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of Measurements

Tomasz Okon, Kazimierz Wilkosz

Institute of Electrical Power Engineering Wroclaw University of Technology Wroclaw, Poland tomasz.okon@pwr.wroc.pl, kazimierz.wilkosz@pwr.wroc.pl

Abstract—The paper presents a comparative investigations of the state estimation of a power system with UPFC in the polar and rectangular coordinate systems, paying special attention to types of utilized measurements. The estimation with the use of the weighted-least-squares method is considered. During investigations, impact of a coordinate system, in which the state vector is considered, stress of a power system, a data redundancy, and types of utilized measurements on such parameters of a state estimation as: the number of iterations, the condition number of the gain matrix, parameters characterizing accuracy of calculation results is analyzed. Keywords-power system, UPFC, state estimation, coordinate system, rectangular coordinate system polar

for the polar and rectangular coordinate systems when attention is paid also to types the utilized measurement. In the paper, the following assumptions are taken into account: (i) the power system state is calculated using Weighted Least Squares (WLS) estimator, (ii) the state vector is considered in the polar and rectangular coordinate systems, (iii) analyzed features of the estimator are number of iterations, condition number of the gain matrix, and accuracy of the estimation results. II. THE WEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES POWER SYSTEM STATE ESTIMATOR A power system state estimator based on the WLS method [3] - [5] is the most known. The estimator assumes minimizing the following objective function:

J (x ) = 1 [z − h(x)]T R −1 [z − h(x)] , 2

I.

INTRODUCTION

Monitoring and control of a power system require possessing of the credible assessment of states of this system. In modern control centers, such assessment is produced with the use of state estimation. The state estimation enables obtaining the best estimate of the power system state vector (magnitudes and phase angles of bus voltages) utilizing a set of measurement data, which usually comprises of (i) active and reactive power injections, (ii) active and reactive power flows, (iii) bus-voltage magnitudes. Short time of calculations and high credibility of the estimation results belong to the most important features of the power system state estimator. There are many papers dealing with power system state estimation. Some of these papers present comparative analyses of the different estimation methods, e.g. [1], [2]. Also, it is possible to find some papers, which present different approaches to state estimation of power system with embedded FACTS [8]-[13] However, there is no paper in which quantitative dependence of features of the power system state estimation from such factors as the power system load and also a level of data redundancy, especially when in a power system there is UPFC, is described. The purpose of the paper is to present results of investigations of the mentioned dependence

(1)

where: x – a power system state vector, z – a vector of measurements, h(x) – a vector of nonlinear functions, representing dependence of measured quantities from the state vector, R – a diagonal matrix of measurement covariances. Solving the following normal-equation set we find out a solution of the estimation problem:

G x k ⋅ x k +1 − x k = −g(x k ) ,

( )(

)

(2)

**where: k – a number of iteration, xk – a solution vector at the k-th iteration
**

G x k = H T x k ⋅ R −1 ⋅ H x k ,

H(x ) = ∂h(x ) , ∂x

( )

( )

( )

(3) (4)

Modern Electric Power Systems 2010, Wroclaw, Poland

MEPS'10 - paper 15.6

IV. Equivalent model of UPFC. In the rectangular coordinate system.Vn ]T .. 3. f2. For these functions. 2. positive determined and symmetric matrix for a fully observable power system. VCR = eCR + j f CR for the rectangular coordinate system. where: δi i = 2. Yrow i – the i-th row of an admittance matrix. and a state vector is presented as follows: x = [δ2. where Vi.. and impedance).e. …. for the polar coordinate system. …. V j ⋅ Vi * (6) * Re − VVR I VR + VCR I j* = 0 { } Pij − jQij = − y si + yij [( ) yij ⋅ Vi 2 ][ ]. or any their combinations and in consequence. 2. The most important features of the estimator in the polar coordinate system is existence transcendental functions in the objective function (1).… Vn]T.… en. y i 2 . δi – a magnitude and phase angle of the voltage respectively. …. It is a sparse. f1 – imaginary parts of voltages at the buses 2.phase angles of voltages at the buses 2. n. where ei. 2. y in ] . e2.a real and imaginary part of the voltage respectively. …. …. δ3. III. ….. ∂x (5) leads to significant simplification of an expansion in Taylor series for J(x) in the rectangular coordinates. n – magnitudes of voltages at the buses 1. V2 . 3. Inverter 2 is coupled with the transmission line through a series transformer..… δn. n . Source voltages of the sources in the model of UPFC can be expressed as follows: VVR = VVR e jδ VR . VCR = VCR e jδ CR . ysi – an admittance of the shunt branch at the i-th bus. the bus voltage at the i-th bus is considered in the form Vi = Vi e jδi . n – real parts of voltages at the buses 1... f1 –. Vi i = 1. It provides its principle function by injecting an AC voltage with a controllable magnitude and a phase angle. For both the coordinate systems we can write the following relationships among measured quantities and elements of state vector Pi − jQi = Vi* Yrow i V I CR Z CR VCR Vj Ij I VR Z VR . The imaginary part of the voltage for the reference bus is equal to zero. determining the transmitted power. These converters are voltage sourced inverters using gate turn-off thyristor valves. Yrow i = [ yi1 . These two coordinated synchronous voltage sources represent the UPFC adequately for the purpose of fundamental-frequency steadystate analysis. This fact Figure 1. 1 according to [7] is composed of two controllable ideal voltage-sources. Each inverter can independently generate or absorb reactive power at its own AC output terminal. V1. The bus 1 is considered as a reference bus. the voltage Vi . n. V2. i. (8) . voltage phase-angle. The model of UPFC shown in Fig. and VVR = eVR + j fVR . In the rectangular coordinate system Vi = ei + j f i . A MODEL OF UPFC IN THE POLAR AND RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEMS The UPFC device in its general form can provide simultaneous real-time control of all basic power system parameters (voltage. The relationships (6) and (7) are base for determination of elements of the function vector h(x). It supplies or absorbs a real power to/from Inverter 2 by the common DC link. in which there are only quadratic terms. …. UPFC consists of two switching converters. the Taylor series is an infinite one.. In the polar coordinate system.. where: ei i =1. and a state vector is presented as x = [e1. we take into account the formulas. 3. They are coupled with common DC-link (which is a DC storage capacitor) which allows free exchanging real power between the inverters Inverter 1 and Inverter 2. The phase angle for the reference bus is equal to zero. n. 1 we can derive the matrix equations: for bus i Pi − jQi = [( yVR + yCR ) ⋅ Vi 2 [ − yCR − yCR − yVR ] V j ⋅Vi * VCR ⋅Vi * VVR ⋅Vi * ] T . THE POWER SYSTEM STATE ESTIMATOR IN THE POLAR AND RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEMS A power system state vector can be considered in the polar and rectangular coordinate system. 2. f3… fn]T. Taking into account the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. Pij Qij – an active and reactive power flow between the i-th and the j-th bus respectively. yij – an admittance of the series branch connecting the i-th and the j-th bus. Inverter 1 is connected with a transmission line through shunt transformer. n.g(x) = ∂J (x ) = − H T (x)R −1 [z − h(x)] . Ii Vi G(x) is called a gain matrix. V = [V1 . Qi – an active and reactive injection at the i-th bus respectively. T (7) VVR where: Pi.

(14) PCR − jQCR = [− yCR yCR yVR ]⋅ Vi ⋅VCR* [ V j ⋅VCR* VCR2 ] T . (9) Sometimes there is J e J M < 1 .e. PCR: Pbb = P VR + P CR = 0 . where: JM = 1 m ∑ zi − zir σi m i =1 C. especially when redundancy is low. The reasons of illconditioning can be large differences in values of the elements of the matrix R. UPFC devices is installed on the line between the bus 6 and the bus 12. Conditioning of a Power System State Estimation Process A measure of conditioning of a power system state estimation process is the condition number of the gain matrix. (ii) for each power flow and power injection. i.J 2 e = 1 m ˆi − z ir σ i ∑z m i =1 [( ) ] 2 . The following measure of accuracy of state estimation has no the earlier described drawback: N 3σ = M p _ q . For each considered coordinate system. we have knowledge about the standard deviation of the normal distribution describing small errors. (11) where: −1 −1 yCR = Z CR . It is related to the convergence of estimation calculations. z ir . Number of Iterations in a State Estimation Process Number of iterations in a state estimation process is essential factor which influences on time duration of an estimation process. other quantities are neglected. respectively. Neglecting UPFC losses. the investigations have been performed under the following assumptions: 1. Mp_q. 2. z measured quantity. JM is a global measure of discrepancy among measured and real values of the measured quantities and Je is a global measure of discrepancy among estimated and real values of the mentioned quantities. If the condition number is large. even a small errors in measurement data may cause large errors in a state vector. When states of an actual power system are estimated the mentioned measures cannot be considered. THE CONSIDERED PARAMETERS OF POWER SYSTEM STATE ESTIMATION (12) A. and this device compensates line reactance.for bus j Pj − jQ j = [− yCR for series inverter yCR yCR ]⋅ Vi ⋅V j [ V j 2 VCR ⋅V j* ] T . ][ VVR 2 T ] . The IEEE-14-bus test system is used. respectively. the mentioned Condition Number is defined as: cond(G ) = λ M λ m . In the paper. λ M – the minimal and maximal (by moduli) eigenvalue of G. existence long and short lines connected with the same bus or existence virtual measurements. estimated and real value of the i-th zi. V. we can state that UPFC cannot absorb and injects real power.3σ – a number of the power flows and power injections. To determine the ratio J e J M only measured quantities are taken into account. the following assumptions are adopted: (i) all power flows and power injections are estimated on the base of the earlier estimated bus voltages. Both the presented measures of accuracy of state estimation can be used only when a state estimation method is tested and real values of distinguished quantities are known. for which estimated values differ from real values less than 3 standard deviations. If J e J M < 1 . The factor used for . The ill-conditioning of the estimation process often leads to a worse convergence of the process or even to lack of the convergence of this process. The greater the condition number is the worse conditioned a power system state estimation process is. (10) for shunt inverter P VR − jQVR = [− yVR yVR ⋅ Vi ⋅VVR* where Mp_q – a number of all power flows and power injections. If the estimation process is ill-conditioned then measurement errors have significant influence on computational process. then results of estimation are more precise than measurement data. the active power supplied to the shunt converter PVR equals the active power demanded by the series converter. which would have burdened measurement data of this quantity if it has measured. 3. (13) ˆi . 100 load patterns are taken into account. DESCRIPTION OF A REALIZATION OF INVESTIGATIONS [( ) ].3σ M p _ q . When the ratio N3σ is used. Each load pattern is obtained from the base load flow by appropriate scaling power injections. where: λ m . yVR = ZVR . but estimated values of the non-measured quantities may be burden with a non-acceptable errors. This fact is a drawback of the presented measure of the accuracy of state estimation. VI.the measured. accuracy of state estimation is evaluated with the use of the ratio J e J M . B. Accuracy of the State Estimation In [6].

02 M ] for active power. FS . in which types of measurements are not distinguished. 9. 6. all cases of arrangement of measuring systems were divided into 6 groups depending on number of measurements of each type. where: σ = 1/3 [(0.the scaling ranges from 0.0182.04 0. In these .0025) FS + 0. During the investigations. The specific arrangement of measuring systems is selected randomly. III – Tab. the considered parameters versus the parameter Load Factor are analyzed. presents numbers of measurements of the selected types in the particular groups. Number of iterations for r = 1.08 0.33 (43 measurements) and 3. Number of iterations Figure 2.5 0 0.1182 with the step equal to 0. 4.3182 to 2. Each power flow and each power injection is modified by adding to it the different pseudorandom number representing the small error characterized by the Gaussian distribution with the mean equal to 0 and a standard deviation σ.08 0.5 0 polar rec tangle ∑ Pi + .03 The ratio N3σ versus Load Factor is shown in Fig.12 Load Factor where: Pi + .02 M ] for reactive power and σ = 1/3 [(0.03 (100 measurements). Load Factor has changed from 0. Analyses of the ratio N3σ (accuracy of a state estimation) point out. types of utilized measurements have an insignificant impact on a number of iterations. 2 – Fig. 5. M – a measured value. TABLE I.5 5 2. that the data redundancy and Load Factor have a significant influence on accuracy of results of the state estimation calculations.06 0. Such the scaling ensures monotonic changes of power losses in the test system.1 0. Load Factor Figure 3.06 0. More iterations are required for a larger stress. an average number of iterations in the estimation process is shown. 60 cases of arrangement of measuring systems in the test system is tested. I and Tab.0177 to 0. THE RESULTS OF THE INVESTIGATIONS In this Section. NUMBERS OF MEASUREMENTS FOR R = 1. In Fig. For each load pattern. 600 cases of generation of the mentioned pseudorandom numbers is considered. 4 and Fig. that the estimation process in the polar coordinate system usually requires more iterations than in the rectangle coordinate system. In Fig. It can be noticed.001 + 0. 8. Number of iterations for r = 3. The result of investigations is that the mentioned number of iterations depends on a stress of the power system. For evaluation of the stress of a test system the following Load Factor is introduced: Load Factor = ∑ Pi i =1 n Also. 7. results of investigations. When the data redundancy is low and stress of the power system is larger then the state estimation can give not enough accurate results. 5. The data redundancy has an insignificant impact on the considered number of iterations. 3.001+ 0.5 5 2.03 Types of measurements V Pbus/Qbus Pflow/Qflow Pzeroinj/Pzeroinj PUPFC 10 Numbers of cases 1 5 6/6 39/39 2/2 1 2 5 7/7 38/38 2/2 1 3 5 9/9 36/36 2/2 1 4 5 13/13 32/32 2/2 1 5 7 6/6 38/38 2/2 1 6 15 6/6 34/34 2/2 1 Number of iterations 7. Tab.1 0.02 0. For each load pattern. of which results are in Tab. i =1 m (15) 0. are presented.005) FS + 0.33. Tab.12 polar rec tangle Load Factor represents active power losses in the considered power system. In one figure.02 0. Types of measurements are taken into account in investigations. The larger that factor is the more loaded power system is.0025) FS + 0. the results of the investigations for the polar and rectangular coordinate systems are plotted. VII. 2 and Fig.a measurement scope.04 0. For both the considered coordinate systems accuracy of estimation results is almost the same. III and Tab. σ = 1/3 [(0. VIII. In order to investigate influence of types of measurements on estimation results.a positive power injection.1283.0005 + 0.003 M ] for absolute value of voltage. IV present influence of types of measurements on accuracy of the estimation process.33 Types of measurements V Pbus/Qbus Pflow/Qflow Pzeroinj/Pzeroinj PUPFC Measurement case 1 2 1/1 17/17 2/2 1 2 2 4/4 14/14 2/2 1 3 2 9/9 9/9 2/2 1 4 2 13/13 5/5 2/2 1 5 6 1/1 15/15 2/2 1 6 10 1/1 13/13 2/2 1 TABLE II. NUMBER OF MEASUREMNTS FOR R = 3. 10 7. II. The data redundancy r is equal to 1.

of Var.86 99.1 2 99. when this statement is not valid.02 0. one can point out such cases.) is presented. the condition number in the last iteration is higher for lower Load Factor.08 Load Factor 0.91 99.50 89.06 0.08 Load Factor 0. .33.83 99.1 0. when there are more power-injection measurements the condition number is larger (Tab. of Var. 1E+08 firs t it last it Figure 5.02 0.53 93.39 5 92. 1E+05 first it last it Analyzing values of the condition number.03 0. The ratio N3σ for the r = 3. C.12 TABLE IV. we can ascertain that this parameter is much lower for the rectangular coordinate system than for the polar coordinate system (Fig.76 99.08 Load Factor 0.04 0.33.33 Load Factor 0.1 0. The condition number as a function of Load Factor is plotted in Fig. For the rectangular coordinate system there is no significant difference between the first and the last iteration.1 0.14 93. It can be seen.56 2 99.12 Figure 9.of Var. 95 polar 94 93 92 0. VIII). 04 0.13 Figure 8.1 0.02 0.04 0. 1E+10 1E+09 1E+08 1E+07 0.89 99.06 0. 6 – Fig. 100 polar rectangle 99. the matrix G(x) is modified.03. for each value of Load Factor. The condition number for the rectangular coordinate system for r = 3.1 0. The condition number for the polar coordinate system for r = 3. the condition number increases relatively slowly when Load Factor increases. is calculated dividing mean deviation of the considered quantity by the mean value of the mentioned quantity. The condition number for the rectangular coordinate system for r = 1. The ratio N3σ for r = 1.44 C. % 0.02 0. V – Tab.03.04 0.of Var. that power measurements especially power-injection measurements have a favorable influence on accuracy of the power system state estimation. Tab. (%) Condition number 1E+05 0.06 0. It can be observed that in the first iteration.04 0.06 0.69 3 99. 9.03 Load Factor 0.Condition number tables.0 5 99. In many cases. The condition number for the polar coordinate system for r = 1. % 2.1 0. For the polar coordinate Condition number 1E+04 0.0 100.06 0.77 4 100.02 0. 1E+06 first i t last it Figure 4.65 6 99.02 0.0 8 Load Fact or 0.51 3 96.5 0. THE RATIO N3σ FOR R = 3. THE RATIO N3σ FOR R = 1.03.03 0. of Var.42 2 96.23 96.06 0. It should be noted. Also in the case of that parameter there is significant dependence from the data redundancy and Load Factor. that in the estimation calculations the flat start is used and in successive iterations.49 6 89.08 Load Factor 0. (%) Figure 6.12 first it last it N3σ.04 0. VIII). independently of a coordinate system.98 1E+07 1E+06 1E+05 0.75 86. However.12 Figure 7.47 C. a value of the coefficient of variation (C.75 N3σ. Condition number TABLE III. is larger) for lower data redundancy.12 re ctangle system.93 93. The mentioned influence is larger (C.12 Measurement case 1 99.26 4 98. 9.12 Measurement case 1 95.62 2.33. 6 – Fig.08 Load Factor 0. V – Tab.06 0.

2006. and also types of utilized measurements are taken into account.2E04 2. increasing a number of the power-injection measurements increases the value of a condition number which may lead to numerical problems. In this case for the polar coordinate system C. Duraiswamy. in which a power system state vector is considered.8E05 5. CONCLUSIONS The features of the power system state estimation depends on many factors.. 3. 12.03 Measurement case 1 2 3 4 5 6 C. It. % 7.37 [7] [8] [9] 8. and W. It. vol. Nanjing. IEEE Power India Conference. It. A. and J.3E05 L. May 1985.5E07 2.1E08 3.95 148.5E04 2. IEEE Trans. and K.5E06 2. vol.5E06 8. 1798 – 1806. C. In the paper. on Power Systems. K.8E06 7.0E05 1.2E04 6. 1-7. C.3E04 1.4E04 2. 2. vol. 89.1E04 L. vol. “Power System Static-State Estimation Part II: Approximate model”. Schweppe. also the mentioned coordinate system has significant impact on estimation calculations.12 .3E07 4. “Comparative study of polar and Cartesian coordinate algorithms for power-system state-estimation problems”.4E06 7.138.73 123.03 It. January 1987. “Power System Static-State Estimation Part III: Implementation”.12 [11] TABLE VIII. Rom. on Power Systems.. Rakpenthai.03 F. and W. B.9E04 9. This fact means that impact of types of utilized measurements on results of state estimation is very essential for the pointed out data redundancy.09 24.R.3E05 1. of Var. The investigations show that also type of utilized measurements has impact on a power system state estimation.6E04 1.33 It.6E05 9.2E07 2. vol. May 1985.72 8.1E04 5.5E08 3. IEEE Trans.6E04 1. C. Schweppe.5E07 9.02 147.6E04 1.9E07 2.5E04 2. Xu. THE CONDITION NUMBER FOR THE RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR R = 1.31 7. Abur. TABLE V.0E08 7.97 8. IEEE Trans.95 [3] [4] 5. Fuerte-Esquivel. THE CONDITION NUMBER FOR THE RECTANGULAR COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR R = 3. 125-130. % 16. S. 27-42. the situation changes. Iravani. of the condition number. pp. F. 89. 15th PSCC. May 1985. pp: 411-415.5E06 1.4E05 4. “Power System Static-State Estimation Part I: Exact Model”.03 F. Uatrongjit.1E07 1.3E04 6.1E09 1. of the condition number is relatively low for larger data redundancy.7E04 1. on Power Systems. Load Factor 0. Dharma. May 1985. 0.8E08 9.5E04 2. “Power System State Estimation With Unified Power Flow Controller”. Holten. It.6E08 5. It.09 3.5E06 5. and N. Singh.9E06 L. IEEE Powertech Conf. IEEE Trans. 775-778.65 112. 0. S.8E05 2.12 L. B.5E09 3.03 F.61 72. F. vol. 19. stress of a power system. 130-135. August 2004. It. Bologna. “State Estimation of Systems With Embedded FACTS Devices”.. Keyhani.4E04 9. and M.1E05 2. % 136. C. Nabavi-Niaki. 0. IEEE Trans. E. Aam.0E05 L. and A. China. pp. vol. It. It.2E04 2.0E08 2.5E07 2. Guo-qiang.0E03 2. F. However.9E04 5.4E04 9.4E07 9. Douglas.03 Measurement case 1 2 3 4 5 6 C. Zamora. S. and A. The discussed impact is larger for the polar coordinate system than for the rectangular coordinate system. 38th North American Power Symposium.2E07 1. The results of the investigations show that especially stress of a power system and data redundancy have an essential impact on the WLS state estimation. Abur.03 Measurement case 1 2 3 4 5 6 C.12 [10] L. Zhi-nong. 2005.9E05 6. one can note that this coefficient is very large for lower data redundancy.1E06 9. In certain situation.1E05 6.1E04 8. It. Elec.8E05 1. 11.a sequential approach”. 0.1E07 8. 1-5.52 72. Wildes.of Var. It.of Var.2E04 2.0E04 2.Trans.8E06 2. of Var. Load Factor 0. Italy. 0. pp.40 VIII.0E04 2.3E07 2. such factors as a coordinate system. Machines and Power Systems. Load Factor 0. Premrudepreechacharn.5E06 8. A. Conditioning of a WLS estimation process is better for the rectangular coordinate system than for the polar coordinate system. pp. “AC:Multi-terminal DC power system state estimation . J. and J. IEE Proc.03 Measurement case 1 2 3 4 5 6 C.9E05 6.8E06 2. It. Gjelsvik. of the condition number is smaller than for the rectangular coordinate system if values of Load Factor are small. pp 1635-1641. 0. Wu. pp.: “Comparison of different methods for state estimation”.3E06 8. 0. “Steady-state and Dynamic Models of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for Power System Studies”. 0.0E05 2..1E09 1.1E08 1. on PAS. 3rd International Conference on Electric Utility Deregulation and Restructuring and Power Technologies.8E10 1. F. and Distr. IEEE Trans. 120-125. It. F. data redundancy.Considering C. 0. Schweppe. A.9E05 1. pp. REFERENCES [1] A. of Var.8E08 1. “State Estimation of Power Systems with UPFC Using Interior Point WLAV Method”.6E05 4. 89.03 It. “State Estimation of Systems With Embedded UPFCs Using the Interior Point Method”. pp. R. of the condition number is smaller than for polar coordinate system.4E05 5.7E04 1. 0. F. E. It. and C. S. THE CONDITION NUMBER FOR THE POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR R = 1. F. “A Hopfield Neural Network based Approach for State Estimation of Power Systems Embedded with FACTS Devices”. Liu. Watson. THE CONDITION NUMBER FOR THE POLAR COORDINATE SYSTEM FOR R = 3. 132 .7E04 1. May 1985.33 It. 1937-1943. 0.7E04 1.94 [12] [13] 1.8E06 6.3E04 8.2E07 2. and B. It. May 1985. pp. It. F. C. and A.1E06 2. 2006. L. For the rectangular coordinate system C.7E05 1.1E04 9.2E04 1. 1-6.12 [2] TABLE VI. It can be observed that power-injection measurements have favorable impact on accuracy of estimation results.1E04 1. For large values of Load Factor. % 114.12 TABLE VII.1E06 1. vol.7E05 1.9E04 2.R. It.03 F. pp.12 L. 2003.of Var.7E07 2. Abur. 0.0E07 7. on PAS. Liege. Xu. on PAS. on Gen. pp. Load Factor 0. of Var.1E04 1. pp.56 10.7E06 1. F. Jegatheesan.R. “Static state estimation of power systems containing series and shunt facts controllers”.3E07 1.of Var. S. 2008. 132.12 [5] [6] L.6E04 1.

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