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Juan Carlos Ramos

Daniel Vzquez Gonzlez Gabriela Villanueva Lucia Neri Antonio Escobar Karina Avalos

Date: 11/19/2013

Application of principal ferrous and non-ferrous alloys in the industry


Introduction: We develop a brief research on the chemical and physical properties of the major metal alloys that handles industry. We will detail the applications of these alloys and that benefits can be obtained for the greatest benefit in the industry, as well as the information needed to know about cost, Resistance, properties that will help us to choose the best. Problem Due to the industrial production of large-scale material and their increasing demand, it is necessary to know the great diversity of alloys that form many metals so that save economic costs. Justification The relationship between the structure and the properties of the alloys is very to take into account because of this depends on a good job in the work of any engineering. The cause for which we carried out a research on the implementation of the alloys in the industry is to know the better utilization of this for the company and the consumer, know how to fund the chemical and physical properties of certain alloys you let us analyze the costs of production and know which materials are the most suitable, The creation of a better quality product and we know if it is more expensive, otherwise look for alternative materials that allow us to create a product with the same quality and cheaper. Approach Learn about the chemical and physical properties that are ferrous alloys (which for the most part of the mix contain faith) and the non-ferrous. Theoretical Framework Ferrous alloys Carbon Steels: metals and alloys have many useful properties in engineering, by which their applications in designs in this field are very widespread. The iron and its alloys (in the first place the steel) represent almost 90 percent of world production of metals, especially for its successful combination of strength, toughness and ductility at relatively low cost. Each metal has special properties for engineering designs and is used after performing a comparative cost analysis with other metals and materials.

Table from: Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, William F. Smith,McGRAW-HILL

Analyzing the properties of the main alloys of Fe-C with something of Mn (0.30 -0.95 %) to improve the resistance we will need to: low-carbon steels (C <0.2%) have little resistance, many ductility media-carbon steels (0.2% <C <0.5%) are more resistant but less ductile And high carbon steels (0.6% <C <0.95%) have a lower strength and ductility.

Table from: Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, William F. Smith,McGRAW-HILL

Alloy steels To overcome the deficiencies of the simple carbon steels have been created steel alloys that contain alloyed elements to improve its properties.
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In general, the alloy steels cost more than the simple carbon steels, but for many applications are the only materials that can be used to satisfy the necessities of engineering. The main elements that are added to produce alloy steels are manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum and tungsten.

Table from: Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, William F. Smith,McGRAW-HILL

Stainless Steel They are primarily used by its resistance to corrosion. Adding Cr surface oxide that protects from corrosion, So that we can conclude: Stainless ferritic (BCC) 12% <Cr <30%, are resistant to corrosion and high temperatures commonly used in building elements. Martensitic 12% <Cr <17% + 0.15 to 1% C, with a capacity of hardening, useful in bearings and surgical materials. Austenitic stainless 16% <Cr <25% +% 7 <Ni <20%, they have excellent corrosion resistance and are therefore commonly employed in chemical industry.

Nonferrous alloys: Are alloys containing no iron or contain relatively small amounts of iron, examples, aluminum, copper, zinc, tin and nickel. Its properties are tin corrosion resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivity, low density and ease of production. Aluminum alloys: Aluminum has a combination of properties that make it extremely useful as engineering materials. Aluminum has a low density (2.70 g / cm 3), which makes it particularly useful for manufacturing products for transportation. Aluminum has also good corrosion resistance in most natural environments, due to the tenacious oxide film that forms on its surface.

Although pure aluminum has a low resistance strength through its alloys can acquire a resistance of about 100 ksi (690 MPa). Aluminum is not toxic and is widely used in food containers and packages. The aluminum electrical properties make it suitable for many applications in the electrical industry. The relatively low price of aluminum (96 / lb in 1989) along with its many useful properties makes it very important in the industry. Magnesium Alloys: Magnesium is a light metal (density = 1.74 g / cm 3) and competes with aluminum (density = 2.70 g / cm 3) in applications that require low density metals. However, magnesium and alloys thereof have many disadvantages that limit its widespread use. First, magnesium harder than aluminum (Mg $ 3.29/lb, compared to $ 0.67/lb of Al in 2001 Titanium alloys: Titanium is a relatively lightweight metal (density = 4.54 g / cm 3) but has high hardness (96 ksi to 99.0% Ti), whereby titanium and its alloys compete favorably with aluminum alloys certain aerospace applications, even when titanium costs more ($ 3.85/lb by Ti 8 versus $ 0.67/lb by Al Nickel alloys: Nickel is an important metal engineering especially for its exceptional resistance to corrosion and high temperature oxidation. Nickel has also ccc crystalline structure, which makes it extremely pliable, but is relatively expensive ($ 7/lb 1989) and has high density (8.9 g / cm 3), which limits their use. Copper alloys: Copper is an important metal in engineering and is widely used without any alloy and combined with other metals in various alloys. In unalloyed form, copper has an outstanding combination of properties for industrial applications. Some of them are of high electrical and thermal conductivity, good corrosion resistance, ease of fabrication, average tensile strength, controllable annealing properties and general characteristics and welding seams.

Table from: Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering, William F. Smith,McGRAW-HILL

Proposal for applications Now that we know as much as physical and chemical properties, economic values of elements that create our industry leading alloys may require, we can make judgments and decisions to take full advantage and fruit to work with the certainty of obtaining expectations desired.

Conclusion Based on our research we see the great importance of chemistry in Mechatronics engineering and engineering not only for this but many of the existing engineering chemistry is a science assistant us that allows us to know the properties of materials, in this case metals. As defined by JA Rietdijk, "Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronics, automatic control and systems for the design of products and processes." In this term the mechatronic not only be analyzed as design the product but that is done, you should know what material will be working, the factors set out and behave like, this is precisely where the science of chemistry largely influences. Bibliography F, S. W., & Hashemi, J. (2004). Fundamentals of materials science and engineering. En S. W. F., Alloys for Engineering (pgs. 358-457). Mexico, DF.: McGRAW-HILL, S. A. DE C.V. Rietdijk "Ten propositions on mechatronics", en Mechatronics in Products and Manufacturing Conference, Lancenter, Inglaterra, 1989.