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The Difference Between Management And Leadership

eadership and management are two notions that are o!ten used interchangea"l#. $owe%er& these words actuall# descri"e two di!!erent concepts. 'n this section& we shall discuss these di!!erences and explain wh# "oth terms are thought to "e similar.

eadership is a !acet o! management (i!!erences 'n )erspecti%es *u"ordinate +s + eader o#alt# ,he eader 's -ollowed. ,he Manager .ules Management /nows $ow 't 0orks 1onclusion .e!erences

Leadership is a facet of management

eadership is 2ust one o! the man# assets a success!ul manager must possess. 1are must "e taken in distinguishing "etween the two concepts. ,he main aim o! a manager is to maximise the output o! the organisation through administrati%e implementation. ,o achie%e this& managers must undertake the !ollowing !unctions:

organisation planning sta!!ing directing controlling

eadership is 2ust one important component o! the directing !unction. + manager cannot 2ust "e a leader& he also needs !ormal authorit# to "e e!!ecti%e. "For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegated." 345 'n some circumstances& leadership is not re6uired. -or example& sel! moti%ated groups ma# not re6uire a single leader and ma# !ind leaders dominating. ,he !act that a leader is not alwa#s re6uired pro%es that leadership is 2ust an asset and is not essential.

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Differences In Perspectives
Managers think incrementall#& whilst leaders think radicall#. "Managers do things right, while leaders do the right." 375. ,his means that managers do things "# the "ook and !ollow compan#

polic#& while leaders !ollow their own intuition& which ma# in turn "e o! more "ene!it to the compan#. + leader is more emotional than a manager . "Men are governed by their emotions rather than their intelligence" 385. ,his 6uotation illustrates wh# teams choose to !ollow leaders. "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not pre udice. They have a preference for innovation." 395

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Subordinate As A Leader
:!ten with small groups& it is not the manager who emerges as the leader. 'n man# cases it is a su"ordinate mem"er with speci!ic talents who leads the group in a certain direction. "Leaders must let vision, strategies, goals, and values be the guide!post for action and behaviour rather than attempting to control others." 3;5 0hen a natural leader emerges in a group containing a manager& con!lict ma# arise i! the# ha%e di!!erent %iews. 0hen a manager sees the group looking towards someone else !or leadership he ma# !eel his authorit# is "eing 6uestioned.

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Groups are o!ten more lo#al to a leader than a manager. ,his lo#alt# is created "# the leader taking responsi"ilit# in areas such as:

,aking the "lame when things go wrong. 1ele"rating group achie%ements& e%en minor ones. Gi%ing credit where it is due.

"The leader must take a point of highlighting the successes within a team, using charts or graphs, with little presentations and fun ideas" 365 "Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know their team and develop mutual confidence within it." 3<5

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The Leader Is ollowed! The Manager "ules

+ leader is someone who people naturall# !ollow through their own choice& whereas a manager must "e o"e#ed. + manager ma# onl# ha%e o"tained his position o! authorit# through time and lo#alt# gi%en to the compan#& not as a result o! his leadership 6ualities. + leader ma# ha%e no organisational skills& "ut his %ision unites people "ehind him.

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Management #nows $ow It %or&s

Management usuall# consists o! people who are experienced in their !ield& and who ha%e worked their wa# up the compan#. + manager knows how each la#er o! the s#stem works and ma# also possess a good technical knowledge. + leader can "e a new arri%al to a compan# who has "old& !resh& new ideas "ut might not ha%e experience or wisdom.

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Managing and leading are two di!!erent wa#s o! organising people. ,he manager uses a !ormal& rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. 0illiam 0allace is one excellent example o! a "rilliant leader "ut could ne%er "e thought o! as the manager o! the *cots=

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345 (aniel. -. )redpall& >(e%eloping ?ualit# 'mpro%ement )rocesses 'n 1onsulting Engineering -irms@& Aournal o! Management in Engineering& pp 8BC84& Ma#CAune 4999 375 .ichard )ascale& > Managing on the Edge@& )enguin Dook& pp 6;& 499B 385 Aohn -enton& > 4B4 0a#s to Doost Eour Dusiness )er!ormance@& Mandarin Dusiness& pp 448& 499B 395 Aohn -enton& > 4B4 0a#s to Doost Eour Dusiness )er!ormance@& Mandarin Dusiness& pp 448& 499B 3;5 (aniel. -. )redpall& >(e%eloping ?ualit# 'mpro%ement )rocesses 'n 1onsulting Engineering -irms@& Aournal o! Management in Engineering& pp 8BC84& Ma#CAune 4999 365 Aohn -enton& > 4B4 0a#s to Doost Eour Dusiness )er!ormance@& Mandarin Dusiness& pp 449& 499B 3<5 Aohn -enton& >4B4 0a#s to Doost Eour Dusiness )er!ormance@& Mandarin Dusiness& pp 448& 499B

Most recent re%ision 6 -e" 499<

Purpose of Leadership
eadership is a wa# o! !ocusing and moti%ating a group to ena"le them to achie%e their aims. 't also in%ol%es "eing accounta"le and responsi"le !or the group as a whole.

+ leader should:

pro%ide continuit# and momentum "e !lexi"le in allowing changes o! direction

'deall#& a leader should "e a !ew steps ahead o! their team& "ut not too !ar !or the team to "e a"le to understand and !ollow them.

*kills Needed (i!!erent 'deas o! eadership .e!erences

S&ills (eeded
eaders must ha%e a wide range o! skills& techni6ues and strategies. ,hese include:

)lanning 1ommunication skills :rganiFation +wareness o! the wider en%ironment in which the team operates."#$

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Different Ideas of Leadership

,here is a de"ate a"out whether leadership should "e concentrated in one person or distri"uted among mem"ers o! the team. ,raditionall#& a permanent team leader would "e appointed "# more senior le%els o! management or elected "# the group. ,his techni6ue relies on the assumption that one single person has all the strengths re6uired. $owe%er& it has "een argued that Gon the "est teams& di!!erent indi%iduals pro%ide occasional leadership& taking charge in areas where the# ha%e particular strengths. No one is the permanent leader& "ecause that person would then cease to "e a peer and the team interaction would "egin to "reak downG 345. ,his approach would eliminate the pro"lem o! a leader "eing isolated !rom his/her group. 't must "e emphasised& howe%er& that continuit# and !ocus o! the group must not "e lost. ,hus& in our opinion& the "est compromise ma# "e to ha%e a permanent leader who is !lexi"le enough not onl# to delegate responsi"ilt# !or indi%idual tasks& "ut also to let others take leadership o! the team as re6uired.

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345 (E M+.1:& ,. and '*,E. & ,. : H)eoplewareI& J(orset $ouse )u"lishing 1o& 49K<L& p4;;.

375 A+1?ME*& (. : H earning in GroupsI& J/ogan )age td& 7nd edition& 4994L. 385 .:DE.,*& 0. : H eadership *ecrets o! +ttila the $unI& JDantam )ress td& 49K9L. 395 A+.N'*& 1.& HD.:. .+ I& Drunel Mni%ersit# 1ollege& :sterle# 1ampus& Dorough .oad& $ounslow& Middlesex& ,0< ;(M& ,el: B4K4CK94CB474 http://www""ola/communications/e!!ecti%e.html

Leadership Styles
eadership comes in man# !orms& dependent on the leaderIs personalit#& the group situation& and the pro"lem at hand. ,his section looks "oth at st#les which are inherent to the leader and at those which can "e adopted according to the circumstances.

eadership *t#les eadership +ttitudes 1ontingenc# Models

Leadership Styles
,he role o! leadership in management is largel# determined "# the organisational culture o! the compan#. 't has "een argued that managersI "elie!s& %alues and assumptions are o! critical importance to the o%erall st#le o! leadership that the# adopt. ,here are se%eral di!!erent leadership st#les that can "e identi!ied within each o! the !ollowing Management techni6ues. Each techni6ue has its own set o! good and notCsoCgood characteristics& and each uses leadership in a di!!erent wa#.

,he +utocrat ,he aisseFC-aire Manager ,he (emocrat .e!erences

The Autocrat
,he autocratic leader dominates teamCmem"ers& using unilateralism to achie%e a singular o"2ecti%e. ,his approach to leadership generall# results in passi%e resistance !rom teamCmem"ers and re6uires continual pressure and direction !rom the leader in order to get things done. Generall#& an authoritarian approach is not a good wa# to get the "est per!ormance !rom a team. ,here are& howe%er& some instances where an autocratic st#le o! leadership ma# not "e inappropriate. *ome situations ma# call !or urgent action& and in these cases an autocratic st#le o! leadership ma# "e "est. 'n addition& most people are !amiliar with autocratic leadership and there!ore ha%e less trou"le adopting that st#le. -urthermore& in some situations& su"Cordinates ma# actuall# pre!er an autocratic st#le.

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The Laisse)* aire Manager

,he aisseFC-aire manager exercises little control o%er his group& lea%ing them to sort out their roles and tackle their work& without participating in this process himsel!. 'n general& this approach lea%es the team !loundering with little direction or moti%ation. +gain& there are situations where the aisseFC-aire approach can "e e!!ecti%e. ,he aisseFC-aire techni6ue is usuall# onl# appropriate when leading a team o! highl# moti%ated and skilled people& who ha%e produced excellent work in the past. :nce a leader has esta"lished that his team is con!ident& capa"le and moti%ated& it is o!ten "est to step "ack and let them get on with the task& since inter!ering can generate resentment and detract !rom their e!!ecti%eness. D# handing o%er ownership& a leader can empower his group to achie%e their goals.

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The Democrat
,he democratic leader makes decisions "# consulting his team& whilst still maintaining control o! the group. ,he democratic leader allows his team to decide how the task will "e tackled and who will per!orm which task. ,he democratic leader can "e seen in two lights: + good democratic leader encourages participation and delegates wisel#& "ut ne%er loses sight o! the !act that he "ears the crucial responsi"ilit# o! leadership. $e %alues group discussion and input !rom his team and can "e seen as drawing !rom a pool o! his team mem"ersI strong points in order to o"tain the "est per!ormance !rom his team. $e moti%ates his team "# empowering them to direct themsel%es& and guides them with a loose reign. $owe%er& the democrat can also "e seen as "eing so unsure o! himsel! and his relationship with his su"Cordinates that everything is a matter !or group discussion and decision. 1learl#& this t#pe o! GleaderG is not reall# leading at all.

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D',,E & ...: I,he McGrawC$ill 86C$our Management 1ourseI& JMcGrawC$ill& 49K9L& pp. 4<4C4<9.

G::(0:.,$& 1.: I,he *ecrets o! *uccess!ul eadership and )eople ManagementI& J $einman )ro!essional )u"lishing& 49KKL& pp.4BC4;. NE11':& ..).: I:rganiFational Deha%iourI& J,he (r#den )ress& 49KKL& pp. 7K9C8B4.

Leadership Attitudes
:ne wa# o! looking at di!!erent leadership st#les is in terms o! tas& orientation %ersus employee orientation.

,ask :rientation or (irecti%e Deha%iour. ,his re!lects how much a leader is concerned with the actual task at hand and ensuring that those !ollowing him complete it. Emplo#ee :rientation or *upporti%e Deha%iour. ,his re!lects how much a leader is concerned !or the people around him& pro%iding support and encouragement !or them.

,he com"ination o! these two e!!ects lead to the !ollowing diagram: +! 'ountry 'lub Management ,! S-PP."TI(/ +! Impoverished Management ,! D0L0/ATI(/
,his diagram can "e used in two wa#s:

+! Team Management ,! '.A'$I(/ +! Authority1.bedience Management ,! DI"0'TI(/

+s a guide to how e!!ecti%e #our leadership st#le is. Eour general attitude to the leadership o! the group will !all into one o! these categories. +s a guide to how "est to lead di!!erent indi%iduals using di!!erent st#les to make the most e!!icient use o! "oth their& and #our& time and talents. +nal#sing Eour *t#le *t#le 1hoice .e!erences

Anaylsing 2our Style

$ow do #ou lead #our group? 0hat is #our attitude to "oth them and the task at hand?

'mpo%erished Management Jlow concern !or the task& low concern !or peopleL. ,his st#le is characterised "# minimal e!!ort on #our part& 2ust enough to get the 2o" done and maintain the group structure. "%&ll ust let them get on with it, %&m sure they&ll do fine, they don&t really want me interfering anyway"

1ountr# 1lu" Management Jlow concern !or the task& high concern !or peopleL. Eou take good care o! #our group& ensuring a com!orta"le& !riendl# atmosphere. Eou hope this will lead to the work getting done. "%t stands to reason, if they&re happy they&ll work harder and the work will take care of itself."

+uthorit#/:"edience Management Jhigh concern !or task& low concern !or peopleL. Eou are pro"a"l# a "it o! a task master. ,he most important thing is the work. Eou lead !rom "ehind "# dri%ing the group in !ront o! #ou. "'e&re here to work, the work needs to be done. %f they&re working hard enough they won&t have time to feel unhappy, they&re not here to en oy themselves."

,eam Management Jhigh concern !or task& high concern !or peopleL. Eou see the completeion o! the task and the well "eing o! the group as interdependent through a common stake in the organisationIs !uture. ,his leads to relationships "uilt on trust and respect& and work accomplishment !rom committed emplo#ees. "'e&re in this together. 'e need to support and help each other to get this ob done."

't is generall# accepted that group leaders who ha%e a ,eam Management st#le are the most e!!ecti%e& though this is not alwa#s the case. .eturn to top

Style 'hoice
'! #ou ha%e a group o! widel# di!!ering le%els o! a"ilit#& con!idence and commitment& #ou ma# want to lead them each with a di!!erent st#le.

(irecting + team mem"er who has a lot o! enthusiasm !or the 2o" "ut not much actual a"ilit#& !or example a new start& will need to "e directed. Eou will not need to spend much time gi%ing encouragement or coaxing them along. Eou will howe%er ha%e to tell them what to do next a!ter the# complete e%er# task& and how to do the tasks set.

1oaching +!ter "eing in the group !or a while& some"od# might "egin to lose con!idence and there!ore moti%ation& as the# still canIt seem to do the work the# want to do. +t this stage #ou will need to coach them along. Eou will still need to tell them what to do at %irtuall# e%er# point along the wa#& while taking care to encourage them and praise them at e%er# turn.

*upporting Graduall# the team mem"erIs technical a"ilit# will increase until the# are at a stage where the# can actuall# do e%er#thing re6uired o! them& howe%er the# ma# still lack the con!idence to actuall# do it o!! their own "acks. Eou should no longer ha%e to tell them what to do& although the# ma# think otherwise. Eou should seek their opinions on the next stage& and "e seen to take notice o! their ideas.

(elegating + technicall# competent personIs con!idence will graduall# grow until the# !eel a"le to work completel# on their own. Eou should now "e a"le to delegate speci!ic areas o! work to them and !eel little need to tell them either what to do or to praise them as !re6uentl# !or doing it. ,he time that #ou donIt ha%e to spend GleadingG these mem"ers o! the group can "e spent with the less experienced group mem"ers& or on the work that #ou need to do.

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D +N1$+.( /.& O'G+.M' ). and O'G+.M' (.:G eadership and the :ne Minute ManagerG J0illow Dooks& 49K6L NE11$': ..).:G:rganiFational Deha%iourG J,he (r#den )ress& 49KKL& pp 7K9C84<

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'ontingency Models
eadership st#les cannot "e !ull# explained "# "eha%ioural models. ,he situation in which the group is operating also determines the st#le o! leadership which is adopted. *e%eral models exist which attempt to understand the relationship "etween st#le and situation& !our o! which are descri"ed here:

-iedlerIs 1ontingenc# Model. $erse#CDlanchard *ituational ,heor#. )athCGoal ,heor#. NroomCEetton eadership Model

,he models descri"ed ha%e limited %alidit#& "ut are still widel# used. -iedlerIs 1ontigenc# Model $erse#CDlanchard *ituational ,heor# )athCGoal ,heor# NroomCEetton eadership Model .e!erences

iedler3s 'ontingency model

-iedlerIs model assumes that group per!ormance depends on:

eadership st#le& descri"ed in terms o! task moti%ation and relationship moti%ation. *ituational !a%oura"leness& determined "# three !actors: 4. eaderCmem"er relations C (egree to which a leader is accepted and supported "# the group mem"ers. 7. ,ask structure C Extent to which the task is structured and de!ined& with clear goals and procedures. 8. )osition power C ,he a"ilit# o! a leader to control su"ordinates through reward and punishment.

$igh le%els o! these three !actors gi%e the most !a%oura"le situation& low le%els& the least !a%oura"le. .elationshipCmoti%ated leaders are most e!!ecti%e in moderatel# !a%oura"le situations. ,askCmoti%ated leaders are most e!!ecti%e at either end o! the scale. -iedler suggests that it ma# "e easier !or leaders to change their situation to achie%e e!!ecti%eness& rather than change their leadership st#le. .eturn to top

$ersey*Blanchard Situational Theory

,his theor# suggests that leadership st#le should "e matched to the maturit# o! the su"ordinates. Maturit# is assessed in relation to a speci!ic task and has two parts:

)s#chological maturit# C ,heir sel!Ccon!idence and a"ilit# and readiness to accept responsi"ilit#. Ao" maturit# C ,heir rele%ant skills and technical knowledge.

+s the su"ordinate maturit# increases& leadership should "e more relationshipCmoti%ated than taskCmoti%ated. -or !our degrees o! su"ordinate maturit#& !rom highl# mature to highl# immature& leadership can consist o!: (elegating to su"ordinates. )articipating with su"ordinates. *elling ideas to su"ordinates. Telling su"ordinates what to do .eturn to top

Path*/oal Theory
E%ans and $ouse suggest that the per!ormance& satis!action and moti%ation o! a group can "e a!!ected "# the leader in a num"er o! wa#s:

:!!ering rewards !or the achie%ement o! per!ormance goals. 1lari!#ing paths towards these goals. .emo%ing per!ormance o"stacles.

+ person ma# do these "# adopting a certain leadership st#le& according to the situation: (irecti%e leadership C *peci!ic ad%ice is gi%en to the group and ground rules are esta"lished. *upporti%e leadership C Good relations exist with the group and sensiti%it# to su"ordinatesI needs is shown. )articipati%e leadership C (ecision making is "ased on group consultation and in!ormation is shared with the group. +chie%ementCoriented leadership C 1hallenging goals are set and high per!ormance is encouraged while showing con!idence in the groupsI a"ilit#. *upporti%e "eha%iour increases group satis!action& particularl# in stress!ul situations& while directi%e "eha%iour is suited to am"iguous situations. 't is also suggested that leaders who ha%e in!luence upon their superiors can increase group satis!action and per!ormance. .eturn to top

4room*2etton Leadership Model

,his model suggests the selection a leadership st#le !or making a decision. ,here are !i%e decision making st#les:

+utocratic 4 C )ro"lem is sol%ed using in!ormation alread# a%aila"le. +utocratic 7 C +dditional in!ormation is o"tained !rom group "e!ore leader makes decision. 1onsultati%e 4 C eader discusses pro"lem with su"ordinates indi%iduall#& "e!ore making a decision. 1onsultati%e 7 C )ro"lem is discussed with the group "e!ore deciding. Group 7 C Group decides upon pro"lem& with leader simpl# acting as chair.

,he st#le is chosen "# the consideration o! se%en 6uestions& which !orm a decision tree. ,his is descri"ed in eadership and (ecision Making& "# N.$.Nroom and ).0.Eetton& pp.94C 97& pu"lished "# Mni%ersit# o! )itts"urgh )ress& 49<8. .eturn to top

(.*.)ugh& I:rganiFation ,heor# C *elected .eadingsI& )enguin Dooks& pp94<C979& 499B .o"ert ).Necchio& I:rganiFational Deha%iorI& (r#den )ress& pp7K6C8B9& 49KK

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Practical Aspects .f Leadership

,o help #our team to "e success!ul #ou will ha%e to direct and help them. +s pre%iousl# discussed an o%erl# autocratic st#le Jan emphasis on the taskL does not "uild good team relationships. 't is also important to look a!er #our team on a personal le%el. $ope!ull# the !ollowing articles will help enhance #our leadership st#le.

Decoming a eader (elegation )ractical +spects o! (irecting ,eams /eeping the team together

Becoming a Leader
+ leader ma# not alwa#s "e a manager& and one da# #ou ma# see an opportunit# to lead a pro2ect or team within #our group& "ut when do decide the time is right and how do #ou go a"out "ecoming the leader?

Steps to Leading
ook at the context o! the situation and decide i! #our leadership is re6uired and i! #ou can !easi"l# lead the team. )erhaps another group mem"er would "e "etter or& e%en worse& the group would not accept #our in!luence. '! this is the case #our attempt to lead will "e a !ailure. 4. 'denti!# team mem"ers and resources willing to support #our leadership. 1learl#& change ma# "e resisted "# some people or organisations& "ut i! #ou can !ind enough support this resistance can "e o%ercome. Note that the support o! #our team ma# not "e enough i! #ou do not ha%e the support o! authorit# Jthe "oss !or exampleL or the ph#sical/!inancial resources to accomplish #our goals. 7. + crucial step is to empathise with others and assess their understanding o! the situation. ,his will help #ou understand how to in!luence these people. Man# wa#s o! doing this are a%aila"le: memos& phone calls and in!ormal chats are a !ew examples. 8. Now #ou should open a discussion which the mem"ers. 1learl#& without open discussion some people ma# !eel neglected or excluded. D# getting e%er#oneIs %iews it is more likel# that #ou will "e a"le to alter them and get what #ou want. Now #ou must con%ince the others that #our %iew is the one most likel# to achie%e a !a%oura"le outcome !or e%er#one. ,his ma# "e eas# i! e%er#one shares the same goals& or it ma# "e di!!icult. 'n the end some !orm o! Ipa#mentI ma# "e re6uired& such as a promise o! a !a%our& to con%ince certain mem"ers. ,his is eas# i! #ou are in a position o! power& i! not& make sure the cost to #oursel! is not too high. 9. $a%ing con%inced the team o! #our leadership& encourage team communication to "uild a team identit#. Eou should also tr# to moti%ate the team appropriatel#. ;. )lan and organise the team "# setting realistic goals. $owe%er do not gi%e too much or too little guidance& experienced workers ma# resent #ou treating them like newCrecruits& and this can undermine #our leadership. 6. 0hen goals are achie%ed recognise and reward the team. (o not expect the team to exceed them C this will undermine #our leadership and the team will lose trust in #ou. :! course #ou ma# decide that the goals are unachie%a"le or insu!!icient& "ut an# reCde!inition o! these goals should "e done care!ull# and with team coCoperation. .ead# to lead?

.e!erences )arkin& A.: G1hoosing to leadG& Aournal o! Management in Engineering& J499<L& pp. 67C66.

+ ke# aspect o! leadership is delegation. Mnless #ou delegate tasks to #our su"ordinates& #our team will "ecome ine!!icient and demoralised. 5I not only use all the brains I have6 but all I can borrow!5 ! 'oodrow 'ilson

)oor (elegation +d%antages o! (elegation $ow to (elegate .esponsi"ilit# +uthorit# ,asks #ou should not delegate Eour ,ask a!ter (elegating Di"liograph#

Poor Delegation
*igns that #ou are not "orrowing enough "rains or that #our delegation is !ailing include:

,eam Moti%ation / Morale is down Eou are alwa#s working late Eour team is con!used / con!licting / tense Eou get 6uestions a"out delegated tasks too o!ten

Not delegating a task "ecause #ou think that #ou would do it "etter than an#one else is a poor excuse. (oing this will 2ust make li!e di!!icult !or #oursel!. .eturn to top

Advantages of Delegation
)ositi%e aspects o! delegation include:

$igher e!!icienc# 'ncreased moti%ation (e%elops the skills o! #our team Detter distri"ution o! work through the group

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$ow to Delegate
4. 'denti!# a suita"le person !or the task. 7. )repare the person. Explain the task clearl#. Make sure that #ou are understood. ea%e room in the task description !or ingenuit# / initiati%e. 8. Make sure the person has the necessar# authorit# to do the 2o" properl#. 9. /eep in touch with the person !or support and monitoring progress. (o not get to close. +ccept alternati%e approaches. ;. )raise / +cknowledge a 2o" well done. .eturn to top

E%en though #ou ha%e delegated a task to someone else& #ou are still responsi"le !or making sure the task is done on time and correctl#. '! the task !ails& #ou can not point the !inger. Eou delegated. 't is #our !ault. Eou ma# ha%e picked the wrong person !or the 2o".

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,he amount o! authorit# #ou delegate is up to #ou& although it should "e enough to complete the task. 't is no good gi%ing Do" the task o! opening the sa!e e%er# morning at 4Bam i! #ou do not gi%e him the authorit# re6uired to do it. Do" needs the ke# to open the sa!e with.

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Tas&s you should not delegate

:"%iousl# some aspects o! leadership are sensiti%e and should not "e delegated. -or example:

$iring -iring )a# issues )olic#

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2our Tas& after Delegating

+!ter delegating:

)lan C goals& meeting& tasks (irect C #our team& keep them on track Encourage C "oost morale

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G*ix *teps to E!!ecti%e (elegationG C G. 1ulp and +. *mith !rom ,he Aournal o! Management in Engineering& Aanuar# 499<& )age8B G(onIt (o& (elegate=G C A. M. Aenks P A. M. /ell#& )u"lished "# Dridles td. 49K6

Practical Aspects of Directing Teams

0hen directing a small team it is important to structure the tasks to "e per!ormed. Goals should "e easil# understood "# e%er#one and tasks "roken down so that the# appear achie%a"le.

Dreaking down the task Goal anal#sis

Brea& down the tas&!

Nothing will "e more demoralising !or #our team than setting them a task which seems impossi"le Jthe "rick wall approachL. ,here!ore it is important to de!ine a task as a series o! small "ut signi!icant steps which seem realistic. +s the person per!orms these "rokenCdown steps he/she will still !eel that something tangi"le has "een accomplished& and the next step toward !inishing will "ecome clear. ,he "rick wall approach will usuall# result in the task not "eing accomplished.

4. ,he "rickCwall approach 7. Droken downCsteps

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/oal analysis
't is pro"a"le that as a team leader #ou will want to set goals !or #our team or pro2ect. :ne such goal ma# "e Gto impro%e communications amongst the teamG. 1learl# there will "e man# di!!erent interpretations o! this goal "# di!!erent team mem"ers. Goal anal#sis seeks to remo%e this am"iguit#. Goal anal#sis should de!ine an a"stract goal in terms o! concrete criteria& which when met will clearl# demonstrate that the goal has "een achie%ed. ,he criteria should "e expressed in terms o! actions or results rather than a"stractions Jwhich ma# "e am"iguousL. ,here are ; steps:

+7 %rite down the goal!

+t this stage the goal is an a"stract thing& and it is important not to worr# too much a"out how the goal is written down C a rough de!inition or idea will su!!ice.

,7 %ithout editing or 8udging * describe the goal!

Get team mem"ers to 6uickl# descri"e what the# understand "# the goal. +t this stage all suggestions should "e noted down C no ideas are wrong or stupid. ,his is similar to the techni6ue o! "rainstorming.

97 Sort!
*ort out the ideas generated "# 7 into an ordered or prioritised list which de!ines the goal. +t this stage it ma# "ecome apparent that some ideas are a"stractions "ut are still important. '! this is the case use steps 4 and 7 to clearl# de!ine these.

:7 State each action or result obtained from 9!

Make the team read and tr# to understand the list !rom step 8.

;7 Test the statements!

+sk the 6uestion C G0hen these all statements ha%e "een demonstrated to "e true& will the goal ha%e "een achie%ed?G ,est each statement in turn !or rele%ance. '! the answer is #es then the goal has "een de!ined.

.e!erences Ma#er& ..-.: GGoal +nal#sisG& J/ogan )age 1ompan# 4994L

#eeping The Team Together

:ne !unction that a leader o! a team must per!orm is holding the team together. + leader is responsi"le !or:

ensuring pro2ect goals are met ensuring a !ull team e!!ort keeping the team happ# Moti%ation *ix *teps to Moti%ation (isputes 1onclusion .e!erences Di"lograph#

,he ke# to holding the team together is moti%ation. ,o moti%ate is to:

"cause +person, to act in a particular way- stimulate interest of +person in activity,.".

'n simple terms& moti%ation can "e considered as the amount o! e!!ort an indi%idual is willing to put into their work. ,here!ore& it is important to ensure that an# team is highl# moti%ated towards their work. + lack o! moti%ation in an# mem"er o! a team can ha%e a negati%e a!!ect& reducing the groupIs e!!ecti%eness and possi"l# leading to the demoti%ation o! others. Gi%en the !act that di!!erent people are moti%ated in di!!erent wa#s& the pro"lem !acing someone in the role o! leader is to create an en%ironment in which each indi%idual !ul!ils their potential. 't is important to highlight the ma2or in!luences in the moti%ation o! people. +ccording to the in!luential moti%atorCh#giene theor#& moti%ation occurs when people ha%e 2o" satis!action. Ao" satis!action can "e impro%ed "# increasing opportunities !or:

+chie%ement .ecognition .esponsi"ilit# 1areer ad%ancement

0hile not increasing 2o" satis!action& impro%ements in the !ollowing areas can lessen 2o" dissatis!action:

*uper%ision *alar# 0orking conditions

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< Steps to Motivation

,he !ollowing steps can "e taken to help achie%e and maintain group moti%ation:

)ro%ide opportunities !or group mem"ers to "ecome ac6uainted. 'ndicate the importance/%alue o! the group. Make people !eel the# are important. 1lari!# goals. 'denti!# progress. +cknowledge achie%ements.

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'ne%ita"l#& disputes ranging !rom minor di!!erences in opinion& to !undamental di!!erences in ideolog#& will arise. ,he role o! the team leader is to handle such disagreements constructi%el#& ensuring that the team remains !ocused on achie%ing its goal. ,he leader must encourage team mem"ers to stand "ack !rom an# disagreements and look at things o"2ecti%el#. D# doing this& an# di!!erences "etween group mem"ers will "e resol%ed and possi"le con!licts a%oided.

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,he most important point !or a team leader to remem"er is that each indi%idual needs to think that the# are working with the "est people C to !eel proud to "e part o! the team. D# getting people into this state o! mind a leader will instill a high le%el o! group moraleQ people will work harder and achie%e more.

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4 )ocket :x!ord (ictionar#. :x!ord Mni%ersit# )ress.

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M: +N(E.& 1. J49K9L $uman .esource Management. 1hartwellCDratt. D +'.& G. G+ccelerators !or ,eam (e%elopmentG& (epartment o! Electrical Engineering& Mni%ersit# o! Edin"urgh 0+..'NG,:N& *. G0hat is a )ro2ect Manager ?G& (epartment o! Electrical Engineering& Mni%ersit# o! Edin"urgh G'D*:N& N. 0$',,+/E.& A. J4996L .ules o! ,hum"& Aournal o! Management in Engineering.