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Active Power: Active power is the real power (kW) supplied by the generator set to the

electrical load. Active power creates a load on the generator set's engine and is limited by the horse power of the engine. Active power does the work of heating, turning motor shafts, etc.

From the figure, it can be deduced that (!otal "ower) # $ (!rue "ower) # % (&eactive "ower) # 'r (()A) # $ ((W) # % (()A&) #

AC: Alternating *urrent (A*) is electric current that alternates between a positive ma+imum
value and a negative ma+imum value at a characteristic fre,uency, usually -. or /. cycles per second (0ert1).

ANSI: American 2ational 3tandards 4nstitute. Air Circuit Breaker: An air circuit breaker automatically interrupts the current flowing
through it when the current e+ceeds the trip rating of the breaker. Air is the medium of electrical insulation between electrically live parts and grounded (earthed) metal parts.

Alternating Current (AC, ac): An electrical current that periodically changes in


magnitude and in direction of the current.

Alternator (or ac generator): An electromechanical device which transforms mechanical


energy into electrical energy 5 an alternating current. )ery early users called this a dynamo.

Ammeter: An instrument for measuring ac or dc electrical current in a circuit. 6nless


magnetically coupled, it must be placed in the current path so the flow is through the meter.

Ampere (A): !he unit of measurement for electrical current in coulombs (/.7- + 8.89
electrons) per second. 'ne ampere results in a circuit that has one ohm resistance when one volt is applied to the circuit. 3ee 'hm's law.

Amplifier: An electrical circuit designed to increase the current, voltage, or power of an


applied signal.

Analog Multi-Meter: A piece of test e,uipment that can measure volts, ohms, amps, and
other electrical characteristics and displays the reading by moving a needle over a fi+ed scale on a face plate.

Analog-to- igital Conver!ion or Converter (A C or A" ): !he process of


converting a sampled analog signal to a digital code that represents the amplitude of the original signal sample.

Au#io an# au#io fre$uenc% (A&): !he range of fre,uencies normally heard by the human
ear. !ypically, about 7. to 7.,... 01

Apparent Power: Apparent power is the product of current and voltage, e+pressed as ()A.
4t is real power (kW) divided by the power factor ("F).

Armature: !he armature of an A* generator is the assembly of windings and metal core
laminations in which the output voltage is induced. 4t is the stationary part (stator) in a revolving5 field generator.

Ban#wi#t': !he amount of data that can be transmitted in a fi+ed amount of time, for digital
devices, it is e+pressed as bits per second, or bytes per second. For analog devices, it is usually e+pressed as cycles per second, or 0ert1.

Ba!e (oa#: :ase load is that portion of a building load demand which is constant. 4t is the
;base; of the building demand curve.

Bau# )ate: !he speed of data transmission in serial data communications appro+imately
e,ual to the number of code elements (bits) per second (:"3). :its per second are also termed :"3, with the prefi+ (k) denoting thousands.

Bu!: :us can refer to the current5carrying copper bars that connect the A* generators and loads
in a paralleling system, to the paralleled output of the A* generators in a system or to a feeder in an electrical distribution system.

Bu! Bar!: :us :ars are rectangular copper or aluminum bars that connect the output of the
generator set circuit breakers to the transfer switches, circuit breakers, or fusible switches that transfer power to the load. !he bus bars are si1ed and assembled in multiples according to the current they must carry under load. A typical si1ing criterion for copper bus bars rated from -..5 -,... amps is to maintain a current density of 8,... amps per s,uare inch of cross5sectional area. !his results in a bus temperature rise at full load that is within acceptable limits.

Bu! Capacit%: :us capacity is the ma+imum load that can be carried on a system without
causing degradation of the generator fre,uency to less than a prescribed level (usually -< 01 in a /. 01 system).

Capacitance (C): !he capability to store charge in an electrostatic field. 4t can be e+pressed
as e,ual to the charge = in coulombs that is stored divided by the voltage > in volts that supplied the charge. *apacitance tends to oppose any change in voltage. !he unit is farads.

Capacitive )eactance (*C): !he opposition that a capacitor offers to a time changing
signal or supplied voltage. 4ts value is ?* $ 8@7pf*

Capacitor (C): A device made up of two metallic plates separated by a dielectric or insulating
material. 6sed to store electrical energy in the electrostatic field between the plates.

C+ (Current +ran!former): *urrent transformers are instrument transformers used in


conAunction with ammeters, control circuits and protective relaying. !hey usually have - ampere secondaries.

Circuit: A circuit is a path for an electric current across a potential (voltage). Circuit Breaker: A circuit breaker is a protective device that automatically interrupts the
current flowing through it when that current e+ceeds a certain value for a specified period of time. 3ee Air *ircuit :reaker, Bain :reaker, Bolded *ase *ircuit :reaker and "ower *ircuit :reaker.

Current: *urrent is the flow of electric charge. 4ts unit of measure is the ampere. Current (imiting &u!e: A current limiting fuse is a fast5acting device that, when
interrupting currents in its current5limiting range, will substantially reduce the magnitude of current, typically within one5half cycle, that would otherwise flow.

C%cle: A cycle is one complete reversal of an alternating current or voltage from 1ero to a
positive ma+imum to 1ero again and then from 1ero to a negative ma+imum to 1ero again. !he number of cycles per second is the fre,uency.

ea# Bu!: Cead :us refers to the de5energi1ed state of the power connections between outputs of paralleled generator sets. !he term bus in this usage can either be rigid solid bus bars or insulated fle+ible cables. elta Connection: Celta connection refers to a three phase connection in which the start of each phase is connected to the end of the ne+t phase, forming the triangle5shaped Dreek letter Celta. !he load lines are connected to the corners of the triangle.

eviation &actor: !he deviation factor is the ma+imum instantaneous deviation, in percent, of the generator voltage from a true sine wave of the same &B3 value and fre,uency. ielectric Strengt': Cielectric strength is the ability of insulation to withstand voltage
without breaking down.

ifferential )ela%: A differential relay is a protective device that is fed by current transformers located at two different series points in the electrical system. !he differential relay compares the currents and picks up when there is a difference in the two, which signifies a fault in the 1one of protection. !hese devices are typically used to protect windings in generators or transformers. igital Multi-Meter: A piece of test e,uipment that can measure volts, ohms, amps, and
other electrical characteristics and displays the reading on an E*C or E>C's.

igital Signal: A signal whose level has only discrete values, like on or off, 8 or ., %-v or
%..7v.

igital to Analog Conver!ion (or Converter) ( AC or


digital input signals and converts them to an analog output signal.

"a): A circuit that accepts

io#e: A device which has two terminals and has a high resistance to current in one direction
and a low resistance to current in the other direction.

irect Current ( C, #c): *urrent in a circuit in one direction only. Cirect current is current
with no reversals in polarity.

i!tri,ute# Control S%!tem: A collection of nodes that interact to control a system whose
components are spread out over some distance. >ach node has intelligence for operating its own particular component of the system. Cifferent parts of the system communicate status and control information with one another to form a distributed control system. !ypically, they communicate on a peer5to5peer level. !his is different from a type of system where all control and interaction between components is dictated by one central control. !his is a common master@slave arrangement.

i!tri,ution Circuit Breaker: A distribution circuit breaker is a device used for overload and short current protection of loads connected to a main distribution device. -fficienc% (-&&): >fficiency is the ratio of energy output to energy input, such as the ratio
between the electrical energy input to a motor and the mechanical energy output at the shaft of the motor.

-ffective .alue: !he value of ac current that will produce the same heating effect in a load
resistor as the corresponding value of dc current.

-lectricit%: A form of energy produced by the flow of electrons through materials and devices
under the influence of an electromotive force produced electro5statically, mechanically, chemically or thermally.

-nerg%: >nergy is manifest in forms such as electricity, heat, light and the capacity to do work.
4t is convertible from one form to another, such as in a generator set, which converts rotating mechanical energy into electrical energy. !ypical units of energy are kW@h, :tu (:ritish thermal unit), 0p@h, ft@lbf, Aoule and calorie.

-/citer: An e+citer is a device that supplies direct current (C*) to the field coils of a
synchronous generator, producing the magnetic flu+ re,uired for inducing output voltage in the armature coils (stator). 3ee Field.

&ault: A fault is any unintended flow of current outside its intended circuit path in an electrical
system.

&i,er 0ptic Ca,le: A technology using glass or plastic threads (fibers) to transmit data. A
fiber optic cable is a bundle of either glass or plastic threads capable of transmitting messages modulated into light waves. !ypically, fiber optic cable has greater bandwidth allowing them to carry more data than metal wires. Fiber optic cable is lighter and less susceptible to interference than metal wires. Also, data can be transmitted digitally rather being transformed into analog data for transmission as is the case with metal wires when used for computer data transmission. Fiber optics is becoming increasingly more common for use with Eocal5Area 2etworks (EA2s).

&iel#: !he generator field (rotor) consists of a multi5pole electromagnet which induces output
voltage in the armature coils (stator) of the generator when it is rotated by the engine. !he field is energi1ed by C* supplied by the e+citer.

&ilter: A circuit element or group of components which passes signals of certain fre,uencies
while blocking signals of other fre,uencies.

&re$uenc%: Fre,uency is the number of complete cycles per unit of time of any periodically
varying ,uantity, such as alternating voltage or current. 4t is usually e+pressed as (01) 0ert1 or *"3 (cycles per second).

1atewa%: A device that acts as an interface between two different communication protocols.
!he 2etwork Dateway Bodule (2DB) provides a communication protocol that a "* can understand. 'ther gateway devices may be used to interface between our Eon talk protocol and other systems such as a 3*ACA or :uilding Automation 3ystem. !ypically, a gateway becomes necessary when a 3*ACA or :A3 does not have a driver developed for Eon talk.

1enerator: A generator is a machine which converts rotating mechanical energy into


electrical energy.

1overnor: A governor is a device on the engine which controls fuel to maintain a constant
engine speed under various load conditions. !he governor must have provision for adAusting speed (generator fre,uency) and speed droop (no load to full load).

1ri#: !he utility5owned power distribution system. 1roun#: A ground is a connection, either intentional or accidental, between an electrical
circuit and the earth or some conducting body serving in place of the earth.

2armonic

i!tortion (+otal 2armonic i!tortion): !otal harmonic distortion is an e+pression of the total harmonic content of a voltage waveform. !he harmonic distortion (or harmonic content) of a waveform is usually e+pressed as the s,uare root of the sum of the s,uares of each of the harmonic amplitudes (with amplitudes as a percent of the fundamental voltage amplitude). 2armonic!: 0armonics are voltage or current components which operate at integral multiples
of the fundamental fre,uency of a power system (-. or /. 0ert1). 0armonic currents have the effect of distorting the shape of the voltage wave form from that of a pure sine wave.

2ert3 (23): !he term 0ert1 is the preferred designation for cycles per second (*"3) and is
used to describe fre,uency.

2u,: A common connection point for devices or nodes in a network or sub5network. 0ubs are
commonly used to connect segments of a EA2 and contain multiple ports.

Impe#ance (4): 4n a circuit, the opposition that circuit elements present alternating current.
!he impedance includes both resistance and reactance.

In#uctance ((): !he capability of a coil to store energy in a magnetic field surrounding it
which results in a property that tends to oppose any change in the e+isting current in the coil.

In#uctive )eactance (*(): !he opposition that an inductance offers when there is an ac or
pulsating dc in a circuit. ?E $ 7pfE

Input Impe#ance: !he impedance seen by a source when a device or circuit is connected
across the source.

In!ulation: 4nsulation is non5conductive material used to prevent leakage of electric current


from a conductor. !here are several classes of insulation in use for generator construction, each recogni1ed for a ma+imum continuous5duty temperature.

56 (oa# Sen!or: !he kW load sensor is an electronic device provided to sense kW level at
various points in a system, for use in control functions within the system, such as kW load alarms, or load demand.

5.A (kilo-.olt-Ampere!): ()A is a term for rating electrical devices. A device's ()A
rating is e,ual to its rated output in amperes multiplied by its rated operating voltage. 4n the case of three5phase generator sets, ()A is the kW output rating divided by ..9, the rated power factor. ()A is the vector sum of the active power (kW) and the reactive power (()A&) flowing in a circuit.

5.A): ()A& (kilo5)olt5Amperes &eactive) is the product of the voltage and the amperage
re,uired to e+cite inductive circuits. 4t is associated with the reactive power which flows between paralleled generator windings and between generators and load windings that supply the magneti1ing currents necessary in the operation of transformers, motors and other electromagnetic loads. &eactive power does not load the generator set's engine but does limit the generator thermally.

56: !his is an abbreviation for kilowatt, an alternate term for rating electrical devices.
Denerator sets in the 6nited 3tates are usually rated in kW. 3ometimes called active power, kW loads the generator set engine.

56-' (kilo-6att-'our): !his is a unit of electric energy. 4t is e,uivalent to one kW of


electric power supplied for one hour.

(agging Power &actor: Eagging power factor in A* circuits (a power factor of less than
8..) is caused by inductive loads, such as motors and transformers, which cause the current to lag behind the voltage. 3ee "ower Factor.

(ea#ing Power &actor: Eeading power factor in A* circuits (... to 58..) is caused by
capacitive loads or overe+cited synchronous motors which cause the current to lead the voltage. 3ee "ower Factor.

(ine-+o-(ine .oltage: Eine5to5line voltage is the voltage between any two phases of an A*
generator.

(ine-+o-Neutral .oltage: 4n a F5phase, G5wire, H5connected generator, line5to5neutral


voltage is the voltage between a phase and the common neutral where the three phases are tied together.

(oa#

eman#: Eoad Cemand is a paralleling system operating mode in which the system monitors the total kW output of the generator sets, and controls the number of operating sets as a function of the total load on the system. !he purpose of load demand controls is to reduce fuel consumption and limit problems caused by light load operation of reciprocating diesel generator sets. (oa# &actor: !he load factor is the ratio of the average load to the generator set power rating. "arts. Bolded case circuit breakers usually contain thermal5magnetic trip units, although larger si1es can be e,uipped with solid state trip sensors. !his document is the most commonly referenced general electrical standard in the 6nited 3tates. N-MA: 2ational >lectrical Banufacturers Association N&PA: 2ational Fire "rotection Association 0'm (7): !he unit of electrical resistance. A circuit component has a resistance of one ohm
when one volt applied to the component produces a current of one ampere.

0'm!-Per-.olt: !he sensitivity rating for an analog voltmeter. Also e+presses the impedance
(resistance) presented to a circuit by the meter when a voltage measurement is made.

0'm8! (aw: !he law stating that the direct current flowing in a conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference between its ends. 4t is usually formulated as ) $ 4&, where ) is the potential difference, or voltage, 4 is the current, and & is the resistance of the conductor.

0pen Circuit: An incomplete path for current. 0!cillation: A sustained condition of continuous operation where the circuit outputs a constant
signal at a fre,uency determined by circuit constants and as a result of positive or regenerative feedback.

Peak (oa#: "eak load is the highest point in the kilowatt demand curve of a facility. !his is
used as the basis for the utility company's demand charge.

P'a!e Angle: "hase angle refers to the relation between two sine waves which do not pass
through 1ero at the same time. *onsidering one full cycle to be F/. degrees, the phase angle e+presses how far apart the two waves are in relation to each other in degrees.

P'a!e )otation: "hase rotation (or phase se,uence) describes the order (A5:5*, &535!, or 65
)5W) of the phase voltages at the output terminals of a three5phase generator. !he generator phase rotation must match the facility phase rotation. !his must be checked prior to operation of the electrical loads in a facility with an on5site generator.

Power: "ower refers to the rate of performing work or of e+pending energy. !ypically,
mechanical power is e+pressed in terms of horsepower and electrical power in terms of kilowatts. 'ne kW e,uals 8.FG hp.

Power &actor: "ower factor is the cosine of the angle between the active power (kW) and
apparent power (()A) in a circuit.

Protocol: A set of rules used mutually by two or more devices to communicate. Also, known
as the ;language; used in a network.

)eactance: &eactance is the opposition to the flow of current in A* circuits caused by


inductances and capacitances. 4t is e+pressed in terms of ohms and its symbol is ?.

)eactive Power: &eactive power is power that flows back and forth between the inductive
windings of the generator and the inductive windings of motors, transformers, etc., which are part of the electrical load. !his power does no useful work in the electrical load not does it present load to the engine. 4t does apply load to the generator and limits the capacity of the generator.

)eal PowerI &eal power is the product of *urrent, voltage and power factor (the cosine of the
angle by which current leads or lags voltage) and is e+pressed as W (watts).

)ela%: A device in which a set of contacts is opened or closed by a mechanical force supplied
by turning on current in an electromagnet. !he contacts are isolated from the electromagnet.

)e!i!tance: &esistance is the opposition to the flow of current in C* and A* circuits. 4t is


e+pressed in ohms and its symbol is &.

Sine (!inu!oi#al) 6ave: A waveform whose amplitude at any time through a rotation of an
angle from .J to F/.J is a function of the sine of an angle.

Step- own +ran!former: A transformer in which the secondary winding has fewer turns
than the primary.

Step-9p +ran!former: A transformer in which the secondary winding has more turns than
the primary.

Starting Current: !he initial value of current drawn by a motor when it is started from
standstill.

Stator: !he stator is the stationary part of a generator or motor. 3ee Armature.

Stea#% State )ating: 3teady state rating is the ma+imum load that a generator set or
paralleling system can carry, on a continuous basis, for the duration of a utility power outage.

Surge: 3urge is the sudden rise in voltage in a system, usually caused by load disconnect. S%nc'roni3ation: 4n a paralleling application, synchroni1ation is obtained when an incoming
generator set is matched with and in step to the same fre,uency, voltage, and phase se,uence as the operating power source.

S%nc'roni3er: A synchroni1er is an electronic device that monitors the phase relationship


between two voltage sources and provides a connection signal to an engine governor, to force the generator set to synchroni1e to the system bus.

S%nc'ronou! 1enerator: A synchronous generator is an A* generator having a C* e+citer.


3ynchronous generators are used as stand5alone generators for emergency power and can also be paralleled with other synchronous generators and the utility system.

+ran!former: A set of coils wound on an iron core in which a magnetic field couples energy
between two or more coils or windings.

+ran!i!tor: A three5terminal semiconductor device used in circuits to amplify electrical


signals or to perform as a switch to provide digital functions.

.olt: !he volt is a unit of electrical potential. A potential of one volt will cause a current of one
ampere to flow through a resistance of one ohm.

.oltage )egulation: )oltage regulation is a measure that states the difference between
ma+imum and minimum steady5state voltage as a percentage of nominal voltage.

6att: !he watt is a unit of electric power. 4n direct current (C*) circuits, wattage e,uals
voltage timeKs amperage. 4n alternating current (A*) circuits, wattage e,uals effective (&B3) voltage times effective (&B3) amperage timeKs power factor times a constant dependent on the number of phases. 8,... watts e,ual one kW.

6att-2our Meter: A watt5hour meter records the total power output at a specific point in a
system. !ypical recording increment is in kW5hours.

6attmeter: A wattmeter records power being delivered from a source to the load. Wattmeters
for paralleling systems are calibrated in kilowatts (kW).