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ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPEAKING FOR OTHERS BAD _1_ OF _3_

Speaking f ! "#e!$ i$ %i &en"' (ne"#i)a& * an+ , !$e' $peaking f ! ! n -e#a&f f &e$$ p!i%i&ege+ pe!$ n$ a)"(a&&. !einf !)e$ "#e pp!e$$i n f "#e g! (p $p ken f ! A&) ff 1//0 The Problem of Speaking for Others Cultural Critique Winter 91-92 pages 2 -!1 W#i&e "#e p!e! ga"i%e f $peaking f ! "#e!$ !e1ain$ (n2(e$"i ne+ in "#e )i"a+e&$ f ) & nia& a+1ini$"!a"i n' a1 ng a)"i%i$"$ an+ in "#e a)a+e1. i" e&i)i"$ a g! ,ing (nea$e an+" in some #ommunities of $is#ourse' i" i$ -eing !e3e)"e+% There is a strong" albeit #onteste$" #urrent &ithin feminism &hi#h hol$s that $peaking f ! "#e!$---e'en for other &omen---i$ a!! gan"' %ain' (ne"#i)a&' an+ p &i"i)a&&. i&&egi"i1a"e% (eminist s#holarship has a liberator) agen$a &hi#h almost requires that &omen s#holars speak on behalf of other &omen" an$ )et "#e +ange!$ f $peaking a)! $$ +iffe!en)e$ f !a)e' )(&"(!e' $e4(a&i".' an+ p ,e! a!e -e) 1ing in)!ea$ing&. )&ea! " a&&% *n feminist maga+ines su#h as So,ourner" i" i$ ) 11 n " fin+ a!"i)&e$ an+ &e""e!$ in ,#i)# "#e a("# ! $"a"e$ "#a" $#e )an n&. $peak f ! #e!$e&f% *n her important paper" -.)ke /etho$s"0o)#e Trebil#ot offers a philosophi#al arti#ulation of this 'ie&% She renoun#es for herself the pra#ti#e of speaking for others &ithin a lesbian feminist #ommunit)"

a!g(ing "#a" $#e 5,i&& n " "!. " ge" "#e!$ &immin " a))ep" 1. -e&ief$ in p&a)e f "#ei! ,n5 on the groun$s that " + $ , (&+ -e " p!a)"i)e a ! kin$ of +i$)(!$i%e ) e!)i n an+ e'en a %i &en)e6
(eminist $is#ourse is not the onl) site in &hi#h the problem of speaking for others has been a#kno&le$ge$ an$

"#e!e i$ $i1i&a! +i$)($$i n a- (" ,#e"#e! i" i$ p $$i-&e " $peak f ! "#e!$ ei"#e! a+e2(a"e&. ! 3($"ifia-&.6 Trinh T% /inh-ha e1plains the groun$s for skepti#ism &hen she sa)s that anthropolog) is -mainl) a ) n%e!$a"i n f 7($8 ,i"# 7($8 a- (" 7"#e1'8 f "#e ,#i"e 1an ,i"# "#e ,#i"e 1an a- (" "#e p!i1i"i%e9na"(!e 1an666in ,#i)# 7"#e18 i$ $i&en)e+6 7T#e18 a&,a.$ $"an+$ n "#e "#e! $i+e f "#e #i&&' nake+ an+ $pee)#&e$$6667them2 is n&. a+1i""e+ a1 ng 7($8' the $is#ussing sub,e#ts" ,#en a)) 1panie+ ! in"! +()e+ -. an 7($8%%%-3 4i'en this anal)sis" e'en ethnographies &ritten b) progressi'e anthropologists are a
a$$resse$% *n anthropolog) priori regressi'e be#ause of the stru#tural features of anthropologi#al $is#ursi'e pra#ti#e% The re#ognition that there is a problem in speaking for others has follo&e$ from the &i$esprea$ a##eptan#e of t&o

,#e!e ne $peak$ f! 1 affe)"$ - "# "#e 1eaning an+ "!("# f ,#a" ne $a.$' an+ thus that one #annot assume an abilit) to trans#en$ her
#laims% (irst" there has been a gro&ing a&areness that lo#ation% *n other &or$s" a speaker2s lo#ation 5&hi#h * take here to refer to her so#ial lo#ation or so#ial i$entit)6 has an epistemi#all) signifi#ant impa#t on that speaker2s #laims" an$ #an ser'e either to authori+e or $is-authori+e one2s spee#h% The #reation of Women2s Stu$ies an$ 7fri#an 7meri#an Stu$ies $epartments &ere foun$e$ on this 'er) belief8 that both the stu$) of an$ the a$'o#a#) for the oppresse$ must #ome to be $one prin#ipall) b) the oppresse$ themsel'es" an$ that &e must finall) a#kno&le$ge that s)stemati# $i'ergen#es in so#ial lo#ation bet&een speakers an$ those spoken for &ill ha'e a signifi#ant effe#t on the #ontent of &hat is sai$% The unspoken premise here is simpl) that a speaker2s lo#ation is epistemi#all) salient% * shall e1plore this issue further in the ne1t se#tion%

)e!"ain p!i%i&ege+ & )a"i n$ a!e +i$)(!$i%e&. +ange! ($6 *n parti#ular" the pra#ti#e of pri'ilege$ persons $peaking f ! ! n -e#a&f f &e$$ p!i%i&ege+ pe!$ n$ #a$ a)"(a&&. !e$(&"e+ 5in man) #ases6 in in)!ea$ing ! !eenf !)ing "#e pp!e$$i n f "#e g! (p $p ken f !%
The se#on$ #laim hol$s that not onl) is lo#ation epistemi#all) salient" but
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ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPEAKING FOR OTHERS BAD _0_ OF _3_

Speaking f! 1 . (! ,n & )a"i n a% i+$ inf&i)"ing e"#i)a& an+ p &i"i)a& %i &en)e' an+ en#an)e$ e4pe!ien)e S&ig# 0::; 0ake in Transition from (emale to /ale
http8::&&&%umi#h%e$u:;ir&g:e'ents:e1hibits:#larissasligh%html

-I in"e!! ga"e 1. & )a"i n a$ a p# " g!ap#e! ,#i&e 1aking pi)"(!e$ f <ake a$ #e "!an$i"i ne+ f! 1 fe1a&e " 1a&e6 H , +i+ &ife e4pe!ien)e$' "#e pe!$pe)"i%e f! 1 ,#i)# I $ee an+ (n+e!$"an+' inf&(en)e "#e f!a1ing f "#e i1age= 7t the time 0ake aske$ me to photograph his se1 #hange from female to male" in 199<" her name &as .eb 6 A&"# (g# "#e a)" #a+ i"$ ,n %a&(e an+ 1eaning' i" ,a$ n " 1. i$$(e an+ I ,a$ ,a!. f "#e e"#i)a& an+ p &i"i)a& %i &en)e in#e!en" in 8$peaking f ! "#e!$685 -I +i+ n " !ea&i>e "#e ) 1p&e4i". ! in"en$i". f "#e p! )e$$ &hen * starte$% 7n$ throughout the pro#ess I fe&" ) nf&i)"e+ in 1. ! &e a$ a + )(1en"a!. p# " g!ap#e!6 7lthough the bo$il)
mutilation through surger) an$ hormones seem fairl) gruesome" these things in themsel'es $o not pro'i$e the biggest

A$ I -$e!%e an$ support 0ake in his #hanges so that his bo$) #an pass as a &hite man" I )ann " #e&p -(" "#ink about the fa#t "#a" I ,i&& ne%e! -e a-&e " )#ange 1. -! ,n $kin " e$)ape "#e &a.e! f pp!e$$i n ne e4epe!ien)e$ f! 1 -eing -&a)k in A1e!i)a65
#hallenges for me% -Working &ith an$ supporting someone &hose 'alues an$ beliefs $iffer ra$i#all) from m) o&n is for#ing me to fa#e

"#e e4pe!ien)e that i$ g! (n+e+ in 1. - +.' "#e Se&f9O"#e! ) nf&i)" "#a" !e%e!-e!a"e$ ,i"# "#e #i$" !. f "#e Ma$"e!9S&a%e !e&a"i n$#ip" an$ its strong resonan#e &ithin our #ulture that * #ontinue to e1plore%some things about m)self that * ne'er &ante$ to look at% *t is

AND, THEY PROMOTE AN OPPRESSIVE FRAMEWORK BY SPEAKING FOR THE MARGINALIZED FROM A CONFORTABLE PEDESTAL OF ACADEMIA AND LITERATURE WITHOUT BOTHERING TO TRULY INVESTIGATE THE HARMS OF THE 1AC Lenz 200 (Brooke, Assistant Professor of English at Saint Mary's University of Minnesota Postcolonial Fiction and the O tsider !ithin" #o$ard a %iterary Practice of Fe&inist Stand'oint #heory( )!SA *o rnal, +,,-, ''. /012+,3 Fe&inist 'ro4ects that seek to e5'lore the o''ression of 6#hird !orld6 $o&en have generally 7een &otivated 7y the 7est of intentions. )evertheless, 6!"e #$%&!'&e () #$'*'+e,e- #e$.(n. .#e%/'n, )($ ($ (n 0e"%+) () +e.. #$'*'+e,e- #e$.(n.,6 %inda Alcoff notes, 6"%. %&!1%++2 $e.1+!e- 3'n 4%n2 &%.e.5 'n 'n&$e%.'n, ($ $e'n)($&'n, !"e (##$e..'(n () !"e ,$(1# .#(/en )($6 (2//+, 83. T"'. $e.1+! #$(&ee-. )$(4 %n 'n%0'+'!2 %n-6($ 1n7'++'n,ne.. !( ."')! !"e !e$4. () !"e e8#+($%!'(n, %n 'n&%#%&'!2 !( %&!1%++2 0e,'n 7'!"'n !"e &(n&e#!1%+

ARMY DEBATE ROWLES

SPEAKING FOR OTHERS BAD _3_ OF _3_

)$%4e7($/ () !"e +e.. #$'*'+e,e-, #$(&ee-'n, 'n.!e%- )$(4 4'.&(n&e#!'(n. ($ 4'.%##+'&%!'(n. () .1##(.e-+2 91n'*e$.%+9 $e%+'!'e. , si&ilar to Mariah's a''lications of li7eral fe&inis& to % cy's &aternal conflicts. 9n fact, !"e %..14#!'(n !"%! $e&(,n'z%0+e (##$e..'(n e8'.!. '. 'n '!.e+) % $e)1.%+ !( ."')! !"e )(&1., %n- ()!en $e.1+!. 'n #$(:e&!. !"%! .ee/ !( .'!1%!e (##$e..'(n %)!e$ !"e )%&! 'n $e+%!'(n !( .(&'%+ .!$1&!1$e. !"%! 4%2 ($ 4%2 n(! %&!1%++2 0e (##$e..'*e .2: A ; estion th s arises a7o t the &ethodology thro gh $hich fe&inist stand'oint theory can 7e a''lied &ost a''ro'riately and res'onsi7ly. As Alcoff contin es, %&%-e4'& )e4'n'.!. 9%$e %1!"($'ze- 02 *'$!1e () (1$ %&%-e4'& #(.'!'(n. !( -e*e+(# !"e($'e. !"%! e8#$e.. %n- en&(4#%.. !"e '-e%., nee-., %n- ,(%+. () (!"e$.. <o$ever, 7e 41.! 0e,'n !( %./ (1$.e+*e. 7"e!"e$ !"'. '. % +e,'!'4%!e %1!"($'!26 (2//+, 83.