Chapter 10

:

CIRCLES

Sub CHAPTER: 10.1 PARTS OF A CIRCLE

What is the locus of a moving object such that its distance from a fixed point is always constant?

Is the ratio of the circumference to the diameter of the ‘ear’ greater than or less than the same ratio for the ‘face’ ?

circumference diameter

circumference diameter

Class Activity
Object Circumference Diameter
circumference diameter

Apparatus:

For any circle,

circumference  is a constant diameter
Usually π is taken to be approximately equal to 3.14 (2 d.p.) or 3.142 (3 d.p.) or

Greek letter

22 7

Introduced by William Jones in 1706

π = 3.14159265358979323846264338327950288419716939937510 5 8 In 2004, it took more than 500 hours for a supercomputer to 2 generate pi to 1.3511 trillion decimal places 0 9 . 7 4 9 4 pi 4 5 9 2 3 0 7 8 1 6 4 9074660328231568084128976071124352843082689980268260

• current world record holder for the memorization of π . • in October 2006, he took 16 hours to recite π to 100 000 d.p.

3.142

π

3

Formula FOR circumference
circumference diameter =π

×

Circumference =

π × diameter

Circumference = π × (2 ×radius)
circumference = πd circumference = 2πr or

circumference Find the circumference circle, given its: a) diameter b) radius

of a

Example 1: Find the circumference of a circle with diameter: 22 (b) 0.7 cm ( π = 3.142 ) 3.142 (a) 14 mm π = 7 7

[

]

14 mm

0.7 cm

Solution: circumference = π d
22 14 × = 7
2

Solution: circumference = πd = 3.142

× 0.7

= 2.199 cm
(3 d.p.)

= 44 mm

Example 2: Find the circumference of a circle with radius: (a) 7 cm

[

π =

22 7

]

(b) 0.5 mm (π = 3.142)
0.5 mm

7 cm

Solution: circumference = 2πr = 2x
22 x7 7

Solution: circumference = 2πr = 2(3.142)( 0.5) = 3.142 mm
(3 d.p.)

= 44 cm

Example: Find the perimeter of the diagram , in cm. (Take π = 3.142 )

70 m

Length of the semicircle = πd

2

= 3.142 x 70 2 = 109.97 Perimeter of the diagram = 70 + 109.97 = 179.97 m

Find the : a) diameter b) radius given the circumference of a circle.

Example: (a) Given that the circumference of a circle is 66 cm. Find the diameter of the circle.

Example: (b) Given that the circumference of a circle is 20π cm. Find the radius of the circle.

[π=

22 7

]
Solution:

Solution: circumference = d=

πd

circumference = 2π r r= circumference

circumference

π

22 = 66 ÷ 7 3 7 = 66 x 22

20π = 2π

= 10 cm

= 21 cm

Arc of a circle
Length of arc Angle at centre = Circumference 360°

Length of arc Angle at centre = 2π r 360°

Find the arc length, given the a) angle at the centre b) radius of a circle.

Length of arc Angle at centre = 2π r 360°

θ θ The length of an arc = × 2π r 360

1. State the angle subtended by the arc

55
O

o

O

140o
O

345o

55o

345o

140o

2. State the angle subtended by the arc

40o

O
O

310

o

O

360o − 40o = 320o

360o − 310o = 50o

360o − 90o = 270o

Example 1: Find the length of arc XY.

[

22 Take π = 7
θ × 2π r 360
72o

]

X

arc XY =

O

72o
7 cm

Y

22 = × 2× ×7 360° 7
= 8.80 cm
(2 d. p.)

Example 2: Find the length of arc AB.
A

[

22 Take π = 7

]

θ arc AB = × 2π r 360

60o

O 9 cm

B

22 = × 2× ×9 360° 7
300o = 47.14 cm
(2 d. p.)

Example 3: Find the perimeter [

22 Take π = 7

]
O
120o
21 c m

Perimeter = arc length + radius + radius

=
=

( (

θ × 2πr + r + r 360

)

120° 22 3 ×2 × ×21 360° 71 3

1

)

+ 21 + 21

= 44 + 21 + 21 = 86 cm

Textbook, Pg. 59 No. 6: Given : OA = 7 cm , AB = 2 cm
O A 52o D B C

Perimeter = arc AD + arc BC + AB + CD

=

(

52° 22 × 2× × 7 + 360° 7

)(

52° 22 ×2× ×9 + 2+ 2 360° 7

)

= 6.356 + 8.171 + 2 + 2 = 18.53 cm
(2d.p.)

Textbook, Pg. 59 No. 7:
E

120o
A 15.4 cm
B

D

C

Perimeter = arc AE + AD + DC + CB + BE

=

(

120° 22 × 2 × × 15.4 + 15.4 + 15.4 + 15.4 + 15.4 360°3 7

1

)

= 32.267 + 15.4 + 15.4 + 15.4 + 15.4 = 93.87 cm
(2d.p.)

Find the angle, given the a) arc length b) radius of a circle.

Length of arc Angle at centre = 2π r 360°
arc length angle at the centre = × 360° 2π r

Example 1: Find the angle subtended at the centre
11
7 cm

[

π =

22 7

]

cm

7 cm

θ=

( arc length )
2π r

× 360°

2 mm

O

180

=

11  360o

22 ×7 7
= 90o

=

11  180o 22 2

Find the radius, given the a) arc length b) angle at the centre of a circle.

Length of arc θ = 2π r 360°

2π r × θ = ( arc length ) × 360°

2πθ r = ( arc length ) × 360°

( arc length ) × 360° r=
2πθ

Example 1: Find the radius (use π = 3.142)

84 6.2

m

r =
40
o

( arc length )
2π θ

× 360°

O

=

6.284  360o 2  3.142  40o

= 9m

Area of a Sector
Area of sector Angle at centre = Area of circle 360°

Area of sector θ = πr 360°
2

θ area of sector = ×π r 360

2

Find the area of a sector, given the g) radius i) angle at the centre

Example 1: Find the area of the shaded region, given : (a) radius = 7 cm

[π=

22 7

]

(b) diameter = 8.4 m (π = 3.142)
O
156o

O

Solution: area = 270° x 22 x 7 x 7 360° 7 = 115.5 cm2

Solution: radius = 8.4 ÷ 2 = 4.2 m area =

156° x 3.142 x 4.2 x 4.2 360°

= 24.02 m2

Example 2 : Calculate the area of the shaded region

[π=

22 7

]

Solution:
c 14 m

Area of shaded region = Area of sector − Area of triangle

O

= 90 × 22 × 14 × 14 − 1 ×14 ×14 2 360 7 = 154 − 98 cm2 = 56 cm2

Textbook, Pg. 72 No. 6

Solution :
5 cm

40

o

Area of shaded region = area of larger sector − area of smaller sector =

12 cm

40° 22 40° 22 × ×5× 5 × × 12 × 12 − 360° 7 360° 7

= 50.286 − 8.730 = 41.56 cm2

Find the angle, given the area of the sector

Area of sector θ = πr 360°
2

area of sector θ= × 360° πr
2

Example 1: Find the angle subtended at the centre

( use π = 3.142 )

7 cm 10 cm

θ=

area of sector  360o πr2 78.57 3.142 10  10

=

 360o

O 78.57 cm2

= 90o

Find the radius, given the area of the sector and the angle at the centre
Area of sector θ = πr 360°
2

θ π r = (area of sector) × 360°
2

area of sector × 360° r = θπ
2

r=

area of sector × 360° θπ

Example 1: Find the radius.

[π=

22 7

]

r=
19.25 m2

( area × 360°) ÷ ( angle × π )

O
180o

22 r = 19.25 × 360° ÷ 180° × 7

(

)

3960 = 6930 ÷ 7
= 6930 × 7 3960

= 12.25 = 3.5 m

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