump capacity is usually sized to deliver a flow rate of 120 l/min at a running pressure of not less than 2 bars for any four hose reels operating at the same time. Pump not overheating Pump room should be ventilated by natural or mechanical. Testing of electrical wiring system Electrical cabling supply power to the hose reel pump should be run in galvanized steel conduit or fire rated type of cable. Alternative power supply for electric pumps Emergency generator Batteries for diesel engine should be maintenance free type.

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Hose Reel System Typical Arrangement Drawing

Hose Reel Hoses, Nozzles and Pump

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6.4 Dry Riser System


Dry riser are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are only required for building where the top most floor is higher than 18.3m and than 30.5m above the fire appliance access level. Dry risers are normally dry and depend on the fire engine to pump water into the system. Dry riser system comprises a riser pipe with landing valves to each floor and to which rubber-linned hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. Breaching inlets into which the firemen pump water are provided at ground level and connected to the bottom of the dry risers. In the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, pertaining to dry riser are By-Laws 230 and 232. The relevant standards for dry riser are: I. II. III. IV. B.S 5306: Part 1 or the equivalent Malaysia standard. M.S 1210: Part 2 landing valves for dry risers M.S 1210: Part 3 inlet breaching for riser inlets M.S 1210: Part 4 boxes for landing valves for dry riser

Water Supplies Inspection: Two way breeching inlet for a 100mm diameter 4 way breeching inlet for a 150mm diameter Located not more than 18m from the fire appliance access road and not more than 30m from the nearest external hydrant outlet. Landing Valves Inspection: Location of valves They are usually located within fire access lobbies, protected staircase or other protected lobbies, and installed at not more than 0.75m above floor level. Caps for outlet of landing valves.

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Pipe Work Usually located within the fire access lobby or staircase should be 150mm if the highest outlet is more than 23m above the breeching inlet. Otherwise, the riser pipe can be 100mm in diameter. Inspection: Type of pipes used The riser should be of galvanized iron to (heavy gauge) or class C, tested to 21 bars. Protection underground pipe work Painting of pipe work The pipes should be painted with primer and finished with red paint. Support of pipe work Pipe sleeves Fire seal

Testing and commissioning: Hydrostatic testing and pipe work Located leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels. Tested to a pressure of 14 bars 2 hours. Flushing of pipe work Pipe flushing is done to improve water quality at the tap, increase the efficiency of the system, and help to uncover potential problem with valves.

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Cross Section View of Dry Riser System

Landing Valve Dry Riser System

Two Way and Four Way Breeching Inlet

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6.5 Wet Riser System


Wet risers are a form of internal for the firemen to use and are always charged with water. Wet riser are only required for building where the topmost floor is higher than 30.5m above the fire appliance access level. Wet rises system comprises duty fire pump with standby pump discharging into a 150mm diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and which rubber-linned hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. A jockey pump I usually provide to maintain system pressure. For high rise building, each stage of the wet riser should not exceed 71m. The requirement for wet riser system are described in Uniform Building By-Law 1984 under By-Laws 231,232 and 248. Other applicable standard are: I. II. III. IV. B.S 5306: Part 1, or equivalent Malaysia standard M.S 1210: Part 1 landing valves for wet riser M.S 1210: Part 3 inlet breeching for riser inlets M.S 1210: Part 4 boxes for landing valves for dry risers

Water Supplies Inspection: Capacity of water tank The storage water tank should be sized for minimum effective capacity of 45,500 liters with automatic refill rate of 455 l/min. the intermediate break tank for upper stages of the wet riser should be not less than 11,375 liter with an automatic make up flow 1365 l/min Location of water tanks Water wet riser tanks may be located on the ground floor, first or second basement. It usually separated from other water storage tanks. But it may be combined with hose reel tank, in which case the tank capacity should be the total sum of water storage for both systems. Monitory of water tank level Ball float valves, over flow pipes, drain pipes and water level indicator should be provided for each component. Vortex inhibitor for water tanks
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Breeching inlet The breeching inlet should be a 4 way type complying, where the breeching inlet is enclosed within a box, the enclosure.

Landing Valves and Accessories Inspection: Location of landing valve Landing valves are provided on each floor and should comply. They are usually located within fire fighting access lobbies, protected staircases or other protected lobbies and installed at not more that 0.75m from the floor. Storage of fire hose, accessories Physical condition of fire hose, accessories and landing valve Fire hose of the rubber lined type of not less than 38mm dia. 30mm in length, complete with 65mm diameter quick coupling, jet and spray nozzle should be provided in a hose cradle beside each landing valve. Caps for outlet of landing.

Testing and commissioning: Pressure at landing valve outlet Should not be less than 4 bars but not more than 7 bars. Two types of landing valve that is pressure reducing type with or without relief outlet. Flow rate of water Three ways landing valve should be provided on the top most floor for testing purpose. Its to measure the flow rate.

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Pipe work Inspection: Type of pipe used Where more than one riser is required for each floor, the distance apart between the lowest and topmost landing valve in any riser should galvanized iron to (heavy gauge) or class C. where a relief pipe is required, this return pipe shall be minimum 100mm diameter galvanized iron to (medium gauge) or class B, discharging back to the wet riser tank wherever possible. An air release valve should be installed at the top of riser to relieve air trapped in the system. Protection under pipe work Painting of pipe work The pipes should be painted with primer and finished with res paint Support for pipe work Pipe sleeves Fire seal

Testing and commissioning: Hydrostatic testing and pipe work Locate leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels. Flushing pipe is done to improve water quality at the tap, increase the efficiency of the system, and help to uncover potential problems with valves. Pumps The wet riser pumps draw water from wet riser storage tank and two sets of pumps, one is duty and the other on standby, are provided. Inspection: Protection of rotating parts Mounting of pumps

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Testing and commissioning: Pump operating pressure and flow rate The pump capacity is usually sized to deliver a flow rate of 1500 l/min at a running pressure of not less than 4 bars but not more than 7 bars, when any three landing valves are in use at the same time. Pump not overheating Pump room should also be ventilated by natural or mechanical means and to be provided with necessary signage. Vibration and noise level Provided room or protect with curtain. Testing of electrical wiring system Electrical cabling to supply power to the wet riser pumps should be of mineral insulated cooper core (MICC) or fire rated type. Alternative power supply for electric pumps Emergency generator. Batteries for diesel pump Should be free maintenance type Fuel for diesel pump Should be adequate minimum 2 hours of continuous operation.

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Wet Riser Pump

Hoses Cradle

Fire water tank

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6.6 Downcomer System Downcomers are also a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use and are always charged with water from water from a water tank located at the top of a building but without any pumps. Downcomers are only permitted for private residential buildings with open balcony approach and where the topmost floor is not higher than 60m above the fire appliance access level and should be adopted for low cost flats only. Downcomer system comprises a high level water storage tank discharging into a 150mm diameter riser pipe with landing valves at each floor and to which rubber lined hose with nozzles can be connected to direct the water jet at the fire. No pumps are provided and therefore the system pressure is limited to the static pressure only. The section in the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, relating to downcomer systems is the Tenth Schedule and relevant standards for downcomer systems are: M.S 1210 : Part 1 Landing Valves for Wet Risers M.S 1210 : Part 3 Inlet Breeching for Riser Inlets M.S 1210 : Part 4 Boxes for Landing Valves for Dry Risers

I. II. III.

Water supplies

Inspection: Capacity of water tanks The fire water storage tank should be sized for a minimum effective capacity of 45,500 litres. Location of water tanks, and where applicable. Located at the roof Separate with other tank, however it may be combined with hose reel tank in which case the tank capacity should be sum total of water storage for both system.

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Breeching inlet. The fire brigade breeching inlets into which the firemen pump water are provided at the bottom of the riser at the ground floor so that the firemen can pump water into the downcomer system. The breeching inlet should be a 4 way type complying with M.S. 1210: Part 3. Where the breeching inlet is enclosed within a box, the enclosure should comply with M.S. 1210: Part 5 and labeled Downcomer Inlet. A drain should be provided at the bottom of the riser to drain the system after use.

Testing and Commissioning Flow rate and pressure of water supplies Automatic refill rate of 455 l/min.

Landing Valves and Accessories Two sets of fire hose of the rubber lined type of not less than 38mm dia., 30m in length, complete with 65mm dia. quick coupling, jet and spray nozzle should be provided at the caretakers unit or management office.

Inspection: Location of landing valves Landing valves are provided on each floor and should comply with M.S 1210: Part 1. They are usually located within fire fighting access lobbies, protected staircase or other protected lobbies and installed at not more than 0.75m from the floor. To protect the landing valves, boxes can be provided and these should comply with M.S.1210 : Part 4. Storage of fire hose and accessories Located at caretaker unit or management office. Physical condition of fire hose, accessories and landing valve. Caps for outlet of landing valves

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Pipework The downcomer mains are usually located within smoke free lobbies or protected areas and such that each downcomer should cover no more than 900m2 of floor area. Where more than one riser is required for each floor, the distance apart between the risers should not exceed 60m.

Inspection: Types of pipes used The riser pipe diameter should be 150mm galvanized iron to B.S.1387(heavy gauge) or Class C. an air release valve should be installed at the top of the riser to relieve air trapped in the system. Painting of pipe work Coated with primer and finished with red gloss paint. Support for pipe work

Testing and Commissioning: Hydrostatic testing and pipe work Pressure at 14 bars or 150% the working pressure, whichever is the higher for 2 hours, measured at the inlet and check is carried out for leakage at the joints and landing valve connections. Locate leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels. Flushing of pipe work Pipe flushing is done to improve water quality at the tap, increase the efficiency of the system, and help to uncover potential problems with valve.

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Water Storage Tank

Breeching Inlet Two Way And Four Way

Landing Valve

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6.7 Automatic Sprinkler System


An automatic sprinkler system is intended to detect, control and extinguish a fire, and warn the occupants of the occurrence of fire. The installation comprises fire pumps, water storage tanks, control valve sets, sprinkler heads, flow switches, pressure switches, pipework and valves. The system operates automatically without human intervention. The sprinkler head has a liquid filled glass filled glass bulb that breaks due to the heat of the fire and releases water that sprays over the fire. There are various type of sprinkler systems : i. Wet pipe installation The pipework is filled with water and ready to discharge once the sprinkler bulb breaks. ii. Dry pipe installation The pipe is always filled with air under pressure. Air is released when the sprinkler bulb breaks and water fill the pipe and is discharge at the sprinkler head. iii. Pre action installation The pipe works is charged with air under pressure and a valve is opened to fill the system with water when the fire is detected by smoke or heat detector. iv. Deluge installation The sprinkler head is normally has no bulb and water is discharge simultaneously from all the head when fire is detected and the deluge valve is opened.

Under the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, By-Laws 226 and 228 refer to the requirements for sprinkler systems. The accepted standards for automatic sprinkler installation are: LPC Rules for Automatic Sprinklers, U.K B.S 5306 : Part 2 Specification for Sprinkler systems

In addition to the above, the other standards may be accepted by the Fire and Rescue Department Malaysia but prior approval must be obtained. Some of the standards which have been accepted are: B.S EN 12845 : 2003 Automatic Sprinkler system Design, installation and maintance. NFPA 13 Australian Std A.S. 2118 Factory Mutual

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Water supplies

Inspection: Capacity of sprinkler tanks. Storage of sprinkler tank not dependent on inflow should have a minimum effective capacity depending on the hazard classification and the height of the lowest to the highest sprinkler not exceeding as defined in B.S 5306 : Part 2. Compartmentation of sprinkler tanks The nominal pressure and flow requirements depend on the height measured between the topmost and bottommost sprinkler head. Monitoring of water tank level. Vortex inhibitors for water tanks Protection of rotating parts of pump sets The sprinkler pumps draw water from sprinkler storage tank to feed the sprinkler network. Two sets of pumps, one on duty and the other on standby, are provided together with a jockey pump to maintain system pressure. Mounting of pump sets. Breeching inlet. Breeching inlets are provided so that the firemen can pump water into the sprinkler tank to make up for water used. The breeching inlet should be a 4 way type complying with M.S.1210: Part 3. Where the breeching inlet is enclosed within a box, the enclosure should comply with M.S.1210: Part 5 and labeled Sprinkler Inlet.

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Testing and Commissioning

Pump operating pressure and flow rate Sprinkler pump capacity should be selected to meet the duties defined in B.S.5306 : Part 2 for the various classes of hazards.

Pump not overheating Should be ventilated by natural or mechanical means. Vibration and noise level Provide room or seal with curtain. Testing of electrical wiring system Electrical cabling to supply power to sprinkler pumps should be of mineral insulated copper core (MICC) or fire rated type routed within areas with low fire risk.

Alternative power supply for electric pumps Emergency generator Batteries for diesel pump Should be free maintenance type. Fuel for diesel pumps Fuel supply should be adequate for minimum 4 hours of continuous operation for Ordinary Hazard and 6 hours for High Hazard applications.

Automatic operation of pumps

Sprinkler Heads

Inspection: Area of coverage Maximum and minimum distance between sprinklers Maximum and minimum distance between from walls/partitions Distance from beams, columns and other obstructions Obstruction below sprinklers Depth and combustibility of ceiling void Clear space below sprinklers
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Physical condition of sprinkler heads Sprinkler heads are generally of the conventional pendant or upright type. Temperature rating of sprinkler heads The temperature rating of the bulb is selected based on minimum 30C above the maximum ambient temperature of the space protected. Typically, this will result in a nominal temperature rating of 68C. in kitchen areas, the sprinkler heads should have a temperature rating of 79C.

Sprinkler guards Spare sprinklers and sprinkler spanners

Pipework

Inspection: Types of pipes used Sprinkler pipework shall be of black steel or galvanized iron to B.S.1387 (Medium gauge) Class B minimum while underground pipework should be heavy gauge of Class C. Pipes of sizes 80mm and below should be installed with screw joints and only pipes 100mm and above may be welded. Welding procedures and materials shall be in accordance with B.S.2640 and B.S.2971 and should be carried out by qualified welders. Radiographic tests should be carried out where doubts exist. Alternatively, mechanical coupling can be used for jointing for all pipe sizes up to 250mm. Protection of underground pipework Painting of pipework Coated with primer and finished with red gloss paint. Number of sprinklers installed on range and distribution pipes. Pipe hangers and supports for pipework Pipe sleeves Fire seal Flow switches Total length of pipework between alarm valve and water alarm gong grooved

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Testing and commissioning: Flushing of pipework Pipe flushing is done to improve water quality at the tap, increase the efficiency of the and help to uncover potential problems with valves Spray pattern of sprinkler Alarm gong operating Flow switches test Each zone should be tested by opening the isolation valve on the test line. The flow switch for that zone should indicate an alarm on the fire alarm panel. Zone monitoring (tamper switch) Static pressure test The system should first be flushed to clear all debris from the inside of the riser. The riser is then hydraulically tested to a pressure of 14 bars or 150% the working pressure, whichever is the higher for 24hours. Locate leaks or verify performance and durability in pressure vessels system,

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Boxes

Flow Switch

Sprinkler Guard

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Size of Sprinkler Head

Types of Sprinkler Head Sprinkler

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Sprinkler System Typical Arrangement.


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6.8 Automatic Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing System

Carbon Dioxide extinguishing system consists of carbon dioxide cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat and smoke detector and a control panel, which monitors the space, activates both visual and audio alarms before releasing the gas. The carbon dioxide is discharged after a time delay upon detection of fire to warn any occupant to evacuate the room. Such system is usually provided for electrical transformer rooms, swicthrooms and standby generator rooms and should not be installed for rooms, which are normally occupied.

The relevant clause in the Uniform Building By-Laws 1984, relating to carbon dioxide extinguishing systems is By-Law 235 and the applicable standard is: MS 1590 :2003

Cylinders All cylinders supplying the same manifold outlet for distribution of agent should be interchangeable and of one selected size.

Inspection: Capacity of cylinders A reliable means of indication by weighing should be provided to determine the amount of gas in the cylinders. The Carbon Dioxide gas is stored in cylinders designed to hold the gas in liquefied form at ambient temperatures. Cylinders should be suitable for a working pressure of 59 bars at 21C and pressure tested at 228 bars.

Where more than three cylinders are required,

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Pilot cylinders A pilot cylinder should be provided to active the discharge from each cylinder. Location of cylinders Gas cylinders should be located outside of the hazard which it protects wherever possible. However, the risk of vandalism should also be taken into consideration.

Flexible hoses Safety valve Support bracket Weighing facility Each system should have a permanent name plate specifying the number, filling weight and the pressurization level of the cylinders.

Pipework

Inspection:

Types of pipes used The material of piping and fittings, etc. for the installation of the system must be of noncombustible heat resisting and must have capacity to maintain its own shape in room temperature during the outbreak of fire. All piping should be of API Schedule 40/80 steel pipe. Flexible piping, tubing or hoses (including connection) where used should be able to withstand the pressure ratings.

Painting of pipework Support for pipework Pipe sleeves Fire seal Nozzles

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Testing and commissioning: Pneumatic testing of pipework Pneumatic leak testing at low pressure followed by hydraulic pressure testing Due to the inherent dangers associated with pneumatic testing using compressed air or inert gas, a responsible person must be in charge of this operation at all times. This person should direct the preparations and supervise the application of the test by working to a pre-prepared written plan based on the risk assessment. A written record of the test showing the system designed working pressure, the test pressure and duration should be kept and, at the conclusion of the test, this person must verify that the system is safely depressurised and ready for safe operation at the design working pressure. Pneumatic leak test procedure Ensure that all rooms through which the piping passes are cleared of people, then pressurise the system to the leak test pressure (normally 20m bar, but a pressure of up to 0.5bar could be used). Wait at least 10 minutes, checking the gauge for pressure drop, and if necessary walk the route of the piping under test checking for leaks using leak detecting fluid. Once the leak test is passed, release the air pressure slowly and then carry out the normal hydraulic test.

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Detectors The automatic detection is usually by means of either heat or smoke detectors. The detectors should be resistant to corrosion.

Inspection: physical condition of detector conduit for all wiring

Testing and commissioning: Detector test Electrical wiring test Interfacing of detectors and control panel

Panel The system control panel should indicate the operation of the system, hazrds to personnel, or failure of any supervised device and complying with M.S. 1404 and B.S. 7273. A positive alarm and indicator should be provided to show that the system has operate

Inspection: Protection of panel Mounting of panel

Testing and commissioning: LED test 1 zone alarm test 2 zone alarm test Discharge test Fault test Connection to main fire alarm

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Accessories Alarm should be provided to give warning of a discharge or pending discharge where a hazard to personnel may exist. Alarms indicating failure of supervised devices or equipment should give prompt and positive indication of any failure and should be distinctive from alarms indicating operational hazardous conditions. Warning and instruction signs should be installed at entrances to and inside protected areas at prominent positions.

Inspection: Flashing lights Tripping devices Signage Visible and audible alarms Electrical and mechanical manual activation.

System The quantity of extinguishing agent should be sufficient to ensure rapid extinction of any fire in the protected areas and with adequate spare capacity. Test should go under:

Testing and Commissioning: Simulated automatic discharge test Simulated manual discharge test Actual discharge test Bracket support during actual discharge test

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Design Checklist

a) Hazard type: Flammable liquid materials Electical hazard Ordinary combustibles (paper, wood,textile) Hazards solids Others :__________

b) Type of fire to be protected from: Deep seated fire ( solid subject to smouldering) Surface fie ( flammable liquid, gas and solids) Others : _________

c) Type of protection Total flooding system Volume to be protected : _________m Design carbon dioxide concetration : __________ % Volume factor :__________ Flooding factor :_________ System discharge rate :__________kg/minute

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Automatic Fire Curtain

Control Panel and Indicator Lights

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Carbon Dioxide Cylinder and Pilot cylinder


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7.0 Conclusion
Fire protection system in building is most of importance requirement to secure the safety of the occupants. Good system design according to the requirements can reduce the risk of accidents and deaths involving occupants in the buildings. Fire protection system usually apply in Malaysia usually refer Uniform Building By Laws 1984, which is stated more detail and requirement need for construct building in Malaysia and other parties refer its Jabatan Bomba dan Penyelamat requirement to provided approval fire protection system in building. However now they are having new procedure approval which CCC (Certificate of Compliance and Compliance) before this is CFO (Certificate of Fitness for Occupation), CCC [ Certificate of Completion and Compliance ] is building certificates issued by the professional as a Professional Architect registered with LAM , a registered Professional Engineer with BEM and / or registered Building Draughtsman with LAM as Principal Submitting Person [ the Principal Submitting Person = PSP ] as has been defined or provided by the Street, Drainage and Building (Amendment 2007) ( Act A1286 - which is an Act to amend the Street , Drainage and Building Act 1974 ) , the Law of the Uniform Building 1984 [ Revised 2007 ] [ UBBL ] , which is responsible for overseeing the construction process , to verify the completed building is safe and fit for occupation in which its construction is in full compliance with the provisions of the law, approved building plan and also the conditions set by the local authority approval stage plans . This interpretation aims to distinguish between the roles of professionals with parties such as contractors or other professionals involved in the project. SIMULTANEOUS or CCC can be issued together with the production Vacant Possession Notice ( Notice of Vacant Possession ) This will shorten the waiting time to enter the building by the owner / buyer of the building.

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