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Lecture 15 The four main types of business letters are; 1. Good news letters 2. Bad news letters 3.

Neutral letters . !ersuasi"e letters Layout of a business letter: The layout of the letter provides the frame for the body of your letter #ssential !arts Writers name and address Date Inside (intended readers ) address !reetin" $ody of the letter &omplimentary close Writers si"nature and job title or desi"nation $ptional !arts Subject line Attention line eference initials #nclosure %ile number Senders telephone e'tensions Senders e(mail or )ebsite details

A business letter is more formal than a personal letter* It should have a mar"in of at least one inch on all four ed"es* It is al)ays )ritten on +,'--, (or metric e.uivalent) unlined stationery* There are si% parts to a business letter* 1. The &eadin'. This contains the return address (usually t)o or three lines) )ith the date on the last line* Sometimes it may be necessary to include a line after the address and before the date for a phone number/ fa' number/ #(mail address/ or somethin" similar* 0ften a line is s1ipped bet)een the address and date* That should al)ays be done if the headin" is ne't to the left mar"in*It is not necessary to type the return address if you are usin" stationery )ith the return address already imprinted* Al)ays include the date* 2. The (nside )ddress. This is the address you are sendin" your letter to* 2a1e it as complete as possible* Include titles and names if you 1no) them* This is al)ays on the left mar"in* If an +, ' --, paper is folded in thirds to fit in a standard 3, business envelope/ the inside address can appear throu"h the )indo) in the envelope* An inside address also helps the recipient

route the letter properly and can help should the envelope be dama"ed and the address become unreadable* S1ip a line after the headin" before the inside address* S1ip another line after the inside address before the "reetin"* 3. The Greetin'. Also called the salutation* The "reetin" in a business letter is al)ays formal* It normally be"ins )ith the )ord ,Dear, and al)ays includes the person4s last name* It normally has a title* 5se a first name only if the title is unclear* The "reetin" in a business letter al)ays ends in a colon* . The Body. The body is )ritten as te't* A business letter is never hand )ritten* Dependin" on the letter style you choose/ para"raphs may be indented* e"ardless of format/ s1ip a line bet)een para"raphs* S1ip a line bet)een the "reetin" and the body* S1ip a line bet)een the body and the close* 5. The *omplimentary *lose. This short/ polite closin" ends )ith a comma* It is either at the left mar"in or its left ed"e is in the center/ dependin" on the Business Letter +tyle that you use* It be"ins at the same column the headin" does* The bloc1 style is becomin" more )idely used because there is no indentin" to bother )ith in the )hole letter* ,. The +i'nature Line. S1ip t)o lines (unless you have unusually )ide or narro) lines) and type out the name to be si"ned* This customarily includes a middle initial/ but does not have to* Women may indicate ho) they )ish to be addressed by placin" -iss. -rs.. -s. or similar title in parentheses before their name* The si"nature line may include a second line for a title/ if appropriate* The term ,$y direction, in the second line means that a superior is authori6in" the si"ner* The si"nature should start directly above the first letter of the si"nature line in the space bet)een the close and the si"nature line* 5se blue or blac1 in1* $usiness letters should not contain postscripts*

Lecture 1, Letter of (n/uiry #n/uirin' for 0ob "acancies.

Dear Sir or 2adam/ I am a career peer(counsellor at the &arpenters Industrial &olle"e and I am )ritin" to as1 if there is any vacant position in your or"anisation* The career "uidance club at our institution is havin" a job drive to help our ne) "raduates loo1 for jobs/ and this )ill be a yearly affair be"innin" this year* %or this purpose/ )e are contactin" reputable institutions such as yours to "ather information on vacant positions that you mi"ht have* We are especially interested in positions in the desi"n departments because our students )ill be "raduatin" )ith diplomas in the various desi"n(based disciplines li1e "raphic desi"n/ industrial desi"n and multimedia desi"n* I )ould be very "rateful if you could for)ard information on any vacancy/ hopefully by the end of %ebruary because our career ba6aar )ill be held in early 2arch* 7our cooperation )ill be "reatly appreciated* I am loo1in" for)ard to )or1in" )ith you in the future* Than1 you* 7ours sincerely/ 2ohammed %ara6i &areer counsellor

Letter of )pplication )pplication for the position of product desi'ner Dear Sir 8 2adam/ In reference to the job vacancies you advertised at the &arpenters Industrial &olle"e career ba6aar/ I )ould li1e to apply for the position of product desi"ner* I believe that )hile I am a recent "raduate/ I do have some valuable e'perience that )ill enable me to be an e'cellent addition to your desi"n team* I recently "raduated )ith a diploma in "raphic desi"n/ and the course includes product desi"n modules* 2oreover/ I have competed in several desi"n competitions and )on a "old medal in a product desi"n competition in Thailand last year/ in )hich I desi"ned a self( heatin" mu"* Details of this pri6e and other pri6es that I have )on are included in the enclosed curriculum vitae* I am loo1in" for)ard to a positive reply from you* Than1 you for your 1ind consideration and time* 7ours sincerely/

9halid Abdul :ah Letter of 1efusal 1efusal of position offered. Dear Sir/ It is )ith deep re"ret that I have to inform you that I have to turn do)n the position you offered in your recent letter* I )ish to e'press my deepest "ratitude for your offer but I have accepted an offer from a different or"ani6ation that appears to suit my preferences better* %inally/ I hope your or"ani6ation )ill continue to prosper* Than1 you 7ours truly/ 7usoff Al(9hamani

2ob )cceptance Letter Date) (2r*82s* ;ame) (Title) (#mployer ;ame) (Address) (&ity/ ST :I<) Dear (2r*82s* ;ame): It is )ith "reat pleasure that I accept your offer to join (#mployer ;ame) as a (position title) under (Supervisor ;ame)* The "oals you outlined for the position are )ell(matched to my abilities/ and I consider it a privile"e to join your team* As )e discussed/ my annual salary )ill be (salary)/ and medical benefits )ill commence after => days of employment* (2r*82s* ;ame)/ than1 you for ma1in" the intervie) process enjoyable* I loo1 for)ard to )or1in" )ith you and the (#mployer ;ame) team* I )ill report to )or1 on (Date)* In the meantime/ feel free to call me at (???) ???(????* Sincerely/ (7our ;ame)

Lecture 13 4ormal 1eports

5ifference between formal and informal reports @ello dear friends here you )ill "et difference between formal and informal reports or Distin"uish bet)een lon" and short report* 4ormal reports are analytical in nature and follo) specific format* 0n the other handinformal reports are short and used basically for routine functions of an or"ani6ation* Distinction or Differences bet)een formal and informal reports are as follo)s:

A formal or lon" report has major three (=) parts: A* <refatory parts $* Te't parts &* Supplementary parts 6)7 !refatory !arts This is the introductory part of any formal report* As this part includes items li1e Atable of content/ Aexecutive summary/ Alist of diagrams/ the it is easier on the part of the researcher to prepare this section after the te't* A prefatory part includes the follo)in" items:

-* Cover: The cover pa"e of a formal report usually includes the follo)in" thin"s: i* The title of the report ii* Writers name iii* Submission date iv* ;ame/ title and or"ani6ation of the recipient* B* Title fly: it is actually a formality and has no real importance to add a title fly* It is a sheet of paper )ith only the title of the report on it* =* Title page: it includes all the items of the cover and placed before the letter of authori6ation* C* Letter of authorization: it is the formal re.uest for the preparation of the report* "enerally include this in their reports* esearchers

?* Letter of acceptance: It approves the assi"nment to conduct the research and preparation of the report* D* Letter of transmittal: it conveys the report to the audience* It can be compared )ith the preface of a boo1* It appears ri"ht before the table of contents* E* Table of contents: The headin"s used in the te't of the report are the basis of table of contents* It is prepared after the completion of the te't* +* List of illustrations: $asically it is a part of table of contents/ but to hi"hli"ht the "iven fi"ures and illustration it becomes a trend to prepare an e'tra list of illustration* 3* Synopsis or executive summary: An e'ecutive summary or synopsis is the brief overvie) of the )hole report* It is a fully developed Amini version of the report* (Thill and Bo"ee 188,) 6B7 Te%t of the report The te't of the report placed after the prefatory parts* Detailed discussion and interpretations are included in this section* All the collected informations or data also presented in this section in a systematic manner* Te't of the report contains the follo)in" elements* -* Introduction: in this section by a "eneral discussion researcher introduced the reader to the research problem/ its importance/ process of investi"ation etc* a "ood introduction should include the follo)in" points: i* Definition and purpose of the problem* ii* Scope of the report iii* $ac1"rounds iv* Data sources v* esearch method vi* Fimitations vii* Definition of the technical terms* B* Body of the text report: Detailed and analytical discussions of the problem are "iven in this section* The len"th of the body depends on the importance of the topic and demand of the audience* =* Summary of the text report: The 1ey findin"s of the report briefly discussed in the summary

section* C* Conclusion of the text report: this section is reconsidered as the mirror of the report* It should include: i* Summary of the discussion* ii* 0pinion of the researcher* ?* Recommendation of the text report: 5nder this section researcher should clearly state the course of action that should be ta1en to solve the problem* D* Notes of the text report: To prepare a report the researcher need to use findin"s of other people/ .uotations of different authors/ previously collected data etc* but it is the le"al obli"ation of the researcher to "ive others credit/ for their )or1* 2entionin" the ori"inal source under notes enhances the acceptance of the report* 6*7 +upplementary parts This is the last part of a report* It includes: -* Appendi' B* $iblio"raphy =* Inde' -* ppendix: It is a supplementary part )hich contains the important materials related to the report/ but not included in the te't* $ecause they are too len"thy or too bul1y* B* Bibliography: all published and unpublished materials used in the report must be mentioned at the end of the report* This list of references 1no)n as biblio"raphy* =* Index! It is a list of names and subjects mentioned in the report* It is "iven in an alphabetical order* The pa"e number of each item also mentioned*

Lecture 13 ADA<TATI0; A;D T@# S#F#&TI0; 0% W0 DS The study of clear business )ritin" lo"ically be"ins )ith adaptation* $y adaptation )e mean fittin" the messa"e to the specific reader* 7ou should form your messa"e to fit that persons mind* This process of adaptation be"ins )ith visuali6in" )hat the reader ima"ine/ )hat he feels/ thin1s and such* In many business situations/ adaptin" to your reader means )ritin" on a level lo)er than the one you )ould normally use* In )ritin" to less educated )or1ers/ for e'ample you may need to simplification/ for hi"hly educated people you may )rite differently* At times adaptin" to multiple reader/ if you )rite for one person in the "roup/ you may miss the others* To communicate )ith all of them/ )rite for the lo)est member of the "roup* There fore adaptation is a basic rule )hich underlines all )ritin" aspects* S5!!#STI0;S %0 S#F#&TI;! W0 D Selectin" the )rite )ord is a part of a adaptation* %ollo)in" are some su""estions to help you select )ords* These su""estions stress simplicity for three reasons (-) 2any people tend to )rite at a difficult level (B) The )riter usually 1no)s the subject better than the readers and (=) The results of research based on )ritin" s1ills support simplicity* S5!!#STI0; %0 W0 D S#F#&TI0; 5sin" familiar )ords to communicate related to the lan"ua"e that most of us use in everyday conversation* #'ample Instead of usin" the terminate/ use end* Instead of usin" endeavor use try* At the same time the su""estion to use familiar )ords does not rule out some use of more difficult )ords* Difficult )ords are not all bad* 5se them )hen they fit your needs and are understood* 5S# SFA;! A;D <0<5FA &FI&@#S WIT@ &A5TI0; At any "iven time in any society same slan" )ords and clichGs are in vo"ue* 5se popular slan" and clichGs )hen meanin"ful* Thus you should use such e'pressions al)ays only in informal communication )ith people )ho 1no) and appreciate them* &@00S# S@0 T W0 DS: !enerally short )ords communicate better than lon" )ords* Some times e'ceptions e'ist* 7ou should concentrate on short )ords and use lon" )ords )ith caution* 5se a lon" )ord only )hen you thin1 you reader 1no)s it* 5S# T#&@;I&AF W0 DS A;D A& 0;72S WIT@ &A5TI0; #very field of business/ accountin"/ information systems/ and finance has its technical lan"ua"e* This lan"ua"e can be so comple' that is some cases speciali6ed dictionaries are compiled* These )ords are useful )hen you communicate )ith people inn your field* $ut they do not communicate )ith outsiders* 5se them )ith caution* Some e'amples H covered employment/ cerebral vascular accident/ annuity/ bob tail etc* These )ords are all )ell 1no)n to people in special fields/ but not to most outsiders* Initials includin" acronyms should be used )ith caution too* Spell out and define as needed* S#F#&T W0 DS WIT@ I!@T ST #;!T@ A;D II!0 In a )ay/ )ords are li1e people/ they have personalities some )ords are stron" and vi"orous* Some are )ea1 and dull and some fall bet)een these e'tremes* !ood )riters 1no) these differences and they consider them carefully* They use the )ords that do the best job of

carryin" the intended meanin"* As a rule/ they ma1e the stron"er )ords stand out* To select )ords )isely/ you should consider shades of difference in meanin"s* #'ample bear mar1et is stron"er than "enerally declinin" mar1etJ mother is stron"er than female parent* Sometimes )ea1er )ords serve your purpose best* Ierbs are the stron"est )ords* Ierbs are action )ords* ;ouns are second )hich are the doers of the action/ heroes of the sentence* Adjectives and adverbs are )ea1 )ords* They involve jud"ment* 5se them sparin"ly* 5S# &0;& #T# FA;!5A!# !ood communication is mar1ed by )ords that form sharp and clear meanin" in the mind* These are concrete )ords and you should prefer them in your )ritin"* They stand for thin"s that e'ist in the real )orld: dec1/ chair/ and road* Abstract nouns on the other hand cover broad meanin"s H concepts/ ideas and the li1e* Their meanin" is "eneral/ as in their e'ample administration/ communication etc* &oncreteness also involves ho) )e put )ords to "ather* #'act or specific )ordin"s are concrete/ va"ue and "eneral )ordin"s are abstract* 5S# A&TII# I0I&# While )ritin" prefer the active voice than passive voice* In active the subject does the action/ in passive voice it receives the action* Active voice is stron"er and shorter*#'ample: <assive voice: The result )ere reported in our K5F7 3 letter Active voice: )e reported the result in our K5F7 3 letter* At times passive voice is better )hen the doer of the action is not important* <assive voice helps avoid accusin" the reader and passive voice is better )hen the performer is not 1no)n* 7our decision on )hether to use active or passive voice is not simply a matter of choice* It is also better )hen the )riter prefer not to name the performer* S#F#&T W0 DS %0 < #&IS# 2#A;I;!: Writin" re.uires some 1no)led"e of lan"ua"e* In fact/ the "reater your 1no)led"e of lan"ua"e/ the better you are li1ely to )rite* 7ou should study lan"ua"e and learn the shades of the difference in meanin"s of other )ords* 5se correct idiom* $y idiom )e mean the )ays thin"s are said in a lan"ua"e you can use idioms for certain reasons but violations of idiom rule affect the reader* S5!!#STI0;S %0 ;0; DIS& I2I;AT0 7 W ITI;!: $y discrimination (or) discriminatory )ords )e mean )ords that do not treat all people e.ually and )ith respect* Avoid )ords that discriminate a"ainst se'/ race/ nationality/ a"e/ se'ual orientation or disability* We often use discriminatory )ords )ithout bad intent* a) b) c) 5se "ender Hneutral )ords : Avoid usin" masculine pronouns for both se'es (he/ his/him) 7ou can ma1e the reference plural (their/ them / they) 7ou can e'press neutral by ( he or she / he8she / you/ they etc)

d) Avoid )ords su""estin" male dominance ( 2an(made to manufactured/ $usinessman to business e'ecutive/ salesman to sales e'ecutive) e) f) Dont use )ords )hich lo)er the status of )omen Avoid )ords that stereotype by race/ nationality/ se'ual orientation/ old a"e/ disability*

Lecture 19 L(+T#N(NG +:(LL+ #ffective listenin" is an important aspect for "ood communication* Fistenin" is different from hearin"* $y listenin" )e mean all our senses especially your mind and body )ill be focused and concentrated* Fistenin" to others improve your personality*The listenin" process starts from receivin" the information or noise/ and then your mind )ill interpret the information by your mental filters and little information )ill be remembered in your brain stora"e by )hich it is evaluated based on your jud"ment and finally the response )ill be delivered in the )ay of verbal voice or loud applause* T;!#+ $4 L(+T#N(NG -* &0;T#;T FIST#;I;!: In this process a person )ill listen just to receive and remember the contents of particular information just for 1no)in" )hat is )hat* @ere he is not "oin" to ma1e any action based on the information received* B* & ITI&AF FIST#;I;!: In this process a person )ill listen the entire information and analy6e or interprets the contents and meanin" of the information rationally* @ere the objective of this listenin" is to "ive either a positive or ne"ative feedbac1 about the topic* =* #2<AT@I& FIST#;I;!: @ere people )ill listen to someone or information based on empathic feelin" to)ards the information or person* @ere the objective is you have a courtesy respect to)ards the person/ for that sa1e you listen to them* B)11(#1+ T$ #44#*T(<# L(+T#N(NG -* Fisteners )ho jump to conclusion close their mind in receivin" additional information* B* Self(centered listeners shift attention from spea1er to themselves* =* Selective listeners just listen to fe) topics and i"nore rest* C* <hysical distraction such as noise and mental distraction such as (-!1$<(NG L(+T#N(NG +:(LL+ -* Dont jud"e the messa"e by the spea1er but by the ar"ument* B* Decrease your emotional impact* =* %i"ht distraction by closed doors and turnin" off radio and television* C* Dont interrupt in the middle/ please )ait to hear the entire messa"e fully* ?* <rovide feedbac1 and let the spea1er 1no) that you are payin" attention* D* 0ffer facial e'pression and provide your criticism in a positive tone* E* Fisten actively for 1ey points/ ideas and facts* +* Distin"uish bet)een evidence and ar"ument/ idea and e'ample* 3* Ta1e brief notes so that 1ey points can be discussed* ->* eserve your jud"ment until the spea1er has finished the topic*

Lecture 18 N$N <#1B)L *$--=N(*)T($N Non"erbal communication consists of that part of a messa"e that is not encoded in )ords* The nonverbal part of the messa"e tends to be less conscious and often reveals the senders feelin"s and preferences more spontaneously and honestly than the verbal part* If the verbal messa"e does not match the nonverbal communication/ people tend to believe the nonverbal messa"e* %our types of nonverbal messa"es !ersonal Non"erbal communication involves 1inds of nonverbal behavior that are uni.ue to a person* The meanin" is also uni.ue to the person sendin" the messa"e* *ultural non"erbal communication/ by contrast/ is characteristics of/ or common to/ a "roup of people* =ni"ersal non"erbal communication is behavior that is common to human1ind* =nrelated non"erbal communication/ such as a snee6e/ is unrelated to the verbal messa"e* )naly>in' Non"erbal *ommunication +e"en different aspects L Theoretical )ritin"s and research classify nonverbal communication into seven main areas: 1. Body mo"ement/ or 1inesics behavior/ includes movement of the hands/ head/ feet and le"s/ posture/ eye movements and facial e'pressions H all these affect the messa"e* 2. !hysical characteristics such as body shape/ "eneral attractiveness/ body and breathe odors/ )ei"ht/ hair and s1in color are important parts of nonverbal communication* 3. !aralan'ua'e is that part of lan"ua"e associated )ith but not involvin" the )ord system* It consists of the voice .ualities and vocali6ations that affect ho) somethin" is said rather than what is said* The tones of voice/ rate of spea1in" and voice inflection are an important part of the total messa"e . !ro%imity means nearness/ in terms of physical space* @o) people use their personal space and that of others communicates a messa"e* This response to spatial relationships in formal/ informal and intimate settin" indicates ho) that person perceives and feels in that space <ersonal space varies accordin" to: L !ender L Status L oles L &ulture 5. )rtifacts are objects used to convey nonverbal messa"es about self(concept/ ima"e/ mood/ feelin" or style* %or e'ample/ perfume/ clothes/ lipstic1/ "lasses and hairpieces project the style or mood of the )earer* ,. The en"ironment can influence the outcome of communication* %or this reason/ or"ani6ation "ives careful consideration to office space/ factory layout/ the sales area and conference venues* The environment should put people at ease and match their e'pectationsJ an unsuitable environment can produce Anoise that causes communication barriers and interferes )ith the communication process*

4ollowin' are the traits of 'ood communicators? !erception? They are able to predict ho) you )ill receive their messa"e* They anticipate your reaction and shape the messa"e accordin"ly* They read your response correctly and constantly adjust to correct any misunderstandin"* !recision? They create a Ameetin" of the minds* When they finish e'pressin" themselves/ they share the same mental picture* *redibility? They are believable* They have faith in the substance of their messa"e* 7ou trust their information and their intentions* *ontrol? They shape your response* Dependin" on their purpose/ they can ma1e you lau"h or cry/ calm do)n/ chan"e your mind or ta1e action* *on'eniality? They maintain friendly/ pleasure relations )ith you 4eedbac@ 2a1e feedbac1 more useful by: A <lannin" ho) and )hen to accept it* A $ein" receptive to your audiences responses* A #ncoura"in" fran1ness* A 5sin" it to improve communication* To communicate easily and effecti"ely with your readers. you should apply the followin' +e"en B*C principles? -* &larity B* &onciseness =* &onsideration C* &oncreteness ?* &orrectness D* &ourtesy E* &ompleteness *larity A &larity means "ettin" your messa"e across so that the receiver )ill understand )hat you are tryin" to convey* &hoose precise/ concrete and familiar )ords* *onstruct effecti"e sentences and para'raphs. L At the core of clarity is the sentence* A sentence moves thou"ht clearly )ithin a para"raph* Important characteristics are as follo)s: L Fen"th L 5nity L &oherence L Ia"ue: $ein" the chief e'ecutive/ )e can e'pect help from you* L &lear: $ein" the chief e'ecutive/ you can surely help us* L #mphasis A Fittle #mphasis: The order )as received and the mana"er started preparin" for it* A $etter #mphasis: As the letter )as received/ the mana"er started preparin" for it* *orrectness The correctness principle is more than proper "rammar/ punctuation and spellin"* Thou"h mista1es are never intentional/ they spoil our ima"e* #rrors in the messa"es fall in the follo)in" cate"ories: 2ista1es in names/ fi"ures/ facts/ and )ords

2ista1es in punctuation and capitali6ation 2ista1es in the level of Fan"ua"e There are two types of writin's? (n formal writin'/ our style is un conversational (n informal writin'/ )e use )ords that are short/ familiar and conversational* A A formal style is characteri6ed by more comple' sentences* A An informal style is characteri6ed by Short )ords and sentences (Than1s a lot for your letter)* A &ontraction M Abbreviations (I havent/ theres) simple )ords* *onciseness #liminate )ordy e'pressions A To avoid )ordy e'pressions/ use sin"le )ords )henever possible* @ere are some e'amples of ho) )ord economy saves the readers time and effort* Avoid unnecessary repetition* A Avoid repetition by usin" pronouns/ short names or acronyms/ etc A Stic1 to the purpose of the messa"e* A Writin" concisely means usin" only necessary/ meanin"ful )ords* *ourtesy &ourtesy does not mean the use of old(fashioned e'pressions such as Ayour 1ind en.uiry/ Athan1 you and Aplease* ather/ it is politeness that "ro)s out of respect and concern for others* &ourtesy is a .uality that enables a re.uest to be refused )ithout 1illin" all hope of future business* &ourtesy also means replyin" promptly to all letters* If you feel your correspondents comments are unfair/ try to ans)er tactfully* In short/ the )hole letter should have a courteous tone* It is not )hat you say/ it is ho) you say it* The follo)in" are su""estions for producin" a courteous tone: $e sincerely tactful/ thou"htful/ and appreciative 5se e'pressions that sho) respect &hoose nondiscriminatory e'pressions &ourtesy also re.uires use of nondiscriminatory e'pressions that refer to any particular/ "ender/ race/ ethnic and 0ri"in/ etc* *onsideration &onsideration means )ritin" every letter )ith your reader in mind* It also means actin" on the Ayou attitude* When )e put ourselves in our readers place/ )e are considerate* We can understand our readers desires/ problems/ circumstances and emotions* This thou"htful consideration is e'actly Ayou attitude* Three specific )ays to indicate consideration are: %ocus on Ayou instead of AI and A)e Sho) audience benefits or interest #mphasi6e positive/ pleasant facts *ompleteness A A business messa"e is complete )hen it contains all facts that the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire* Senders and receivers are influenced by their bac1"round/ vie)point/ needs/ e'perience/ attitude/ status and emotions* $ecause of their difference/ the receiver needs to be sure that he has included all relevant information* &ompleteness is closely related to clarity* A A complete messa"e brin"s desired result* It does a better job of buildin" "ood)ill* It helps

remove costly la)suits that may result if important information is missin"* 2oreover/ the communication that seems unimportant can be surprisin"ly important if the information is complete and effective* %or completeness/ 1eep the follo)in" "uideline in mind:

<rovide all necessary information Ans)er all .uestions as1ed !ive somethin" e'tra )hen desirable

*oncreteness &oncreteness means that a messa"e is specific/ definite and vivid* If a messa"e lac1s these .ualities/ it )ill be va"ue and "eneral* To achieve concreteness/ denotative )ords )ill be used instead of connotative )ords* The follo)in" "uideline should help you compose concrete/ convincin" messa"e*

5se specific facts and fi"ures <ut active verbs in the sentences