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A dissertation Report su !itted to t"e And"ra Uni#ersit$ in partia% &u%'i%%!ent 'or t"e a(ard o'



Under the guidance of

Faculty of management studies



6A''i%iated to And"ra Uni#ersit$7

ADITYA IN)TITUTE O& P*G*)TUDIE) DEPARTMENT O& BU)INE)) MANAGEMENT (Affiliated To Andhra University) Aditya Nagar, ADB Road, SURAMPALEM !""#"$, E%&%Dst% Phones' ()**!+,+!++#",+!++!), cell'-*..!$...+



















Ms%B"*)*DEEPIKA 3ith Regd%no' -./012....1 during the 0eriod +))* 6) in 0artial fulfillment of the re7uirement for the a3ard of the Degree of MA)TER O& BU)INE)) ADMINI)TRATION in Aditya institute of P%& studies affiliated to Andhra Uni8ersity is a record of 4enefited 3or5 carried out 4y under my guidance and su0er8ision*

Pro9e:t Guide Mrs* K* La%it"a B"a#ani4 MHRM4

Head o' t"e dept* Mr* J*Na+endra ;u!ar


9 here4y declare that this 0ro1ect re0ort entitled 2:;MPE/EN:< MAPP9N&= 3ith reference to B9L/ &ra0hic Pa0er Product Ltd%, su4mitted 4y me in 0artial fulfillment of Master of Business Administration to the de0artment of M%B%A, AU, AD9/<A 9NS/9/U/E ;F P%&% S/UD9ES, SURAMPALEM in genuine and 4onafide 3or5 done 4y me and it is not 0re8iously su4mitted 4y me for the a3ard any degree or di0loma in any other institute or uni8ersity%


Place' Date'


9 ta5e this o00ortunity to ac5no3ledge my dee0 and 0rofound gratitude to the 0eo0le concerned 3ho ha8e hel0ed me directly or indirectly com0letion of this 0ro1ect% 9 3ould li5e to e>tend my sincere than5s to Mr* J* NAGENDRA KUMAR4 ?ead of the De0artment MBA%, AD9/<A 9NS/9/U/E ;F P%&% S/UD9ES 0ermitting me to ta5e u0 this 0ro1ect in B&PPL% 9 e>0ress my gratitude to my 0ro1ect guide (internal, Mrs*K*LALITHA BHA3ANI, M%?RM, and all the other faculty mem4ers of AD9/<A 9NS/U/U/E ;F P%&% S/UD9ES 3ho had hel0ed me to com0lete this 0ro1ect, successfully under their 8alua4le guidance and suggestions to3ards com0letion of this 0ro1ect% My sincere than5s to Mr* K* NAGE)<AR RAO (Sr%Manager,, Mr*P*R*REDDY (Manager ?R, and other Asst%Managers in ?%R%De0artment for their 5ind :o o0eration and 8alua4le suggestions 3hich 3ere hel0ful for com0leting this 0ro1ect% 9 much o4liged to my guide Mr*A*)URYA BHAGA3AN (E>ecuti8e ?R, for his assistance, co o0eration and e>cellent guidance and his 8alua4le suggestions for com0leting this 0ro1ect%




Introdu:tion a* O 9e:ti#es o' t"e stud$ * Need 'or t"e stud$ :* Met"odo%o+$ d* Li!itations


CHAPTER5-, Industr$ Pro'i%e CHAPTER5?, Co!pan$ Pro'i%e CHAPTER51, T"eoreti:a% &ra!e <or;

2.52> 2/5?= 1.5@>

CHAPTER50, Co!peten:$ !appin+ in BGPPL @/5>@ CHAPTER5@, a* &indin+s * )u++estions :* Con:%usion




/a5ing a loo5 at the 3orld human 4eings is re3arding e>0erience% :ontrasts a4ounded in this 3orld% Beauty is 1u>ta0osed 3ith ugliness, mercy 3ith misery, industriousness 3ith la@iness and affluence 3ith 0o8erty% /hese contrast remain, so des0ite the 0assage of time, s3ee0ing 0olitical and economic changes and cultural differences% :ontrasts not 3ithstanding, one thing is certain A it is 0eo0le 3ho ma5e an organi@ation a success or allo3 it to 4e handed o8er to the Board of 9ndustrial and Financial Reconstruction (B9FR,% Bho are these so called 0atronsC ?o3 to attract themC ?o3 to retain themC ?o3 to moti8ate themC


Sim0ly 0ut, ?uman Resources Management is a management function that hel0s managerDs recruit, select, train and de8elo0s mem4ers for an organi@ation% ;48iously, ?RM concerned 3ith the 0eo0les dimension in organi@ation%

A series of integrated decisions that form the em0loyment relationshi0' their 7uality contri4utes the a4ility to the organi@ation and the em0loyees to achie8e their o41ecti8e% 9s concerned to 3ith the 0eo0le dimension in management% Since e8ery organi@ation is made u0 of 0eo0le, ac7uiring their ser8ices, de8elo0ing their s5ills, moti8ating them to higher le8els of 0erformance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their commitment to the organi@ation are essential to achie8ing organi@ational o41ecti8es% /his is true regardless of the ty0e of organi@ation, go8ernment, 4usiness, education, health recreation or social action% 6

Management is the 0lanning, organi@ing, direction and controlling of the 0rocurement, de8elo0ment, com0ensation, integration, maintenance and se0aration of human resources to the end that indi8idual, organi@ational and social o41ecti8es are accom0lished%


A 0olicy is 0lan of action% 9t is a statement of intention committing management to a general course of action% Bhen the management drafts a 0olicy statement to co8er some features of its 0ersonnel 0rogrammers, the statement may often contain an e>0ression of a 0rinci0le or an o41ecti8e' 29t is the intention of the com0any to 0ro8ide a safe 0lant and a healthy 3or5ing en8ironment= A 0olicy statement is more s0ecific and commits the management to identify course of action% /he follo3ing is a 0olicy%

;ur 0olicy is institute e8ery 0ractical method for engineering, safety into our 0rocesses and e7ui0ment to 0ro8ide clothing 3here necessary, to train em0loyees in safe o0erating 0rocedures and to 8igorously enforce esta4lished safety rules% ;ur 0olicy is to 0ro8ide a healthy 0lant 4y gi8ing ade7uate attention to cleanliness, tem0erature light and sanitation%


/he 3or5 in8ol8ed in formulating 0ersonnel 0olicies re7uires that the management gi8e dee0 thought to the 4asic needs of 4oth the organi@ation and em0loyees% /he management must e>amine its 4asic con8ictions as 3ell as gi8e full consideration the 0re8ailing 0ractices in other organi@ation% Esta4lished 0olicies ensure consistent treatment of all 0ersonnel throughout the organi@ation% Fa8ouiritisum and discrimination are there4y, minimi@ed%

:ontinuity of action is assured e8en though to0 management 0ersonnel change% /he :E; of a com0any may 0ossess a 8ery sound 0ersonnel management 0hiloso0hy% ?eEShe may carry the 0olicies of the organi@ation in hisEher head and heEshe may a00ly them in an entirely fair manner% But 3hat ha00ens 3hen heEshe retires or resignsC /he ensure of office of any manager is finite 4ut the organi@ation continue Policies 0romote sta4ility%

Policies ser8e as a standard of 0erformance% Actual results can 4e com0ared 3ith 0olicy to determine ho3 3ell the mem4erDs of the organi@ation are li8ing u0 to the 0rofessed intentions%

Sound 0olicies hel0 4uild em0loyee moti8ation and loyalty% /his is es0ecially true 3here the 0olicies reflect esta4lished 0rinci0les of fair 0lay and 1ustice and 3here they 0eo0le gro3 3ith in the organi@ation% Sound 0olicies resol8e intra0ersonal, inter0ersonal and inter grou0 conflicts% "


Policy of hiring 0eo0le 3ith due res0ect to factors li5e reser8ation, se>, marital status and the li5e% Policy 3ith regard to medical assistance 4enefits, ES9 and medical 4enefits% Policy regarding housing, trans0ort, uniform and allo3ances% Policy regarding training and de8elo0ment need for, method of and fre7uency of training and de8elo0ment% Policy regarding industrial relations, trade union recognition, collecti8e 4argaining, grie8ance 0rocedure, 0artici0ati8e management and

communication 3ith 3or5ers%

9n the 0resent scenario, it is difficult for the organi@ation 3or5ing inde0endently that each of 0layers in the industry consciously 3or5 to3ards achie8ing and maintaining different 0ositions 4ased on ser8ice standards% ?o3e8er any 0rocess im0ro8ements or inno8ati8e ideas set 4y the leaders are constantly co0ied 4y the com0etiti8e 0layers thus 0ro8iding only lesser returns to them% /his 0uts considera4le 0ressure on the leaders to constantly u0grade ser8ices standards in the organi@ation%


:om0etency refers to the intellectual, managerial, social and emotional, com0etencies% 9t is 4eneficial and cost effecti8e to ha8e com0etent 0eo0le to occu0y higher le8el 0ositions% Normally, the 0ur0ose of analy@ing training needs is to unco8er the ga0 that e>ists 4et3een the 0resent com0etencies and the com0etency needed to reach strategic goals for the future%

/o create a com0etency 4ased culture in the organi@ation%

9dentifying and 4uilding com0etencies of an indi8idual is 0re0aring himself for the ne>t set of res0onsi4ilities as efficient and effecti8e managers%

/o ensure that right 0eo0le are identified and 0laced in the right 1o4s and em0loyee 0otentials is identified, de8elo0ed and untilled fully%

/o hel0 u0lift the com0etencies of critical grou0s of managers, 4y 0ro8iding them insights into their com0etencies and de8elo0mental o00ortunities%

Fey 0erformance areas can 4e im0ro8ed 4y understanding the fields 3here there is a ga0 4et3een the actual and the desired results%


/he 4asic need for the com0etency frame3or5s are as follo3s%

/o translate agency 8ision into clear measura4le outcomes% Pro8ide a tool for assessing, managing and im0ro8ing o8erall health and success of 4usiness systems% :ontinue to shift from 0rescri0ti8e, audit and com0liance 4ased o8ersight, to an on going, for3ard loo5ing strategic 0artnershi0 in8ol8ing agency head7uarters and field com0onents% 9dentify core ca0a4ilities in the 4usiness and in the indi8idual to hel0 connect 3or5 3ith 4eha8iors% 9nclude measures of 7uality, cost, s0eed, customer, ser8ice and em0loyee alignment, moti8ation and s5ill ti0 0ro8ide and in de0th, Predicti8e 0erformance management system% Re0lace e>isting assessment models 3ith a consistent a00roach to com0etency management%

An organi@ation com0rises of 8arious 0olicies is a 0lan of action% 9t is a statement of intention committing the management to a general course of action% Bhen the management drafts a 0olicy statement to co8er some features of its 0ersonnel 0rogrammers, the statement may often contain an e>0ression of 0hiloso0hy and 0rinci0le as 3ell% /he follo3ing statement is an e>0ression of a 0rinci0le or an o41ecti8e' 29t is the intention of the com0any to 0ro8ide a safe 0lant and a healthy 3or5ing en8ironment%=


/he sco0e of the study is intended to co8er the Sr%Managers, Managers, Asst%Managers, Sr%E>ecuti8es and Gr%E>ecuti8e in the organi@ation%


/he 0rimary o41ecti8e of the internshi0 has 4een to gain hands on e>0erience of the functioning of the ?R de0artment in the organi@ation% /o 5no3 the com0etences re7uired for the 0osition and to match the com0etencies of 0erson to the 0osition% /o determine the strategic ad8antage for the organi@ation 4ased on em0loyee com0etencies% /o ensure the im0ro8ement of the com0etencyE 0erformance le8els of the em0loyees in the organi@ation%


Any research study for the collection of 0rimary data the methods li5e 7uestionnaire, inter8ie3 and o4ser8ation methods has 4een used 8ery fre7uently% Among these methods the direct inter8ie3 of the em0loyee and the 7uestionnaire techni7ue 4eing used as the most 8ersatile of all and ca0a4le of interacting o0inion and inter8entions 3as used for the 0ur0ose of data collection%


/he secondary information 3ill 4e collected in this category is as follo3s' By go through the internet (/%H%Rao learning systems, By using the ?RD maga@ines By collection information from the em0loyees% By o4ser8ing and the studying the 0re8ious research studies%


/he ma1or limitation of the 0ro1ect under study 3as 2time * 3ee5s= it has to 4e com0leted in a 8ery short 0eriod of time, 3hich 3as not sufficient to under ta5e a com0rehensi8e study%

/he study 3as confined to si> years%

Some information is not a8aila4le due to the confidential matters%

/he study is confined only to B&PPL is the largest seller of Rayon grade 0ul0 in 9ndia% So, due to hea8y 3or5 schedule of the em0loyees they couldnDt s0are much of their time% /o 4e in many cases, com0any could not 0ro8ide detailed information I formats due to 8arious limitations%



Pa0er has 4een around for nearly +))) yearsJJJ /ry to imagine life 3ithout it% /he 0a0erma5ing 0rocess has come a long 3ay since 6)! A%D% Bhen /sDai Lon, a :hinese court official, in8ented 0a0er% 9n all li5elihood, /sDai mi>ed mul4erry 4ar5, hem0 and rags 3ith 3ater, mashed it into 0ul0, 0ressed out the li7uid, and hung the thin mat to dry in the sun% /hus 4egan humanityDs greatest re8olution in communications% Billiam Rittenhouse and Billiam Bradford founded the first North American 0a0er mill in 6.-) at Bissahic5on cree5, near Philadel0hia% /han5s to a great deal of imagination and hard 3or5, they successfully collected, se0arated, cleaned and recycled old cloth rags to ma5e AmericaDs first 3riting 0a0ers% 9n the early 6*))s, Nicholas Louis Ro4ert of France in8ented the Fourdrinier, a machine that 0roduces 0a0er on an endless 3ire screen% Fifty years later, 0a0erma5ers 4egan successfully using 3ood fi4re to ma5e 0a0er, a 0rocess that 3as introduced in the United States in the early 6-))s% 9n 6*.., an American named Ben1amin /ilghman de8elo0ed the sul0hite 0ul0ing 0rocess% /he first mill using this 0rocess 3as 4uilt in S3eden in 6*$#% /his 3as the dominant 0ul0ing 0rocess until 6-"$% At that time, Fraft 0ul0ing 4ecame the dominant chemical 0ul0ing 0rocess and still is today% A &erman chemist, :%F%Dahl, de8elo0ed the Fraft (from the &erman 3ord meaning 2strong=, 0ul0ing 0rocess in

6*$-% /he first Fraft mill in the United States 3as 4uilt in 6-66 in Pensacola, Florida% /he Fraft 0rocess had se8eral distinct ad8antages' 6) /he chemicals used to dissol8e the lignin 3ere reco8era4le and tremendous amounts of energy 3ere 0roduced during the reco8ery 0rocess, and the 0rocess could 0ul0 0ine trees, a 0redominant forest s0ecies in the United States% /he Fraft 0rocess allo3ed the United States to 4ecome a ma1or 0roducer of 0a0er 0roducts%

/he de8elo0ment of 0a0er signalled the 4eginning of the modern communication era% Later inno8ations incor0orating 0a0er 3ould include the de8elo0ment of the &uten4erg Press, 3hich allo3ed for mass 0roduction of 0rinted materials thus increasing the demand for and 0roduction of 0a0er%


9n 6)! A%D% /sDai Lun, a :hinese court official, mashed 0ieces of mul4erry 4ar5, cloth and hem0 in 3ater until they 3ere reduced to 0ul0% ?e then drained a3ay the 3ater, 0ressing and drying the matted fi4res% /he result 3as 0a0er% /he secret of 0a0erma5ing remained in :hina for .!) years, until Ara4s learned the art from :hinese 0risoners of 3ar% /he 0rocess 3as 4rought to Euro0e in the 6+th century 4ut the method of ma5ing 0a0er from 3ood 3as lost along the 3ay% Rags 3ere used instead% Early American Pa0erma5ing Use of Rags as Ra3 material Billiam Rittenhouse and Billiam Bradford founded the first North American 0a0er mill in 6.-) at Bissahic5on :ree5, near Philadel0hia% ;ther mills

soon o0ened, 3ith much of the industry concentrated in Ne3 <or5, Massachusetts, Pennsyl8ania and :onnecticut% 66 Pa0erma5ing in Maine 4egan in the 6$")s, 3hen a small mill 3as 4uilt on the Presum0scot Ri8er in Best4roo5% MaineDs attraction for 0a0er manufacturing 3as its ri8ers and streams im0ortant sources of 0o3er and clean 3ater for the manufacturing 0rocess, 3hich still used rags as its ra3 material% 9n 6*!# Samuel Dennis Barren 0urchased the mill in Best4roo5 for K+*,))), starting the S%D% Barren :om0any% At that time discarded clothes 3ere 4eaten to a 0ul0 and 0oured into molds to ma5e 0a0er at the mil% By 6*!. the S%D% Barren mill 3as the largest im0orter of rags in the 3orld%


A rag shortage in the 6*!)s, along 3ith increasing demand for 0a0er, enticed Euro0ean and American in8entors to find alternati8e su00lies for ma5ing 0ul0% /hese in8entors found mechanical and chemical methods for efficiently ma5ing 0a0er from 3ood% Po0lar 3as the 3ood of choice, and ne3 mills 4egan to o0en near the source of this fi4re% Many of these mills 3ere in Ne3 England%

/he first 3ood 0ul0 in Maine 3as 0roduced in the 4asement of a /o0sham sa3mill in 6*.*, mar5ing the 4eginning of the 0a0er industryDs ra0id gro3th in Maine% /he /o0sham mill 0roduced one ton of 0ul0 0er day% By 6*$! the S%D% Barren mill in Best4roo5 first 4lended 3ood fi4res 3ith rag 0ul0L fi8e years later the Best4roo5 mill 3as the largest 0a0er mill in the 3orld%

At this time mills 3ere using a mechanical 0ul0ing 0rocess (many still do,% But in 6*.., an American named Ben1amin /ilghman de8elo0ed a sul0hite chemical 0ul0ing 0rocess, heating li7uefied 3ood fi4res 3ith a sul0hurous solution% /he first mill using this 0rocess 3as 4uilt in S3eden in 6*$#% 9n 6**)s, this 0rocess 3as 4rought to Maine, 4eginning a 0eriod of ra0id gro3th in MaineDs 0ul0 and 0a0er industry%


9n 6**+, a sa3 mill in ;ld /o3n 4egan using their 4y 0roducts to ma5e soda 0ul0, forming the Peno4scot :hemical Fi4re :om0any% 9n 6**" the com0any 4uilt a sul0hite 0ul0 mill, 0roducing 6* tons of 0ul0 0er day% /his mill gre3 and transformed into the &eorgia Pacific tissue facility o0erating today% 9n 6*** ?ugh G% :hisholm 4uilt the ;tis Falls Pul0 :om0any mill in Gay, then the third largest 0a0er mill in the country% 9n 6*-* this mill 4ecame one of the founding mills of 9nternational Pa0er% 9nternational Pa0er sold the ;tis mill in 6-$*L it is no3 o3ned 4 Bausau Pa0er% President &ro8er :le8eland led a team of in8estors to 4ring a ne3 sul0hite 0ul0ing technology to central Maine in 6**-, starting the Madison Pa0er 9ndustry mill that is still in o0eration today% By 6*-) there 3ere +! 0ul0 mills in Maine' t3el8e sodaEsul0hite mills 0roducing 6*+ tons of 0ul0 0er day, and 6" ground 3ood mills rated at 6!$ tons 0er day% Fi8e years later MaineDs ca0acity increased to 6)". tons 0er day of 0ul0 and !)* tons 0er day of 0a0er% Maine led the nation in 0ul0 0roduction% 9n 6-)) the &reat Northern Pa0er :om0any 4egan manufacturing ne3s0rint in Millinoc5et% /his mill 3as, as it o0ened, the largest in the 3orld, 0roducing +#) tonsEday of ne3s0rint, 6+) tonsEday of sul0hite 0ul0, and +#) tonsEday of ground

3ood 0ul0% &reat Northern e>0anded the facility in 6-)., adding a mill in East Millinoc5et% /hese mills are no3 o3ned 4y the Fatahdin Pa0er :om0any% 9n the early 6-))s t3o mills that are still in o0eration today 3ere 4uilt on o00osite ends of the state% ?ugh G% :hisholm o0ened the ;>ford Pa0er :om0anyDs Rumford mill, no3 o3ned 4y Mead Best8aco, in 6-)6% 9n 6-). St%:roi> Pa0er o0ened the Bailey Hille (Boodland, mill, no3 o3ned 4y domtar%

Bith this gro3th Maine sur0assed :onnecticut, Ne3 ?am0shire, and Hermont in the 8olume of 0a0er 0roduced, 4ecoming the third leading 0a0erma5ing state, 4ehind Massachusetts and Ne3 <or5% But the e>0ansion 3as not limited to the northeast ne3 facilities 3ere 4eing constructed in 9llinois, Michigan, ;hio and Bisconsin%

6-6) 6-")' :ontinued &ro3th, 9ncreasing :om0etition'

9n the early 0art of the +) th century MaineDs mills gre3, 0rimarily 4y adding ne3 machines, although e>isting machines 3ere also made to run faster% But ne3 factories continued to 4e 4uilt further 3est, as Bisconsin 4ecame an increasingly im0ortant 0layer% :om0etition also came from :anada, 3here shi0ments of 0a0er (largely ne3s0rint, to the U%S% increased from "%- million tons in 6-6+ to "$%$ tons in 6-6*% Some Maine mills could not com0ete and closed, others con8erted to the 0roduction of 3riting 0a0ers% Donald Fraser o0ened a sa3mill in Ne3 Bruns3ic5 in 6*$$% ?is com0any gre3 into the largest 3ood 0roducts 4usiness in the Maritimes% 9n 6-+* Fraser started its first light3eight 0a0er machine, and installed a mile long 0i0eline to connect the Edmondson 0ul0 mill to the Mada3as5a 0a0er mill%

6# Bhen central Maine Po3er com0leted the Byman Dam in Bingham they needed a customer for its e>cess 0o3er% :MP created and affiliate, the Maine Sea4oard Pa0er :om0any, and 4uilt 3hat is no3 the 9nternational Pa0er mill in Buc5s0ort% /his mill initially 0roduced ne3s0rint, 4ut later shifted to light3eight coated 0a0er used for maga@ines and catalogs%


9nternational Pa0er o0ened the Androscoggin mill in Gay in 6-.!% /he mill no3 includes a 3ood yard, three 3ood rooms, utilities, t3o continuous 0ul0 digesters, t3o 4leach 0lants, and fi8e 0a0er machines% /he fi8e 0a0er machines ha8e the com4ined ca0acity to 0roduce more than 6,.)) tons 0er day more than the com4ined total of all 6+ mills o0eration in Maine%

Machines at other mills continued to 4e im0ro8ed to o0erate faster and 3ith 3ider rolls to increase 0roducti8ity% Des0ite these im0ro8ements, 4y 6-.) Maine lost its claim to 4e the largest 0a0erma5ing state to Bisconsin, as many ne3 mills 3ere 4rought on line there% Much of the U%S% 4ro3n 0a0er (eg%card4oard, 0roduction mo8ed to southern states, 3hich increased their share of the U%S% 0a0er mar5et as ne3 0lants 3ere 4uilt to use fi4er form southern 0ine 0lantations%

/his trend continued through the 6-$)s and 6-*)s% Pa0er com0anies continued to in8est in Maine, 4ut Bisconsin, Bashington and se8eral southern states

4ecame more attracti8e for in8estment dollars and sa3 their 0osition relati8e to Maine im0ro8e% 9n 6-*6 MaineDs ne3est 0a0er mill 3as com0leted in S5o3hegan% /he Sa00i Fine Pa0er north America Somerset mill no3 has MaineDs highest ca0acity, ca0a4le of 0roducing +,6$- tons of 0a0er 0er day, along 3ith 6,!)) tons of Fraft 0ul0% /he mill 0roduces high 7uality 0rinting and 3riting 0a0ers%

Maine 3as ma5ing more 0ul0 and 0a0er than e8er 4efore% Some mills shifted to s0ecialty 0a0ers, 3hile others u0graded their machines to run more efficiently% ;ther mills that did not ma5e these in8estments 3ere forced to close%

Recently com0etition has come from 0laces far more distant than Massachusetts, Ne3 <or5, Bisconsin or :anada% ;ff shore com0etition started in Euro0e, 3here many ne3 mills and u0graded facilities 3ere com0leted in the 6-*)s and 6-))s% /hen Latin America 1um0ed in aided 4y a 8ast forest resource of fast gro3ing trees Bra@il and :hile 4uilt large ne3 0ul0ing facilities, causing a decrease in U%S% 0ul0 0roduction since 6--!% Ne3 0a0er ca0acity is no3 shifting to Asia% Bhile no ne3 mills ha8e 4een 4uilt in the U%S% for many years, many ne3 mills are under construction in :hina, Forea, 9ndonesia and across the glo4e% /hese ne3 mills are larger and faster than those in the U%S% 9n most cases the cost of la4our is much chea0er 3here the ne3 mills are 4eing 4uilt% AS a result 0ul0 and 0a0er 0rices continue to decline%

9n order to com0ete Maine mills ha8e re4uilt their older machines, 3hen they can o4tain the ca0ital to do so% /hey ha8e increased 0roducti8ity through 0rocess im0ro8ements, 3hile reducing their la4our force%Many smaller mills no3 ha8e niche mar5ets for e>am0le, the Sa00i mill in Best4roo5, 4uilt 4y S%D%

/hrough inno8ation and continued in8estment, along 3ith to0 notch 3or5force and su0erior forest resource, Maine has remained com0etiti8e% Maine remains the second leading 0a0er 0roducing state in the U%S% and continues to 0roduce more 0a0er than e8er 4efore% Maine has 4een 0roducing 0a0er for o8er +$) years% 9n that time mills ha8e o0ened, closed, changed, struggled and 0ros0ered% /hey continue to do so today%




Ballar0ur industries limited (B9L/, is the largest 0a0er industry in 9ndia I the only 9ndian com0any to ran5 4et3een to0 hundred 0ul0 I 0a0er industries 3orld3ide% B9L/ has esta4lished a dominant 0osition in its defined 0roduct segments in 3riting I 0rinting 0a0ers I is loo5ing at esta4lishing a certain 5ey in o8erseas mar5et% B9L/ has a consolidate mar5et ca0acity #.),))) M/EA at 3hich !),))) M/ are e>0orted% B9L/ has se8en co% across the country ma5ing it a truly national 0layer in 9ndian mar5et% 9ts . units are' 6% UN9/ BALLARPUR (MA?ARAS/RA, +% UN9/ B?9&BAN (MA?ARAS/RA, "% UN9/ S?REE&;PAL (?AR<ANA, #% UN9/ SEBA (;R9SSA, !% UN9/ AS?/9 (MA?ARAS/RA,

Unit )"ree+opa% Unit Shreego0al, in <amunanagar, ?aryana, currently 0roduces *+,))) tonnes of 0a0er 0er annum% /he unit has 4een certified 4y the Ministry of Po3er and is 9S; -))6'+))) certified for Muality Management System% Unit Shreego0al recei8ed the 2National A3ard for E>cellence in Bater Management +))$=%

/he 0roduct mi> of this unit includes Sun Shine Su0er Printing, Royal E>ecuti8e Bond, Blac5 :entred Board and 98ory Board% 6* Unit Ba%%arpur Unit Ballar0ur, located in Ballarshah in Maharashtra, currently 0roduces 6,"),))) tonnes of 0a0er 0er annum% /he unit is 9S; -))6'+))) certified, has 4een named 2Pa0er Mill of the <ear= 4y the 9ndian Pa0er ManufacturersD Association (9PMA,, 4esides recei8ing the Maharashtra Energy De8elo0ment AgencyDs 2A3ard for E>cellence in Energy :onser8ation and Management= thrice% E>0ansion 0ro1ect is under3ay 3ith the installation of a ne3 0a0er machine, 3hich 3ould 0roduce uncoated 3ood free 0a0er, leading to a ca0acity increase of 6,!),))) tonnes 0er annum 4y Guly +))-% Unit Ballar0urDs ma1or 0roduct mi> com0rises of Sun Shine Ma0litho, Sun Shine Su0er Printing, Ledger, :ream Bo8e, AR &rade Poster, Bhite Poster and /D Poster% Unit As"ti Unit Ashti located in Maharashtra has 4oth 9S; -))6'+))) and 9S; 6#))6'+))# certifications% /he unit 3on the Bureau of Energy EfficiencyDs 2Energy :onser8ation A3ard= in +))) and +))$% 9t also ran5ed -th 3ith + leaf rating in the &reen Rating Pro1ect conducted 4y the :entre for Science I En8ironment in +))+%

9t 0roduces co0ier 0a0er under the 4rand name of :o0y Po3er% 9t also manufactures SS Ma0litho 0a0er for the 3riting, 0rinting and gra0hic industries% Unit Ashti currently 0roduces !#,))) tonnes of 0a0er 0er annum%

6Unit B"i+(an ;0erations at Unit Bhig3an, located in Maharashtra are com0ara4le 3ith the 4est in the 3orld, 3ith state of the art technology, e7ui0ments and 0rocesses% 9t currently 0roduces 6,+!,))) tonnes of 0a0er 0er annum% /he Unit is 9S; -))6'+))) and 9S; 6#))6'+))# certified% 9t also o4tained the ;?SAS 6*))6'6--- certification in +))!% 9t recei8ed the 2Energy :onser8ation A3ard= from the :entral &o8ernmentDs Bureau of Energy Efficiency, the 2Maharashtra State Energy :onser8ation A3ard= for +))! and the 2&reentech Safety A3ard= for +))" )#, +))# )! and +))! ).% 9t also 3on the 2Safety 9nno8ation A3ard, +))$= from the Safety I Muality Forum of 9ndia% Unit Bhig3an 0roduces :oated 0a0er and 4oard% Around 6! +)N of its 0roduction is e>0orted% /he unit recently 3on the 2National A3ard for E>cellence in Energy Management, +))*=% Unit Ka!a%apura! Unit Famala0uram in Andhra Pradesh has the second largest 0ul0 ca0acity 3ithin the &rou0, and is the largest seller of Rayon grade 0ul0 in 9ndia% Unit )e(a

Unit Se3a is located in Gey0ore, Fora0ut district, ;rissa% /his Unit has an installed ca0acity of $),))) tonnes 0er annum% 9ts 0roduct range includes Sun Shine Ma0litho, 9mage :o0ier, and Easy Print% +) )a a" &orest Industries 9n +))$, B9L/ too5 its first ste0 into the international mar5et 4y ac7uiring Sa4ah Forest 9ndustries (SF9,, Malaysia% SF9 is MalaysiaDs largest integrated 0a0er and 0ul0 facilityL its 0a0er 0lant has a ca0acity of 6,!),))) tonnes 0er annum and its 0ul0ing 0lant has a ca0acity of 6,+),))) tonnes 0er annum% More im0ortantly, it has access to +*-,))) hectares of land till +)-#% E>0ansion 0lans are under3ay 3ith the Pul0 mill e>0ansion, a ne3 3ood yard and 0a0er machine reno8ation% Bith this e>0ansion 0ro1ect, the 0ul0 0roduction 3ould increase 4y 6)),))) tonnes 0er annum and the 0a0er 0roduction 3ould increase 4y .),))) tonnes 0er annum%


AHAN/?A /he USK " 4n A8antha &rou0 is one of 9ndiaOs leading 4usiness conglomerates% /he &rou0 has 4usiness interests in di8erse areas, including 0ul0 and 0a0er, 0o3er transmission and distri4ution e7ui0ments and ser8ices, food 0rocessing, farm forestry, chemicals, energy, infrastructure, information technology (9/, and 9/ ena4led ser8ices%

Bith an im0ressi8e glo4al foot0rint, the &rou0 o0erates in more than 6) countries 3ith +),))) em0loyees of +) nationalities%&rou0 com0anies include :rom0ton &rea8es Limited, 9ndiaOs largest 0o3er e7ui0ment com0any, and Ballar0ur 9ndustries Limited (B9L/,, 9ndiaOs largest 0a0er manufacturer, 4oth listed on the 9ndian stoc5 e>changes%

As 0art of its glo4al e>0ansion 0rogramme, the &rou0 has ac7uired a host of com0anies from around the 3orld% Since +))!, :rom0ton &rea8es has ac7uired fi8e international com0anies' Pau3els (Belgium,, &an@ (?ungary,, Microsol (9reland,, Sonomatra (France, and MSE Po3er Systems (USA,% 9n +))$, B9L/ ac7uired Sa4ah Forest 9ndustries (SF9,, MalaysiaOs largest 0ul0 and Pa0er :om0any% Another &rou0

entity, /he &lo4al &reen :om0any, ac7uired 9ntergarden (Belgium, ?ungary, and Pus@ta Fon@er8 (?ungary,%

++ Bith these ac7uisitions, 0roducts from the &rou0 are not 1ust at the a0e> in 9ndia 4ut ran5ed amongst the 4est in the 3orld in their res0ecti8e categories%Across A8antha, good citi@enshi0 is a defined o41ecti8e, 3ith focused em0hasis on education, community de8elo0ment and healthcare% Led 4y :hairman Mr% &autam /ha0ar, the A8antha &rou0 demonstrates strong leadershi0 glo4ally and emerges as a focused cor0orate, le8eraging its 5no3ledge, leadershi0 and o0erations to add lasting 8alue for its sta5eholders and in8estors% /he &rou0 is on an aggressi8e gro3th 0ath, 3ith a targeted turno8er of USK 6) 4n and a mar5et ca0itali@ation of USK +! 4n 4y +)6"%


Andhra Pradesh RayonDs Limited 3as incor0orated on 6* th March 6-$! as a 0u4lic Limited :om0any and recei8ed the :ertificate of name 3as

:ommencement of Business on March "6,6-$!%/he com0anyDs

:hanged to APR Limited from August, +* 6--!%/he :om0any 3as 0romoted 4y Andhra Pradesh 9ndustrial De8elo0ment :or0oration (AP9D:, , AP9D: later associated Ballar0ur 9ndustries Limited (B9L/, of the /ha0ar &rou0

as co 0romoters for the Pro1ect% Andhra Pradesh RayonDs factory esta4lished in 6-$* in

Famala0uram /o3nshi0 in the agency area of the Manga0et Mandal has

4een steadily 0ros0ering for the 0ast +* years of date% 9t is 0ros0ering li5e a shading tree 0ro8iding em0loyment directly and indirectly to

a00ro>imately "))) families% /his factory is really an undreamed 4oon to the 0eo0le of the Direct and agency area% Prior to starting of A%P%Rayons, this is one of the thousands of tiny 8illages in the District% After esta4lishment of the factory, today it has gained s0ecialty of 4eing an industrial center% A%P%Rayons factory 3as esta4lished 4y /ha0ar &rou0 P8t%Ltd%,6+! Fms a3ay from the District ?ead7uarters in Famala0uram Hillage of

Manga0et Mandal started in 6-$*%/his factory 3as constructed at a cost of #) crore ru0ees% A%P%Rayons factory 3or5ing 3ith A,B,:, shifts round

the cloc5 uninterru0tedly% ?as 4een 0rogressing in the 0ath of 0ros0erity tremendously, 0roducing ")) tonnes of rayon grade 0ul0 as against its installed ca0acity of "!) tonnes% 9t is needless to mention here that it is

4ecause of the united efforts of the 3or5man as 3ell as the continuous etc%, A00ro>imately !))) li8elihood% /his factory till 6-*6 ran into se8eral losses and could not gain e8en minimum 0rofits% Under this circumstances in 6-*6 /ha0ar grou0 as a 1oint 8enture of the &o8ernment under Mr%Ansari as :hairman I Managing Director too5 o8er the factory com0letely and since 6-*# it started ta5ing out 0roduction results% E8en then 4ecause of accumulated losses till 6-*. the com0any ran in losses only from 6-*. on3ards it started gaining 0rofits 3ithout loo5ing 4ac5 lin5ed 3ith good 0roducti8ity% Because of the families are de0endent are on this for their

increased 0roduction the 8alue of Rs% !E not in 6-*. reached to Rs $$E as of the date% Presently the com0any is in the forefront 3ith Rs% 6+%-! crores 0rofit % For this com0any, 3hich is 0roducing Rayon grade 0ul0 the main material Eucaly0tus, :asuarinas, Su4a4ul, Neem, /amarind 3ood is 4eing used% /his 3ood is not only from all the areas in the

state 4ut also from other states 4eing im0orted a00ro>imately .) truc5s 0er day i%e% .)) tonnes% /o im0ort and stac5 the re7uired 3ood the com0any has esta4lished its o3n de0ots in 8arious 0rime cities of the state% E8ery day !) truc5s of 3ood, 6! truc5s of coal,6) tan5ers of :hemicals,&asetc%,are also 4eing im0orted% :oal re7uired for the factory is 4eing su00lied 4y coal

from Manuguru mines in Fhammam District a4out #) Fms from here% Similarly &as and chemicals are 4eing 4rought do3n from Hisa5ha0atnam% Factory is Presently 0roducing +.) tonnes 0er day% +! Pul0 is 4eing su00lied to National Rayon :or0oration, 9ndian Rayon :or0oration, :entury Rayon :or0oration and &rasim Rayon :om0any% /he Management has 4een 0utting their 0art of efforts to 0ro8ide 4etter

recreational facilities to the 3or5man families 3ho are ta5ing out increased 0roduction% For the residential 0ur0ose of its 3or5man amenities% /his colony is near 4y forest of Famala0uram has 4een car8ed into a 4eautiful &arden 3ith all modern facility% Further in order to ma5e the 3or5man and their families s0end their e8ery leisure minute in merry ,t3o Star Dish Antennas ha8e 4een 0ro8ided at an e>0enditure of Rs%6+ la5hs%

;ur as0iration is to 4ecome a leading creator of 8alue in the Pa0er 9ndustry /o achie8e this, 3e 3ill use the ENER&< of our 0eo0le, de8elo0 and im0lement LEAD9N& ED&E technologies and dra3 on 4oth to deli8er EFFE:/9HE 3orld class solutions to our customers% Shareholder

/o consistently out0erform e>0ectations and deli8er su0erior 8alue to 4oth our customers and Sta5eholders% /o achie8e this, 3e 3ill ENER&9SE our 0eo0le 3ith a 0ositi8e culture that re3ards 9NN;HA/9;N, 4reeds 9N9/9A/9HE and encourages 9N/ELL9&EN/ ris5 ta5ing%


6% ?;NES/<' Be 3ill 4e 0rinci0led, straight for3ard and fair in all our dealings% +% 9N/E&R9/<' Be 3ill maintain the highest standards of 0rofessionalism% "% FLEP9B9L9/<' Be 3ill ada0t oursel8es to al3ays stay ahead of change% #% RESPE:/ F;R 9ND9H9DUAL' Be 3ill gi8e each team mem4er room to contri4ute and gro3% !% /EAM PERF;RMAN:E' /he team comes first L none of us is as good as all of us%


6% B9L/ aims to 4e a 3orld class organi@ation 3ith a clear head3ay in terms of consistent 7uality, lo3 cost, on time deli8ery% +% Be each 3ill focus on adding 8alue at all 0oints of interaction 3ith of our customers internal and e>ternal%

"% For this, 3e 3ill redefine standards in res0onsi8eness, e>cellence in 0erformance and a00lication of 3orld class technologies that

ensure @ero defect out0ut%

4. Muality im0ro8ement is the 1o4 of e8ery B9L/ em0loyee.

i% Put Custo!ers &irst, Fno3 your customers and 8alue% ii% Be Inno#ate, :hange e>isting mindset to Qreturns 4y each em0loyee% +$ iii% Gro( Re#enue, Deli8er consistent results and gro3 shareholder 8alue% i8% Be Produ:ti#e, Ado0t 0rinci0le 4ased a00roach% Focus on s0eed and res0onse% 8% Ta;e Responsi i%it$, Em4race sharing%

0ro8ide su0erior

from 9nno8ationD




Ta;e Responsi i%it$, Em4race sharing%





/he En8ironment Policy outlines our commitment and 3ill ser8e as a guideline for all our manufacturing sites% Be reaffirm our commitment to 0re8ention of 0ollution

4yand o0erations on the minimi@ing the ad8erse im0act of our acti8ities en8ironment% /he unit is also 3or5ing on en8ironmental initiati8es to 3ards 9S; 6#))6 certification%

/he 9nitial ca0ital of this unit is #) :rores% And the Present ca0ital is near to 6+)) :rores%

Man Po(er,
9n B9L/ Unit Famala0uram the total man 0o3er is di8ided in four categories % /hey are Permanent contract 3or5ers management I clerical staff% +* /heir strength is' Permanent Bor5ers ' 6).) :ontract Bor5ers Management Staff :lerical Staff ' $#' 6** ' !

CATEGORIDED AMONG <ORKER), US SS SF 6 Uns5illed Bor5ers Semi s5illed Bor5ers S5illed Bor5ers 6 &rade

SF + ?S S&

S5illed Bor5ers + &rade ?ighly S5illed Bor5ers S0ecial S5illed Bor5ers

Uns5illed Bor5ers are considered to 4e 0ossessing least s5ills in his 3or5 I s0ecial grade 3or5er (S%&, is assumed to 4e 0erforming

4est s5ill in his 3or5 de0icted in the a4o8e chain of s5illed 3or5ers 3ith a continuous gro3th in s5ills from Uns5illed (US, 3or5ers to s0ecial grade 3or5ers% DEPARTMENT) EEI)TING, /he entire B&PPL Unit Famala0uram, is di8ided de0artments% /hey are' Process De0t% Engineering I Ser8ices De0t% Personnel I Administration De0t +/hese three ma1or de0artments indi8iduals% /hey are' 6% Process De0artments a% :hi00er ?ouse 4% Pul0 Mill c% :hlorine Dio>ide 0lant d% Sheeting De0t e% Soda Reco8ery f% La4 I Muality :ontrol are again su4 di8ided into different into " ma1or


Engineering I Ser8ice De0t a% Mechanical 4% Electrical c% :i8il d% 9nstrumentation e% Po3er ?ouse


Personnel I administration De0t a% Personnel De0t 6, Security +, :anteen ", Dis0ensary #, /ime ;ffice !, Estate ., /rans0ort 4% c% d% Accounts De0t Audit De0t Safety De0t i% ii% iii% Safety I ?ouse Fee0ing of Factory Safety I ?ouse Fee0ing of Estate Bood <ard I :ommercial De0t

6%&rasim industries 0ri8ate limited

+%National Rayons "%Baroda Rayons #%Baruch Rayons !%B9L/ .%Pudum1i &rou0 of com0anies


L6 L+ L" L# L! L. L$




Gauta! T"apar4 C"air!an Mr% &autam /ha0ar is the :hairman of B9L/% After studying :hemical Engineering in the U%S%A%, he returned to 9ndia and started his career as a factory assistant in one

of the manufacturing unitDs% ?e then rose steadily and steered the organi@ation through strategic inter8entions to greater heights% Demanding resilience and due resol8e, he guides the organisational gro3th% ?e is a mem4er of 4oards of directors of 8arious com0anies in 9ndia and o8erseas and is one of 9ndiaOs youngest and 4rightest glo4al 4usiness leaders% ;8er the last se8enty years, B9L/ has tra8elled a long 3ay, ma5ing its o3n road 3here none e>isted% B9L/Ds 0ath 4rea5ing 1ourney is dotted 3ith memora4le milestones%

EN3IRONMENT A C)R, En#iron!ent po%i:$ B9L/ 4elie8es in synergi@ing 4usiness interests 3ith en8ironmental accounta4ility% All manufacturing units follo3 stringent en8ironment management systems, 3ith fi8e of the se8en units 4eing 9S; certified% "+ B9L/Ds units are committed to the :or0orate Res0onsi4ility for En8ironment Protection (:REP, 0rogramme% All manufacturing facilities adhere to the most stringent en8ironmental norms, conser8ing 3ater and energy, significantly reducing emissions and effluents, and effecti8ely managing solid 3aste% 9n addition, all e>0ansion and modernisation 0ro1ects at our 0lants are in line 3ith state of the art en8ironmental norms%


/he Process of searching for 0ros0ecti8e em0loyees and stimulating them to a00ly for 1o4s in the organi@ation% /his organi@ation recruit s5illed, talented and e>0erienced em0loyees only% Sources' /his organi@ation search for 3or5force, 3here are suita4le

candidates a8aila4le in re7uired num4er C /he sources are either e>ternal or internal% E>ternal sources are

:onsultancies li5e monster, times 1o4s etc%, internal sources are referenced 4y their em0loyees, trade unions% Selection Process' First of 0erform all they analy@e the re7uirements for the candidates to

1o4 effecti8ely% And

conduct recruitment, after they select suita4le

candidates for inter8ie3% /his is a final ste0 in selection 0rocess% ""

T$pes o' Inter#ie(,

/hey conduct De0th inter8ie3 ( 1ust they test the em0loyees s5ills on their 0ast 0osition,% And also they conduct a0titude Machine test for their em0loyees%

Indu:tion and P%a:e!ent,

9nduction is a 0rocedure that ma5es the ne3ly a00ointed 0erson 5no3ing a4out the organi@ation% /his 0rocedure ma5es the organi@ation to introduce a4out

their organi@ation, nature of 3or5, mem4er of 3or5ers, o41ecti8es of organi@ation etc%, to ne3ly a00ointed 0erson% /he 0erson 3ho get 7ualified and selected 0ersons are 1oin in the organi@ation 4y su4mitting the a00ointment order gi8en 4y the selection committee% ?e 3ill 4e 0laced on the 1o4 for 3hat 1o4 he 3as selected%


/hey select suita4le candidates 4ased on their re7uirements, and gi8e training related to the em0loyee 1o4s, and gi8e the o8erall information

related to organi@ation li5e culture, 0olicies, rules etc%,

Trainin+ Met"od,
/hey gi8e 4oth ;n the 1o4 em0loyees% and ;ff the 1o4 training to their


Per'or!an:e Appraisa%,
Based on the reaching the targets of em0loyees they a00raise the

em0loyees 0erformance in the 3or5 s0ot% And they gi8e rating to each em0loyees%

/hey follo3 the rating method to e8aluate the em0loyee 0erformance in their organi@ation%


9tDs one of the im0ortant area of ?RM% E8ery ?R manager entrusted 3ith res0onsi4ilities of esta4lishing e7uita4le 3age and salary structure to their em0loyees%

Basi: Pa$,
BGPPL gi8es Basic 0ay for administration staff is .)))E to fresh

em0loyees and $)))E for technical staff%

Hours o' (or;,

B9L/ Unit Famala0uram is in a continuous 0rocess industry and as 0er the re7uirement, it o0erates +# hours a day 4oth the 3or5men I clerical staff 3ill do their functions in shift 3ise%

)"i't )$ste!, Shift Bise :ode

&eneral Shift I 6"%)) hrs to 6$%)) hrs "! Shift Shift Shift A B : ).%)) hrs to 6#%)) hrs 6#%)) hrs to ++%)) hrs ++%)) hrs to ).%)) hrs

)*%)) hrs to 6+%)) hrs

Any re7uirement of continuous 3or5 in the general shift 3ithout lunch 4rea5% /he em0loyee is 0ermitted to lea8e at 6.%)) hrs instead of 66%)) hrs% Both the

time office I shift incharges 3ill records the attendance for 3or5man, clerical I management staff 3ill sign in the attendance register%






Hu!an Resour:es
Gr3-1 L5-1 Con-4 L4-3 L3-2 L2-3 L1-1 V !-1 T"#-16




9n the 0resent scenario, it is difficult for the organi@ation 3or5ing inde0endently that each of 0layers in the industry consciously 3or5 to3ards achie8ing and maintaining different 0ositions 4ased on ser8ice standards ho3e8er any 0rocess im0ro8ements or inno8ati8e ideas set 4y the leaders are constantly co0ied 4y the com0etiti8e 0layers thus 0ro8iding only lesser returns to them% /his 0uts considera4le 0ressure on the organi@ation%

A com0etency is an underlying characteristic of a 0erson, 3hich ena4les him to deli8er su0erior 0erformance in a gi8en 1o4, role or situation% /his characteristic may 4e called an attri4ute 4undleL consisting of 5no3ledge, s5ill, traits, social role, self image, and moti8e% /he underlying characteristic manifests itself in the form of 4eha8ior, 3hich hel0s deification and measurement of the com0etency%

9t is defined as the state or 7uality of 4eing ade7uately or 3ell 7ualified to 0erform a tas5 3hich is synonymous 3ith a4ility% A 0erson gains com0etency through education, training, e>0erience or natural a4ilities%

:om0etencies are the s5ills and a4ilities of an indi8idual that result in 4etter 0erformance in the gi8en area% #)

9t can 4e defined as 2/he com4ination of 5no3ledge, s5ills, attitude and 0ersonality of and indi8idual as a00lied to a role or 1o4 in the conte>t of the 0resent and future en8ironment that accounts for sustained success 3ithin the frame 3or5 of organi@ational 8alues= ?ence, com0etency Ma00ing is the 0rocess of identifying dye com0etencies for an organi@ation and the 1o4s and functions 3ith in tit% 9t e>0lains ho3 a 1o4 could 4e done, a com0etence only descri4es 3hat has to 4e doneL not ho3% :om0etency can also 4e referred as a cluster of related Fno3ledge, attri4utes, s5ills and other 0ersonal characteristics that After a ma1or 0art of oneDs 1o4% :orrelates 3ith 0erformance on the 1o4% :an 4e measured against 3ell esta4lished standards% :an 4e im0ro8ed 8ia training and de8elo0ment%

;rgani@ation of the future 3ill ha8e to rely more on their com0etent em0loyers than any other resources% Successfully organi@ation 3ill ha8e to 4e flatter and leaner% Much 3or5 has to 4e done 4y em0o3ered 5no3ledge 3or5ers in multidisci0linary reams com0etency 0rofiling and ma00ing of em0loyers has 4ecome a critical and fundamental 0latform for indi8idual and organi@ational success% /his can 4e 4est accom0lished through an e8aluation 0rocess that 0ro8ides feed4ac5 as to 3hich com0etencies meet standards and 3hich com0etencies must 4e im0ro8ed% /herefore com0etencies can 4e thought of as the inner tool for moti8ating em0loyees, directing systems and 0rocesses and guiding the 4usiness to3ards common goals that allo3 the organi@ation to increase its 8alue% :om0etencies can

0ro8ide a common language and method that integrated ?uman Resources Management system 3hich 3ill hel0 em0loyees 4e more 0roducti8e in the challenging future years to come%

DI&&ERENCE BET<EEN COMPETENCY AND PER&ORMANCE /he 4asic difference 4et3een com0etency and Performance is that the former indicates 23hat the em0loyee can do or has the a4ility to do= and the later 23hat the em0loyee does=% Bhere as the 2/he 0erformance system measures the em0loyees 3orth in the com0any only after e8aluation his 0eriodic 0erformance, the 2com0etence system= starts ma00ing and measuring the 3orth of an indi8idual much 4efore an em0loyee is a00ointed on the 1o4 and continue to do so till the 1o4Eem0loyee e>ists%

Structured and documented 0rocedures 0ro8ide con8enience in recruitment, there4y reducing time and em0loyee cost% Predefined criteria eliminated chances of 3rong recruitment% /he organi@ation has a ready re5oner of s5ills in8entoryEmanagement in8entory% /raining needs identification 4ecomes clear and 0recise% ?el0s me 4enchmar5ing the standard% &ains a clearer sense of true mar5eta4ility in todayDs ho4 mar5et once the indi8idual 5no3s ho3 hisEher com0etencies com0le> to those that are as5ed for 4y the 1o4 mar5et in Fay 0ositions of interest% #6

Pro1ects an a00earance as a cutting edge and 3ell 0re0ared candidate, 3ho has ta5en the time to learn a4out com0etencies, in8estigate those in demand, and ma0 hisEher o3n com0etencies 0rior to inter8ie3ing%

De8elo0s the ca0a4ility to com0are oneDs actual com0etencies to an organi@ation or 0ositions re7uiredE0referred com0etencies in order to create and indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lan%



9n the early 6-$)Ds, a high ran5ing official 3ith the United Sates 9nformation agency (US9A, attended 3or5sho0 gi8en 4y ?ar8ard 0rofessor Da8id :% Mc:lelland% A distinguished 0sychologist 3ith a 0articular interest in moti8ation and achie8ement% Mc:lelland had ha4its 3ere shared and demonstrated 4y high achie8ers%

9n occurred to the US9A official that Mc:lellandDs a00roach might hel0 to sol8e a 0ersistent 0ro4lem 3ith the agencyDs selection 0rocedures' although 4lac5s and other minorities regularly a00lied for 1o4s in US9A li4raries and cultural missions a4road, the agencyDs initial screening 0rocedure almost in8aria4ly 3ound u0 eliminating them at the 0reliminary stages of the selection 0rocess% 9n addition the tests 0ro8ed to ha8e 8ery little relation to ho3 3ell US9A officers actually did their 1o4s% /he officer 3ho a00roached Mc:lelland 0resented him 3ith a challenge could he identify the attitudes and ha4its of an out standing US9A officer so that the agency could 4egin selection em0loyees on the 4asis if more irrele8ant criteria than the screening testsC

Mc:lelland said yes% ?e 4egan 4y as5ing the US9ADs 0ersonnel director and some to0 managers for the names of their most outstanding em0loyees%

?o4s 3ere secure 4ut 3ho 3ere in no 3ay outstanding% /o find out the difference 4et3een the t3o grou0s, Mc:lelland and his colleague :harles Dailey initiated a series of intensi8e inter8ie3s 3ith e8ery name on their lists% /hey as5ed

fifty 0eo0le to descri4e three incidents 3here they had really messed u0% Mc:lelland and Dailey as5ed minutely detailed 7uestions to esta4lish a clear 0icture of 3hat 3as said, 3hat 3as done, 3hen and 3here it a all ha00ened, 3ho else 3as there, and so on% /hese detailed descri0tions ena4led them, 3hen analy@ing the stories, to find a 0attern' 3hat com0etencies that outstanding 0erformers had demonstrated that the other hadnDt% Some fa8ora4le com0etencies 3ere far 4eyond the straightfor3ard management s5ills that might ha8e 4een e>0ected% Mc:lelland e>0lained to Ne3 <or5 /imes science re0orter Daniel &olema' ;ne of the com0etencies 3as social sensiti8ity% A ty0ical 0ro4lem that cultural affairs officers get into o8erseas is that there are directi8es from Bashington saying, for e>am0le, it that you must sho3 such and such a film% No3, if theyDre in, say, North Africa, they 5no3 damn 3ell that if you sho3 that film the 0lace 3ill 4e 4urned do3n the ne>t dayL % A Bashington 0olitician thin5s itDs great, 4ut the locals 3ill find it offensi8e% Bhat they ha8e to figure or, then, is ho3 to sho3 the film so that they ca4 tell Bashington that they did and yet not offend any one in the country% /he 3ater 3al5ers (i%e%, star 0erformer, came u0 3ith the solution of the screening it 3hen no4ody could come% 9n other 3ords, they had the social sensiti8ity to 5no3 ho3 the 0eo0le in the country 3ould react and also 5ne3 ho3 to handle it 4ac5 home% /his e>am0le also 0oints to another com0etence 3e ha8e identified' 0olitical 1udgment, itDs a sort 1o4 0olitical sa88y that 3or5ing in a 4ureaucracy demands% <ou ha8e to 4e a4le to maneu8er 3ithin a set of regulation and directi8es, 4alancing 3hat the home office re7uires and 3hat the reality in the field 3ill allo3% <ouD8e got to

5no3 3hat you can do and 3hat you canDt get a3ay 3ith% 9nterestingly many of the s5ills that the 0anel of e>0erts had identified as crucial to 1o4 0erformance turned out to 4e irrele8ant to the e8eryday duties of the 0eo0le inter8ie3ed 4y Mc:lelland and Dailey% /o 8alidate his conclusions a4out 3hich com0etencies 3ere necessary, Mc:lelland tested them on another grou0 of officers 3ho had 4een identified as outstanding a4out a grou0 3ho feel in to the mediocre category% Using 0sychological tests that had 4een de8elo0ed to asses indi8iduals degree of social sensiti8ity, as 3ell as tests for other 5ey com0etencies, he and Dailey found that officers identify as outstanding consistently 0erformed 8ery 3ell on such tests, 3here as those rated mediocre 0erformed 0oorly% /hus it 4ecome clear that social sensiti8ity and the other 5ey com0etencies they had identified 3ere indeed rele8ant to the 1o4 0erformance%

9n 6-$", Mc:lelland 3rote a4out hiring 0ractices for ci8il ser8ice 1o4s% ?e 0ointed out the incongruity of using standardi@ed 0sychological and intelligence tests% Such as 9M tests and the Minnesota Multi0hase Personality 9n8entory, for certain 1o4s% ?o3 necessary is it, he as5ed, for a 0ros0ecti8e 0oliceman to 4e a4le too s0ot the correct definition of the 3ord 2le>icon=C Does anyone really 4elie8e that a talent for finding analogies to 3ords 3ill ma5e someone a good firefighterC <et the tests for ci8il ser8ice 0ositions 3ere ty0ically com0osed of such items% Mc:lelland argued for the uses of com0etency testing in 0lace of standardi@ed tests%


As he 0ut it' 2if you 3ant to test 3ho 3ill 4e a good 0oliceman, go find out 3hat a 0oliceman does% Follo3 him around, Ma5e a list of his acti8ities, and sam0le from that list in screening a00licants= /he same recommendations, of course, could ha8e a00lied to cor0orationDs use of standardi@ed tests, 3hich 3ere then designed to 0redict academic 0erformance rather than 0erformance on the 1o4% 9n fact, Mc:lelland had chaired a 0anel of the social science Research council that found that less academically successful students 3ere not necessarily 0oorer 0erformers in life% Li5e most good ideas, Mc:lellandDs recommendations 3ere not 3holly ne3% As far 4ac5 as the 6-+)Ds Frederic5 /aylor, the father of scientist 3as to 4rea5 do3n the su41ect into its com0onent 0arts into com0etencies, in other 3ords and during Borld Bar 66, Psychologist Gohn Flanagan de8elo0ed 3hat he called the critical incident inter8ie3, 3hich attem0ted to identify crucial traits and s5ill re7uired for successful 0erformance 4y gathering data on the 4eha8ior and o4ser8ations of 0eo0le in rele8ant situations, such as 1o4 e8ents crises, 5ey 0ro4lems and the li5e%

Unlin5ed Mc:lellandDs a00roach, ho3e8er, the critical incident techni7ue did not 0ay attention to the inter8ie3eeDs than5ing 0atterns of fallings% 9t confined itself 0rimarily to 4eha8ior that as generated and 3itnesses 4y the inter8ie3ee and other items deemed significant% But the 4eha8ioral a00roach Mc:lelland used on the US9A 0ro1ect, 3hich later 4ecame a 5ey ste0 in the 0rocess of de8elo0ing com0etency models, e>0anded the focus to include indi8idual e>0eriences and 0erce0tions of e8ents% #.


:om0etency ma00ing identifies an indi8idualDs strength, 3ea5nesses in order to hel0 the 0erson 4itter understand himself, and to sho3 him 3here career de8elo0ment efforts need to 4e directed% :om0etency ma00ing is 0a 0rocess of identifying 5ey com0etencies for an organi@ation andEor a 1oin, and 9ncor0orating those com0etencies thought 8arious 0rocess(i%e% ho4 e8aluation, training, recruitment, of the organi@ation% /hus, u0 a 3hat, 3e can define ca com0etency as a 4eha8ior (communication, leadershi0,, rather than only a s5ill or an a4ility% :om0etencies are deri8ed from s0ecific ho4 families 3ith in the organi@ation and are often grou0ed around categories, such as strategy, relationshi0s, inno8ation, leadershi0, ris5 ta5ing etc% /he contem0orary a00roaches to the assessment of indi8idualDs learning and of 3or5sho0 0erformance ha8e 4een influenced 4y t3o essentially counter8ailing 0hiloso0hies% /he first is the com0etence mo8ement, and the second, the conce0t of contincieing 0rofessional de8elo0ment (lifelong learning,% /he 5ey difference 4et3een them relates to the locus of contrast, res0onsi4ility and accounta4ility around 5no3ledge and its effecti8e a00lication the 3or50lace%


Deals 3ith the identifying 0ersonality ty0e sets that ha8e 4ee0 demonstrated as those essential for effecti8e 0erformance and are then tested through a com4ination of 4attery of 0sychometric tests and simulation e>ercises% #$


Used to hel0 understand 3or5 0reference indignation of the assessed and to sedge their current dis0osition in 8arying ty0e of 1o4s% 9t 0ro8ides the assessors detain 4oth, the ty0e of 1o4s and the suita4ility for 1o4s at a mental and 0ersonal le8el of comfort of the assesses%

9n general assessment techni7ue 1udging criteria includes the follo3ing'

/he goal of assessment here is to 0roduce an accurate and o41ecti8e measurement of the 1o4 dimensions 0resumed to underlie 1o4 0erformance% /he assessment acti8ates mist ena4le the candidate to demonstrate some of the com0etencies%

E>ercises here should com0rise of a ma>imum of 0erformance media such as 3ritten, com0uter 4ased, s0o5en and 4eha8ioral%

:oncerned 3ith different 0erce0tions of the nature and 8alue of learning and conflicts of interests and issues such as freedom, res0onsi4ility and inde0endence on one hand and standards and accounta4ility on the other%



Te:"ni:a% B s;i%% %o:;s Non te:"ni:a%B pro'essiona% Fua%ities and su::ess 'a:tor


:om0etencies related to a s0ecific area of e>0ertise such as an industry, 0rocess technological, 0ac5age, or functional area as a 5no3ledge or s5ill (Fno3ledge of safety regulation and international com0liance codes,% /hese com0etencies are generally ac7uired through some form of training (course 3or5, formal education 3hich may 4e accom0anied 4y some 5ind of certification%, /hese are 8arious 0roficiency le8els of any s5ills domain, namely, informed enthusiast (Basic 5no3ledge, 4ut not a00lied,, Beginner (/rained, Beginning, A00lication,, seasoned 0rofessional (E>0erienced, antici0ates issues and outcomes,, e>0ert (Analysis root cause, sol8es com0le> 0ro4lems,%


:om0etencies of ten considered soft s5ills usually a4ilities and 0ersonal attri4utes (ris5 ta5ing, fle>i4ility etc%, /hese com0etencies generally not s0ecific to an industry, 0rocess, technological 0ac5age or functional area%



Moti8es /raits Self conce0t Fno3ledge S5ill

/he things a 0erson consistently thin5s a4out or 3ants that cause action% Moti8es 2Dri8e, direct I select= 4eha8iors to3ard creation actionsE goals and a3ay from others%

Physical characteristics and consistent res0onses to situations E information%

A 0ersonDs attitude, 8alues E self image Fno3ledge' 9nformation a 0erson has in s0ecific areas% Fno3ledge at 4est 0redicts 3hat someone condo, not 3hat heEshe 3ill so%

/he a4ility to 0erform a certain 0hysicalEmental tas5%

!) Many organi@ations select on the 4asis of surface 5no3ledge and s5ill com0etencies and either assume that recruits ha8e the underlying moti8e and trait com0etencies or that these can 4e instilled 4y good management%

9n com0le> 1o4s, com0etencies are relati8ely more im0ortant in 0redicting su0erior 0erformance% 9n higher le8el technical, mar5eting, 0rofessional and managerial 1o4s, almost e8eryone has an 9%M of 6+) a4o8e and an ad8anced degree from a good uni8ersity% A su0erior 0erformer in these 1o4s is moti8ation, inter0ersonal s5ills and 0olitical s5ills, s5ills of 3hich are com0etencies% 9t is the most cost effecti8e 3ay to staff these 0ositions%


For any com0etency frame3or5 to 4e effecti8e it should 4e understood and should 4e in a 0osition to 4e a00lied in 8arying situations that an incum4ent is 0laces 3hile 0erforming a 1o4% 9ncreasingly, certain 4asic standards for com0etency frame3or5 ha8e 4een esta4lished% /heses are' Relation to the 1o4 role easy com0rehension, rele8ance, affecting all staff, ta5ing into account e>0ected changes, a00lication to 8arying situation, inclusion of s0ecific 4eha8ior indictors, 4enchmar5ing against s0ecific standards etc%, /he com0etencies are o4ser8a4le or measura4le 5no3ledge s5ills and a4ilities /hese FSADs must distinguish 4et3een su0erior and other 0erformers%

!6 /he 8arious com0onents of the com0etency frame3or5 0rocess can 4e e>0lained in a three le8el 0resentation%

;rgani@ational 8ision, as0iration, foresight and 4usiness landsca0e in 3hich the 4usiness o0erates% Articulation of a strategy, core com0etence, delineation, of 4usiness 0lan, defining critical success factors, 5ey 0erformance indicators% :reating a com0etency dictionary 3ith core com0etence of the firm% Defining the ?R strategy and its influence 3ith core com0etencies or the firm%

;rgani@ational structure and architecture, including roles, res0onsi4ilities% Defining em0loyee 4onds, role ma0s, 1o4 clusters, defining 8ariation in le8els% Determining the assessment set% Assessment 3or5sheets for indi8iduals including tem0lates, 5ey areas to 4e co8ered%

Short term initiati8e in terms of indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lans% Long term initiati8e in terms of indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lans% 9ntegrated indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lans% Assessment data(9ndi8idual and summari@ed,

Assessment techni7ue (Methods, tools, formats, e>0ert 0anels, etc,


/he American ?eritage dictionary defines a com0etency as 2the state or 7uality of 4eing 0ro0erly or 3ell 7ualified%= /hat is a good general descri0tionsL it does not clarify 3hat is 4eing measured%


A4ility to deal 3ith multi0le issues and detailsL learning ca0acity%

A4ility to reason 3ith, analy@e and dra3 conclusions from num4ersL felling comforta4le 3ith 7uantitati8e data

A4ility to see and thin5 4eyond the o48ious and formulate original solutions


A4ility to maintain focus and effecti8eness under stressful and frustrating situations

A4ility to maintain oneDs moti8ation and 3or5 inde0endently for e>tended 0eriods of time 3ith minimal su00ort and a00ro8al


Desire to interact 3ith othersL 0ro1ecting 3armthL relating to a 3ide 8ariety of 0eo0le

Desire to 3in and to achie8e and sur0ass goalsL 0ersistence in the face to o4stacles


A4ility to esta4lish and maintain a fast 0ace and tem0o


Esta4lishing ra00ort, determining customer needs, relating 4enefits to 0roduct features, handling o41ecti8es and closing%

Antici0ating 0ro4lem, in8iting ideas distinguishing sym0toms from causes, modifying and im0lementing solutions%

A4ility to communicate to large and small grou0s, esta4lish ra00ort 3ith the grou0 articulate deli8ery of ideas, read grou0 cues, effecti8ely sue 8isual aids, and maintain a commanding 0resence%



Assessing learning needs and closing 5no3ledge ga0s, sim0lifying information, ensuring understanding, reinforcing desireL 4eha8ior, and moti8ating the learner%


Understanding the financial im0act of decisions on the customer% /he customerDs customer and the com0any%

Basic com0uter s5ills for a00lication to mar5eting 0rograms, including 0ros0ect list, customer contacts, and rele8ant economic data

E>0ertise related to the com0anyDs 0roduct and ser8ices, as 3ell as other crucial as0ects of the 4usiness%

Fno3ledge of com0etiti8e forces and ho3 the com0any stac5s u0 against com0etitors and their 0roduct%


9t is defined as asset of com0etencies and includes associated 4eha8ior that lin5 directly to the 3or5 to 4e 0erformed, as 3ell as the le8els of 0roficiency for each 4eha8ior% /here are usually se8eral com0etencies for a gi8en 0ositions and they are s0ecific to a 1o4 or grou0 of 1o4s%

9n8estments 4y the organi@ations in 0re0aring com0etency 0rofiles in 0ar 3ith the strategic 8ision and o41ecti8es of the organi@ation 3ill hel0 in long term 4enefits for the indi8idual and the enter0rise% But these 0rofiles created holds good, commonly for static roles 0layed 4y different 0ositions in the organi@ations and limited to dynamic roles, But this does not mean that indi8idual contri4ution the em0loyees to the roles they 0lay must 4e discouraged% /his gi8es a conclusion that the com0etency 0rofile can 4e of t3o different ty0es, one s0ecific to the role 0layed and the other general to 3in the changes occurring%


/hese are com0etencies 3hich ha8e toL 4e 0ossessed 4y em0loyees 3ho ha8e to 0erform a 3or5 or to 0lay a s0ecific role in the organi@ation%


:om0etencies li5e ta5ing initiati8es in uncertain situations, a4ility to co0e 3ith am4iguity, a4ility to control oneself under the time 0ressure, e>cessi8e 3or5 load shifting e>0ectations, stress etc are the general com0etencies to 4e 0osed 4y e8ery em0loyee on contri4uting to3ards organi@ational o41ecti8es%


9t is 0rocess of identifying 5ey com0etencies for a 0articular 0osition in an organi@ation and then using it for 1o4 e8aluation, recruitment, training and de8elo0ment, 0erformance management de8elo0ment a00raisals and in identifying training needs%

9t is also agreed that com0etency ma00ing 0rocess does not fit the one si@e all formula and it has to 4e s0ecific to the user organi@ation, 4ased on the nature of 4usiness, 1o4 em0loyees% But, it is suggested that each and e8ery organi@ation can de8elo0 their o3n models de0ending u0on their needs and their strategies%

/he aggregated le8el of 5no3ledge, s5ill and 0rocess a4ilities a8aila4le 3ithin a com0etency community determines an organi@ation ca0a4ility in that 3or5force com0etency% /he mem4ers of the organi@ations 3or5force 3ho share common 5no3ledge, s5ills and 0rocess a4ilities of a 0articular 3or5force com0etency constitute a com0etency community% /he ca0a4ility of an organi@ationDs 4usiness 0rocesses is in 0art, determined 4y the e>tent to 3hich com0etency communication can translate their collecti8e 5no3ledge, s5ills into 3or5 0erformance%



/he com0etency Ma00ing 0lays a 8ery im0ortant role 3hile going for 0erformance Management% /he entire 0rocess is designed to highlight the future com0etency needs and re7uirements of the organi@ation and measuring the 0rogress of com0etence achie8ement in 0redetermined directions% /3o methods can 4e used to identify the com0etence de8elo0ment 0rocess a, /he to0 do3n a00roach 4, /he indi8idual a00roach


9t starts 3ith the formation of management teams 3hen the 4usiness 0lans are dra3n u0% Strategic com0etencies that are re7uired for the gro3th of the 4usiness, is identified 3hile doing the 4usiness 0lanning, stratify and actions are" then identified to de8elo0, secure and distri4ute the com0etencies 3ith the hel0 of de0artment heads (or, s0ecial and the management teams% /he 4ottom u0 dimensions is done at an indi8idualDs le8el% 9t starts 3hile 0erformance discussions ta5e 0lace, 3here future de8elo0ment needs are discussed, ta5ing indi8idual targets as in0uts% /he t3o dimensions are then aligned and the needs are synchroni@ed into a com0lete 3hole% A third some3hat similar 3ay that could 4e identified as a 0rocess of identifying com0etencies is 4y using the 7uestionnaire method% 9n this method the 0rocess in the follo3ing 3ay'

!* a, A 1o4 analysis is carried out 4y as5ing em0loys to fill a 7uestionnaire that as5s them to descri4e 3hat they are doing and 3hat s5ills, a4ilities and attri4utes they need to 0erform the 1o4 3ell% /here 3ould 4e a 4it that re7uest them to list do3n attri4utes needed to ma5e it u0 to the ne>t le8el, thus ma5ing it 4eha8ioral as 3ell as s5ill 4ased%

4, ?a8ing disco8ered the similarities in the 7uestionnaire, a com0etence 4ased ho4 descri0tion is crafted and 0resented to the 0ersonnel de0artment for their agreement and auditions if any% /he com0etencies of the res0ecti8e 1o4 descri0tions 4ecome the factors for assessment on the 0erformance e8aluation% Using com0etencies 3ill hel0 to guide to 0erform more o41ecti8e e8aluations 4ased on dis0layed or not dis0layed 4eha8iors%

c, ?a8ing agreed on the re7uirements and the s5ills and attri4utes needed to 0rogress 3ith in it and 4ecome more 0roducti8eL one can start ma00ing the ca0a4ility of the em0loyees to the 4enchmar5% /here are se8eral inde> 0oints 3ithin the res0onsi4ility le8el% An a00ro>imate le8el of attainment is noted against each 4enchmar5 indication the areas 3here

d, /he assessa4le in terms of 0ersonal de8elo0ment and achie8ement%



/he indi8idual le8el 0rocess is di8ided into three stages% a, goal analysis 4, 4ridging the ga0 c, 9m0lementation

9ndi8idual o41ecti8es, also 5no3n as 5ey 0erformance areas, are esta4lished 4efore the 0rocess starts% /eam mem4ers 3ith the su00ort of de0artment heads com0lete the 0rocess e8ery year 3ith the su00ort from ?R% Fi>ing u0on the 5ey 0erformance areas 0lay a ma1or role 3hile doing the 0erformance a00raisal% 9t acts as an im0ortant means for doing indi8idual succession 0lanning, 3here 0erformance is re8ie3ed against o41ecti8es, future goals are 0lanned, e>0ectations are con8eyed, feed4ac5 is gi8en and 0erformance re8ie3 meeting is conducted%

9n order to create com0etence 0rofiles and a com0etence de8elo0ment 0lan, indi8idual o41ecti8es are first esta4lished for all em0loyees% /he indi8idual o41ecti8es are aligned 3ith the 4usiness 0lanL efforts are made to ensure that em0loyees can easily follo3 the lin5 4et3een com0any o41ecti8es and their o3n o41ecti8es or goals% /he 8ital so that e8eryone 3or5s to3ards the same o41ecti8es% 9t also moti8ates 0eo0le and ho0s them see ho3 their o41ecti8es are aligned 3ith the com0anyDs o41ecti8e, 0icture%


&oal analysis hel0s to detriment the ga0 4et3een a desired le8el of com0etence and the actual 0resent le8el of com0etence that is sho3n 3hile 0erforming an their 1o4% /he 4ac54one of ga0 analysis on an indi8idual le8el is the 5ey 0erformance setting% Fey 0erformance areas need to 4e set for all the 0ositions in the organi@ation 5ee0ing in mind the fasts changes in the industry en8ironment, the 0rofile needs to 4e fle>i4le and easy to ada0t different situation and 1o4s%

/he ga0 analysis consists of three main ste0s% First, comes the 5ey 0erformance area setting% /he manager and the team mem4er together re8ie3 the 1o4 descri0tion and indi8idual o41ecti8es for the coming year% Based on this re8ie3, the 5ey 0erformance areas are set and hence, a com0etence 4ased 0rofile is 0re0ared se8en to ten critical com0etencies necessary to succeed in the 1o4 are identified%

At the ne>t stage, com0etence le8els are assessed% /he desired le8el for each com0etence is determined 4y the manager 4ased on in0uts from the 4usiness 0lan, com0ositions of the team, and 1o4 descri0tion and indi8idual o41ecti8es% Finally the team mem4er and the manager discuss and reach consensus on the 0resent le8el for each com0etence% 9t is im0ortant that the ga0 differences are defined and agreed u0on%

Bridging the ga0s is done in t3o ste0s% a, ;n an indi8idual le8el% 4, ;n a de0artmental le8el% .6

Bhen the ga0s ha8e 4een identified and agreed u0on 8arious measures are ta5en to fill or minimi@e the ga0s the 3ays of reducing the com0etency ga0s include' /raining 0rograms, coaching, tools, and reassignment and 1o4 rotations%

/he first ste0 is to analy@e the ga0 and find out causes 4ehind the ga0%

Bhen there ha8e 4een changes in the 1o4 such as ne3 tas5s or 3hen the current 0erformance is unsatisfactory% 9n the analysis the different elements of com0etence need to 4e considered% 9s it a 5no3ledge issue, a s5ill issue, and attitude issue or a com4inationC /he solution 3ill most 0ro4a4ly differ de0ending on 3hich ty0e of com0etence is 4eing dealt 3ith% /he ne>t ste0 is summari@e the identified acti8ate into an indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lan% Finally, indi8idual 0lans aggregate, into an organi@ational or de0artmental 0lan% /his 0lan includes all 0lanned com0etence de8elo0ment acti8ities for the de0artment li5e com0etence areas, 0eo0le in8ol8ed, acti8ities, common 0rograms, timing, further action 0lanned and the 0ersons res0onsi4le% 9m0lementation consists of design, e>ecution, monitoring and follo3 u0% Before actually im0lementing acti8ities, it is useful to 3or5 one ste0 further 3ith acti8ities and design them for team mem4er needs% Design can mean either tailored or an e>ternal 0rogram% 9n 4oth cases, the first ste0 should 4e al3ays to esta4lish learning o41ecti8es% S0ecific, measura4le attaina4le, Realistic and time 4ound criteria hel0 to design, monitor and follo3 u0 the acti8ities% 9t also to chec5 if the acti8ities chosen are enough to close the com0etence ga0% Achie8ement in relation to

agreed o41ecti8e are follo3ed u0 at a s0ecific date% 9t is e8aluated in the nest com0etence de8elo0ment tal5% /hese gi8e the ?R de0artment a fairly good 0icture of the em0loyee to see 3hether he needs to 0erform 4etter or more a 4it on the scale% ;nce the em0loyee to0s e8ery indicator or 0arameter at his le8el, he is gi8en a 0romotion%

:om0etency management can only 4e successful if the 0ur0ose of the com0etency initiati8e is clearly esta4lished 3hen it is integrated 3ith a00lications that lin5ed 3ith the organi@ational as0iration, line managers see it as an enter0rise initiati8e rather than a ?R initiati8e% Bhen this ha00ens, line managers su00ort the 0ro1ect and organi@ations achie8e their de8elo0ment goals and the e>0ected return on in8estments%


Ma0 com0etenciesEs5ills re7uired for a 0articular 1o4 and s0ecify the re7uired 0erformance le8el against that% :onduct a com0etencyEs5ill test (0rior to recruitment, or a s5ill audit (later on the 1o4, Measures the current 0erformance le8el% :onduct a com0etency ga0 analysis ?ire or re3ard if current 0erformance le8el is more than or e7ual to re7uired 0erformance le8el% Benchmar5 the 0erformance le8el% ."


According to 2Ste0han Marten= and international authority in this field, and 0resident of 9/AP, Euro0e% 9t should start 3ith small, discrete grou0s or teams, ideally in t3o directions a 2?ori@ontal slice= across the 4usiness that ta5es in a multifunctional or multisided gra0e, more or less at the same organi@ational le8el, and a 8ertical slice ta5ing in one 3hole de0artment or team from to0 to 4ottom% From that, the organi@ations 3ill 4e a4le to learn a4out the 0rocess of com0etency modeling, and ho3 0otential alternati8e formats for the modules may or may not fit the needs of the 4usiness% /he follo3ing 0aragra0hs enlighten the de8elo0ment of structured com0etency model for t3o different categories of em0loyees 3hich can 4e fa4ricated the re7uirements of the user organi@ation% /o identify the common com0etencies that may 4e more a00ro0riate for t3o different categories of em0loyees that is 3or5ersE o0erators and managerial 0ersonnel in different manufacturing organi@ations after the discussion 3as made 3ith the &eneral managers, su0eriors, to0 management etc, form the follo3ing%







Punctuality to co ordination Potential for de8elo0ment :reati8ity I initiati8e

:leanliness of the machine Efficiency in handling the machine Effecti8e use of ra3 materials Achie8ing targets Maintain 7uality Pro4lem sol8ing s5ills (/echnical, :ommunication





Planning Decision ma5ing :ommunication s5ills Su0er8isoryEmonitoring s5ills /ime management :om0uter s5ill A0titude s5ills

A3areness a4out the industry Negotiating s5ills


Leadershi0 s5ills 9nitiati8e Pro4lem sol8ing A4ility Bor5 style 0resentation of the 1o4 Fno3ledge u0 gradation A4ility to learn :reati8ity Achie8ing results Ada0ta4ility to the en8ironment Managing stress Moti8ational s5ills &uiding 7ualities

Bith regard to the lo3er management em0loyees, the s5ills re7uire for the com0etency includes 4eha8ioral and technical s5ills% As for as the 3or5ers concerned, they should 0oses more num4er of the technical s5ills as they are the 0eo0le 3ho e>ecuti8e 3hat is 0lanned% Beha8ioral s5ills are e7ually im0ortant 4ut they do not constitute a ma1or li5e the technical s5ills%

/he managerial staff on the other hand has to 0ossesD technical, 4eha8ioral and general s5ills% 9t has 4een identified that more or less e7ual num4er of techno and 4eha8ioral s5ills ha8e to 4e 0resent for successful 3or5ing of managers% A0art from these t3o s5ills, they should also ha8e a din de0th 5no3ledge of

general s5ills 3hich includes collection of information from the internal and e>ternal 4usiness en8ironment to co0e 3ith changes as they are the 0eo0le 3ho lead the 4usiness% /he 0ur0ose of com0etency de8elo0ment into constantly enhances the ca0a4ility of 3or5force to 0erform their assigned tas5s and res0onsi4ilities%




:om0etencies are the s5ills and a4ilities of an indi8idual that result in 4etter 0erformance in the gi8en area% /he com4ination of 5no3ledge, s5ills, attitude and 0ersonality of an indi8idual as a00lied to a role or 1o4 in the conte>t of the 0resent and future en8ironment that accounts for sustained success 3ithin the frame3or5 of organi@ation 8alues% :om0etency can also 4e referred as a cluster of related 5no3ledge, attri4utes, s5ills and other 0ersonal characteristics that

a, Affects a ma1or 0art of oneDs 1o4% 4, :orrelates 3ith 0erformance on the 1o4% c, :an 4e measured against 3ell esta4lished standards% d, :an 4e im0ro8ed 8ia training and de8elo0ment%

/he com0etency ma00ing 0lays a 8ery im0ortant role 3hile going for 0erformance management% /he entire 0rocess is designed to highlight the future com0etency needs and re7uirements of the organi@ation%


/he four ste0s in8ol8ed in :om0etency Ma00ing in B&PPL these are mentioned and e>0lained 4elo3%


6% Pre0are the Positions 0rofile of each 0rofile +% Rate the each 0osition and discuss 3ith the ?R de0artment "% 9dentifying the &a0 #% De8elo0ing the 0rogrammes

2* Prepare t"e position pro'i%e o' ea:" position

A 1o4 analysis is carried out 4y as5ing em0loyees to fill a 7uestionnaire that as5s them to descri4e 3hat they are doing and 3hat s5ills, Fno3ledge and education e>0erience to 0erform the 1o4 3ell% /here 3ould 4e a 4it that re7uests them to list do3n 7uestionnaire needed to ma5e it u0 to the ne>t le8el, thus ma5ing it 4eha8ioral as 3ell as s5ill 4ased%

-* Rate t"e ea:" position A dis:uss (it" t"e HR depart!ent

?a8ing disco8ered the similarities in the 7uestionnaire, a com0etence 4ased 1o4 descri0tion is crafted and 0resented to the ?R de0artment for their agreement and additions if any, the com0etencies of the res0ecti8e 1o4 descri0tion 4ecome the factors for assessment on the 0erformance e8aluation% /hese com0etencies 3ill hel0 to guide us to 0erform more o41ecti8e e8aluation 4ased on dis0layed or not dis0layed 4eha8iors%

?a8ing agreed on the 1o4 re7uirements and s5ill and 5no3ledge needed, to 0rogress 3ithin it and 4ecome more 0roducti8e, hel0s ma00ing the ca0a4ility of the em0loyees to the 4enchmar5s% .9ndi8idual o41ecti8es are esta4lished 4efore the 0rocess starts% Be ha8e com0leted the 0rocess 3ith the su00ort of De0artment ?eads, em0loyees and su00ort from ?%R% /he 5ey 0erformance areas 0layed a ma1or role 3hile doing the 0erformance a00raisal%

?* Identi'$in+ t"e +ap

&a0 analysis hel0s to determine the ga0 4et3een a desired le8el of com0etence and the actual 0resent le8el of com0etence that ones sho3n 3hile 0erforming on their 1o4% /he 4ac54one of a ga0 analysis on an indi8idual le8el is the 5ey 0erformance area setting% Fey 0erformance areas need to 4e set for all the 0ositions in the organi@ation% /he ga0 analysis consists of three main ste0s% Fey 0erformance setting% 9t is re8ie3ed 4y the manager and us for the coming year% Based on this re8ie3, the 5ey 0erformance is set and com0etence 0rofile is 0re0ared% /he current com0etencies le8els of em0loyees are assessed 3ith the com0etency 0rofile in this stage% /he desired le8el for each com0etence is determined 4y the manager 4ased on in0uts from the 4usiness com0ositions of the tem, 1o4 descri0tion and indi8idual o41ecti8es% Finally, the ?ead of the ?R de0artment, concerned de0artment head discuss and reach a general agreement on the 0resent le8el for each com0etence%

9t is im0ortant that this agreement decisions and that the ga0 differences are defined and agreed u0on%


1* De#e%opin+ t"e +ap,

Bridging the ga0 done in t3o ste0s% ;n an indi8idual and on a de0artmental le8el%

Bhen the ga0s ha8e 4een identified and agreed u0on, 8arious Measures are ta5en to fill or minimi@e the ga0s /he 3ays of reducing the com0etency ga0s include training 0rograms, coaching, tools, reassignments and 1o4 rotation%

/he first ste0 is to analy@e the ga0 and find out causes 4eing the ga0 A ga0 e>ists 3hen these ha8e 4een changes in the 1o4 such as ne3 tas5s or 3hen the current 0erformance is unsatisfactory%

9n the analysis the different elements of com0etence need to 4e considered% 9t ta5es a 5no3ledge issue, a s5ill issue, an attitude issue, or a com4ination%

/he ne>t ste0 is to summari@e the identified acti8ities into an indi8idual de8elo0ment 0lan%

Finally, indi8idual 0lans aggregate into an organi@ational or de0artmental 0lan%

/his 0lan includes all 0lanned com0etence de8elo0ment acti8ities for the de0artment, li5e com0etence areas, 0eo0le in8ol8ed acti8ities, common 0rograms, timing further action 0lanned and the 0ersons res0onsi4le%

9m0lementation consists of design, e>ecution monitoring and follo3 u0% Before actually im0lementing acti8ities, it is useful to 3or5 one ste0 further 3ith acti8ities and design them for team mem4er needs%

Design can mean either a tailored or e>ternal 0rogram 9n 4oth cases, the first ste0 al3ays is to esta4lish learning o41ecti8es% /hose s0ecific, measura4le, attaina4le realistic and time 4ound criteria hel0 to design monitor and follo3 u0 the acti8ities%

9t also ser8es to chec5 of the acti8ities chosen are enough to close the com0etence ga0% Achie8ements in relations to agreed o41ecti8e are follo3ed u0 at a s0ecific date%

9t is e8aluated in the ne>t com0etence de8elo0ment tal5% /hese gi8es the ?R de0artment a fairly good 0icture of the em0loyee to see 3hether the needs to 0erform or more a 4it on the scale%

;nce the em0loyee to0s e8ery indicator or 0arameter at his le8el, he is gi8en 0romotion%

9n my o0inion, com0etency management can only 4e successful it the 0ur0ose of the com0etency initiati8e is clearly esta4lished%

Bhen it is integrated 3ith a00lications that are lin5ed 3ith the organi@ational as0irations%

Line managers see it as an enter0rise initiati8e greater than the ?R initiati8e%

Bhen this ha00ens, line manager su00ort the 0ro1ect and organi@ations achie8e their de8elo0ment goals and the e>0ected return on in8estment%



Depart!ent, Me:"ani:a% Position, /echnicianEo0erator E!p%o$ee na!e, E!p%o$ee No, Persona% Co!peten:ies Desired le8el :urrent le8el 2* Adapta i%it$, :onform and ad1ust to changing 6 + " # ! 6 + " # ! circumstances and 3or5 en8ironments% -* )tress to%eran:e, :o0e u0 3ith 3or5 strains that arise as a conse7uence of 3or5ing situations of targets, deadlines, 3or5 load and 0ressure from su0eriors% ?* )e%' !oti#ated' A4le to 3or5 3ith limited su0er8ision 1* Honest$, ?onest and sincere to3ards the 3or5 and res0onsi4ility Kno(%ed+e %e#e% :o!peten:ies 0% Detailed 5no3ledge of materials and tools used for assem4ling @%;0erational 5no3ledge of machines and tools >% Fno3ledge on 0roduct standard and s0ecification /* Fno3ledge on 0roduct testing Jo re%ated s;i%%sB:o!peten:ies =%/echnical s5ills 2.* Learnin+ oriented' Bor5 3ith an attitude to learn ne3 things 22* Con:ern 'or eG:e%%en:e' Al3ays 3or5 3ith Desired le8el + " # ! :urrent le8el + " # !

Desired le8el + " # !

:urrent le8el + " # !

0ositi8e attitude to 0roduce 7ualitati8e result 2-* Initiati#e, /a5e 8oluntary ste0s to address e>isting and 0otential 0ro4lems at the 3or5 0lace Interpersona% and :o!!uni:ation s;i%%s 2?*Tea! oriented' En1oy 3or5ing in grou0s and a4le to contri4ute to and learn from the grou0 21* C%arit$ in ora% eGpression' :ommunicate clearly 3ith other 20* Rece0ti8e to corrections 2@* Co!!itted to responsi i%ities' E>ercise the res0onsi4ilities 3ith trust, sincerity and commitment 6 Desired le8el + " # ! 6 :urrent le8el + " # !



Depart!ent, Hu!an resour:es Manager E!p%o$ee na!e, E!p%o$ee No, Basi: ;no(%ed+e and in'or!ation 2* Co!!and o' asi: 'a:ts' Understand the 4usiness and ha8e sound 5no3ledge of 4asic facts surrounding the 4usiness such as short and long term goals, 0roduct 5no3ledge and the roles and relationshi0s 4et3een 8arious de0artments% -* Re%e#ant pro'essiona% ;no(%ed+e' Fno3 the 4ac5ground of management 0rinci0les including 0lanning, organi@ing controlling and directing );i%%s and attri utes ?* Continuin+ sensiti#it$ to e#ents' A3are of 3hat is going on and is 0erce0ti8e and o0en to informationL hard information such as figures and facts, and soft information such as feeling of other 0eo0le 1* Ana%$ti:a%4 pro %e! so%#in+ and de:ision5 !a;in+ s;i%%' Beigh the 0ros and cons in an uncertain and am4iguous situation, calling for a high


Desired le8el 6 + " # !

:urrent le8el 6 + " # !

Desired le8el + " # !

:urrent le8el + " # !

le8el of 1udgment or ta5ing a00ro0riate decision 3ithout much delay 0* )o:ia% s;i%%s and a i%ities' De8elo0, negotiate, resol8e conflict, 0ersuade, use and res0ond to authority and 0o3er so as to get things done @*E!otiona% resi%ien:e' Deal 3ith emotional stress and strain that arises as conse7uence of 3or5ing situations of authority, leadershi0, 0o3er, targets and deadlines >* Pro5a:ti#it$' Res0ond to the needs of the instant situation, 4ut 3hile ma5ing such a res0onse consider the long term aims and goals and the im0act of immediate decision $" Meta Cua%ities Desired le8el /* Creati#it$' :ome u0 3ith uni7ue ideas or 6 + " # ! solutions either ones o3n ideas or ideas from another source =* Menta% a+i%it$' &ras0 0ro4lems 7uic5ly, thin5 a4out se8eral things at once, understand the 3hole situation 7uic5ly and Qthin5 on ones feetD 2.* Ba%an:ed %earnin+ "a its and s;i%%s' Use a range of learning 0rocess including use of in0uts li5e teaching, disco8ery from ones o3n 0ersonal e>0eriences and reflection 22* )e%'5;no(%ed+e' A3are of ones o3n 4eliefs, goals, 8alues, feeling, 4eha8ior and the 0art they 0lay in influencing their actions 6 :urrent le8el + " # !



Depart!ent, Muality control E!p%o$ee na!e, E!p%o$ee No, Persona% :o!peten:ies 2* Asserti#eness' A4le to state oneDs o0inion firmly and 0ositi8ely -* Inte+rit$, &ain trust and confidence 4y interacting 3ith fairness, honesty and truthfulness ?* )e%'5 su''i:ien:$' E>ercises the 0rofessional duties 3ithout assistance 1* Hi+" e!otiona% sta!ina' Rela>ed I 0oised% Maintain effecti8eness e8en under 0ressure Kno(%ed+e %e#e% :o!peten:ies 0* Co!!and o' asi: 'a:ts' Understand the 4usiness holistically and ha8e a sound 5no3ledge of the 4asic facts of Milli0ore 4usiness @* Cua%it$ :ons:iousness' Bor5 al3ays 3ith 7uality a3areness >* Or+aniHationa% a(areness' ?a8e 3ide 5no3ledge a4out the organi@ation, its de0artments and functions /* Fno3ledge on standards and s0ecifications 6

Position, E>ecuti8e

Desired le8el + " # !

:urrent le8el + " # !

Desired le8el 6 + " # !

:urrent le8el 6 + " # !

Jo re%ated s;i%%sB:o!peten:ies =* Presentation s;i%%' A4le to 0resent ideas, conce0ts, 0lan and 0rocedures clearly to the target grou0 2.* Ana%$ti:a% and pro %e! so%#in+ s;i%%' Beigh the 0ros and cons in an am4iguous situation and ta5es a00ro0riate decision 3ithout delay 22* Con:ern 'or eG:e%%en:e' Bor5 3ith 4urning desire to 0erform outstandingly 2-* Ne+otiation s;i%%' Discuss and share o0inions so as to arri8e at a constructi8e agreement% $! Co!!uni:ation and interpersona% :o!peten:ies Listenin+ s;i%%s' Listen to others 8ie3s 3ith 0atience Pre:ision in :o!!uni:ation' Listen to others and e>0ress the idea 3ith clarity and 0recision Persuasi#eness, A4le to mo8e others in getting things done )ensiti#it$, A3are of 3hat is going on in the 3or5 0lace and res0onds in a suita4le manner to situations as they arise

Desired le8el 6 + " # !

:urrent le8el 6 + " # !

Desired le8el + " # !

:urrent le8el + " # !



:om0etency inde> of an 9ndi8idualR (Actual le8elENo% of factors*!,E (Desired Le8elENo% of Factors,
)*No Name of the De0artment

D%L .. .! .. .. ." ." ." .. .. .. .. .. #" #6 "* ## #" "#

A%L .6 !* .# #$ #. ." .6 .# #+ !". .* #" !) +" !#6 ")

No%of :9 of indi8idual factors 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 66 66 6) 66 * * #%.+6+ #%#.6! #%*#*# "%!.). "%.!.$ ! #%*#6+ #%*#*# "%6*6* #%#.-. +%$+$+ !%6!6! ! .%)-$! "%)+." .%$)#! #%$.$# #%#66$

6 + " # ! . $ * 6) 66 6+ 6" 6# 6! 6. 6$ 6*

Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control Muality control ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources

6+) +6 ++ +" +# +! +. +$ +* +") "6 "+ "" "# "! ". "$ "* "#) #6 #+ #" ## #! #. #$ #* #!)

?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources ?uman Resources Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Mechanical Production Production Production Production Production Production Production Production Production Production Production Production

"+ "* "+ "+ #" #! #" ") #$ ++ ." !* ." #! ." ." ." ." #! ." .! .! .! !" !6 .! .! .! !$ !$ #* !#

+) "* +! +) #) !) "! +6 "" 6* ." #) !. !$ !) #* .#") "* .! !# !+# +* +* #6 +. .* #+ +" .*

6) * * 66 66 66 * 66 6) 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6+ 6. 6. 6. 6. 6+ 6. 6. 6. 6+ 6+ 6. 6. 6. 6. 6. 6+ 6.

"%6+! ! "%-)." "%6+! #%.!66 !%!!!! #%).-$ "%! "%!6). #%)-)! "%##*+ #%#### .%""" "%-.*+ "%*)-! !%#$.6 "%**** "%"""" "%)6!* ! #%6!"* #%!"*# +%+.#6 +%$#! +%6!"* "%6!"* + !%-.#"%.*#+ +%"-!* .%+-.+

Co!peten:$ indeG a#era+e 'or a%% depart!ents, Muality :ontrol $6. ..#%+*

?%R De0artment Mechanical Production

!*! .66 $6)

!+* !6* !+.

#%#" #%+! "%.-

Co!peten:$ indeG o' BGPPL,

D*L A*L No* o' 'a:tors



@=/ I1*2@
:9 Name of the De0t
MUAL9/< :;N/R;L

?%R% ME:?AN9:AL PR;DU:/9;N $-

Score #%+* #%#" #%+! "%.-

Competency Index Scores of Department

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 4.28 4.43 4.25 3.69

CI score






Name of the Dept.


:om0etency is the a4ility to do ones 1o4 to a00ly 5no3ledge and e>0erience correctly and refle>i8e in all 5inds of e8ents o8er an e>tended 0eriod% Systematically accumulation training, information ena4les a 0erson to e>ercise good 1udgment and act a00ro0riately% /he more s3iftly a 0erson can deal 3ith an a4normality, the higher the le8el of com0etence% :om0etence is the 0roduct of 0ersonal moti8ation and through training, /he end result is mastery, /o ena4le 0eo0le achie8e mastery, com0anies must de8elo0 the effecti8e training 0rogram is to identify the le8el of 5no3ledge, technology, s5ill and com0etence 0eo0le need to fulfill this need to great e>tent% B&PPL may consider the follo3ing suggestion further refining its com0etency ma00ing record%

/he ga0 in the com0etencies and identified training needs are to 4e indicated to the indi8idual so that the indi8idual may stri8e to e>cel on his o3n 3ithin a short 0eriod% /he identified and 0rioriti@ed needs are to 4e identified clearly in the assessment record% /raining can 4e Q;n the 1o4D, or Q;ff the 1o4D and Qself de8elo0ment initiati8es% /hese three ty0es of training needs are to 4e lin5ed, es0ecially for technical 0ersonnel% /he re8ie3 mechanism 0eriod of the com0etency le8els is to 4e clearly indicated in the assessment record it may 4e atleast once in a 7uarterEsi> months% 9f the em0loyee in8ol8ement in the com0etency ma00ing is gi8es a good ad8antage to the em0loyee to stri8e themsel8es% 9n order to refine further the com0etency assessment recorded, a 4enchmar5ing studyEsur8ey among the manufacturing industry on attri4utes for each 0osition may 4e carried out%


?uman resources management adds 8alues 3hen it hel0s indi8iduals and organi@ation does 4etter than their 0resent le8el of 0erformance% /he com0etency methods descri4ed in this study focus on identifying those measura4le and de8elo0a4le human characteristics that (3ith good 1o4 0erson matches, 0redict su0erior 1o4 0erformance and satisfaction 3ithout race, age, gender, culture or credential 4ias% /he com0etency a00roach is fairer, freer and more effecti8e% :om0etencies 0ro8ide a common language and method that can integrate all human resource functions and ser8ices selection, 0erformance a00raisal, career and succession 0lanning, training and de8elo0ment and com0ensation to hel0 the 0eo0le firms and e8en societies are more 0roducti8e in the challenging years ahead%




SSSS /%H%Rao learning systems (Be4site article,

Be4sites' BBB%hrnet3or5s%com 333%4ilt%com BBB%cite ?R%com

:om0etency at 3or5 Personnel E ?RM Personnel E ?RM ?RD Maga@ine

SS% Lyle M%S0encer, Signe M%S0encer% SSSS% Ste0hen%P%Ro44ins SSSS%% P% Su44aRao, H%S%P%Rao

/he Art and Science of :om0etency Model S%% Gossey Dass