The Place of Anarchism in the History of Political Thought Author(s): D. Novak Source: The Review of Politics, Vol. 20, No.
3 (Jul., 1958), pp. 307-329 Published by: Cambridge University Press for the University of Notre Dame du lac on behalf of Review of Politics Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1404980 . Accessed: 18/11/2013 15:24
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The Place of Anarchism in the History of Political Thought
by D. Novak I
generally is deep ignorance or profound misunderstanding.* "In the popular mind," says BertrandRussell, "an Anarchist is a person who throws bombs and commits other outrages, either because he is more or less insane, or because he uses the pretence of extreme political opinions as a cloak for criminal proclivities." 1 Yet in the history of political thought, as well as in the history of social movements, anarchism has played a role which cannot be overlooked. Anarchismis not only a political theory in the narrow meaning of the term, but also a social theory understoodin the broad sense. As such a theory, anarchism-since it is concernedwith the problems of power, authority,and coercion, especiallyas manifestedin the machinery of the State, and since it strives to show how the exercise of power of man over man, together with the institutions through which it is carried out, should be eradicated-necessarily deals with the complex problemsof both national and international politics. Anarchism, however, while paying attention to the individualas a citizen of the State, is interestedin him also as a human being, as a member of various groups of human beings, and as a member of the human race. Thus in the consideration of the problemsof men, whether a given problem be conceived narrowly or broadly,in the relationof man to man, of one citizen to another, of a citizen to the State, or in the relation of State with State, and
* I wish to express my appreciation to Professor A. Brady of the University of Toronto, Professor M. A. Fitzsimons of the University of Notre Dame, and Mr. W. Pickles of the London School of Economics and Political Science for having read the manuscript, at different stages, and having given me the benefit of several valuable suggestions. 1 Bertrand Russell, Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndical-
ANARCHISM is one of those conceptsabout which there
ism (London, 1918), p. 49.
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however. p.dogmas and not speculations. by drawing attention to the variety of conceptionsand tendencies covered by the term "anarchism. XI. ." Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences (1942). I. "Anarchism."4 Jaszi." Encyclopaedia Britannica (1947). Peter Kropotkindefined anarchismas a "principleor theory of life and conduct under which society is conceived without government . Cf. 873. Anarchism: A Criticism and History of the Anarchist Theory (London.5With these provisionsin mind. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. 3 0. however."and considers anarchismnot so much a social theory as "a mass ideology colored by many emotional and religious elements.254. whether it be Freedom or Equality.but by free agreements concluded between various groups. of social institutions. Unlike other reformistand revolutionary theories. 46. from which it draws its conclusionsconcerningthe right kind of social organization. "religionsand not sciences. political. anarchismstarts from premisesbased on the appraisalof human nature. London.
II. "Anarchism.52. and the Conclusion."3 In this approachJaszi comes close to Zenker. Kropotkin. the two paragraphs after the next. territorial and professional. especially chaps. 4 E."also comes close to Paul Eltzbacherin his judgmentof anarchism. as also for the satisfactionof the infinite variety of needs and aspirations of a civilized being. below. 1898). X. freely constitutedfor the sake of production and consumption. . anarchism as a social philosophy will be found to express a judgment. 4. Jaszi thinks that anarchismcan
2 P."2 Oscar Jaszi points out that "Anarchism covers so many distinct conceptions and tendencies that it is difficultto reduce them all to a common denominator. 1908). anarchismmuch more readily and determinedlyrefutes or supplements the accepted tenets of other theoriesand develops new prinalways questioningthe very foundations ciples and interpretations. both those existing and those envisaged by other reformersand revolutionaries. not by submissionto law.308
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whether it be conceived in economic. V. of a land of the absoluteIdeal. Zenker. or by obedienceto authority. Anarchism (New York.
This content downloaded from 200. Jaszi. harmony in such a society being obtained. 5 See P. Like many other political and social theories. social or ethical terms.who considersboth anarchism and socialism"formsof idolatry"with differentidols.249 on Mon. Eltzbacher."and kinds of "honestly meant social mysticism"which strive for "the establishmentof a terrestrial Eden.
loc." and points out that "the elimination of all forms of State."6 According to Zenker.and found nothing in common in their views on the purposeof life and human society. 9Herbert Read. 78.Godwin. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Proudhon.which may have arisen on the basis of an agreementbut later came to be enforced.249 on Mon. and Tolstoy. cit. p. He then divided their teachings into various categories and sub-categories. property. and a Russian translation of it appeared in 1907.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
be defined as "an attempt to establishjustice (that is. consequently. Bakunin."9 Paul Eltzbacher in his Anarchism attempted to arrive at an extensive definition of anarchismby studying seven thinkers. Soucasny anarchismus (Contemporary Anarchism). the perof the individualand. Stirner. The above quotation is from the Czech edition." 8 A psychological approach to the meaning of anarchism. who is no longer content to be governedby a blind unconsciousidentificationof the leader and the father and by the inhibited instincts which alone make such an identificationpossible. This book was originally published in Polish in 1902. law. expressingall that is common to various anarchist trends. p. groups. 7. dares to resistthe authorityof his father. in his manhood. equality and reciprocity) in all human relationsby the complete elimination of the state (or by a genuine minimization of its activity) and its replacement by an entirely free and spontaneous co-operation among individuals.
This content downloaded from 200. Poetry and Anarchism (London. published in Prague in 1910.and the "realization.Tucker."7 Ludwik Kulczycki understandsby anarchism "a doctrine whose ideal is a social system realizing complete freedom. 15. unfetteredself-government the absence of any kind of external government. fect. The only
6 Jaszi. 8 Ludwik Kulczycki. regions.. all binding laws and all institutions. 7 Zenker. leads to this ideal. and the advocacy of means. op. which the author specially prepared by revising and supplementing some part of the book. on the means advocated to achieve their ideal."that is.254. is contained in the following sentence: "Anarchismmeans. in its ideal sense.Kropotkin. the essence of anarchism. the State. law. He selected quotations from the works of each on the purpose of life and human society. property. cit. 1938). reflecting the impact of psychologyon political thought.52. and nations. p. is adopted by Herbert Read: "I would define the anarchistas the man who. as the representatives of all anarchistthought.
including Kropotkin. In the sphere of anarchism as a political movement. as well as the emphasis laid upon the right to differ. After the war. These anarchists were considered by the rest to have contravened the basic anarchist attitude of opposition to any war.249 on Mon." 1l but one cannot fail to realize that the differences between various anarchist theories and theorists. his emphasis on the differences existing between the leading anarchist theorists.52. which has begun to question and reject the idea of complete freedom of the individual member within a group. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.254. centered around Le Libertaire. Nevertheless.. until recently. and to demand a certain degree of organizational responsibility and discipline. 1920). from George Orwell in his Homage to Catalonia (London. there are certain underlying features
10 Eltzbacher.?0 Eltzbacher's treatment of anarchist theories is too mechanistic. op. 276. 1938). this attitude is reflected in the looseness of groups. for example. which cannot be considered organizations on the pattern of political parties. pp. draws attention to an aspect of anarchism which renders it more difficult to understand and to present systematically than most other social theories.12 In spite of the differences. supported the Allies. One need not go so far as the anarchist writer who said that "there are as many variations of Anarchism as there are Anarchists. 11 John Wakeman. Grave and Cornelissen. and the fighting raised many questions which a revolutionist striving to realize an ideal by force must face. and thus caused a split on what were deemed matters of principle. It can also be noted in the lack of a general program to which all members have to subscribe. In France there is an anarchist group. the anarchist ideas of the freedom of the individual were not always put into practice as one might have expected from anarchists.310
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element that Eltzbacher found to be common to all their teachings was that for the future they rejected the State. and his interpretations can often be shown to be incorrect. the behavior of the anarchists in the Civil War in Spain brought them admiration and praise from people otherwise alien to the anarchist ideas. On the other hand. 12This laxity of group discipline and regard for the freedom of the individual members were not fully preserved during the First World War when several leading anarchists. cit. the breach was gradually healed. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. are part of the nature of anarchism. 10. Anarchism and Democracy (London. and in the freedom left to individual members to advocate views and measures that may be in conflict with those of the majority. 292. however. particularly in their views on the basis of individual and social life. his selectiveness of quotations narrows the breadth and depth of comprehension.
This content downloaded from 200. p. and which lack accepted leadership and discipline.
To use an analogy. A. liberalism. The essence of anarchist thought is the emphasis on the freedom of the individual. 1949).may seem incongruous-have varyingviews on human nature. and may even start from the same basis. Anarchism: Its Philosophy and Scientific Basis (Chicago. Anarchism and other Essays (New York. They also-and this. 8th ed. be suggestedthat the variousanarchisttrendshave in common a belief in individual freedom and a denial of authority. Malatesta. for example. but it is not the only one commonto the variousanarchisttrends.52. law. and of the ways and means suggestedor preached as remediesor panaceas for the evils.particularlythe State. A. E. It may.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
which are common to all anarchist trends.is one feature. at first sight. Berkman. R. property. Parsons and others. Psychologie de l'anarchistesocialiste (Paris. 1887). Even. The rejectionof all authority representsthe main contributionof anarchismto political thought it from other political and social theoriessome of and distinguishes which. Underlying all these thoughts and constantly present in them. there are differencesamong anarchistsrelating to the questions of government. leading to the denial and condemnationof any authoritywhich hindershis free and full development. social and economic institutions. if looked upon as a basic principleof anarchism. AnarchoSyndicalism (London. These features stand out in the severaldefinitionsof anarchismgiven above and are contained in most other definitionsof anarchismor in treatiseson it. In the developmentof these fundamental ideas.249 on Mon. of the whole social and economic
This content downloaded from 200. Hamon.254. E.namely.implied in the very word. 1938). Bound up with these fundamentalideas are the theoriesand criticismsof law systemand patternsof behaviorprevalentin it. whetherexplicitlyor implicitly.revolutions.especially in the form of the State. the acknowledgmentand assertion of the independent value of the individual and his right to a free and full development. II Anarchismas a social ideology is really a moder phenomenon. 1911).and so on. for instance. of property. Rocker.13 The rejection of the State. A. Les hommes et les thiories de 'anarchie (Paris.are views of human nature. 1893). however. Anarchy.
and government. (London. listed by Eltzbacher. it may be said that anarchism is like a tree
13 See. R. 1895). then. Goldman. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. the rejectionof the State can still be looked upon as following from another principle. The ABC of Anarchist Communism (London.may have other features similar to anarchism. 1942).
(1947). chap. guilds. this tendency finds expression in the direct action of popular masses when they create organizations in defence of their rights against the encroachments of conquerors and powerful minorities.) of Max Nettlau's Der Vorfriihling der Anarchie: ihre historische Entwicklung von den Anfangen bis zum Jahre 1864 (Berlin. chap. A. 46-53. I. one must be prepared to encounter anarchist traits in different. owing to its emphasis on selected factors. Some writers on anarchism have attempted to trace anarchist ideas in thinkers and movements of the Western world from ancient times. I. particularly in view of the largely critical and negative attitude of anarchism to social arrangements. relies heavily on this work. as in the case of liberalism or socialism. I.52. his analysis nevertheless suggests a trend which every social science must study and which in modern times both individual and social psychology attempt to analyze and explain. and some of its branches have reached into the twentieth century. and sometimes even contradictory. "L'Anarchie. Vizetelly. have been formed in the West from
14See especially his Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution (London. The Anarchists: Their Faith and their Record (London. anti-authoritarian tendency-the tendency of mutual aid-as an important evolutionary and historical factor. 1925). According to him. op. cit. 873-877.312
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which attained its full development in the nineteenth century.254.14 Although anthropologists and historians would not agree with Kropotkin's thesis in its entirety. Kropotkin actually sees a libertarian. village communities. while some of its roots were firmly implanted in the eighteenth. II. Jaszi's "Anarchism. ideas and systems of thought. such as clans. 1911).249 on Mon. 1911. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. and in a series of articles. The most comprehensive treatment so far undertaken appears in the first eight chapters (66 pp. it can be seen that views akin to anarchism. (1942). Brit. Thus.. 15 This was done in a very general way by Zenker. January 21st to April 29th. 1924). and by E." Ency. the revolt against the subjugation of the individual by authority and the struggle for the assertion of the individual's rights to unfettered development and self-expression are probably as old as the existence of authoritarian and coercive institutions. Kropotkin went into greater detail in "Anarchism. Soc." Les Temps Nouveaux.15 One may not accept many claims made by these writers but. and mediaeval cities. Although this is true of anarchism as an ideology. and sometimes clearly anarchist. Sc.
This content downloaded from 200. 1902) and Ethics: Origin and Development (New York. and the ideas emphasizing the value of individual freedom and denouncing its restrictions by authority have been voiced by thinkers through the ages." Ency.
to a greater or lesser withdrawal from political life.
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. is also derived from the same intellectual roots from which the anarchists-as well as the utilitarians and the liberals in general-draw their concept of the aim of life.).16 Several of the schools of thought in ancient Greece in the sixth. does not appear to be discussed in the many books devoted to Greek philosophy. or reached conclusions. The subjectivism and scepticism of the Sophists.254. and that justice.17 Both the Cynics and the Cyrenaics started from the emphasis on the individual as a law unto himself.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
the times of the ancient Greeks to the nineteenth century in both the secular and religious spheres.C. or to a definite denial
16My purpose in this section is to give a general outline of these ideas and to supplement the accounts given in the works cited in the previous note both by greater synthesis and by new observations. started from premises. in dealing with the problems of man in society. proclaimed by the Epicureans as the foundation of life. 17 This aspect of Greek thought. On the other hand. as Thrasymachus put it in the famous passage in The Republic. proclaimed the search for individual happiness to be the goal of life.. which show an anarchist tinge. I.249 on Mon. 18Plato. the "perfected man of the world" of the Cyrenaics rejected religion and patriotism and developed a cosmopolitan position. fifth and fourth centuries B. however. The Republic. went so far as to disregard the conventions regarding sexual relations and propagated views similar to those associated with the anarchist concept of free love. This attitude has sometimes given rise to a diffidence in an organization based on authority.52. revolting against the limitations imposed on the individual by social organizations. embodied in their concept of the relativity of truth and the laws-and shared by the Sceptics in whom they led to the conclusion that the individual should in many respects abstain from judgment-are also intellectually akin to the anarchist position. and advocated withdrawal from political affairs.l8 is nothing but the interest of the stronger. Modem anarchists will fully agree with the Sophist view that social differences result not from nature but from social conventions. The Cynics. 338 ff. reflected especially in the philosophy of Aristippus (about 435-360 B.C. be it State or Church. The search for individual happiness. that the laws sanction these conventions in the interests of the powerful and the rich.
they would live in peace and harmony with their neighbors and there would be no need of coercive institutions. 20 Vizetelly. cit. and equality. known as the "mad priest of Kent. rationalism. for instance. 1891).249 on Mon. 1874). 21 Nettlau. some drastic measures undoubtedly were advocated. G. whose kinship to anarchism has not passed unclaimed. Men would reach a stateless society of perfect equality and freedom. of the fraternity of men. During uprisings and rebellions.21 The same can be said about the ideas of the
19 On Zeno see A.. so that universal harmony would extend over the whole world. temples and priests. would be unnecessary. but one may be easily mistaken in considering them anarchist. police. Pearson. however.52. Some fundamental tenets of the philosophy of the founder of Stoicism. 4-6. Die Philosophie des Stoikers Zenon (Leipzig.
This content downloaded from 200. F&nelon and de la Boetie.20 One of the effects of the Renaissance.. 21-85. cit. the social instinct which makes him join others and co-operate with them for the common good. IV-VI.254. 1883). E. The Stoic ideals of individualism. C. in Zeno's view. and cosmopolitanism. 1906). in which the original attributes of human nature would attain their full expression." Charles Oman's definitive work. Together with the self-preservation instinct which leads to egoism there is in man. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.C. He proclaimed the supremacy of the moral law and opposed to Plato's State communism his own ideal of a free community without government. chaps. and even money.). op. was a revival of antiauthoritarian tendencies in the writings of such men as Rabelais. If men followed their natural instincts. in particular by John Ball. bear such affinity to anarchist communism that he may be called its forerunner. hardly substantiates these claims. claims that anarchist theories were advocated during Wat Tyler's rebellion in 1381. world citizenship. The Great Revolt of 1381 (Oxford. Wellman. The Fragments of Zeno and Cleanthes (London. Weygold: Die Philosophie der Stoa nach ihren Wesen und ihren Schicksalen (Leipzig. op.314
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of the right of such an organization to function and a struggle against it.19 During the Middle Ages and for several decades following the Reformation the enunciation of ideas attracting the attention of a student of anarchism must be perceived in their broader religious context. also remind one of the ideals enunciated by anarchism. such as that of 1381 in England. pp. and partly also of a reaction to the Reformation in secular matters. armies. especially pp. P. Zeno of Citium (336-264 B. Law courts.
je ne veux ni donner ni recevoir des lois. reference should be made to Ernst Troeltsch's classic. however. however.22 This assertion. but there is a conflict of opinion as to its meaning. natural rights. Histoire de la langue francaise des origines d 1900 (Paris. the French rationalists sometimes voiced clearly anarchist sentiments. for instance. IX.trans. 4. as understood and interpreted by the individual or a group of likeminded individuals. no matter what else can be said about Rousseau's romanticism. F. 346-347. New York. although with a different emphasis. To most people. but also elements which the liberals and anarchists share. as did Diderot. the term "anarchist" was actually used. from the 22Kropotkin. 1909). 1927). (London.
350-351. above all the French Encyclopedists. In their enthusiasm.1789-1793. that. XLI and pp. "La nature n'a fait ni serviteurs ni maitres. its idealization of the state of nature and its criticism of organized society in the several Discourses suggest its affinity to anarchism. Brunot. are not only essential tenets of the liberal doctrine." It must not be forgotten. Their concepts of rationality. is not substantiated by Brunot.
The GreatFrenchRevolution. Dryhurst (London. by Olive Wyon. deuxi[me partie. in his famous remark. the word "anarchists" was then used by the Girondists to cover those revolutionaries who were not satisfied with the overthrow of the monarchy alone and wanted to introduce a series of economic measures for the benefit of the people. and the freedom of the individual. 827-828. The Social Teaching of the Christian Churches.23 In common with secular anarchism. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
eighteenth century rationalists. when radical voices were heard from several quarters. Note by Charles Gore. either. According to Kropotkin. religious anarchism is associated with the name of Leo Tolstoy. but it differs from secular anarchism in deriving its conclusions from the Scriptures.
23 F. trans. natural law. It should be noted that during the French Revolution. but more or less pronounced anarchist traits can be detected in the ideas and practices of various Christian sects and groups.249 on Mon. 24 For a general treatment of the theory and practice of the various sects and groups discussed in the text.24
French by N.254.52. and was used predominantly as a term of opprobrium.
This content downloaded from 200. 2 vols. religious anarchism attacks and rejects authority exercised by men over men. who says that the term "anarchist" had no precise meaning during the French Revolution. with an Introd.
some sectionsof the Hussitesin the early fifteenthcentury.eliminationof the State and privateproperty. 1908-1910) and Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics." because some of them appearednaked. Hence they also resistedsecular and ecclesiasticalauthority.52.316
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One of the first of these groups were probablythe followers of Carpocratesof Alexandria in the second century who preached rejectionof authority. They.are relatedto those of the Beghards. preached equality. Severalother Christiansects and groupsin the Middle Ages and at the beginningof the New Age developedanti-authoritarian views and practices. 25 Frantigek Palacky. (New York and London. Apart from the many books devoted to the individual sects.254.a small sect which existed some time during the early period of the Hussite wars in the fifteenth century in Bohemia. 12 vols.249 on Mon. and held property and wives in common. 1934). points out that the ideas of the Adamites. 1931. refused to submit to the commands of the secular powers when they believed them to violate Christianprinciples. From their pantheismand from the belief in the divine nature of the soul they concluded that the will of men was only a reflectionof the will of God. Palacky.
This content downloaded from 200. Amalrich of Bena. 252-254. The Beghards or Brothers and Sisters of the Free Spirit in the thirteenth century. 1908-1926). and the combinationof libertyin actionswith communismin goods.that their will embodied the will of God. therefore. Deiiny narodu cesk6ho v Cechdch a na Morav0 dle puvodnich pramenu (History of the Czech Nation in Bohemia and Moravia according to the Original Sources). (Edinburgh. 237. and that men should be free to follow their desires. were another such sect. believing themselvespossessedof the innocence of Paradise. or as the "nakedones. 12 vols. They thought that they were directly influencedby the Holy Ghost and. III.25 They were also known as Nicolites after a peasant who preached their views. which they professed with varying determination. also known as the Amalrikitesafter their founder. like the Beghards. IV. and Index vol. They condemnedwar and capital punishment. and the Anabaptists and the early Quakers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. and practiced community of goods. The Czech historian. by Karel K5lal (Prague.and refused
also consult for a more detailed discussion The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclo-
1931). rejected authority in the form of State and Church institutions. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. ed. professorof theology in Paris. one may
paedia of Religious Knowledge. Thus the Waldensesand the Albigensesin the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
but also among some sections of the Hussites. 1930). 16691738. again evident among the Anabaptists and the Quakers. the possibilityof the individual'sattainment of the "inner light. Mulliken (London.as well as the Quaker habit of addressingothers as "thou" and not "you. see B. Cromwell and Communism: Socialism and Democracy in the Great English Revolution. and connected with the custom of election of preachers by the congregationor of having no preachersat all. For a brief account by a non-socialist. Geschichte des Sozialismus und Kommunismus von Plato bis zur Gegenwart. L. Perhaps a similar study. "looked for the
26 For detailed and sympathetic accounts of the Anabaptists and the Quakers two books may be mentioned: B. the Bohemian Brethren. The Anabaptists: Their Contribution to Our Protestant Heritage. with Introd. and Arnold Lloyd. postulating.at least in the goods of consumption. J. with Foreword by Professor Archibald Main (London. 1950)." of seeing things for himself. by H.26 Poverty was sometimesbelieved to be the proper condition of man. The refusal of some Anabaptistsand the early Quakers to uncover their heads in the presence of kings or magistrates. Georg Adler.
This content downloaded from 200. especially when times were deemed unfavorable. Starting from the affirmation of the equality of men. for instance. 1897). 1913).but the ideal of equality often led to the preaching and practice of communism." is another example of this equalitarianism and individualism. paying more attention to anarchist elements. trans. vol.254. trans. will be undertaken before long. they proclaimedthe individual'sright to interpret the Bible for himself. Such communismwas known not only among the Beghards. Eduard Bernstein. which is also assumed in anarchistindividualism. Jarrett. especially chap. by J. explicitly or implicitly. So is also the emphasison the voluntarybasis of their group life.27 Among some of the sects. The millennarians.249 on Mon. Communism in Central Europe in the Time of the Reformation. by the Waldenses and by the "perfected"ones of the Albigenses. Quaker Social History. Die Vorlaufer des Neueren Sozialismus (Stuttgart. New York. Smithson. Wood (London. Toronto. 1935). 1895).and the Anabaptists. Mediaeval Socialism (London. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. J. Stenning (London. I: Bis zur Franzosischen Revolution (Leipzig.expressedin the oppositionto the Church (the designation of the Quaker groups as the Society of Friendsis significanthere). VI.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
to obey some laws or to take the oath. 1899).there arose chiliastic views whose vision of the future bears some resemblanceto the anarchist picture of a Stateless society.52. 27 The study of communistic elements among religious sects has attracted several socialist writers and forms parts of such books as Karl Kautsky. and E.as Troeltsch calls them. G. by Herbert A.
some of whom strongly believed in the coming of a millennium without kings or other rulers. without laws. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.good education and . 12-13. 2 vols. and for the setting up of the true Kingdom of the 'Saints'. The Political Activitiesof the Baptistsand Men in Englandduringthe Interregnum LonFifth Monarchy (Washington. One of the copies preserved from 1521 has a long title page beginning with the words. 2).258-260. it is the Devils [sic] main designto root out of the worldboth Ministry and Magistracy. op cit. knowledge 32Sit viry (The Net of Faith) was probablywrittenbetween 1440 and in 1912 by the "Comenium" 1443.1912). expected much destruction to take place before mankind could be ushered into the millennium. it is one of the most remarkable products of thought for its depth of aim. I. Palacky.and all other Schools of Learning. . It was reprinted in Pragueunder the editorshipof Emil Smetanka.32 has drawn words of praise from Tolstoy. king or government. 1894).. whose tracts were written during and after the Hussite wars. taxes. for the kingdom of the complete Christian anarchy of love. 245-246. 31A contemporary Men. when God's law would rule supreme. 23-25.31 The most systematic and best developed attack on the State and the Church in the Middle Ages came from the pen of a Czech peasant.249 on Mon. law or oath. like some anarchist revolutionaries. and firstprintedin 1521. Sit viry. His most mature work. It was the core of the beliefs of the Fifth Monarchy Men30 in England in Cromwell's times who. 27 and 29. for the astounding beauty of the national
language in which it is written. Tolstoywrites: "It is a marvellous book from everypoint of view . tract. Petr Chelcicky.1657).29 as well as among the Anabaptists after the Miinster disaster of 1525. particularly arguments pp."
This content downloaded from 200." (pp. . The Downfallof the Fifth Monarchy The personal Reign of Christon Earth. 713. (London. for "it's the Devils [sic]doctrineto preachdowngovernmentand governours. it's his work to pull down Ministers and Ministry: yea.318
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advent of Christ.
op cit..33 This book is a sharp criticism of the contemporary Church and a plea for the return to the simple
28Troeltsch. Oxford. 9-10).The gist of Chelcicky's is in Part I. and for its antiquity.. trans. statesthat their ideas belong to those "stratagems and deviceswhich the Devil hath to deludepeople"(p.Sit vlryprave (The Net of True Faith).of this edition. 69-118.. by Constance Garrett. 117. and consequently the bookis also knownunderthis title.confuted(London. Or. and other forms of oppression.254. 33 In The Kingdomof God Is within You." 28 Chiliasm appeared among the Hussites. The Fifth Monarchy Men were naturally targets of much criticism and hostility. II. See Louise Fargo Brown. don.52. without priest or sacrament. especially pp. III.
quae vindice nullo. governedby His law. op. Christ Himself. It should.law would dissolve in love. The Christianhas only one king. 52-55).I. 89-93. op cit. which should govern the Christians. pagan world. therefore. as is sometimesassumed. pp. p. that this power belongs to the imperfect. for instance. It is clear that modern anarchismhas had its intellectualpredecessors. sin would disappear. A Christian. The Christians.pertain to materialthings and are enforced. sine lege fidem rectumque colebat. reject all secular power. The laws of Christ. No. readily come to mind: "Aurea prima sata est aetas.whereas the laws of Christ pertain to spiritual matters and are accepted on faith.were created by God.szi. cannot participatein it. 48). however. claims Chelcicky.249 on Mon. Sponte sua. cit. nec supplex turba timebat Iudicis ora sui. If the whole world became Christian. nee verba minacia fixo.. or about the relation of anarchism to the philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach (J.or which are only ideas have been fragmentary. the claims about anarchist traits in the Digger movement in England (Nettlau. secular power is necessary. 35 Ovid's words in his Metamorphoseon. while the laws of the State were created by men. and to preserve justice and peace among such people. be pointed out that one may be easily misled into attributing anarchist elements to anti-authoritarian principles which themselvesare only parts of a wider philosophy without any deep affinityto anarchism. Occasionally. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
.52. Poena metusque aberant. Chelcicky does not.254. united by love.when projectedinto
34Consider.35 Among members of some religious sects this attitude was connectedwith the belief in the originalsinlessness of man and his happy existencein Paradise. there would be no kings. and peace would become the rule. being based on a belief in a past Golden Age when human nature was not corrupted and everybody lived in happiness and plenty-a belief which was given classic expression by Ovid. Chelcicky emphasizes. are equal to one another and. people who do not know the perfect law of God and do not live by its precepts. no secular authorities. does good voluntarily. there are many non-Christiansin the world. however. can lead a good life without secular powers."
This content downloaded from 200. Aere legebantur. sed erant sine vindice tuti. and.34 Sometimesthe anti-authoritarian held only vaguely.belonging to the world of God..HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
life of the early Christians.so that he has no need of secular powers and the force which they apply. guided by Christ's law. The laws of the State. material.
L'Anarchie. Emma Goldman. based upon a comprehensive analysisof the economic. 37 See especially his Anarchist Communism: Its Basis and Principles (London.for instance. 1924). ethical and philosophical thought. and G. it gave rise to a belief in the millenniumwhich was to come and returnto man his lost happiness. the analysis of Kropotkin's political theories has been neglected. (Berlin.Stirer. On the whole.320
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the future. A.
This content downloaded from 200. Borovoi and N. 1894). Kropotkin (Peter Kropotkin.249 on Mon.draw mainly on their work. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des politischen Individualismus. Mutual Aid (London. 1950). Elisee Reclus. Collection of Articles Dedicated to the Memory of P.the theoristsof anarchismadhere and some also to anarcho-syndicalmostly to anarcho-communism. sa philosophie.as well as upon scientific. of William Godwin'sAn Enquiry ConcerningPolitical Justice and Its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness. Kropotkin i ego uchenie (Chicago.37
36 For an analysis of Godwin's anarchism see Pierre Ramus. Among Russian sources two deserve special mention: A. after Godwin. there began a systematicelaborationand formulation of moder anarchist thought. 1907). 1898).36 This elaboration and presentationwas effected. William Godwin. and George Woodcock and Ivan Avakunmvi6. Jean Grave. Communisme et anarchie (Paris. Domela Nieuwenhuis. Hamon. 1913).).political and social factors. P.).254. Other anarchist writers.in 1793. Tolstoy. Bakunin. Petr Kropotkin.52. A. Modern Science and Anarchism (London. 1907). 1912). Descendant des Grands Princes de Smolensk.and others. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin (London. There are two (P. Anarchist Morality (London. son ideal (Paris. 1948). P. 1922). 1906). 1896). der Theoretiker des Kommunistischen Anarchismus (Leipzig. Savant illustre. A. AlexanderBerkman. Tucker. William Godwin und die Anfingen des Anarchismus im XVIII Jahrhundert. Page de l'Empereur. 1891). Enrico Malatesta. chiefly by Proudhon. Max Nettlau. and I am now engaged on such a work. and Kropotkin. Lebeder (eds. Ethics (New York. Kropotkin and His Teachings) biographical studies: Fernand Planche and Jean Delphy. A. A. The State: Its Historic Role (London. Revolutionnaire international. A. Kropotkine. Since the latter part of the last century anarchism has taken form advocated by Peter predominantlythe anarcho-communistic whose ideas are in many respects Kropotkin (1842-1921). Vulgarisateur de la Pensde anarchiste (Paris. The Conquest of Bread (London. Sbornik statei posvyashchennyi pamyati P. 1902). 1892). 1931). Les Temps Nouveaux (Paris. Kropotkin) (Moscow. and Helene Saitzeff. III With the publication. Maksimov (ed. Apart from Tolstoy'sreligiousanarchism. ism and anarcho-individualism.
(Paris. 1880. Systeme des contradictions economiques ou philosophie de la misere (Paris. Henri de Lubac. 39 Qu'est-ce que la propriete'? (Paris. 1895). E. La Commune de Paris et la notion de l'Etat (Paris. 1948). George Woodcock. Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865). and Kropotkin's address was published in Le Revolte. The Doctrine of Anarchism of Michael Bakunin (Milwaukee.249 on Mon. 1840). Preface by Bert F.52. P. 1895-1913). 1937). M.). Biographical Sketch by Max Nettlau (Glencoe. Herzen und Ogarjow (Stuttgart. 40 On Bakunin consult his Oeuvres.). 1848). Michael Bakunin (London. La Solution du probleme sociale (Paris. G.). 3 vols. particularlythe State.41 believing that it conveyed the idea of unity or social harmony between individual freedom and a "well-ordered" life.. 1953). 1846). Carr. Anarcho-syndicalism lays emphasison the economic as opposed to the political struggle of the working class. Pyziur. trans. E.254. (Paris.and as the bases of a new economic organizationof society after a victoriousrevolution. God and State. Hoselitz.in which the General Strike is to play intend to abolish the the leading part. 6 vols. 1858). establishedto create and perpetuatethe privileges of some at the expense of others. It believes that the trade unions. 1948). October 17th. Introd. Proudhon (Paris. 1893).38 probablythe first man to call himself an anarchist. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (London. 1899).40 The term "anarchistcommunism"was coined by Peter Kropotkin who first advocated its use at an internationalanarchistcongressin Switzerland in 1880. Wis.39 and Michael Bakunin (1814-1876). trans. Preface by Carlo Cafiero and Elisee Reclus (Boston. Ill. by Rudolf Rocker. 1863). Maksimov (ed. E. De la Justice dans la Revolution et dans l'Eglise. Anarchist communism views the individual as essentially a social being who can achieve full developmentonly in society. 1955). Du principe federatif (Paris.
Proudhon. 1956). 41 This congress was held on October 9th and 10th at Chaux-de-Fonds.can serve both as leading units in the present-daystruggle for the ameliorationof the conditions of the workers. by Benjamin Tucker. Dragomanov (ed.. 212. L'de'e generale de la Revolution au XIXe siecle (Paris. Individual and but complementaryand would social interestsare not contradictory attain their natural harmony if authoritarian social institutions. The Political Philosophy of Bakunin: Scientific Anarchism. 1873 ed. Michail Bakunins Socialpolitischer Briefwechsel mit Alexander Iw. 1851). The Un-Marxian Socialist: A Study of Proudhon. Scantlebury (London. see his Que'est-ce que la propriete'? (Paris. or syndicates. H. On Proudhon consult lduard Dolleans.
This content downloaded from 200. The anarcho-syndicalists State and carry on the activities of society through the syndicates.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
related to those of William Godwin (1756-1836). by R.while society can benefit only when its membersare free. did not interfere. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
E. because they claim the individual's allegiance and thus limit his freedom. and love.43 of anarchistindividualism The two outstandingrepresentatives are Max Stirner (1806-1856) in Germany and Benjamin Tucker (1854-1939) in the United States of America. 1938).249 on Mon. 43 For example. and before the Civil War movement was also in Spain in 1936-1939 the anarcho-syndicalist has produced no that in country. He did not condemn all ideals as useless. Louis.but also against many concepts. Stirer developed his views in Der Einzige und sein Eigentum. 55. principles are someoutstanding in their approach to the times accepted by anarcho-communists economic problemsof society. cit. What Is Anarchism (London. Foreword by Tom Mann and Preface by Peter Kropotkin (Oxford. family. op. country. P. come to the realizationof their own individuality and their own good. The life of the individual. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. Stirer is not only against the State. Syndicalism has been an importantpart of the workingclass movementin France. 1945). Pouget.for the pleasure and happiness of the individual. and everything that would curtail his freedom must be fought against. Anarcho-Syndicalism (London. entitled The Ego and His Own. Rocker.42 Anarcho-syndicalism strong of and its theoretician its own. R. Pataud and E. 11. "Mind your own business!" then becomes the moral law of the anarchist. especially since the congressin Limoges in 1895.and leave when and as they pleased. Men should undergo an inward change. 1913). it is in the pure self-interestof every individual to grant equal liberty to others. Woodcock. Le Syndicalisme contre 'Etat (Paris. for example. Syndicalism and Co-operative Commonwealth. however.52.254. the law and private property. 44 An English translation. published in Leipzig in 1845.322
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associated by industries and localities. Byington. G. Read."which individuals could freely enter to pursuetheir particularinterests.but emphasizedthat they should be pursued for purely egoistic reasons.
This content downloaded from 200. H. 1910). p. The State interfereswith
42 On syndicalism see. and by a violent insurrectionoverthrowthe existing system. was published in New York in 1907. provided he had the power to do so.and not becausethey were a duty. The individual has the right to do whatever he wants. such as God. being intimately linked with that of society.44 The core of his message was the proclamationof the absolute freedom of the individual. p. by Steven T.. Tucker started with the assumption that every man had the right to oppress other men. He advocated an "associationof egoists.
254. Peterburg. men will love. agricultural life.249 on Mon.52. 46 Out of the many books and pamphlets written by Tolstoy. n. such as disobedience of governmental authorities in certain matters of conscience. which is very similar to Chelcicky's." better known as the Doukhobors. Christian Martyrdom in Russia: An Account of the Members of the Universal Brotherhood or Doukhobortsi now Migrating from the Caucasus to
This content downloaded from 200. which would then be gradually established. Tolstoy believes that simple agricultural life best suits human nature and urges return to such a life.47
45 Tucker's views appear in a selection of his articles. police. D. the Christians should support neither the State nor the Church and offer passive resistance to them. by a Man too Busy to Write One: A Fragmentary Exposition of Philosophical Anarchism (New York. and live in peace and harmony without having any use for government. Bienstock (Paris. for the basic statement of his philosophy see The Kingdom of God Is within You. but property in the products of one's own labor is justified. II: Zhivotnaya kniga dukhobortsev (A Fundamental Book of the Doukhobors) (St. adhere to and follow several principles held by Tolstoy. What I Believe (My Religion) (London. armies. trad. 1905). Tucker also admitted the usefulness of a flexible law. Tolstoy emphasizes that it is the teaching of love which is the "fundamental essence of the soul. particularly in cases of violation of personal liberty and of contract. 33. courts. Vladimir Tchertkoff (ed. 47 See V.). man-made laws. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. prisons. referred to above." Only by substituting the law of man for the law of God do men justify violence. help and forgive one another. 1909). 1907?). pacifism. n. The Russian Revolution (London. par J. He advocated peaceful spreading of the anarchist ideas by the printed and spoken word to convince a sufficient number of people of the advantages of anarchism. which should be applied by jury. While living in a corrupted world. Bonch-Bruevich (ed. rejection of an official Church. Instead of a Book. By following the law of God. W.).45 The religious anarchism of Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) follows from his interpretation of the teachings of Christ.46 It may be noted that among our contemporaries the members of the Russian sect of the "Christians of the Universal Brotherhood. vol. 1893). inequality. Materialy k istorii i izucheniu russkago sektanstva i raskola (Materials for the History and Teaching of Russian Sectarianism and Schism).d. L'Pglise et l'Etat. and private property. oppression.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
the freedom of the individual and therefore should be abolished.).
happiness prosperity. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. op. anarchismrefuses to accept such an admission. or both. However.254. is present in anarchismas in early liberalism. Die Theorie des Anarchismus (Berlin. and indeed put anarchismand socialism as antitheses. Solberg. or the social instincts of human nature.324
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IV The affinityof anarchismwith liberalismhas alreadybeen noted in this essay.' then Anarchistssay with Thoreau: 'That governmentis best which governs not at all. 23. p. Introd.anarchismbases its social philosophy of the value of the individual in terms of his on the considerations and freedom.49 Such judgment arises out of the conception of anarchismas a doctrinechampioningthe rights of the individual against the rights of society.' "48 The anarchistsdeny the necessity of governmentbecause of their belief-which most non-anarchistswill dismiss as utopian-that the dictates of reason. cit. if individualsare left to pursuetheir natural desires. 97. will not display the inequalities which the liberals accept as a matter of fact.
48 Rocker. Zenker. 1952). especially p. p. 1899).general benefit will be the result. 2d. while the liberal doctrine has been qualified by the admission that some social authorityis necessaryto lead the "invisiblehand" and see to it that the "natural" laws are not tampered with. enlarged ed. but will result in conditions of equality. by James Mavor (Toronto. containing a Concluding Chapter and Letter by Leo Tolstoy. The same belief that. moreover.52. will secure free.. Karl Diehl. Like liberalism. reflected in socialistic or communistic arrangements... if unhamperedby external coercion. Some writers on the political theory of anarchism. whereas socialism is conceived as a
Canada.249 on Mon. 49E. The Doukhoborsat War (Toronto. 1911). 'That governmentis best which governs least. while accepting its kinship to liberalism. R. Stammler.
This content downloaded from 200. A.g. cit. It still insists on applying the liberal idea of freedom in both the economic and political fields and it extends the liberal plea for a minimum of governmentto a complete negation of government: "When Jefferson clothes the basic concept of Liberalism in the words. harmonious social life. however. Uber Sozialismus. (Jena. John Peter Zubek and P. 1894). Such a life. op. 3. Kommunismus und Anarchismus. deny that anarchism is related to socialismeither as a closely allied doctrine or as a branch of the generalsocialisttheory.
by trying to reach a synthesisand harmony of the individual and communal. Even in this respect. cit.52. the differencesare not such as to violate their basic affinity: in its view of the ultimate "withering away" of the State Marxian socialism is closer to anarchismthan to democraticsocialism. but terrorismwas not condoned by the anarchistmovement as a whole."50 Socialismand anarchismdiffer in their professedaims. or a considerableproportionof. BertrandRussell actually stresses their relation in this respect and says that both arose "from the perception that private capital is a source of tyranny by certain individualsover others. and it was one of Kropotkin'smerits that he paid much attentionto the problemof reconcilingthe individualistic and social proclivitiesin man. as the name implies. and in return will contribute. It is often forgotten that the aim of socialism is to secure for man the greatest happiness and freedom compatible with the equal claims of others. op. like the democratic socialists.249 on Mon. 52.like the Marxists. according to his powers. or social. Socialism aims at a new society based on the common ownership of all. anarchism is opposed to private ownership of land and capital. Although this distinctionmay seem acceptable at first sight. p. The advocacy and practice of individual terrorismby some anarchists. furtherconsiderations upset it. tendencies of human nature. Even the individualistanarchists reach conclusionswhich bring them close to socialists.and the anarchist communists. and as a phenomenonarisingout of extremeindividualism
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. in particular towardsthe end of the last century.while in their advocacy of the means for the transformationof society some anarchists. and others.estrangedthem from the socialists. Like socialism in general..254.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
doctrine emphasizing the rights of society against those of the individual. are again necessarilybrought close to socialists. however. the means of production in orderto create a state in which every individual and distribution. to the benefit of other members of society. This is also the goal of anarchism.particularlythe anarchistcommunismwhich is now practicallythe only anarchisttrend. This is also the aim of anarchism. will receive from society all he needs for the development of his capacities. advocate peaceful means.preach violent revolution.
ed..insistingat firston the word being written as Proudhon did in 1840. until March 2.sensitiveness. Hamon actually speaksof an "anarchist-socialist. According to Kroand potkin. and enlarged with a supplementary chapter by Ralph Derecheff (London. attemptingto determinethe psychologicalcharacteristics of an anarchistby arrangingand analyzingthe answersgiven to questionsby numbersof anarchistsfrom various countries. self-loveor individualism.254. or Felix Dubois.. had. op.which Kropotkinedited in Geneva."and only
51 The terroristic acts of the anarchists naturally attracted much attention.326
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and oppressivesocial and political conditions it has not been confined to the anarchistsalone. See. not mean disorderbut opposition to power.249 on Mon.love were rebelliousness. knowledge. cit. 1879.53 These characteristics could very well be found to be typical of most socialistsand humanitarians.51 In the last century the anarchistsconsideredthemselvespart of the socialist movement and were members of the International WorkingMen's Associationuntil their split with the Marxistsat the Hague Congressof the Internationalin 1872.52. 286-287. 1884. "Anarchism and Individual Terrorism. 54 Ibid. sont-ils des socialistes?" Les Temps Nouveaux. antagonists began archists. Hamon. sense of desire for and logic. 99.came to the conclusionthat the basic psychologicaltraits of an anarchist love of freedom.52 The anarchiststhemselves came to accept this designation. of one's neighborsor altruism. For a more detailed discussion of this problem. XX (May." then two numbersappearedwith the designation"anarchistorgan." and admitsthat these psychologicaltraitscan be found among other anarchists. 271-272. 1895. trans.using the word in a derogatorysense to denounce them as people set on causing disorderand chaos without contemplatingthe consequencesof their actions. Gradually the word was accepted in its present form.anti-authoritarians but their to call them anlater anti-statists." The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science.
This content downloaded from 200. 176-184. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. p. May lth. been designated as a "socialist organ. Paroles d'un revolte (Paris. see my article. the organ of the anarchistJurasianFederation. sense of justice. proselytism. they were at first called federalists.54 In this connection it is interestingto note that Le Revolte. for example.. 1954). 1894). See also his "Les Anarchistes. pp. Psychologie de l'anarchiste-socialiste. Vizetelly. 53 Hamon. A. from its inception on February 22. 52 Kropotkin. to denote that the term did "an-archist". The Anarchist Peril. 1885).
was the expression "anarchist communism" used. 1889. Kropotkin. as one of the schools of socialism. Zola. Spencer. for example. 52 Russell states that anarchism "has arisen mainly within the Socialist movement as its left wing.HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
after that was the expression "communist-anarchist organ" used. On p. regimentation. 1934). New York.58 Besides its appeal to science. rejects any suggestions of being utopian. Recent Political Thought (New York. p.249 on Mon. Whitman. A. Gray. is accepted by most writers on political theories of socialism and anarchism." 58 See." Ency. 1887). Nietzsche. The Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution. Seen as a whole.55 or as the left wing of socialism. Fouille. as far as these can be obtained in the study of man. Similarly. 2. it also points to the anarchist influence in modern art. Les Temps Nouveaux. started with Kropotkin's help in London in October.. and uniformity. II: Marxism and Anarchism.
This content downloaded from 200. In his writings Kropotkin considered anarchism a branch of socialism. Ibsen and others. G. Wagner. op. 873. Lessing. and questions and revolts against everything that tends to produce and worship authority. op55 The Place of Anarchism in Socialistic Evolution (London. Francis W. Cole. Toronto. Together with other branches of socialist thought in the last century." and only in June. Russell. Freedom. 1886. citing as illustrations the names of John Stuart Mill.56 This stand. ignorance. anarchism was a protest against the evils of the growing industrial society-poverty.254. Brit. H. D.57 Modem anarchism. in common with all modem social theories. taken by Kropotkin and reflecting the general attitude of his time. The Socialist Tradition: Moses to Lenin (London. London. see. vol. 18501890 (London. Fichte.52. 1954). 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. cit. referring to it. L'Anarchie. A History of Socialist Thought. literature and philosophy. Guyau. V The kinship of anarchism with socialism helps to explain both its relative strength in the second half of the last century and its decline in the present. for example. 1946). Modern Science and Anarchism. B. I. 56 "Anarchism. began as a "journal of anarchist socialism. for example. 57 Apart from the works already cited. moder anarchism represents a socialist trend which lays emphasis on individual liberty and social justice. Coker. Anarchist Communism. disease. It claims that its conceptions are derived from the analysis of tendencies which are at work in society and that its philosophical and ethical ideas are based on scientific notions. Emerson.
must always be used for the same purpose. At a time when the State excluded vast numbers of people from the rights of citizenship. Much of what they said appeared unrealistic and utopian. it became clear that anarchism misjudged the nature of social forces. Having assumed that the State. and not the replacement of. as the logicians would call it. The impact of this situation was reflected even among the West European Marxists who were accepting parliamentary government. as the economic.328
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pression-and a reaffirmation of the humanitarian principles of freedom.249 on Mon. the political struggle. The great importance today of what we have come to know as the "welfare State" reflects the
59 This has been the case since the latter years of the last century in both the French and German Social Democratic Parties. led them to argue against other socialists on the question of the State and to minimize or decry improvements gained through political means. as a means of political struggle. rather than revolution. Historical development has proceeded in a direction different from that expected by the anarchists. as the anarchists urged it to do. and thus even in the syndicates and trade unions the anarchists were losing their influence. and inevitably declined.52. in particular the nature and potentialities of political power. especially from the time of his controversy with Lenin and Trotsky until his death.59 Moreover. especially towards the end of the last century. and supported the democratic socialists who advocated the necessity of effecting the desired social changes through the machinery of the State. committed by some anarchists.254. However. the anarchists denied a priori any possibility of changing the nature of the State. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. it tended to look upon the economic struggle as a supplement to. born of impotence and inability to face and solve social problems. argued from a definite democratic-socialist position. but also of Kautsky who.
This content downloaded from 200. and as the exercise of political power broadened. social and cultural conditions of the people gradually improved. This genetic fallacy. and alienated even those who might otherwise have been sympathetic. Most of those who might otherwise have seen some attraction in the anarchist arguments were led to reject them. In the latter this trend was typical not only of the "revisionist" Bernstein. it was not difficult for many to accept the anarchist criticisms directed against it. equality and justice. expressed their impatience and frustration. since it arose as a means of oppression of many by a few. Acts of individual terrorism. since the working class was gaining benefits through the State.
HISTORY OF POLITICAL THOUGHT
profounddifferencesbetween the presentconcept of the nature and functionsof the State and the laissez faire concept. economic. particularly in the field of social and political ethics. Indeed.249 on Mon. Mutual Aid.60 It is still of intellectualsignificance. economic. socialanarchismwas compatible only with a less complex. cultural. it may be suggestedthat in some significantrespectswe are adopting again the Aristotelianview of the State. and Ethics is practically unknown. and developingit further. However.254. political and social structureof society. It could be shown that the views developed in them are to a considerable degree of the same nature as those which have provided the ethical backgroundfor some social policies of the modern welfare State.its influence in the industrial countries of the West in the present century has declined to infinitesimal proportions.52. Consequently.presentinga challenge to our thought and making us re-examine our views. anarchism cannot be dismissed as unimportant. 18 Nov 2013 15:24:41 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions
. is only little known. As an opponent of the State. however.
60 This is particularly true of Kropotkin'sMutual Aid and Ethics.
This content downloaded from 200. A university student may attend several courses in sociology and ethics without ever hearing about them. as a libertarian philosophy. and as a champion of small uncompromising groups and conglomerations-political. and therefore more primitive.