Translated from Matematicheskie Zametki, vol. 76, no. 3, 2004, pp. 396408.
Original Russian Text Copyright c 2004 by A. V. Olesov.
Application of Conformal Mappings
to Inequalities for Trigonometric Polynomials
A. V. Olesov
Received July 21, 2003
AbstractIn this paper, we obtain inequalities for trigonometric and algebraic polynomials
supplementing and strengthening the classical results going back to papers of S. N. Bernstein
and I. I. Privalov. The method of proof is based on the construction of the conformal and
univalent mapping from a given trigonometric polynomial and on the application of results of
the geometric theory of functions of a complex variable to this mapping.
Key words: conformal mapping, trigonometric polynomial, algebraic polynomial, Joukowski
function, Chebyshev polynomials, Bernstein inequality.
INTRODUCTION
In this paper, we establish a number of sharp inequalities for the trigonometric polynomials
s
n
(z) =
n
k=0
(a
k
cos kz + b
k
sinkz), a
k
, b
k
R, a
2
n
+ b
2
n
= 0, (1)
satisfying the condition
s
n
(x) 1, x , (2)
for some 0 < < . In particular, for each complex z we nd the domain containing the
image of s
n
(z) bounded by the ellipses and depending only on z, , n and the coecients a
n
, b
n
(Theorem 1). We obtain an estimate of s
n
(x) on the interval (, ) strengthening the results
of Privalov [1] and Videnskii [2]. This theorem generalizes the result of Dubinin [3, p. 56] to the
whole period and thus is a strengthening of the classical BernsteinSzeg o inequality.
We also strengthen and generalize the following wellknown result for the coecients of trigono
metric polynomials: for all real values, the trigonometric polynomial (1) cannot be less than
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n
in modulus (Theorem 3). As corollaries of the main theorems, we present a number of
inequalities for algebraic polynomials supplementing and strengthening the classical results going
back to the papers of S. N. Bernstein and P. L. Chebyshev.
In Sec. 1, we introduce some auxiliary functions, including the conformal and univalent mapping
w = f() constructed from a trigonometric polynomial and playing a key role. In Sec. 2, we
present the main results obtained by applying results of the geometric theory of functions of a
complex variable to the conformal mapping in question. This approach to deriving inequalities for
polynomials was proposed by Dubinin in [3, 4].
368 00014346/2004/76340368 c 2004 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
CONFORMAL MAPPINGS AND TRIGONOMETRIC POLYNOMIALS 369
1. SOME CONFORMAL MAPPINGS
In this section, we consider a number of auxiliary analytic functions and their properties, which
we shall need.
For a xed , 0 < < , we dene the function
= (w) := i sin
_
i
w + sin(/2)
cos(/2)
_
+ cos , w > 1. (3)
Here and elsewhere,
(w) =
1
2
_
w +
1
w
_
is the Joukowski function. Using the property of the Joukowski function to map the exterior (as
well as the interior) of the circle passing through the points 1 conformally and univalently onto
the exterior of the corresponding circular arc [5, p. 311], we can easily verify that the function (3)
maps maps the domain w > 1 conformally and univalently onto the exterior of the arc
= { = e
ix
: x },
with innity taken to innity. It should also be recalled that, under the mapping by the function
(w) , the image of the circle w = r is the ellipse with foci at the points 1 and major axis
equal to r + 1/r .
Transforming (3), we obtain
(w) = w
1 + wsin(/2)
w + sin(/2)
. (4)
By a substitution into (4), we can easily verify the relation
() =
_
1
_
, C
\
_
{0}
_
, (5)
where w = () is the function inverse to (w) . From (3), we obtain the following representation
for this function:
() = i cos
_
2
_
_
i
cos
sin
_
sin
_
2
_
, C
\ , (6)
where the regular branch of the function
(z) = z +
z
2
1 is chosen on the plane with the
circular cut {z : z = i( cos )/ sin , } from the condition
() = .
By w = (z) we denote the function dened on the exterior of the closed interval [1, 1] , which
is the inverse of the Joukowski function (w) , w > 1. From the relation (z) = z +
z
2
1,
we obtain
(z)
(z)
=
1
z
2
1
. (7)
Suppose that the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) satises inequality (2) and
Q
n
() =
n
k=0
(a
k
ib
k
)
k
.
Since s
n
(x) = Re Q
n
(e
ix
) , x , the relation s
n
(z) = (e
iz
) , where
() =
1
2
_
Q
n
() + Q
n
_
1
_
_
,
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
370 A. V. OLESOV
holds for all complex z .
On the set G = {w : w > 1, ((w)) / [1, 1]}, setting (w) = 0, at the points w, we dene
the regular function = F(w)
F(w) = w
[((w))]
n
[((w))]
,
where the function () depends on the parameter 0 < < and is dened by the relation
() =
2
1 cos
()
1 + cos
1 cos
.
Suppose that D is the set of domains constituting the set G \ {w : F(w) = 1}. By the
maximum modulus principle for a regular function, we have
w
[((w))]
. (9)
Let
t
n
(z) = T
n
((e
iz
)). (10)
Obviously, t
n
(x) is a trigonometric polynomial of degree n satisfying condition (2). In what
follows, it plays the role of the extremal polynomial.
2. INEQUALITIES FOR POLYNOMIALS
Everywhere below, we employ the notation used in Sec. 1.
Theorem 1. Suppose that the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) satises inequality (2). Then,
for any z , the following inequality holds outside the system of closed intervals [+2k, +2k] ,
k = 0, 1, 2, . . . :
s
n
(z) 1 +s
n
(z) + 1 2
_
,r(z)
r(z)
(t
n
(z))
_
t
n
(z) 1 +t
n
(z) + 1. (11)
In the case z = i Ln(w) , w > r
, we have
s
n
(z) 1 +s
n
(z) + 1 2
_
,r(z)
r(z)
(t
n
(z))
_
> t
n1
(z) 1 +t
n1
(z) + 1. (12)
Here
=
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n
sin
2n
_
2
_
, r(z) =
(e
iz sign(Imz)
)
,r(z)
and
,r(z)
are the roots of the equations
(r(z) + 1)
2
x = r(z)(x + 1)
2
and (r(z) 1)
2
x = r(z)(x 1)
2
,
respectively, lying on the interval (1, r(z)] ;
r
= 2
1
1 + 2
_
1
(
1
1).
The equality signs in any of the inequalities (11), (12) are attained only for s
n
(z) = t
n
(z) .
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
CONFORMAL MAPPINGS AND TRIGONOMETRIC POLYNOMIALS 371
Proof. Suppose that w = f() is the same as in Sec. 1. A direct calculation yields
1
f
()
= lim
w
F(w)
w
= (a
n
ib
n
) sin
2n
_
2
_
.
Hence, in view of the Schwartz lemma, we have f
()
1
= 1.
The function f
() = f
() = +
2
2
+
3
3
+ . In the class of
such functions, the following sharp estimates are well known:
_
1 +f
()
1 +
_
2
()
_
1 f
()
1 
_
2
, 0 <  < 1. (13)
The equality sign on the left or on the right in (13), at least at one point, arises if and only if
f
()
[1 + e
i
f
()]
2
(1 + e
i
)
2
, (14)
where is real (see, for example, [4, 6]).
Suppose that w, w = r , (w) = 0, is a point of the set f( > 1) . The righthand inequality
in (13) yields
(F(w) 1)
2
F(w)
(r 1)
2
r
.
In view of the fact that the function y = (x 1)
2
/x is strictly increasing on the interval x > 1,
there exists a unique root
,r
of the equation (r 1)
2
x = r(x1)
2
lying on the interval (1, r] .
This fact also accounts for F(w)
,r
, i.e.,
[((w))]
,r
r
n
[((w))]
n
[((w))]
. (15)
But if w / f( > 1) , then the inequality F(w) 1 holds, i.e.,
[((w))]
1
r
n
[((w))]
<
,r
r
n
[((w))]
.
Thus, inequality (15) is valid for any w, w > 1, (w) = 0. Substituting (w) = e
iz
and noting
that
t
n
(z) =
_
n
[(e
iz
)]
_
(16)
(in view of relations (9), (10)), we obtain inequalities (11) for r(z) = (e
iz
) . The passage to the
trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) , as the need arises, allows us to take
r(z) = (e
iz sign(Imz)
)
in (11), which is meaningful in view of the fact that the fraction
,r
/r decreases as r increases
and also in view of relation (5).
Let us now verify inequalities (12). Suppose that w, w = r > r
+ 1)
2
r
= 4.
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
372 A. V. OLESOV
Therefore, there exists a unique root
,r
of the equation
(r + 1)
2
x = r(x + 1)
2
lying on the interval (1, r] , and it satises the inequality
F(w)
,r
. (17)
Combining this with (8), we obtain
[((w))]
,r
r
n
[((w))]
>
n1
[((w))]
. (18)
Let us now show that any point w, w > r
< r
= inf
_
r : r > 1, F(w) > 1 w, w = r
_
.
On the circle w = r
) = 1. (19)
On the other hand, for any sequence w
k
, w
k
 > r
, k = 1, 2, . . . , converging to w
, from (17)
we obtain
F(w
k
)
,r
, k = 1, 2, . . . ,
which contradicts condition (19). Thus, inequality (18) holds for any w, w = r > r
, (w) = 0.
Substituting (w) = e
iz
and passing, where necessary, to the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) ,
we obtain (12) for
z = i Ln(w), w > r
, (20)
and r(z) = w . By relation (5), if the point ,  < 1, belongs to the image (w > r
) , then 1/
belongs to this image as well. Therefore, for any z satisfying condition (20), (e
sign(Imz)iz
) is
greater than r
, and can be taken for r(z) in (12). The expediency of such a choice is corroborated
by the inequality
(e
iz sign(Imz)
) (e
iz sign(Imz)
)
and the fact that the fraction
,r
/r is increasing with r on the interval r > r
Let us prove the case of equality. First, we prove that in the case < 1 the function f
()
cannot satisfy identity (14). Indeed, assuming the converse, we obtain
(e
i
F(w)) (e
i
w) + 1, = arg (a
n
ib
n
) , w G.
Hence
((w)) =
_
w
1
n
[((w))]e
i
((e
i
w) + 1)
.
Since (z) is twovalued at the points of the interval (1, 1) and takes values whose modulus
is one, by taking into account (8) and the univalence of the Joukowski function in the exterior
of the unit disk, we nd that the function on the right in the last relation cannot be uniquely
and regularly dened at the points w = re
i
, 1 < r < (2
1
1) , but this contradicts the
denitions of the functions on the left of the relation.
If = 1, then, by the Schwartz lemma, we have f
n
[(e
iz
)]
_
;
but the function on the right in the last relation is real on ( , +) only for = 1. Hence,
noting (16), we obtain the relation s
n
(z) = t
n
(z) . The theorem is proved.
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
CONFORMAL MAPPINGS AND TRIGONOMETRIC POLYNOMIALS 373
Remark 1. Under the assumptions of Theorem 1, inequality (12) holds for all z satisfying the
condition
 Imz > ln
_
r
1 + r
sin(/2)
r
+ sin(/2)
_
.
Indeed, using the representation (4), we can easily verify that
(r
) = max{(w) : w = r
} ;
after this it remains to note that the domain  > (r
) .
Corollary 1. If the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) satises the inequality
s
n
(x) 1, x , (21)
then, for any r > 1 and any z ,  Imz = lnr , the following inequality holds:
s
n
(z) 1 +s
n
(z) + 1 2(
,r
r
n1
) 2(r
n
). (22)
In the case r > 2
1
1 + 2
_
1
(
1
1) , one has
s
n
(z) 1 +s
n
(z) + 1 2(
,r
r
n1
) > 2(r
n1
). (23)
Here =
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n
,
,r
is the root of the equation
(r 1)
2
x = r(x 1)
2
, 1 <
,r
r, (24)
and
,r
is the root of the equation
(r + 1)
2
x = r(x + 1)
2
, 1 <
,r
r. (25)
For trigonometric polynomials of the form
s
n
(z) = a
n
cos nz + b
n
sinnz, a
2
n
+ b
2
n
= 1, (26)
the inequalities in (22), (23) turn into equalities.
Proof. Inequalities (22), (23) can be obtained from inequalities (11), (12) by passing to the
limit as . To prove the case of equalities, it is simplest to note that the trigonometric
polynomial (26) can be expressed as s
n
(z) = (e
inz
) ,  = 1, after which the case of equality is
readily veried.
Remark 2. The present result can be proved just as Theorem 1 if we invoke the function from
Lemma 2.2 given in [4]. This method allows us to establish that the equality signs in (22), (23)
occur only for trigonometric polynomials of the form (26). Also, note that inequality (22) is
equivalent to Theorem 3.1 from [4], which was stated in terms of algebraic polynomials.
Corollary 2. If the algebraic polynomial
P
n
(z) =
n
k=0
c
k
z
k
, c
k
R, k = 1, 2, . . . , c
n
= 0, (27)
satises the inequality
P
n
(x) 1, 1 x 1, (28)
then, under the the mapping w = P
n
(z) , for
r > 2
1
1 + 2
_
1
(
1
1),
the image of the ellipse z 1 +z + 1 = 2(r) is a curve lying outside the ellipse
w 1 +w + 1 = 2(
,r
r
n1
)
and inside the ellipse
w 1 +w + 1 = 2(
,r
r
n1
).
Here = c
n
/2
n1
, and
,r
and
,r
are the roots of Eqs. (25) and (24), respectively. For the
polynomial T
n
(z) , these ellipses coincide.
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
374 A. V. OLESOV
Proof. The proof follows from inequalities (22) and (23) applied to the trigonometric polynomial
s
n
(t) = P
n
(cos t) . The case of equality is readily veried.
Note that this result is false in the case of complex coecients of P
n
(z) . As to upper bounds,
the following inequality is well known:
P
n
(z) r
n
, z 1 +z + 1 = 2(r), r > 1 ;
it is valid for all polynomials satisfying (28). This result was established by Bernstein on the basis
of the maximum principle [7, p. 74].
Let us pass to the question of the extremal estimate of the derivative of the trigonometric
polynomial on an interval smaller than the period. In the monograph [1], Privalov proved that if
the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) of degree n satises inequality (2), then
s
n
(x) C
,
n, + x , 0 < <
2
,
where C
,
is a constant depending on and . Videnskii [2] rened this result by showing that
inequality (2) implies the following inequality:
s
n
(x) n cos
_
x
2
_
_
sin
2
_
2
_
sin
2
_
x
2
_
_
1/2
, < x < .
The following assertion is valid.
Theorem 2. If the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) satises inequality (2), then
s
n
(x)
cos(x/2)
_
1 s
2
n
(x)
_
sin
2
(/2) sin
2
(x/2)
_
n
(, x) cos(/2)(1 sin
n
(/2)(a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
)
2 cos(x/2)
_
, (29)
where
< x < and (, x) =
_
i
e
ix
cos
sin
_
.
For the trigonometric polynomial t
n
(z) , inequality (29) turns into an equality.
Proof. Suppose that the function w = f() is the same as in Sec. 1. If the point ,  = 1,
is a point of regularity of the function f() , with f() = 1, then, passing to the limit on the
righthand side of (13), we obtain
f
() sin
n
_
2
_
(a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
. (30)
If the point w, w = 1, is a point of regularity of the function F(w) and also lies on the boundary
of a domain D D such that F(D) { :  > 1} = , then the condition
F
w
0
is necessary at this point. If F(D) = { :  > 1}, then, applying inequality (30), we nd that
F
w
= f
()
1
sin
n
_
2
_
(a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
(31)
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
CONFORMAL MAPPINGS AND TRIGONOMETRIC POLYNOMIALS 375
at such a point. Thus, inequality (31) holds at all points of the unit circle with the exception,
perhaps, of a nite number of such points.
Further, by values of the function w = () at the points of the arc
= { = e
ix
: < x < }
we mean values obtained by a regular continuation of this function from the domain  > 1. At
the points w () to which the functions [((w))] and [((w))] are conformally extended
from w > 1, we have
F
w
= 1 +
w
[((w))]
n
[((w))]
.
Setting (w) = e
ix
and taking (31) into account, we obtain the inequality
[s
n
(x)]s
n
(x)
((e
ix
))
[(e
ix
)]
(e
ix
)
((e
ix
))
_
1 sin
n
_
2
_
(a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
_
;
hence, in view of (7), after simple transformations we obtain
s
n
(x)
_
1 s
2
n
(x)
n
cos(x/2)
_
sin
2
(/2) sin
2
(x/2)
1 sin
n
(/2)(a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4

((e
ix
))
. (32)
Relations (3) and (6) yield
((e
ix
)) = sin
_
2
_
_
1
2
_
i
e
ix
cos
sin
__
, (33)
whence it is easily veried that
((e
ix
))
= 2
_
i
e
ix
cos
sin
_
1
_
sin
2
(/2) sin
2
(x/2)
cos(/2)
.
To prove inequality (29), it remains to note that under the specied choice of points w on the
circle w = 1 the following relation holds:
_
i
e
ix
cos
sin
_
= (, x).
The case of equality follows from the identity F(w) w valid for the trigonometric polynomials
indicated above. The theorem is proved.
Remark 3. The above result was proved for real trigonometric polynomials. If s
n
(z) is a trigono
metric polynomial with complex coecients, then, for each x (, ) , the replacement of s
n
(x)
by e
i
s
n
(x) , = arg s
n
(x)
_
n 1 + (a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
_
_
1 s
2
n
(x), x . (34)
To prove this inequality, it suces to pass to the limit on the righthand sides of (32)
and (33).
This inequality was rst established by Dubinin in [3] and is a strengthening of the Bernstein
Szego inequality.
The remarkable Bernstein inequality (see [7, p. 168]) giving the estimate of the derivative of an
algebraic polynomial P
n
(x) of degree at most n inside this interval is well known. It is of the form
P
n
(x)
_
1 x
2
n max
1x1
P
n
(x), 1 x 1.
Corollary 3 allows us to strengthen this inequality as follows.
MATHEMATICAL NOTES Vol. 76 No. 3 2004
376 A. V. OLESOV
Corollary 4. If the algebraic polynomial (27) satises inequality (28), then
P
n
(x)
_
1 x
2
n 1 +
c
n

_
1 T
2
n
(x)
2
n1
, 1 x 1.
The equality is attained for the polynomial T
n
(z) at the points that are its zeros.
To prove this inequality, it suces to apply (34) to the trigonometric polynomial
s
n
(t) =
1
2
_
P
n
(cos(t
0
+ t)) P
n
(cos(t
0
t))
, t
0
= arccos x,
and put t = 0. The case of equality is readily veried.
Corollary 5. If the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) satises inequality (21) and s
n
(x) = 0
for x = 0, , then
s
n
(x)
sinx
n 1 + (a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
, x .
The equality sign is attained for s
n
(z) = sinnz at the points x = 0, .
Proof. It is readily veried that the extremum of the fraction s
n
(x)/ sin x on the real axis is
attained for tanx = s
n
(x)/s
n
(x) , i.e., for sinx = s
n
(x)/
_
s
2
n
(x) + s
n
2
(x) ; therefore, it does not
exceed the maximum of
_
s
2
n
(x) + s
n
2
(x) . In turn, from (34), we can easily obtain the inequality
_
s
2
n
(x) + s
n
2
(x) n 1 + (a
2
n
+ b
2
n
)
1/4
.
The case of equality is readily veried.
Theorem 3. If the trigonometric polynomial s
n
(z) (1) of degree n 2 satises inequality (2),
then
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n
sin
2n
2
_
1 +
1
sin(/2)
a
n1
+ ib
n1
2(a
n
+ ib
n
)
+ n cos
2
2
_
1. (35)
The equality is attained only for the polynomials s
n
(z) = t
n
(z) .
Proof. In the notation used in Sec. 1, let
F(w) :=
1
F(1/w)
w
n
[((1/w))]
[((1/w))]
in some punctured neighborhood of the point w = 0, and let (w) = w
(w)/
(1/w)
w
_
[()]
()
[()]
n
[()]
()
[()]
_
, =
_
1
w
_
.
Note that w(1/w)
2
sin(/2)
_
()
_
2
() 1
n
()
_
2
() 1
_
= lim
4 sin(/2)
c
n
n
_
1
2
_
Q
n
()
Q
n
(1/)
_
_
()
_
()
_
2
() 1
_
n( 1/)
2 sin
2
(/2)
_
()
_
()
_
2
() 1
_
_
= lim
4 sin(/2)
c
n
n
_
Q
n
()
2
_
+ 1/
2 sin
2
(/2)
cot
2
2
_
n
4 sin
2
(/2)
_
Q
n
() + Q
n
_
1
__
_
= lim
n
()( 2 cos
2
(/2)) nQ
n
()
sin(/2)c
n
n1
=
c
n1
2ncos
2
(/2)c
n
sin(/2)c
n
,
where c
k
= a
k
ib
k
, k = n1, n. On the other hand, using LHospitals rule, we can easily show
that
lim
w0
(w) 1
w
=
F
(0)
2
(0)
,
whence
(0) = 2
(0)
c
n1
2ncos
2
(/2)c
n
sin(/2)c
n
.
By
f() we denote the function inverse to
F(w) and univalent on the unit disk  < 1. For this
function,
(0) =
(0)
_
(0)
_
3
= 2
c
n1
+ 2ncos
2
(/2)c
n
sin(/2)c
n
(a
n
ib
n
)
2
sin
4n
_
2
_
.
Then, for =
_
a
2
n
+ b
2
n
sin
2n
(/2) , the function f
() =
f()/
() = +
2
2
+
3
3
+ ,
where
2
=
_
c
n1
+ 2ncos
2
_
2
_
c
n
_
sin
2n1
_
2
_
.
In this case, by [8, p. 94], we have

2
 2(1 ), (36)
which is equivalent to inequality (35) applied to s
n
(z) .
To prove our claim in the case of equality, note that the equality in (36) (see [8, p. 94]) is possible
only for the case in which identity (14) holds, but, as was shown in the proof of Theorem 1, the
function f
; in particular, the
application of the inequality 
2
2
3
 1
2
(see [8, p. 94]) leads, under the assumptions of the
corollary, to the sharp inequality
c
2
n
+nc
2
n
+ 4c
n
c
n2
 4
n1
, n 2.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to express deep gratitude to V. N. Dubinin for his active interest in this
paper.
This research was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research under grant no. 02
0100028.
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G. I. Nevel