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Limba Engleza Prep. Univ.

Mihaela Patru





Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

THE ARTICLE What commerce is about

As a human activity commerce is concerned with the study of trade, namely the moving of the goods from the seller to the buyer, and the aids to trade, of the business units which provide goods and services. The goods are almost always produced far away from the place of consumption and their way from the producer to the consumer is long and very complicated.Therefore, it is the function of commerce to offer a link between the stages of this process and the necessary instruments to make it work. The main functions performed by commerce are as follows : Trade is the basic commercial activity. It is essentially the exchange of goods and services between producers and consumers. Trade consists of home / domestic trade including wholesale trade and retail trade and foreign / overseas trade dealing with import and export trade . But commerce includes more other functions in addition to trade. Distribution involves getting goods from the manufacturer to the consumer.Without sophisticated systems for storing goods and selling them to the consumers, it would be impossible for firms to find costumers for their goods. Banking and financial services offered by banks and other institutions assist commerce by providing loans and other services which allow business to function and invest in future production, and enable consumers to purchase goods and services. Communications, in both written and electronic form, allow firms to order and sell their goods efficiently and cheaply. No transaction is possible without communications. Transport is concerned with the moving of goods by land, sea or air as well as the means necessary to do it. Insurance allows risks to be taken without fear of loss. It gives security and stability to commerce as it enables the business people to survive losses by damage, shipwreck, fire, burglary etc. Without adequate insurance many enterprises would be too risky to undertake. Advertising also plays an important part as it enables firms to let prospective customers know their offer. It includes a wide range of forms from hand-distributed leaflets to highly sophisticated television commercials.

aid = ajutor, mijloc customer = client

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

goods = mrfuri consumption = consum link = verig, legtur therefore = aadar, deci exchange = schimb domestic trade = comer interior overseas trade = comer exterior wholesale trade = comer angro retail trade=comer cu amnuntul to deal with = a se ocupa cu in addition to = n plus, pe lng to involve = a implica to store = a depozita warehose = depozit

to assist = a ajuta to enable = a da posibilitatea to purchase = a cumpra, a achiziiona order = comand to order = a comanda insurance = asigurare loss = pierdere damage = stricciune shipwreck = naufragiu burglary = spargere, jaf prospective = posibil offer = ofert leaflet = prospect commercial =film de reclam comercial

Exercises 1. Give synonyms for : commerce, commercial, foreign trade, home trade, to provide, to enable, aid, to assist, prospective, customer, link, goods. 2. In each of the following questions there is only one right answer : Mass production is possible only if : a. there is a wide market for increased production b. customers will pay a high price for the product c. the raw materials required are found locally d. a lot of unskilled workers live near the factories. The term producer refers to one who : a. provides raw materials or food b. grows crops or manufactures goods c. adds value to a product d. advertises goods or services for sale. Which one of these statements is false? a. Every stage of production employs commercial services. b. Commercial services cannot begin until the manufacturing processes have been completed. c. If there were no commercial services most goods would not be produced. d. Commercial services add value to products. Which one of these statements is true? a. A wholesaler insists on cash payment from his customers. b. A wholesaler is a connecting link between the retailer and manufacturer. c. A wholesaler deals only with manufactures.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

d. A wholesaler sells cheap goods to the householders on their door steps. 3. Match the following words with their corresponding definition : a. goods a. the moving of the goods from the seller to the buyer b. services b. the amount of money that is made by a business, e.g. when it sells something for more than it costs c. profit c. articles of trade or commerce; wares, merchandise; d. turnover d. the work provided for others as an occupation or a business e. stock e. items(food,clothing)produced for the final consumer f. producer f. items meant to be used in producing other products goods g.consumer g. the rate at which goods are sold and restocked goods h. commodity h any specific market where consumers buy goods i. consumer i. an accumulated supply of goods outlet j. trade j. 1. a raw material( grain, coffee, wool, cotton ) 2. a good regarded in economics as the basis of production and exchange

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Article ( exercises )

1.Insert the right articles where necessary: . sooner, .. better . Health is more precious than . wealth. . Thames devides London into two unequal parts. He has never visited . Art Museum. . Romanians are hospitable. 2.Insert the or The Zero Article where necessary: Where is umbrella? I put it on table. .. last time I saw him he said he was going to school. He says that he never watches .. T.V. and never listens to .. music. English teacher is . kindest man I know. Carpathians are said to be . high mountains. Danube flows into .. Black Sea. I never drink coffee. I will drink . tea but I wont drink .. coffee. I will pay a visit to .. Whites. .. Frenchmen are said to be .. excellent cooks. 3.Complete the exclamations with a / an only where necessary: What . sad story! What . good news! What . interesting idea! What . well behaved kids! What . terrible noise! What . beautiful day! What . kind people! What . awful experience! What . heavy luggage! 4.Insert definite or indefinite articles: I have ordered .. washing machine and .. washing machine has come. .. climate does not suit me. How did press receive it? Since lunch was not ready yet, my husband read paper for a while, then he rose from . armchair and turned on .. television. I mentioned bridge; he was very good at . game. Give me newspaper, Iwant to have a look at the ads. Give me newspaper to clean the mirror with.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

.. moon rose out of the sea. Is there .. moon tonight? The door opened and .. teacher came in. The door opened and .. headmaster came in. I heard on .. radio that they have come to .. truce. man has called and left .. present for you. moon goes round earth and earth goes round sun. How have myths come into .. world? 5.Supply the necessary article(s): zero, the or a / an: .. verdict has to be unanimous. .. tiger is larger than .. lynx. .. witness may tell only what he himself knows to be true. .. French have good wines. .. leopard is a cat. .. leopard is the fastest cat. Hes wasted his life in search of . unusual. Youre rather partial to .. asparagus, and trout. They have a fine taste in . music and . literature. The responsibility of parents is stressed in the Declaration on the Rights of Child. .. fellow does a lot of crazy things when he has been drinking. .. man has left his imprint here too. What can .. man do when he is cast on a far-off island? .. rich have always exploited poor. 6.Supply the necessary article: zero, a / an: He had served his country as . Minister of Finance and . Ambassador to Finland. She was .. typist by trade. Can you act as . guide? Who is going to hold the office of .. secretary? Be . foster parent ! He had the help of two deputies, the economist Mark Webster, Director of the U.N.Population Division and Roy Wilkins, . Career U.N. officer. You can get a job as .. waiter. Hell be acting the part of .. solicitor next week. The castle in which Mary, .. Queen of Scots was imprisoned is worth a visit. He became .. unwilling sailor. He fully well deserves to be awarded the rank of . general. He spent his adolescence as .. seaman, . prospector and .. fireman.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

He was . firm believer in the triumph of good. He has been elected . President of the Conference. Now hes had a go at solving a difficult case, he might turn detective. I rather doubt hell remain . content accountant all his life. I wont allow you take her for . fool. 7.Translate into English: a.Doctorul Taylor lucreaza intr-un spital londonez langa teatrul Old Vic. b.Mi s-a spus ca azi dimineata s-a facut un anunt special la radio. c.Ii place viata, dar nu a avut o viata prea interesanta. d.Admiram cu totii ordinea si disciplina si detestam haosul si dezordinea. e.Ar trebui sa stai in casa cand vremea e ploioasa. f.Omenirea a visat intotdeauna sa exploreze spatiul cosmic. g.Organizatia Natiunilor Unite urmareste realizarea unitatii intre state si depasirea barierelor pe care le ridica viata politica, diferenta de nationalitate, rasa si cultura. h.Fasolea, oricum ai gati-o, tot gust de fasole are. i.Leul face parte din familia felinelor. j.Cat e ora?

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

THE NOUN At the Railway Station

Although we all seem to agree that there is nothing compared to modern air transport, railways today still carry the bulk of passenger and good traffic. Railway is still one of the cheapest ways of transporting freight over long distances. The Northern railway station, one of the main entrance gates to the capital, is provided with everything necessary to allow for the transport of passengers and goods in the best conditions. It is interesting to watch the constant rush in a railway station - numberless trains which are coming and leaving passenger trains, express, fast or slow and goods trains, local and long distance trains, commuting trains. The passengers are hurrying along the platforms getting on or off the trains, the porters are carrying the luggage to the trains or pushing it on their trucks to the luggage van. The luggage van is placed immediately behind the engine, then the mail van and finally the passenger-carriages with smoking and non-smoking compartments of the first and second classes, a dining-car that caters for all appetites and the sleepers with upper and lower berths. These services are available on all long-distance trains. The passengers compartments are very comfortable with numbered seats over the seats there is the rack for the luggage. At intervals a guard or a special inspector checks the travelers tickets. The railway station is also provided with a spacious waiting room, a restaurant, an inquiry office, parcels office where heavy luggage is registered and labeled, the left luggage office where luggage may be left for any period of time, book-stalls where you can buy books, magazines and newspapers, to read during the journey. The trains arrivals and departures are posted up in time, the passengers being also invited to the trains by the loudspeaker. rail = in carriage = transport bulk = cea mai mare parte freight = ncrctur porter = hamal truck = crucior de bagaje to cater for = a se ngriji de berth = cuet rack = plas pentru bagaje VOCABULARY to post up = a afia loudspeaker = megafon commuting train = tren de navet goods traffic = transport de mrfuri goods train = tren marfar mail van = vagon de pot luggage van = vagon de bagaje dining-car = vagon restaurant left-luggage office = birou de bagaje

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

guard = conductor to label = a eticheta

book-stall = stand de cri EXERCISES

I. Give synonyms for: numberless, cheap, passenger, journey, to depart, to enter, freight, to decide, to have a chance, light. II. Find the definitions(1-6) for each of the words(a-f) below: a. railway 1. US system using trains to carry passengers and goods b. railroad 2. end of a railway line c. railhead 3. B.E. system using trains to carry passengers and goods d. bulk 4. large and awkward e. station 5. large quantity of goods f. bulky 6. place where trains stop for passengers III. Write the plural of: a. match, box, city, hero, country, roof, life, bus, porter, carriage, class. b. man, child, foot, Englishman, advice, information, bred, luggage, gas. c. passer-by, mother-in-law, dining-car. d. datum, formula, crisis, phenomenon. e. cloth, colour, damage, pain. IV. Turn into the plural: 1. The hero of the story is not a very young man. 2. The country has a very vast network of railways. 3. The luggage was placed on the luggage rack. 4. The train usually leaves on time. 5. This passenger carriage is really comfortable. 6. The book you want is on the shelf. 7. I shall keep the key of the box. 8. The passer-by stopped to see what was going on. 9. The formula is correct. 10. The fellow-worker has been highly appreciated. 11. The bench needs fresh painting. 12. They offered to help the old man carry his luggage.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

THE ADJECTIVE Company Formation

A person starting a new business must decide which type of organization is best. To some extent the answer depends on the person, the type of business, the money needed, and the kind of product or service to be provided. If you are going into the restaurant business, you may decide on a sole proprietorship or a partnership. Perhaps you want to become a partowner of a corporation by buying shares in it. You may want to invest in a partnership by becoming a sleeping partner or you may want to look into franchise. There are more sole proprietorships than any other types of business in the United States economic sistem, but it is the giant corporation, especially the multinational one, that has become to many a symbol of the private American enterprise system. To money needed to start a business is called capital. If you do not have enough capital you may borrow some from the bank in the form of a loan or an overdraft. Before the bank will give a loan you must put up some security ( such as your own house ) in case you cannot pay back the money. Security is also called collateral. Capital which is borrowed is called loan capital.Capital obtained from investors / investment is called share capital or equity capital. If the business owned by yourself ( a sole proprietor) runs into trouble, you are liable to pay all the debts to your creditors, even if you have to sell your private possessions. A sole proprietor is personally liable to his / her creditors. Sometimes two or more people own and run a business. This is called a partnership.People who invest money in a business are called investors or backers. The backers in a partnership are all partners and owners. Usually all the partners have personal unlimited liability for debts to creditors. A partner who invests money in a partnership but who does not run the business is called a sleeping partner. Sometimes a sleeping partner can have limited liability ( her / his liability is limited to the amount of money s/he invests). A company or a corporation is a business that is legally regarded as a separate entity, in other words as something that exists independently. That means that, as far as the law is concerned, the corporation has a separate existence from the people who own it. It has a life of its own. As a consequence, owners in a corporation have limited liability. With limited liability, the owners are responsible for the debts of the business only to the extent of the amount they have invested. Even if the business fails, the owners cannot be taken to pay the corporations debts. Limited liability companies are economically very efficient. Although only about 6 percent of all business in the United States are corporations they earn about 79 percent of the countrys income.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

Investment in a limited company is in the form of shares. Everyone who buys shares in the company is a shareholder. The liability of each share is limited to the amount of ones investment. If you have shares in a company, you have stake or holding in the company. If you hold 20 percent of the shares, you have a 20 percent stakes. If a shareholder has more than 50 percent holding, that person is a majority shareholder and has a majority or controlling interest in the company. A public limited company is normally the largest form of business unit in the privare sector; its share are often quoted on the stock exchange. Most present day public companies were once private, having at one stage gone public with the help of a bank. The big advantage of forming a public limited company is that advertisements may be placed in a financial newspapers inviting the public to apply for shares : a prospectus, as this advertisement is called, give details of the companys past trading record and estimates of future earnings, together with other information required by law. One of the main reasons for small business failure is not managerial incompetence, but inadequate financial planning. Therefore in order to ensure your success you have to learn something about the market you want to enter, the goods and services already existing and you have to understand some basic business and accounting principles. Most probably you will have to employ a skilled person to keep the exact records of your business and possibly to give you some professional advice as well. This means writing down credits and debits, and adding up columns of figures, which is what an accountant does. You will have to know and understand the meaning of some basic accounting jargon such as cash receipts, journal, check register, double entry, FIFO, trial balance. You need all these, as well as financial statements, budgets, cash-flow projections, both to measure the success of your company and to help you make decisions about allocating your resources for future projects.

Vocabulary cash flow = flux de numerar cash receipts journal = jurnal de ncasri n numerar check register = registru de cecuri double entry = partid dubl FIFO ( first in, first out) = metod folosit n inventarierea stocurilor care presupune c cele mai vechi uniti ( primele intrate) sunt primele vndute ( ieite) loan = mprumut overdraft = descoperire n cont trial balance = balan de verificare collateral = garanie suplimentar

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

equity capital = capitalul acionarilor gearing = structura de capital; rate de ndatorare liability = rspundere, datorie backer = girant prospectus = prospect, versiune condensat a situaiei de nregistrare a unei companii care furnizeaz informaii asupra hrtiilor de valoare Exercises 1. Fill in the blanks in the following except : The money needed to start a business is called (a) . If you do not have enough ( b) . You may borrow some from the bank in the form of a (c) or an (d) . . Before the bank will give a loan you cannot pay back the money. This is also called (f) . Capital which is borrowed is called (g) . Capital obtained from investors / investments is called (h) or .. . The (j) . between the loan capital and the equity capital determines whether a company has a (k) .. of a (l) . . 2. Complete the following sentences by using the correct form of the words in brackets : a. Its a . morning! We could go for a walk to the shop. (glory) b. Why are you so . of everything your assistant does? (critic) c. I am waiting for a .. opportunity. (favour) d. He is a very . person. (influence) e. Your assignment involved a lot of work, but try to show at least some .. (origin) f. All in all she has a pleasant personality. If only she would be more !(predict) g. Why does your office manager everything I do? (critic) h. Ill pay cash, but only if you can give me a . (receive) i. She is extremely rich. Her . is worth several million pounds. (inherit) j. The job includes some .. duties as well. (manage) 3. Make sentences to point out the difference between the following words : a. borrow lend e. bookkeeper bookmaker b. owe own f. found find c. lose loss loose g. ensure insure assure d. advice advise h. effective - efficient


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Adjective Comparison

There are three degrees of comparison : Positive Comparative Superlative darker darkest dark taller tallest tall more useful most useful useful One syllable adjectives form their comparative and superlative by adding er and est to the positive form : big bigger the biggest Adjectives ending in e add r and st : brave braver the bravest Adjectives of three or more syllables form their comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive : more beautiful the most beautiful beautiful Adjectives of two syllables follow one or other of the above rules. Those ending in ful or re usually take more and most : more doubtful the most doubtful doubtful more obscure the most obscure obscure Those ending in er, y or ly usually add er, est : cleverer the cleverest clever prettier the prettiest pretty sillier the silliest silly Irregular comparison : bad worse the worst better the best good less the least little the most many/much more far farther the farthest (of distance only) the furthest (used more widely) further elder the eldest (of people only) old the oldest (of people and things) older Constructions with comparisons A. With the positive form of the adjective, we use as as in the affirmative and not as / not so as in the negative : She was as white as snow. You are not as tall as your brother is. B. With the comparative we use than : He makes fewer mistakes than you.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

C. Comparison of two or more people / things is expressed by the superlative with the in / of : This is the oldest theatre in London. We can express the same idea with never and a comparative : I have never drunk better beer. D. Parallel increase is expressed by the + comparative the + comparative : The bigger this computer is, the better it will be. E. Gradual increase or decrease is expressed by two comparatives joined by and : It is getting colder and colder. F. Like + noun and as + noun : He worked like a slave. (very hard) He worked as a slave. ( He was a slave.) The + adjective with a plural meaning A. blind, deaf, sick, dead, living, rich, poor, unemployed and certain other adjectives describing the human character can be preceded by the and used to represent a class of persons. These expressions have a plural meaning; they take a plural verb : The rich consider themselves superior to the poor. B. The + adjective can occasionally have a singular meaning : the accused (person) Many and much Many(adjective) is used before countable nouns. Much(adjective) is used before uncountable nouns. He didnt make many mistakes. We havent much coffee. They have the same comparative and superlative forms more and most: more mistakes / coffee most men / damage Many and much can be used with how : How many times? How much? Much without how is possible but the other forms are a little more usual : Did you have a lot of snow / much snow last year?


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Adjective exercises

1. Find the antonyms for : interesting light cloudy tall ill difficult clever young

2. Use big, large, great or tall to describe : a .. man a tree a .. car a mistake a .. flat a building a .. country a friend a .. idea a composer 3. Give the comparative and superlative of the following adjectives : nice, happy, difficult, big, beautiful, fat, good, careful, friendly . 4. What is the corresponding noun for : deep strong wise wide long wrong 5. Choose the right end(s) : 1. shy means a. disposed to avoidance b. short in payment c. noisy 2. free means a. unoccupied b. space c. independent 3. courageous a. indifferent b. brave c. cordial 4. furious a. strange b. full of fury c. very angry 5. strong a. powerful b. restricted c. vigorous 6. Find the missing forms : late, .. , the last

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

old, older, .. good, , the best bad, ..., the worst little, . , the least 7. Some of the adjectives in the list below are not synonyms with the adjectives dominant. Find them : preponderent, principal, sovereign, humble, supreme, strong, thankful, paramount. 8. Translate into English : rece ca gheaa alb ca zpada iute ca fulgerul tare ca fierul dulce ca mierea 9. Form adjectives from the following words : honesty value mechanics education remark experience stone peace pity man care dirty read child fault use rain travel 10. Give the comparison degrees of the following adjectives : blue beautiful far crazy pleasant old pretty difficult big ill late 11. Translate into English :


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

a.Nu este tot att de drgu ca verioara ei, totui este la fel de inteligent. b. Cu ct suntem mai muli, cu att mai bine. c. Cu ct naintam, drumul devenea din ce n ce mai prost. d. Lacul era limpede ca cristalul. e. Cea mai mare parte a celor prezeni au ovaionat ndelung. f. Se fcea din ce n ce mai ntuneric i de aceea a trebuit s ne ntoarcem acas. g. Era un biat guraliv, dar bun la suflet. h.mi pare teribil de ru c n-a fost bun nici una dintre soluii. i.Sunt foarte surprins c te mai gsesc nc aici. j. Era suficient de detept ca s nu observe nimeni c nu este. k. Viaa fr el este o moarte prematur. l. Cea mai scump bijuterie este inima de aur. 12. Replace the underlined words by their antonyms : a. The days are getting shorter and the nights longer. b. It is hot today. c. The sun rises in the east. d. It is very late. e. That exercise is difficult. f. He is young, tall and strong. g. She is always present. h. Ive got a new, thick dictionary. i. It is a sunny day. j. My watch is slow.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

THE ADVERB Hints of possible leisure time

RADIO and the miracle of the XX century, TELEVISION, are widely spread in todays world. You can hardly find a corner where one cannot receive radio or T.V. broadcasts. Hundreds of stations speaking in every language of the world fill the air with electromagnetic waves. Radio and television are undoubtedly the most powerful and quickest means of spreading news and information. What changes, advantages or disadvantages have been brought into the world by radio and television? Loudspeakers of private radios and T.V. sets give additional noise to the rather noisy atmosphere of modern apartment houses. There are certain rules to control private electronic noise. A person may not put a rape recorder, a radio-set or a cassette on the window sill of his flat and play loud music entertaining the public in the street. The wide spreading of portable radios, transistors, brought to life new rules of etiquette and behaviour. You may not switch on your transistor in a tram or bus and make the passengers listen to what they most likely dont like. But, if you are a television viewer you can spend week-ends watching T.V. programmes. There are, of course, a range of programmes to be seen. News broadcasts are given at regular intervals, there are both national and international panel discussions of current events; dramatic presentations operas, symphonies and ballets are scheduled at various times. Comedy and quiz shows are seen, home economics programmes and serialized dramatic skits commonly known as Soap operas can be watched. T.V. stations carry special programmes for children, folk music and telecast major sport events.It could be argued that the radio performs these services just as well but on television everything is more lively and much more real. Many people say that television in itself is neither good nor bad but its value to society is determined by uses to which it is put. However, staying at home you can devote much of your leisure time to hobbies. Almost anything can be a hobby; to collect things such as : statuary, paintings, coins or books or even match-book covers. Two weekends ago I went to an exhibition of computers and computer software in the Fair Pavilion. One of the companies at the show ABB, have a particularly range of computers, and computer games, which I found rather impressive. For one thing, these new games are rather expensive; and besides, some computer games are rather silly really. But reading at home or on leaves is apparently at an all time high. Francis Bacon ( one of the greatest English philosophers) said in one of his essays : Reading serves for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Read not to contradict and confute, nor to believe and take for granted, nor to find talk and discourse, but

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

to weigh and consider. Reading makes a full man, conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man writes little, he needs to have a great memory; if he confers little he needs to have a present wit.; and if he reads little he needs to have much cunning to seem to know that he does not.

pastime = distracie, amuzament coin = moned station = post de radio-difuziune leave = concediu wave = und to confute = a combate n discuie means = mijloc to weigh = a cntri loudspeaker = difuzor, megafon to confer = a discuta additional = suplimentar cunning = iretenie sill = pervaz tape recorder = magnetofon to entertain = a amuza, a distra panel discussion=mas rotund range = gam, sortiment quiz show=emisiune concurs interval = pauz to broadcast=a transmite(radio) home economics=economie intern to telecast=a transmite(TV) to find talk and discourse=a gsi motiv de discuie to devote=a acorda to be at an all time high=a fi apreciat n toate ocaziile

1. Give the adverbs from the following adjectives : regular, common, good, live, beautiful, happy, hard, near, early. 2. Identify the adverbs in the text and specify every time the type of the adverb used in the text. 3. What would you say if you liked, or disliked, a play, a book, a film, painting, a record or a concert? Make up two lists (+) positive and (-) negative and decide what is being discussed. a. I think its to go to the top. b. I thought it was a bit repetitive actually. c. The last movement was particularly good. d. The first two chapters were rather boring. e. I didnt think that she was right for the part she was playing. f. The use of colour was too lavishly and sometimes really exciting. g. It was rather a lively performance. h. The characters were very true to life. i. The landscapes were fantastic, I thought. j. It was a terrible film, nowhere near as good as the first one.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Adverb Kinds of adverbs

Manner :bravely, fast, happily, hard, quickly, well Place :down, here, near, there Time :now, soon, still, today, yet Frequency :always, never, often, twice Degree :fairly, hardly, too, very Interrogative :when? where? why? Relative :when, where, why

Form and use

The formation of adverbs with ly A. Many adverbs of manner and some adverbs of degree are formed by adding ly to the corresponding adjectives : final, finally slow, slowly Spelling notes (a) A final y changes to i :happy, happily (b) A final e is retained before ly :extreme, extremely Exceptions: true, truly whole, wholly (c) Adjectives ending in a consonant + le drop the e and add y : gentle, gently ; simple, simply. The adverb of good is well. B. Adjectives ending in ly Daily, weekly, monthly, kindly can be adjectives or adverbs. But adjectives like friendly, likely, lonely cannot be used as adverbs and have no adverb form : a lonely man, a friendly act. C. Sometimes adverbs and adjectives have the same form Used as adverbs Used as adjectives Come back soon. the back door The train went fast. a fast train They worked hard. The work is hard. Turn right here. the right answer D. Comparative and superlative adverb forms (a) With adverbs of two or more syllables we form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive form : Positive Comparative Superlative quickly more quickly most quickly fortunately more fortunately most fortunately


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

(b) Single-syllable adverbs, however, and early add er, est : hard harder hardest early earlier earliest (c) Irregular comparisons : well better best badly worse worst little less least much more most far farther farthest further furthest Much meaning a lot can modify comparative or superlative adjectives and adverbs : much better much more quickly Most placed before an adjective or adverb can mean very.It is mainly used here with adjectives / adverbs of two or more syllables : She behaved most generously. Constructions with comparatives When the same verb is required in both clauses we normally use an auxiliary for the second verb. (a) With the positive form we use as as with an affirmative verb, and as/so as with a negative verb : He doesnt snore as loudly as you do. (b) With the comparative form we use than : He eats more quickly than me. the + comparative . the + comparative is also possible : The earlier you start the sooner you will finish. (c) A superlative( without the) + of all is quite common : He likes swimming best of all. Place of adverbs A. Adverbs of manner (a) They come after the verb or after the object: well, fast, easily, quickly. He speaks slowly. They talked to him frankly (b) Other adverbs of manner are placed before the verb : hardly, nearly, really, almost, simply, probably. He really reads well. He almost fell. She hardly moved.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

B. (a) Adverbs of time and frequency : now, then, often, already, soon, still are placed after the simple tenses of to be, before the simple tenses of all other verbs or after the auxiliary : He is still there. They soon learned to operate the cassette. He has already seen this programme. (b)Adverbs of definite time : yesterday, today, late, tonight, early are usually placed at the very end of the clause : He never comes late. Lets see the new film tomorrow. C. Adverbs of place : there, here, upstairs, somewhere are usually placed after the verb or the object : They are not here. You can meet them upstairs. Order of adverbs when they occur in the same sentence If there are more adverbs in the same sentence their order is : manner, place, time. I talked to him frankly at the meeting last night. ( I-am vorbit sincer la edin seara trecut.) Use of the following adverbs Too + adjective ( in affirmative sentences) : Some English speak too fast for me to understand. Not + adjective + enough ( in negative sentences) : Some English films arent easy enough for me. Rather + adjective expresses a negative idea : Some English films are rather difficult. Quite, extremely, fairly, pretty + adjective express a positive idea : Some English songs are quite easy for me to understand. I find listening to songs pretty entertaining.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Adverb exercises

1. Give the adverbs from the following adjectives and then put the adverbs in the comparative and superlative degrees : quick fast slow bad quiet dry careful near brave difficult much sudden hard hopeful gay sweet ugly calm swift noisy merry sleepy late good lazy

2. Insert the adverbs in the right place : a. To his contemporaries, Defoe appeared as the greatest liar that lived.(ever) b. If I did not express myself it was because I did not wish to hurt her delicacy, or yours.(clearly) c. That world seemed to him something unknown.(strangely) d. I shouldnt mind you seeing him at my uncles.(occasionally) e. What did he hnow of her?(really) f. Had you any trouble in the office? No, sir, you can make enquiry(ever) g. And he was the biggest dentuso that I have ever seen.(ever) 3. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Fill in the blanks with one of the adverbs in brackets : We have not turned on the T.V. set ( late, lately). It was ( late, lately) when we listened to the radio. She always works ( hard, hardly) . She could ( hard, hardly) watch the childrens programme. She turned the knob so ( short, shortly) that it failed. They will join us ( short, shortly). The T.V. programmes are ( high, highly) interesting. The bird was flying so ( high, highly) that we could ( hard, hardly) watch it.

4. Write possitive (+) or negative (-) ideas using list A and B with rather, quite or extremely : A. interesting, easy, tiring, boring, difficult, useful, frustrating, timeconsuming, worying, motivating, challenging, helpful. B. listening to tapes; writing compositions; learning vocabulary; reading newspapers; understanding films; talking on the phone; taking exams; writing letters; pronounciation practice.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

5. Fill in the blanks with the proper construction for cu ct cu att : The (much) we study, the (much) we know. The ( much) .. we know, the ( much) . we forget.The (much) we forget, the ( little) . we know. The (little) we know, the ( little) .. we forget. The (little) we forget, the ( much) . we know. So why study? 6. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Translate into English : Mai este mult pn la caban? Mai bine m-ai asculta, dect te-ai uita pe fereastr. El este cu mult mai silitor dect sora lui. Cine a mai venit la deschiderea noii expoziii? i-a mai dat i altceva n afar de cadoul acesta? Este mai bun gluma pe care mi-ai spus-o tu. Cine a mai pomenit aa ceva? nc mai dormi la ora asta? Nu mai avem nici un pic de cerneal. Du-te i cumpr o sticl. Ar fi mult mai bine s nu m mai ntrebi ce face.

7. Read and remember the following cogitations and puns, paying attention to the use of the adverbs : a. He who laughs last laughs best, but he who laughs first sees the point. b. People who have an hour to spare usually spend it with someone who hasnt. c. A philosophy professor glanced coolly at one of his students : Hotchkiss, he said hopelessly, can you tell me who wrote Foundation of the Metaphysics of Ethics? Oh, professor, answered the student unhappily, I kant.(Immanuel Kant). Well, good for you, Hotchkiss said the professor. Thats your first correct answer this year.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

THE PRONOUN The Customs System

The importance attached to the customs policy is illustrated by the existence of a Customs Code which together with the procedures and the provisions of the Customs Regulations, with the Customs Tariffs for goods express in full the rules of the customs system. Customs clearance consists in the following operations: presentation of the means of conveyance to customs units and production of the accompanying documents; customs inspection of the means of conveyance and of the merchandise carried, the checking of customs declarations. The Customs Tariffs are effectively applied when clearing the goods through the customs; then customs duties are being charged in conformity with the Guide to the USE OF IMPORT CUSTOMS TARIFFS. The GUIDE enters the goods under several columns: tariff heading and subheading, description of the goods and the rate of duty. Customs bodies should ascertain whether the merchandise is in accordance with the customs declaration and transport documents, with the export or import licence as to quantity and kind. Customs duties are charged on the customs value of the goods. If the goods fall under customs restrictions they are liable to duties, if they dont exceed the free-tax quota they are undutiable. Natural persons may bring in the country personal effects which are, as a rule, duty-free. The Customs Regulations prohibit the introduction into the country of arms and ammunitions, explosives, narcotics and toxic substances, radio transmitters and receivers, documents and printed matter under law interdiction. It is also prohibited to take out of the country securities, goods that belong to the national cultural patrimony, precious metals, stones and objects made thereof. Customs Regulations stipulate what deeds are considered to be customs contraventions, the limits of the fines, the procedures of penalties application and the remedies at law. VOCABULARY Customs = vam receiver = microfon Policy = politic liable to duty = pasibil de taxe vamale Provision = dispoziie, clauz personal effects = efecte personale Heading = poziie tarifar securities = hrtii de valoare Subheading = subpoziie tarifar thereof = din aceasta To ascertain = a verifica, a stabili fine = amend Licence = autorizaie To exceed = a depi

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

To prohibit = a interzice EXERCISES 1. Read and translate into Romanian, pay attention to the words and phrases in italics : a. There is a custom all over the world to celebrate New Year. b. We cannot retain your custom any longer. c. Romanian Customs Code is very comprehensive. d. Personal effects are not customable. e. Custom barriers are not always favourable for trade development. f. It is very costly to have a custom-built car. g. When you stop at the Customs shed you have to fill in the Customs entry. h. Your suit is custom-tailored. 2. Fill in the gaps with the right pronoun : whatever, whoever, whenever, wherever, however a. . took my money must give it back. b. . he goes, he takes his wife. c. . Im in London, I go to the theatre. d. . hot it is, you must work. e. . is in the parcel it is very heavy. f. . often you write, she wont answer. g. . there are trees, theres water. h. . happens, I wont change my mind. i. . I cant sleep, I read a book. j. . wrote this was very clever. k. . much it costs, Ill buy it. l. . he goes, he finds friends. 3. Choose the right pronoun by crossing out the wrong one : a. The customs officer came into the room and closed the door behind ( him / himself ). b. When packing he was not careful and cut ( him / himself ). c. She dressed ( her / herself ) and left for the office. d. Behave ( you / yourself ). e. This is a secret between ( us / ourselves ). f. They look up at the stars above ( them / themselves ). g. He introduced ( me / myself ) to his friends. h. I bought ( me / myself ) a new cabin bag. 4. Say which is the difference in the meaning of the pairs of sentences; mind the reflexive pronouns : a. He applied himself to the task.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

He applied for a job. b. She availed herself of the long journey she had made. Her effort did not avail her. c. He conducted himself well. He conducted the affair very well. d. She departed herself from the mother with tears in her eyes. She departed from her world.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Pronoun
Personal, possessive and reflexive pronouns Personal pronouns

Singular : first person second person third person Plural : first person second person third person Subject I you he/she/it we you they Object me you him/her/it us you them

Possessive adjectives and pronouns

Possessive adjectives
my your his/her/its our your their This is our room. or This room is ours. This is their car. or This car is theirs.

Possessive pronouns
mine yours his/hers/its ours yours theirs

Possessive pronouns replacing possessive adjectives + nouns

Reflexive pronouns Singular Plural I. myself ourselves II. yourself yourselves III. himself herself themselves itself The reflexive pronouns are used as objects of a verb when the action of the verb returns to the doer, when subject and object are the same person : I cut myself. He shaves himself. Reflexive pronouns used as emphasizing pronouns : The king himself gave her the medal. They themselves must go there.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

Demonstrative pronouns and adjectives Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative adjectives This classroom is large. This is a classroom. That door is closed. That is a door. These walls are white. These are walls. Those desks are brown. Those are desks. Interrogative pronouns and adjectives For persons : subject who (pronoun) object whom, who (pronoun) possessive whose (pronoun and adjective) For things : subject / object what (pronoun and adjective) For persons or things when the choice is restricted : subject / object which (pronoun and adjective) Who is he? Whose is that pencil? (pronoun) Whose pencil is this? (adjective) To whom must you give the book? (pronoun) Which of those students is your friend? (pronoun) Which girl is your daughter? (adjective) What is he? (pronoun) What actor is your favourite? (adjective) The relative pronouns Subject Object Possessive For persons who whom/who whose that that For things which which whose/of which that that The student who is writing on the blackboard is my friend. The young man whom you can see dictating is our teacher. The boy whose book is open is Tom. The young woman that is answering the questions is Ann. The fountain-pen whose colour is blue is mine. The fountain-pe the colour of which is blue is mine. The exercise which is on page 13 is very difficult. The classroom that you can see in this picture is very bright. Indefinite pronouns and adjectives Affirmative sentences Interrogative sentences some=nite, ceva, unii any any=orice, oricare some=ceva, nite

Negative sentences no=nici un, nici o any=nici un, nici o

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

Other pronouns are formed with the help of some, any, no, every. some any no every body somebody anybody nobody eveybody one someone anyone no one everyone thing something anything nothing everything where somewhere anywhere nowhere everywhere

Some and its compounds are used in : a. affirmative sentences : There is some tea in the cup. I need something to drink. b. interrogative sentences where the answer yes is expected : Can you lend me some money? Or in offers and requests : Would you like some wine? Could you do some typing for me? Any is used: a. in interrogative sentences replaceing some : Have you got any money? Is anybody in the library? b. in negative sentences : There isnt any tea in the cup. There isnt anybody in the library. c. in affirmative sentences ( the sense is oricine, oricare, orice, oriunde ) Any student can do this exercise. You may have anything you want. No is used in negative sentences when the verb is in the affirmative form : There is no tea in the cup. Nobody can translate this difficult exercise. All / both / each + of and alternative constructions All (pronoun) can be followed by of + the / this / these / that / those / possessives and proper nouns. All of them were broken. All of Toms boys are very tall. Both (pronoun) + of can be used similarly but with plural forms only. Both of us are doctors. Each, like both, can be followed by of + these / those etc. (plural forms only) : Each of the boys has won a game.( the verb is in the singular) We / you / they each is plural :

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

We each have a map. Another, other, others with one and some A. Another, other, others



Singular another another Plural other others Have you met his sisters? ~Ive met one. I didnt know he had another. ~ Oh, he has two others / two other sisters. B. One another / other(s), some other(s) One student suggested a play, another / other students / others wanted a concert. Some tourists went on the beach; others explored the town. C. One another and each other Tom and Ann looked at each other. Both one another and each other can be used of two or more, but each other is frequently preferred when there are more than two.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Pronoun exercises

1. Choose the correct word for each sentence, using who, whom, whoever, whomever: a.He is the man ............. was employed here. b.She is the woman .............. we employed last year. c.Of ............ were you speaking? d................. do you think will do the work best? e.He is the man ............. we think you mentioned. f.I will vote for .......... you suggest. g.............. shall I ask about this matter? h.Give the information to ........ requests it. i.Tonight we shall find out ......... won. j. ............. runs this show? k.We intend to notify .......... ranks highest on the list. l.There are the sign language interpreters ........ I feel, you should acknowledge. m. ............... can we trust in a crisis? n.Ms. Cohen, .......... has a way with words, will be the valedictorian. o.The person ....... produces the most work will receive a bonus. 2. Choose the correct pronouns: a.She / Her went to the store. b.It was she / her. c.We talked to he / him. d.It is I / me. e.Talk to they / them before making a decision. f.Can you go with we / us? g.Betsy and she / her have quit the team. h.They asked him / he and I / me to join the staff. i.That call was for I / me, not he / him. j.You didn't tell we / us that they / them were here first. k.I / me wonder what he / him could have said to she / her. l. If you were I / me, would you accept the job? m.The confusion annoyed my friend and I / me. n.It was she / her who cast the deciding vote. o.In favour were Jan, Fay and I / me. p.The reservation for he / him and Barbara was made yesterday.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

q.Shirley is as likely to get a raise as he / him. 3. Decide which are the reflexive pronouns in the text below and which are the emphasizing pronouns : a. He lives by himself. b. They did it themselves. c. He cut himself while working. d. Has she seen him herself? e. I can do it myself! f. Behave yourself, George! g. I myself went there. h. She gave herself such airs! i. He bought himself a new suit. j. They have a car of their own. 4. Give the antonyms to the following pronouns : many everybody a few little less this neither somebody 5. Translate into English : a. Plou de trei zile. b. Cine vine? c. E ora apte, trebuie s ne grbim. d. Ceea ce m deranjeaz la el este obrznicia. e. Am mprumutat caietul pentru John, nu pentru tine. f. nvau unul de la altul. g. S-au suprat unul pe cellalt. h. S-au certat unul cu altul. i. Fugeau unul dup altul. j. i mprumut cri unul altuia. k. Se ajut unul pe altul. l. Cafeaua pe care am but-o azi-diminea a fost excelent. m. Prietena surorii mele, pe care ai vzut-o acum muli ani, este profesoar acum. n. Biatul pe care l caui a plecat la mare ieri.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru


The word sports generally means any physical activity that people do for pleasure. There are two general types of sports. There are games like (1) basketball, football or track and field, which are played by trained athletes, and (2) any kind of physical activity, such as swimming, hunting, fishing. The earliest known record of a formal athletic event is that of the games held at Olympia, Greece, beginning in 776 B.C. Organized sport is a rather recent ( late nineteenthcentury ) development, but informal sports seem to have had a place in the history of the whole world. Modern sports may be put into five groups: athletics, ball games, war games, work games and transportation games. Athletics includes all contests in which athletes match their skills in speed, jumping and strength. Sports belonging to this group are: all events of track and field, wrestling, weight-lifting, swimming, diving, figure skating and speed skating. Europeans usually see the term athletics to mean track and field events only; in the U.S.A. the word is used to mean almost any physical activity that is also a sport. Ball games: The term means any game or contest in which some kind of ball is used. These ball games are: football, rugby, basketball, volleyball, bowling, tennis, golf, lacrosse and ice hockey. War games: Among sports which originated in war like activities are boxing, fencing and the target sports such as archery and shooting. Work games are not organized sports and they are not popular everywhere. Rodeo, chopping and log contests are popular in certain places in North America. Hunting and fishing are still common sports, more popular sports in many parts of the world. Transportation Sports: Among these are: auto-racing, horse-back riding, skiing, rowing, climbing and airplane racing. informal = neoficial jumping = sritur diving = sritur n ap contest = ntrecere sportiv fencing = scrim target = int archery = tragere cu arcul VOCABULARY track and field = atletism uor weight-lifting = haltere figure skating = patinaj artistic shooting = tir chopping = tiere de lemne n pdure log = butean rowing = canotaj


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

EXERCISES 1. Say it in English: joc sportiv, not, vntoare, activitate fizic, atletism, ridicarea greutii, patinaj artistic, tenis de mas, tenis de cmp, patinaj vitez, clrie, ski, canotaj, box, scrim, tir. 2. Fill in the gaps with the words missing: everywhere, sports, still, with, fishing, to, pain, about, you. a. Work games are not organized . and they are not popular. b. Hunting and . are common sports in many parts of the world. c. Its wonderful to mix people who dont talk .. you about their work. d. What dont you like .. it. e. Judo also teaches . that is not so terrible. 3. Give an ordinal number for the following: 2; 5; 83; 16; 116; 601; 28. 4. Say and write the following: 127; 333; 203; 111; 222; 326; 592. 5. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Translate into English: Am douzeci de ani, locuiesc n Bucureti pe strada Toamnei nr. 320. Repet de dou ori ca s fii auzit. Am jucat cel de-al patrulea meci de fotbal. M-am nscut la 30 martie 1940. Se ntorceau acas doi cte doi. Am cumprat douzeci de echipamente pentru gimnastic. Am vzut acest film de trei ori. La dou zile i cumpr dou kg de portocale. - Ce faci smbt? - Nu tiu nc. De ce? - Joc tenis cu civa prieteni i m ntrebam dac nu ai vrea s joci i tu. - Pi, nu tiu. Am nevoie de ort pentru tenis i probabil pantofi pentru tenis. - Nu. Nicidecum. Un trening e suficient. ( tracksuit) - Dar de fapt ce vrei s facei? Nu vreau s joc n competiie. - Nici vorb, nu e nimic serios. Dup aceea o s lum masa n ora.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Numeral
1. The Cardinal Numbers Cardinal Numbers are used to refer to an exact number of things: 0 zero 1 one 11 eleven 21 twenty-one 31 thirty-one 2 two 12 twelve 22 twenty-two 40 forty 3 three 13 thirteen 23 twenty-three 50 fifty 4 four 14 fourteen 24 twenty-four 60 sixty 5 five 15 fifteen 25 twenty-five 70 seventy 6 six 16 sixteen 26 twenty-six 80 eighty 7 seven 17 seventeen 27 twenty-seven 90 ninety 8 eight 18 eighteen 28 twenty-eight 100 one hundred 9 nine 19 nineteen 29 twenty-nine 1000 one thousand 10 ten 20 twenty 30 thirty 1oooooo a million 400 four hundred 140 a / one hundred and forty 1oo6 a / one thousand and six 5000 five thousand 260127 two hundred and sixty thousand, one hundred and twenty-seven The words hundred, thousand, million and dozen, when used of a definite number, are never made plural: six hundred men two dozen eggs If however, these words are used to convey the idea of a large number, they must be made plural: hundreds of people thousands of years

Common ways of calculating

a. addition 2 + 3=5 Two and three is / are five. Two plus three equals five. b. substraction 9 - 3=6 Three from nine is six. Nine minus three is six. c. multiplication 7 x 8=56 Seven times eight is fifty-six. Seven multiplied by eight equals fifty-six. d. division 8 : 4=2 Eight divided by four is two. Eight divided by four equals two.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

Telling the time

1.00 1.15 2.30 3.05 5.20 6.55 8.35 19.30 Its one oclock. Its a quarter past one. Its half past two. Its five past three. Its twenty past five. Its five to seven. Its twenty-five to nine. Its half past seven p.m.

2. The Ordinal Numbers first eleventh twenty-first thirty-first second twelfth twenty-second fortieth third thirteenth twenty-third fiftieth fourth fourteenth twenty-fourth sixtieth fifth fifteenth twenty-fifth seventieth sixth sixteenth twenty-sixth eightieth seventh seventeenth twenty-seventh ninetieth eighth eighteenth twenty-eighth hundreadth ninth nineteenth twenty-ninth thousandth tenth twentieth thirtieth millionth When ordinal numbers are expressed in figures the last two letters of the written word must be added: first = 1st second = 2nd third = 3rd fourth = 4th eightieth = 80th

Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Days and months are always written with capital letters. Dates are expressed by ordinal numbers, so when speaking we say: March the tenth July the fourteenth The days of the week January February March April May June The months of the year July August September October November December


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The year 1987 nineteen hundred and eighty-seven or nineteen eighty-seven

The Multiplicative Adverbial Numeral

This numeral shows the proportion in which a quantity is increased: double / twofold threefold fourfold tenfold hundredfold There has been a tenfold increase in output.

The Distributive Adverbial Numeral

It shows the distribution or grouping of objects: one by one two by two / by twos / in twos ten by ten / by tens / in tens She sells eggs in dozens.

The Adverbial Numeral

It shows how many times an action is performed: once, twice, three times, ten times. We sang that song twice.


Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

The Numeral exercises

1. What time is it? 3:00; 4:00; 15:15; 10:05; 19:10; 9:45; 22:20; 2:25; 23:35; 5:55; 6:15; 8:50. 2. Read these years: 1946; 1969; 1978; 1585; 1900; 1642; 1715; 1616. 3. Supply the corresponding ordinal numbers: 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 8; 10; 13; 15; 20; 21; 32; 43; 54; 65; 79; 81; 100; 122; 313; 1000. 4. Fill in the blanks of the following dialogue with the dates given in brackets. Write these dates in letters: - As you know, our summer holidays start on ( 15 ) June. - Im going to my grandparents on ( 2 ) July for three days. So I cant go to the mountains on ( 2 ), ( 3 ) and ( 4 ). - Oh, but my mothers birthday is on .. ( 6 ). I want to be at home for that. - And I must be here on .. ( 8 ) and .. ( 9 ) July. My cousins are coming to visit me. - The weekend after that is my sisters wedding. Thats .. (17 ) and . ( 18 ) July so I cant go till .. ( 19 ) July. - My parents are taking me on a trip to London between ( 20 ) and ( 24 ) July. Ill be back home on .. ( 25 ) July. - This means well be able to go to the mountains after ( 26 ) July. 5. Translate into English: de cinci ori de dou ori unul cte unul o treime al cinzeci i cincilea cu duzina dublu al optulea din dou n dou zile cu zecile triplu de trei ori pe zi dou sute doi cte doi

6. Write with letters the following numerals: 5; 15; 50; 105; 400; 1405; 329; 514; 3450; 842; the 5th; the 9th; the 8th; the 12th; the 20th. 7. a. b. c. Translate in Romanian the following sayings: If you run after two hares, you will catch neither. Four eyes see better than two. Measure thrice and cut once.

Limba Engleza Prep. Univ. Mihaela Patru

d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. 8. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l.

First think, then speak. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. A word is enough for the wise. An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. Two heads are better than none. One swallow does not make a summer. One good turn deserves another. Second thoughts are best. A switch in time saves nine. Translate into English: Se ducea la mare o dat pe an. Autobuzele pornesc la fiecare cinci minute. Au lecii de englez de dou ori pe sptmn. Mergem la cinematograf de mai multe ori pe lun. Cel de-al aptelea elev din rndul doi este premiantul clasei. 14 mprit la 2 face 7. n fiecare diminea lua autobuzul 32. Copiii au intrat n coal doi cte doi. Am citit sute de pagini n ultimele sptmni. Cred c acum maina are mai mult de 100 km/or. Biletul tu de clasa a doua este pentru data de 22 iunie. Nou ori doi fac optsprezece.