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Single Replacement Reactions Lab

U n i t 3 : C h e m i c a l R e a c t i o n s

Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to determine which metals are most reactive and to create an order from most reactive to least reactive. Part I: Reactions with Aqueous Solutions Materials: Metals: Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Silver Calcium Solutions: Copper (II) sulfate Silver nitrate Lead (II) nitrate Zinc sulfate Magnesium nitrate

Procedures 1. Using a well plate and the chemical given, determine which reactions will occur between the metals and the solutions. 2. Add to each of the wells a small piece of the appropriate metal which has first been cleaned with sand paper. Note: Your teacher will provide the calcium when you are ready for it. 3. Create a data table to record your observations of before and after reactions. 4. Observe and record any evidence of a replacement reaction (i.e. a thin coating appears on the surface of the metal) occurring each of the test tubes. If no change is visible within five minutes, record this as no reaction Part II: Reactions with Acids Materials: Metals: Copper Magnesium Zinc Silver Lead Calcium

Solution: hydrochloric acid

Procedures: 1. Determine where H+ should be placed on an activity series by comparing the relative amount of bubbling when added to metals. 2. Create a data table and record your results. Part III: Demonstration Your teacher will demonstrate Calcium metal in acid. Write down your observations Data: Cu Cu(NO3)3 NR Mg(NO3)2 NR Zn(NO3)2 NR Pb(NO3)2 NR AgNO3 Slight black grey precipitate Black precipitate Black precipitate Black precipitate NR HCl NR

Mg Zn Pb Ag

Black precipitate Black precipitate NR NR

NR NR NR NR

Black precipitate NR NR Slight white precipitate White precipitate

Black precipitate Black precipitate NR NR

Fizz (reaction) Slight silver precipiate NR NR

Ca

Blue precipitate

White precipitate

White, slight grey precipitate

Black precipitate

White precipitate

Mg (s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq) -> Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + Cu (s) This reaction occurred because based on the activity series, Mg is more active than Cu. However, Mg, the more reactive one, isnt bonded with a nonmetal to give away its electrons in order to become stable. Therefore, a single replacement reaction occurs, and Mg with a 2+ charge bonds with 2 NO3 (each of which has a 1+ charge), forming an aqueous solution, Mg(NO3)2 that has a net zero charge. Cu becomes a solid in the reactants. Cu (s) + Zn(NO3)2 (aq) -> No reaction No reaction occurred. Based on the activity series, Cu is less reactive than Zn. The more reactive Zn is already bonded to NO3, forming the aqueous solution Zn(NO3)2 that has a net zero charge. Therefore, a single replacement reaction will not occur. 6. Mg (s) + Cu(NO3)2 (aq) -> Mg(NO3)2 (aq) + Cu (s) 7. Oxidized: Mg(s) Reduced: Cu2+ (aq) 2+ Oxidizing agent: Cu (aq) Reducing agent: Mg(s) 8. When you place the metal in hydrochloric acid, the bubbles indicated that a gas is produced, and in this case, its hydrogen. This shows that a reaction has occurred. In order for the reaction to occur, the metal placed in the acid has to be more reactive that H2 in the reactivity series. The other test that you conducted is placing the metal in Zinc Chloride solution. A reaction occurred. This indicates that the metal has to be more reactive than Zn in the reactivity series in order for the reaction to occur. The third test that you conducted is placing the metal in calcium nitrate solution. This time no reaction occurred. This indicates that the metal is less reactive than the more reactive metal, calcium, in the reactivity series, as Ca has already bonded to a nonmetal. We can now conclude that the possibilities of the metal are Sodium, Magnesium and Aluminum based on the requirements: more reactive than hydrogen and zinc, but less reactive than calcium. To further identify the metal, we can put the compound in a solution of Mg(NO3)2. If a reaction occurred, it means that the metal is more reactive than Mg and Al, which makes the metal Na.