MODULE 6 Introduction to New materials

6.1 Motivation: Composites: Many of modern technologies require materials with unusual properties, which can’t be met by conventional materials like metals, polymers and ceramics. This led to the development of composite materials. Composites consist of more than one material type. Fiberglass, a combination of glass and a polymer, is an example. Concrete and plywood are other familiar composites. Many new combinations include ceramic fibers in metal or polymer matrix. Wood is best example for natural composite. Ploymers: Because of their immense diversity, we are on the verge of a major expansion in what polymers can do and how we use them. Polymers can conduct electricity and emit light, and be used to produce transistors. They are the basis of the nanotechnology revolution through their use as photoresists. They are used in medical devices and are vital elements in the coming revolution in nano-bio-technology. In the future, polymers can be expected to play a role in almost all technological advances, since we can now control their molecular structure, atom by atom, to form synthetic polymers with uses limited only by our imagination. Nano Materials:A motivation in nanoscience is to try to understand how materials behave when sample sizes are close to atomic dimensions. Size and shape effects leads to unique properties and the opportunity to use such nanostructured materials in novel applications and devices. Phenomena occurring on this length scale are of interest to physicists, chemists, biologists, electrical and mechanical engineers, and computer scientists, making research in nanotechnology a frontier activity in materials science. 6.2 Syllabus: Module 6 Details Introduction to New materials: Composites: Basic concepts of composites, Processing of composites, advantages over metallic materials, various types of composites and their applications. Nano Materials: Introduction, Concepts, synthesis of nano materials, examples, applications and nano composites. Polymers: Basic concepts, Processing methods, advantages and disadvantages over metallic materials, examples and applications. Hrs 4

6.3 Books Recommended: 1. Materials Science and Engineering by William D. Callister, Jr. – Adapted by R. Balasubramaniam. Wiley India (P) Ltd. 2. The Structure and Properties of Materials Vol I: M. G. Moffet, G. T. W. Pearsall & J. Wulff. 3. Material Science and Metallurgy, By V.D. Kodgire. 4. Metallurgy for Engineer- E.C. Rollason - ELBS SOC. And Edward Arnold, London. 5. Mechanical Behaviour of Materials- Courtney- McGraw Hill International New Delhi. 6. Introduction of Engineering Materials, By B.K. Agrawal, McGraw Hill Pub. Co. ltd

6.4 Weightage in University Examination:

Approx 8-10 Marks.

6.5 Objective : After studying this chapter you should be able to do the following: Composites:    To know the different class of materials called composites To study different composites and their strengthening mechanisms with examples. To understand the importance and application of composites.

Ploymers:  To understand the characteristics, applications, and processing of polymeric materials, their mechanical behavior and different methods to improve their performance.

Nano Materials:     Define key terms in nanotechnology Explain some of the ways nanomaterial properties differ from molecules and microscale particles Describe some of the physical and chemical characteristics that can change at the nanoscale Describe some of the major classes of nanomaterials produced today and their properties and potential benefits

the matrix serves two paramount purposes viz.. be conductors or resistors of electricity. when loaded in tension and compression.1Concept of Composite: Fibers or particles embedded in matrix of another material are the best example of modern-day composite materials.6 Composite 6. The demands on matrices are many. A few inorganic materials. To facilitate definition.. They may need to temperature variations. Reinforcing materials generally withstand maximum load and serve the desirable properties. with commendable success. These materials remain elastic till failure occurs and show decreased failure strain.6. the accent is often shifted to the levels at which differentiation take place viz. but in them. Fabrics have no matrix to fall back on. Figure 6. Laminates are composite material where different layers of materials give them the specific character of a composite material having a specific function to perform. binding the reinforcement phases in place and deforming to distribute the stresses among the constituent reinforcement materials under an applied force. microscopic or macroscopic. This may offer weight advantages. In matrix-based structural composites. no clear determination can be really made. which are mostly structural. ease of handling and other merits which may also become applicable depending on the purpose for which matrices are chosen.6. Solids that accommodate stress to incorporate other constituents provide strong bonds for the reinforcing phase are potential matrix materials. though composite types are often distinguishable from one another. Further.1 : Classification of Matrix Materials . fibers of different compositions combine to give them a specific character. have moisture sensitivity etc. polymers and metals have found applications as matrix materials in the designing of structural composites.

7. the region is a distinct added phase. Moreover.2 Advantages and Limitations of Composites Materials  Advantages of Composites Summary of the advantages exhibited by composite materials. 8. thermoplastics have indefinite shelf life. reduced number of intermediate bearings and supporting structural elements. Composite materials can be tailored to comply with a broad range of thermal expansion design requirements and to minimise thermal stresses. 5.1. 6. In some cases. Some composites provide interphases when surfaces dissimilar constituents interact with each other. thermoplastics can also be reformed. Thermoplastics have rapid process cycles. they have low thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion. It is easier to achieve smooth aerodynamic profiles for drag reduction. there are fewer inspections and structural repairs. The fibre pattern can be laid in a manner that will tailor the structure to efficiently sustain the applied loads. This implies high whirling speeds. Like metals. Complex doublecurvature parts with a smooth surface finish can be made in one manufacturing operation. Composite panels do not sustain damage as easily as thin gage sheet metals. 11. The interface is the area of contact between the reinforcement and the matrix materials. 12. . 4. 2. 3. 9. Figure M1. 13. Composites are dimensionally stable i.6. Fibre to fibre redundant load path. making them attractive for high volume commercial applications that traditionally have been the domain of sheet metals. High resistance to impact damage. Whenever there is interphase. The overall part count and manufacturing & assembly costs are thus reduced. which are of significant use in aerospace industry are as follows: 1. Improved dent resistance is normally achieved. Due to greater reliability. Directional tailoring capabilities to meet the design requirements. As enumerated above. there has to be two interphases between each side of the interphase and its adjoint constituent. Composites offer improved torsional stiffness. weight savings are significant ranging from 25-45% of the weight of conventional metallic designs. High ‘strength or stiffness to weight’ ratio. 10. 6. One of the prime considerations in the selection and fabrication of composites is that the constituents should be chemically inert non-reactive. High resistance to fatigue and corrosion degradation. Manufacture and assembly are simplified because of part integration (joint/fastener reduction) thereby reducing cost. Choice of fabrication method depends on matrix properties and the effect of matrix on properties of reinforcements.Composites cannot be made from constituents with divergent linear expansion characteristics.e.1 (f) helps to classify matrices.

3.14. especially Carbon-Carbon. Excellent heat sink properties of composites. therefore. . low toughness. Reuse and disposal may be difficult. 4. 19. 5. The improved weatherability of composites in a marine environment as well as their corrosion resistance and durability reduce the down time for maintenance. The ability to tailor the basic material properties of a Laminate has allowed new approaches to the design of aeroelastic flight structures. 2. Matrix is weak. Transverse properties may be weak. but also into common implements and equipment such as a graphite racquet that has inherent damping. Hot curing is necessary in many cases requiring special tooling. 18. Matrix is subject to environmental degradation 6. 17.  Limitations of Composites Some of the associated disadvantages of advanced composites are as follows: 1. High cost of raw materials and fabrication. Difficult to attach. 1. Analysis is difficult. 15. 16. as is common with metals. Close tolerances can be achieved without machining. combined with their lightweight have extended their use for aircraft brakes. for the following reasons: Materials require refrigerated transport and storage and have limited shelf life. Unidirectional fibre composites have specific tensile strength (ratio of material strength to density) about 4 to 6 times greater than that of steel and aluminium. imperative to briefly compare main characteristics of the two. 3. It is. The above advantages translate not only into airplane. Hot or cold curing takes time. therefore.6.3 Comparison with Metals Requirements governing the choice of materials apply to both metals and reinforced plastics. Repair introduces new problems. Composites are more brittle than wrought metals and thus are more easily damaged. 6.  1. Material is reduced because composite parts and structures are frequently built to shape rather than machined to the required configuration. and causes less fatigue and pain to the user. 2. 4. Improved friction and wear properties. 5.

These two classes are distinguishable based upon strengthening mechanism – dispersion-strengthened composites and particulate composites. High corrosion resistance of fibre composites contributes to reduce life. SAP (sintered aluminium powder) – where aluminium matrix is dispersed with extremely small flakes of alumina (Al2O3).e. In other words. Composites offer lower manufacturing cost principally by reducing significantly the number of detailed parts and expensive technical joints required to form large metal structural components. Here the strengthening occurs at atomic/molecular level i. mechanism of strengthening is similar to that for precipitation hardening in metals where matrix bears the major portion of an applied load. they are less noisy and provide lower vibration transmission than metals.4 Particle-reinforced composites This class of composites is most widely used composites mainly because they are widely available and cheap. Figure 6. 6. 6.010. Fatigue endurance limit of composites may approach 60% of their ultimate tensile strength. They are again two kinds: dispersion-strengthened and particulatereinforced composites. Particulate reinforced composite .2. while dispersoids hinder/impede the motion of dislocations. and can be tailored to meet performance needs and complex design requirements such as aero-elastic loading on the wings and the vertical & the horizontal stabilisers of aircraft. and are of 0. particles are comparatively smaller. 8. 4. Unidirectional composites have specific -modulus (ratio of the material stiffness to density) about 3 to 5 times greater than that of steel and aluminium.cycle cost. 3. As such. Fibre reinforced composites can be designed with excellent structural damping features. Long term service experience of composite material environment and durability behaviour is limited in comparison with metals. 5. Examples: thoria (ThO2) dispersed Ni-alloys (TD Ni-alloys) with high-temperature strength. 7. For steel and aluminium.6. composite parts can eliminate joints/fasteners thereby providing parts simplification and integrated design. In dispersion-strengthened composites.2. Fibre composites are more versatile than metals. this value is considerably lower.1μm in size.

Concrete is most commonly used particulate composite. Length of fibers. stiff but brittle fibers into a softer. more ductile matrix.Figure 6. Particulate reinforced composite Particulate composites are other class of particle-reinforced composites. 6. It is also known as Portland cement concrete. Cermets contain hard ceramic particles dispersed in a metallic matrix. which carry most off the applied load. polymers and ceramics. Eg.3. Polymers are frequently reinforced with various particulate materials such as carbon black.: tungsten carbide (WC) or titanium carbide (TiC) embedded cobalt or nickel used to make cutting tools. Particulate composites are used with all three material types – metals. the highest strength and stiffness are obtained with continuous reinforcement. When added to vulcanized rubber. their orientation and volume fraction in addition to direction of external load application affects the mechanical properties of these composites. These contain large amounts of comparatively coarse particles.5 Fiber-reinforced composites Most fiber-reinforced composites provide improved strength and other mechanical properties and strength-to-weight ratio by incorporating strong. The matrix material acts as a medium to transfer the load to the fibers.6. . carbon black enhances toughness and abrasion resistance of the rubber. These composites are designed to produce unusual combinations of properties rather than to improve the strength. It consists of cement as binding medium and finely dispersed particulates of gravel in addition to fine aggregate (sand) and water. The mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites depend not only on the properties of the fiber but also on the degree of which an applied load is transmitted to the fibers by the matrix phase. Discontinuous fibers are used only when manufacturing economics dictate the use of a process where the fibers must be in this form. Generally. Aluminium alloy castings containing dispersed SiC particles are widely used for automotive applications including pistons and brake applications. The matrix also provides protection to fibers from external loads and atmosphere. Its strength can be increased by additional reinforcement such as steel rods/mesh. These composites are classified as either continuous or discontinuous.

titanium. balsa wood.approximately 100. Typical materials for core are: foamed polymers. and in aircraft for wings. Neither the filler material nor the facing material is strong or rigid. Introduction Nanomaterials are cornerstones of nanoscience and nanotechnology. fuselage and tailplane skins. and other fields. Materials used in their fabrication include: metal sheets. The faces bear most of the in-plane loading and also any transverse bending stresses. usually consists of both homogeneous and composite materials.6 Structural composites These are special class of composites. provides a certain degree of shear rigidity along planes that are perpendicular to the faces. It is already having a significant commercial impact. Nanostructure science and technology is a broad and interdisciplinary area of research and development activity that has been growing explosively worldwide in the past few years.7 Nano Materials 6. inorganic cements. claddings. etc.7. Nanomaterials are of interest because at this scale unique optical. Examples: thin coatings. and other properties emerge. The core serves two functions – it separates the faces and resists deformations perpendicular to the face plane. floors. laminates. electrical. paper.2 What are nanomaterials? Nanoscale materials are defined as a set of substances where at least one dimension is less than approximately 100 nanometers. high strength or light weight. Many laminar composites are designed to increase corrosion resistance while retaining low cost.000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair. bimetallics.6. 6. A nanometer is one millionth of a millimeter . magnetic.7. synthetic rubbers. Sandwich structures are found in many applications like roofs. woven glass fibers embedded in plastic matrix. fiber-reinforced plastics. Two classes of these composites widely used are: laminar composites and sandwich structures. It has the potential for revolutionizing the ways in which materials and products are created and the range and nature of functionalities that can be accessed. Example: corrugated cardboard. These layers are stacked and cemented together according to the requirement. but the composite possesses both properties. steel and plywood. which will assuredly increase in the future. Properties of these composites depend not only on the properties of the constituents but also on geometrical design of various structural elements.1. Laminar composites: there are composed of two-dimensional sheets/layers that have a preferred strength direction. medicine. 6. thicker protective coatings.6. Sandwich structures: these consist of thin layers of a facing material joined to a light weight filler material. These emergent properties have the potential for great impacts in electronics. walls of buildings. Typical face materials include Alalloys. cotton. .

Siegel: zero (atomic clusters. macromolecules or nanoparticles or buckyballs or nanotubes and so on can be synthesized artificially for certain specific materials. filaments and cluster assemblies). at least for some materials. particles). contamination from milling media and/or atmosphere. This has become a popular method to make nanocrystalline materials because of its simplicity. one (multilayers). silica). two dimensional. surface films). Common types of nanomaterials include nanotubes. 1. Similarly. three dimensional nanostructures. According to Siegel. Nanomaterials can be created with various modulation dimensionalities as defined by Richard W. the relatively inexpensive equipment needed. or three dimensions (eg. Classification of Nanomaterials Nanomaterials have extremely small size which having at least one dimension 100 nm or less. and 2. Nanomaterials are materials which are characterized by an ultra fine grain size (< 50 nm) or by a dimensionality limited to 50 nm. to consolidate the powder product without coarsening the nanocrystalline microstructure. and mechanical crystallisation of amorphous . The major advantage often quoted is the possibility for easily scaling up to tonnage quantities of material for various applications. one dimensional. 6. They can also be arranged by methods based on equilibrium or nearequilibrium thermodynamics such as methods of self-organization and self-assembly (sometimes also called bio-mimetic processes). In fact.6.3.. silver nano. mechanical alloying of dissimilar powders. dendrimers. where the material is prepared not by cluster assembly but by the structural decomposition of coarser-grained structures as the result of severe plastic deformation. Here we will review the mechanisms presently believed responsible for formation of nanocrystalline structures by mechanical attrition of single phase powders. tubular.4. the contamination problem is often given as a reason to dismiss the method. Methods for creating nanostructures There are many different ways of creating nanostructures: of course. carbon nanotube.7. strands or fibres). Nanomaterials have applications in the field of nano technology. two (ultrafine-grained overlayers or buried layers). They can exist in single. and the applicability to essentially the synthesis of all classes of materials.e. photocatalyst. aggregated or agglomerated forms with spherical. Nanomaterials can be nanoscale in one dimension (eg. Nanostructured materials are classified as Zero dimensional. the serious problems that are usually cited are. and irregular shapes. fused. synthesized materials can be arranged into useful shapes so that finally the material can be applied to a certain application. a)Mechanical grinding Mechanical attrition is a typical example of ‘top down’ method of synthesis of nanomaterials. and three (nanophase materials consisting of equiaxed nanometer sized grains). two dimensions (eg. Using these methods. quantum dots and fullerenes. and displays different physical chemical characteristics from normal chemicals (i.7. fullerene. carbon nano.

The two important problems of contamination and powder consolidation will be briefly considered. etc. e.g. The energy transferred to the powder from refractory or steel balls depends on the rotational (vibrational) speed. If the mechanical milling imparts sufficient energy to the constituent powders a homogeneous alloy can be formed. As with any process that produces fine particles. 6. elemental or compound powders. size and number of the balls. an adequate step to prevent oxidation is necessary. Proteins.8. the time of milling and the milling atmosphere. planetary ball. Milling in cryogenic liquids can greatly increase the brittleness of the powders influencing the fracture process. or tumbler mills.4 Schematic representation of the principle of mechanical milling Mechanical milling is typically achieved using high energy shaker. Modern scientific tools revolutionized the processing of polymers thus available synthetic polymers like useful plastics. Hence this process is very restrictive for the production of non-oxide materials since then it requires that the milling take place in an inert atmosphere and that the powder particles be handled in an appropriate vacuum system or glove box.1Introduction: Polymers play a very important role in human life. Other naturally occurring polymers like wood. Fig. leather and silk are serving the humankind for many centuries now. the properties of . Based on the energy of the milling process and thermodynamic properties of the constituents the alloy can be rendered amorphous by this processing. This method of synthesis is suitable for producing amorphous or nanocrystalline alloy particles. Nanoparticles are produced by the shear action during grinding.8Polymers 6. rubber. enzymes. As with other engineering materials (metals and ceramics).materials. In fact. 6. rubbers and fiber materials. our body is made of lot of polymers. ratio of the ball to powder mass.

polymethyl methacrylate (plastic lenses or perspex).polymers are related their constituent structural elements and their arrangement. They are formed into a permanent shape and cured or ‘set’ by chemical reactions such as extensive cross-linking. They have a wide range of properties. This chapter introduces classification of polymers. For example. etc. followed by mechanism of deformation and mechanical behavior of polymers. some of which are unattainable from any other materials. bases and moisture. Industrially polymers are classified into two main classes – plastics and elastomers. processing and synthesis of polymers. Most thermosets composed of long chains that are strongly cross-linked (and/or covalently bonded) to one another to form 3-D network structures to form a rigid solid. Most of the polymers are basically organic compounds. linear polymers consist of long molecular chains.2 Polymer types and Polymer synthesis & processing Polymers are classified in several ways – by how the molecules are synthesized. good toughness. Thus thermosets cannot be recycled. polystyrene. etc. Common thermoplasts are: acrylics. They cannot be re-melted or reformed into another shape but decompose upon being heated to too high a temperature. whereas thermoplasts can be recycled.g. or by their chemical family. high dielectric strength (use in electrical insulation).8. by their molecular structure. These materials are normally fabricated by the simultaneous application of heat and pressure. The suffix in polymer ‘mer’ is originated from Greek word meros – which means part. Plastics are again classified in two groups depending on their mechanical and thermal behavior as thermoplasts (thermoplastic polymers) and thermosets (thermosetting polymers). less brittle. however they can be inorganic (e. nylons. 6. and are processed by forming or molding into shapes. and in most cases they are relatively low in cost. Following is the brief list of properties of plastics: light weight. They have the property of increasing plasticity with increasing temperature which breaks the secondary bonds between individual chains. The word polymer is thus coined to mean material consisting of many parts/mers. These are either natural or synthetic. good resistance to acids. linear does not mean straight lines. Thermosets are generally . silicones based on Si-O network). low thermal and electrical conductivity. Plastics are important engineering materials for many reasons. They are linear polymers without any crosslinking in structure where long molecular chains are bonded to each other by secondary bonds and/or inter-wined. The better way to classify polymers is according to their mechanical and thermal behavior. polypropylene. while the branched polymers consist of primary long chains and secondary chains that stem from these main chains. The term thermoset implies that heat is required to permanently set the plastic. PVC. Plastics are moldable organic resins. Thermoplasts: These plastics soften when heated and harden when cooled – processes that are totally reversible and may be repeated. wide range of colors. Thermosets: These plastics require heat and pressure to mold them into shape. However.

This is followed by forming operation. These consist of coillike polymer chains those can reversibly stretch by applying a force. There are number of man-made elastomers in addition to natural rubber. The composition of the macro-molecule is an exact multiple of for that of the original reactant monomer. and return to their original shape when the load is released. bakelite). these are polymers which can undergo large elongations under load. high dimensional stability. unsaturated polyester resins. The synthesis of the large molecule polymers is known as polymerization in which monomer units are joined over and over to become a large molecule. The process for polyethylene is as follows . The large molecules of many commercially useful polymers must be synthesized from substances having smaller molecules.stronger. This forms free radicals with a reactive site that attracts one of the carbon atoms of the monomer. Epoxies. Elastomers: Also known as rubbers. or resins such as epoxies (araldite) are cured at low temperature by the addition of a suitable cross-linking agent. More upon. Raw materials for polymerization are usually derived from coal and petroleum products. properties of a polymer can be enhanced or modified with the addition of special materials. Addition polymerization and condensation polymerization are the two main ways of polymerization. This kind of polymerization involves three distinct stages – initiation. Advantages of thermosets for engineering design applications include one or more of the following: high thermal stability. but more brittle than thermoplasts. When polymerization is nearly complete. A common initiator is benzoyl peroxide. at room temperature. the reactive site is transferred to the other carbon atom in the monomer and a chain begins to form in propagation stage. propagation and termination. phenolics. high electrical and thermal insulating properties and resistance to creep and deformation under load.g. There are two methods whereby cross-linking reaction can be initiated – cross-linking can be accomplished by heating the resin in a suitable mold (e. light weight. vulcanized rubbers. Processing of polymers mainly involves preparing a particular polymer by synthesis of available raw materials. remaining monomers must diffuse a long distance to reach reactive site. To initiate the process. an amine. When this occurs. thus the growth rate decreases. an initiator is added to the monomer. is a process in which multi-functional monomer units are attached one at a time in chainlike fashion to form linear/3-D macro-molecules. and amino resins (ureas and melamines) are examples of thermosets. also known as chain reaction polymerization. high rigidity. followed by forming into various shapes. Addition polymerization.

as follows As we need polymers with controlled molecular weight. polymerization needs to be terminated at some stage.Here R. the active ends of two propagating chains may react or link together to form a non-reactive molecule. as follows: . as follows: thus terminating the growth of each chain or an active chain end may react with an initiator or other chemical species having a single active bond. again for polyethylene. First. Propagation involves the linear growth of the molecule as monomer units become attached to one another in succession to produce the chain molecule. which is represented. Propagation may end or terminate in different ways. represents the active initiator.

polycarbonates etc are produced by condensation polymerization. polypropylene. rather than the weight fraction. The by-product. The intermolecular reaction occurs every time a mer repeat unit is formed. Average molecular weight is however defined in two ways. nylons. Polymers. which is eliminated. Reaction times for condensation are generally longer than for addition polymerization. Condensation polymerization reactions also occur in sol-gel processing of ceramic materials. Weight average molecular weight is obtained by dividing the chains into size ranges and determining the fraction of chains having molecular weights within that range. Polyethylene. Some polymers such as nylon may be polymerized by either technique. It is always smaller than the weight average molecular weight. is condensed off and the two monomers combine to produce a larger molecule (mer repeat unit). Number average molecular weight is based on the number fraction. PVC. in this case. and there is usually a small molecular weight by-product such as water. It is specified in terms of degree of polymerization – number of repeat units in the chain or ration of average molecular weight of polymer to molecular weight of repeat unit. involves more than one monomer species. methyl alcohol. and no product has the chemical formula of mere one mer repeat unit.with the resultant cessation of chain growth. the intermolecular reaction is as follows: This stepwise process is successively repeated. Another example. and polystyrene are synthesized using addition polymerization. producing. do not have a fixed molecular weight. Condensation polymerization. also known as step growth polymerization. . a linear molecule. unlike organic/inorganic compounds. consider the formation of a polyester from the reaction between ethylene glycol and adipic acid. The repeat unit here forms from original monomers. of the chains within each size range. The polymerization of dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol to produce polyester is an important example. Polyesters. phenolformaldehyde.

Colorants impart a specific color to a polymer. ductility and toughness of polymers by lowering glass transition temperature of a polymer. stabilizers. Polymers are often formed at elevated temperatures under pressure. talc etc are example for fillers. and flame retardants.5 shows a typical mould employed for compression molding. Thermosets are formed in two stages – making liquid polymer. Fillers are used to improve tensile and compressive strength. plasticizers. These include – fillers. causing viscous plastic to attain the mold shape. and (d) shape and intricacy of the product.e. Figure 6. Different molding techniques are employed in fabrication of polymers. radiation. Stabilizers are additives which counteract deteriorative processes such as oxidation. Foreign substances called additives are intentionally introduced to enhance or modify these properties. abrasion resistance. characteristic of a specific polymer. and heat and pressure are applied. dimensional stability etc. Polymeric materials are formed by quite many different techniques depending on (a) whether the material is thermoplast or thermoset. Thermoplasts are formed above their glass transition temperatures while applied pressure ensures that the product retain its shape.Most of polymer properties are intrinsic i. These are generally liquids of low molecular weight. Compression molding involves placing appropriate amount of polymer with additives between heated male and female mold parts. (b) melting/degradation temperature. Flame retardants are used to enhance flammability resistance of combustible polymers. They serve the purpose by interfering with the combustion through the gas phase or chemical reaction. then molding it. After pouring polymer. added in form of either dyes (dissolves) or pigments (remains as a separate phase). sand. and environmental deterioration. (c) atmospheric stability. Plasticizers aid in improving flexibility. Figure-6. colorants.5: Schematic diagram of a mould employed for compression molding . mold is closed. clay. wood flour.

palletized materials is fed with use of hopper into a cylinder where charge is pushed towards heating chamber where plastic material melts.6 Figure 6. The schematic diagram of a simple extrusion machine is shown in figure. When the mold is closed. in which a thermoplastic material is forced through a die orifice. and then molten plastic is impelled through nozzle into the enclosed mold cavity where product attains its shape. where and molded material cures.Transfer molding differs from compression molding in how the materials is introduced into the mold cavities.6. In injection molding. This technique is especially adapted to produce continuous lengths with constant cross-section.7: Schematic diagram of a simple extrusion machine . a plunger forces the plastic resin into the mold cavities. similar to the extrusion of metals.6: Schematic diagram of injection-molding machine Extrusion is another kind of injection molding.7 Figure 6. In transfer molding the plastic resin is not fed directly into the mold cavity but into a chamber outside the mold cavities. Most outstanding characteristic of this process is the cycle time which is very short. The schematic diagram of injection-molding machine is shown in figure-6.

Blow molding of plastics is similar to blowing of glass bottles. lawn and garden equipment. flammable and soluble in some organic solvents. chemical pipes and valves. abrasion resistance. Application: Lenses. outdoor signs 3. Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS): Characteristics: Outstanding strength and toughness. low strength and poor resistance to weathering. drafting equipment. Acrylics (poly-methyl-methacrylate) Characteristics: Outstanding light transmission and resistance to weathering. good electrical properties. handles. Polyamides (nylons) Characteristics: Good mechanical strength. Fluorocarbons (PTFE or TFE) Characteristics: Chemically inert in almost all environments. very good impact resistance and ductility. Polyethylene Characteristics: Chemically resistant and electrically insulating. high temperature electronic parts. bushings.3 Characteristics and typical applications of few plastic materials. cams. Application: Safety helmets. . 2. Application: Anticorrosive seals. excellent electrical properties. and jacketing for wires and cables 5. may be used to 260o C. a) Thermo plastics 1. gears. lenses light globes. and toughness. Application: Refrigerator lining. highway safety devices. bearings. 6. transparent aircraft enclosures. base for photographic film 6. low coefficient of friction.8. absorbs water and some other liquids. resistance to heat distortion. tough and relatively low coefficient of friction. anti adhesive coatings. low coefficient of friction. 4. Polymeric materials may be cast similar to metals and ceramics. only fair mechanical properties. transparent. Polycarbonates Characteristics: Dimensionally stable: low water absorption. relatively weak and poor cold-flow properties. toys. Application: Bearings.

electrical fixtures. relatively inexpensive. fillers. ice trays. oils and solvents Application: Magnetic recording tapes. TV cabinets. 7. 9. adhesives. good thermal and dimensional stability. greases. Polypropylene Characteristics: Resistant to heat distortion. Application: Motor housing. etc. indoor lighting panels. packaging film. automotive tire cords. telephones. toys. sinks. auto distributors. appliance housings. relatively inexpensive. may be compounded with a large number of resins. 2. Epoxies Characteristics: Excellent combination of mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. excellent electrical properties and fatigue strength. Application: Sterilizable bottles. Application: Electrical moldings. tumblers. protective coatings. toys. good adhesion. relatively inexpensive Application: Wall tile. excellent fatigue and tear strength. Phenolics Characteristics: Excellent thermal stability to over 150o C. dimensionally stable. poor resistance to UV light. good electrical properties. used with fiberglass laminates. Polyester (PET or PETE) Characteristics: One of the toughest of plastic films. and resistance to humidity acids. Polystyrene Characteristics: Excellent electrical properties and optical clarity. inexpensive. clothing. .Application: Flexible bottles. b) Thermo setting polymers 1. battery parts.. luggage 8. beverage containers. chemically inert. film wrapping materials. battery cases.

Usually stronger constituent of a composite is (a) Matrix (c) Both are of equal strength (b) Reinforcement (d) Can’t define 5. Composite materials are classified based on: (a) Type of matrix (c) Both (b) Size-and-shape of reinforcement (d) None 2. Rule-of-mixture provides _________ bounds for mechanical properties of particulate composites.6.1 mm (d) None 7.1 nm (c) 0. Al-alloys for engine/automobile parts are reinforced to increase their (a) Strength (b) Wear resistance (c) Elastic modulus (d) Density 9. Usually softer constituent of a composite is (a) Matrix (c) Both are of equal strength (b) Reinforcement (d) Can’t define 4.01-0. Major load carrier in dispersion-strengthened composites (a) Matrix (b) Fiber (c) Both (d) Can’t define 3.01-0. Mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites depend on (a) Properties of constituents (c) Fiber length.1 μm (b) 0. Last constituent to fail in fiber reinforced composites (a) Matrix (c) Both fails at same time (b) Fiber (d) Can’t define 6. orientation. and volume fraction (b) Interface strength (d) All the above .9 Multiple Choice Questions: 1. Size range of dispersoids used in dispersion strengthened composites (a) 0. (a) Lower (b) Upper (c) Both (d) None 8.01-0.

Not an example for laminar composite (a) Wood (b) Bimetallic (c) Coatings/Paints (d) Claddings 13.10. These polymers consist of coil-like polymer chains: (a) Thermoplasts (b) Thermosets (c) Elastomers (d) All polymers 19. One of characteristic properties of polymer material __________ . (a) Single entity (b) Two entities (c) Multiple entities (d) Any entity 14. In general. (a) Thermoplasts (b) Thermosets (c) Elastomers (d) All polymers 18. Polymers are ___________ in nature. (a) Organic (b) Inorganic (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None 16. These polymers can not be recycled: (a) Thermoplasts (c) Elastomers (b) Thermosets (d) All polymers 17. The word ‘polymer’ meant for material made from ______________. The following material can be used for filling in sandwich structures (a) Polymers (b) Cement (c) Wood (d) All 12. strongest polymer group is __________ . Longitudinal strength of fiber reinforced composite is mainly influenced by (a) Fiber strength (c) Fiber volume fraction (b) Fiber orientation (d) Fiber length 11. (a) High temperature stability (c) High elongation (b) High mechanical strength (d) Low hardness 15. Strong covalent bonds exists between polymer chains in __________ . (a) Thermoplasts (b) Thermosets (c) Elastomers (d) All polymers 20. Following is the unique to polymeric materials: (a) Elasticity (b) Viscoelasticity (c) Plasticity (d) None .

c 20. 5. Briefly describe the crystalline state in polymeric materials. c 14. 2. (a) Slight adjust of molecular chains (c) Straightening of molecular chains (b) Slippage of molecular chains (d) Severe of Covalent bonds 22. Kevlar is commercial name for ___________ . What are composites? Why do we need composites? How the composites are made? How the presence of dispersed phase improves the properties? What are structural composites? Cite the differences in behavior and molecular structure for thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. a 19. a 10. b 6. a 17. 8. . c 5. b 15.21. Describe a typical polymer molecule in terms of its chain structure and. 7.10 Theory Questions 1. b 11. c 2. 6. d 16. c 21. in addition. 4. how the molecule may be generated from repeat units. b 3. a 9. (a) Glass fibers (c) Aramid fibers (b) Carbon fibers (d) Cermets Answers: 1. c 8. c 22. a 6. b 4. d 18. b 7. Elastic deformation in polymers is due to _____________ . a 12. a 13. 3.

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