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1 1 advice 2 no obligation 3 ability 5 possibility and deduction 6 prohibition 7 permission

4 obligation and necessity 2 1 couldnt 4 havent been able to 3 1E 4 1 d 2 didnt need to 3 ought to have 5 1 You ought to phone your parents theyll be worried. 2 wed better not be late, or well miss the plane. 3 Its very wet this morning it must have rained all night. 4 I dont know where my phone is I might have left it on the bus. 5 Steven couldnt play on the football team until he was twelve. 6 She might / may go to Saras party on Saturday, but she isnt sure yet. 4 should 5 had to 6 shouldnt 7 shouldnt have 8 better not 2A 3B 4D 5C 6F 2 cant 5 ll be able to 3 could 6 was able to

1 1 have to / must 6 had better / must 11 need to 2 can 7 mustnt 12 should have

3 could 8 dont have to 13 couldnt 4 must have 9 ought to / should 14 might have 5 be able to 10 cant 2 1 I might enter the marathon. 2 You shouldnt have cheated in the race. 3 Competitors mustnt take steroids. 4 He cant win the race. 5 Youd better not be late for the competition! 6 He might have been at the sports centre earlier. 7 You dont have to train every day. 8 She neednt have hurried to the stadium because the match was cancelled. 3 1 You dont have to wear a helmet in this sport. It isnt compulsory. 2 Im not sure why hes late. He may have missed the bus. 3 We neednt have worried, because we won the game anyway! 4 She should have started training weeks ago. 5 He cant have finished the marathon. Thats impossible! 6 Luckily, I was able to get a ticket for the match yesterday. UNIT 1

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1 1B2F3A4D5C6E 2 1 correct 2 We all listened to what Ross told us about his new school. 3 correct

4 Amy loves everything that is sold in that shop. 5 Shes the woman that / who wrote the article about global warming. 6 I can wear what I like at weekends. 3 1 Shall we go and see the film Matt told us about? 2 Oxfam is a charity people give a lot of money to. 3 Today, Sally is taking the exam for which she has been revising all week. 4 Jack is the boy with whom I travelled in Brazil. 5 Thats the hospital I was born in. 6 This is the woman to whom I was speaking earlier. 4 1 September was the month when we started college. 2 My brothers, who both speak really good Spanish, are going to live in Madrid for a year. 3 These are the photos which / that / I took in the Amazon jungle. 4 The meal which / that / Jack cooked was delicious. 5 This restaurant, which sells great food, is where Im going to work after college. 6 My dad is the person who / that taught me to drive. 5 1 buying a coffee is in my class. 2 is a popular sport taught in Cornwall. 3 sitting on the bus found my purse. 4 injured in the accident were taken to hospital. 5 downloaded from the internet might be illegal. 6 bought ten tickets costing 20 each.

1 1 Then you might be interested in the Megavalanche race, which is one of the most demanding mountain bike races in the world.

2 In July, when the Megavalanche is held, hundreds of cyclists travel to the top of the Alpe de Huez mountain in France. 3 where (no extra commas needed) 4 (no pronoun, no extra commas needed) 5 This terrain, which is very tough, is hard on the bikes. 6 whose (no extra commas needed) 7 whom (no extra commas needed) 8 who (no extra commas needed) 9 whos (no extra commas needed) 10 (no pronoun, no extra commas needed) 11 what (no extra commas needed) 12 I finished the race in one hour 30 minutes, which is my best ever time. 2 1 This is the place where my parents met. 2 Emily, whose sister is a motocross champion, is a rally driver. OR Emily, who is a rally driver, has got a sister whos a motocross champion. 3 She bought a new bike costing 150.4 Thats the explorer about whom we were talking. 5 2008 was the year (when) I went to Thailand. 6 What I like about Lisa is (the fact) that shes very adventurous. 7 Football is a very popular sport played in most schools in England. 8 Oxfam is a charity which / that people give a lot of money to. 3 1 Have you seen the photos that we took on holiday? (no comma) 2 The mountaineer, whose name was Scott Wilde, gave an interesting speech. 3 The friend I want to introduce you to him is away this weekend. 4 Do you remember the name of the hotel in which we stayed / that we stayed in? 5 correct 6 The place where we go for our holidays is becoming increasingly popular.(no commas)

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