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Media Monitor Egypt - 08

Bi-monthly report on the media situation


(September - October 2013)

Al Sawt Al Hurr Arab Network for Media Support www.asahnetwork.org

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(September - October 2013)
Preface The Research Section of al Sawt al Hurr, the Arab Network for Media Support, produces the Media Monitor on a bi-monthly basis. These reports document and describe developments in the Egyptian media, such as the emergence or disappearance of media outlets (including satellite channels, newspapers and news websites), as well as developments pertaining to the enabling environment for Egyptian media, such as legal, economic, political and social developments that affect the dynamism, quality and diversity of the media landscape. With these reports, al Sawt al Hurr aims to provide media workers, researchers, academics and anyone interested in the field of media in Egypt with a systematic description and analysis of the rapid developments that take place in this sector.

Each Media Monitor consists of two parts:

Part 1: General Developments


The first part of the Media Monitor monitors recent developments in the Egyptian media sector, presented to readers with an interest in and some knowledge of the Egyptian media landscape.

Part 2: Research Results


The second part focuses on a single specific issue or subject relevant to media and development, and presents a summary of an analytical study conducted by al Sawt al Hurr during the same period. In this edition, research was carried out on the media performance of four satellite TV channels between September 10 and 25, 2013.

Research team: Eman Kheir Media developments Al Shaimaa Alazab Operational research Please send any reactions, suggestions or other relevant information to info@asahnetwork.org
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General Developments in the Egyptian Media

Part I

General Developments in the Egyptian Media


This report monitors and documents developments in the media in Egypt that took place during September and October 2013. This report is produced by al Sawt al-Hurr, Arab Network for Media Support, and forms part of a bi-monthly series of publications that aims to provide media professionals, researchers, journalists and anyone who is interested in the Egyptian media with a comprehensive review and analysis of significant developments. The first part of this Media Monitor provides a description of recent developments within specific sections.

1. Developments in the media sector in general


During the period of this report the Supreme Council for the Press began operations, but is working without the authority of the Shura Council as it remains suspended. There have been increasing numbers of assaults on young journalists who are not syndicate members, and who are therefore lacking in legal protection. At the time of writing, the first draft of the new constitution has not yet been finalized.

2. Newspapers
Article no. 51 of the former constitution guarantees freedom of the press, printing and visual and printed publications. Egyptians, whether private or public individuals, were given the right to own and issue newspapers in addition to establishing visual media outlets and digital media. A draft article of the new constitution currently under development sets out that the state shall guarantee the independence of media outlets owned by the people to ensure equality, objectivity and equal opportunities in addressing public opinion. Developments The security forces closed and sealed the office of Hurriya wa Adela, the newspaper of the Freedom and Justice Party affiliated to the Muslim Brotherhood, without prior legal notice, according to the official website of the party. The security forces seized all the contents of the headquarters. This decision came after the court decision to seize all properties owned by the Muslim Brotherhood; the headquarters of the newspaper was closed because it was a property of the Muslim Brotherhood, and not because of its press capacity. The al Ahram Foundation decided to continue printing Hurriya wa Adela, despite the fact that its accumulated debt to al Ahram now reaches 9 million EGP.

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Editorial Developments The newly formed Supreme Council of the Press has authorized Omar Samy, General Manager of al Ahram Establishment, to act as chairman of the Board after al Ahrams General Assembly deposed the previous chairman Mamdouh al Wali. The Supreme Council of the Press also decided that all chairs of Boards of Directors of stateowned newspapers, whose legal terms ended on June 3, 2013, will continue exercising their authority until the Council agrees on conditions and standards of extension or systems for choosing their replacements. The Council also planned to form a committee to receive proposals from journalists with regard to the guidelines for choosing the Chairs of Boards of Directors. The council reinstated Gamal Abdulrahim in his post as editor-in-chief of al Gomhuria stateowned newspaper in compliance with the sentence of the Administrative Court, revoking the decision of the previous Supreme Council of the Press and the President of the dissolved Shura Council. The Council referred the problem of the illegally suspended editors-in-chief of three of al Ahrams publications to its member Dr. Nour Farahat, for legal advice. The council sent the resignation submitted by Mohamed Khrajah, editor-in-chief of al Ahram al Mesai evening newspaper for advice to the Committee of the Press and Journalists Affairs before issuing a final decision. The Group of State-owned Newspapers has demanded that the Supreme Council for the Press develop specific and clear standards related to the choice of editors-in-chief and other managers based on professional experience, success and good reputation, rather than on their political affiliation. The group suggested in its statement that the Supreme Council for the Press should seek the opinion of a committee in relation to choosing Chairs of Boards of Directors and editorsin-chief, and such a committee should include journalists of a variety of ages and backgrounds. Protests and demonstrations Journalists of the Radio & TV Magazine threatened to begin a sit-in because Essam al Amir, the Chairman of the Egyptian Radio and Television Union suggested the possibility to change the magazine from a printed into an electronic version because of its financial crisis which has caused its editors not to be paid for more than a year. They are also protesting the reduction of expenditure, the attempt to shut the weekly sports supplement Maspero Sports, and the sacking of some freelance technicians, according to the journalists of the magazine. Ahmed al Hadery, the Deputy Editor in Chief of the magazine, mentioned that the journalists of the magazine are working in very poor conditions, especially in the editing room. In addition, neither salaries nor bonuses have been paid. 70 journalists from state-owned newspaper al Messa announced that they will begin a strike as of November 2013 because they have not been paid in seven months. The journalists sent their notice to the Chairman of the Board Mostafa Hadeeb, and they said they will send a copy to the Prime Minister, the Supreme Council of the Press and the Egyptian Syndicate of Journalists. They also threatened to take escalatory measures if their demands were ignored.

Youssri Hassan, the deputy of the editor-in-chief announced the formation of a committee called Journalists against Failure. He said that the mission of this committee would be to set the programs of development and training to reverse the decline in professionalism, and to monitor the financial and administrative performance of institutions. Hassan demanded his colleagues in the institution Dar el-Tahrir join the committee. Legal Entanglements Journalist Ahmed abu Dera of al Masry al Youm was released in Sinai on a bail of 200 EGP and his sentence was suspended for six months. In September 2013 Ahmed abu Dera was sent to the military court on accusations of taking photographs in a restricted area and spreading false news related to the operations of the army in Sinai that weakened trust in the state. Emad abu Zaid, a reporter of al Ahram in Beni Suef, was arrested on 12 September on suspicion of spreading false news that threatens public security. He was subsequently released pending investigation. Acts of violence against journalists and media institutions The supporters of deposed president Mohamed Morsi attacked the staff of ERTU and al Hayat private satellite TV channel during demonstrations on Friday September 13, 2013 in the Nasr City area of Cairo. They also seized equipment and destroyed a live transmission camera. On September 19 2013, a group of armed men affiliated to Islamist groups, who had taken control of the village of Kerdassa, arrested journalists Mohamed abu Daif, Abdulwahab al Lewa, Mahmoud al Garhi and photographer Mahmoud Sabri from al Watan, and about 15 photographers and three vehicles belonging to al Hayat in an ambush. The journalists were taken away in micro-buses guarded by armed men on motorcycles. The journalists were detained for one hour, and their identity cards and equipment were confiscated. During this time one of the employees of al Hayat fainted. They were released and their cards and equipment were returned to them by the police and armed forces when they entered the village. Youm7 journalist Hatem Gamal Mohamed Saber disappeared while covering the demonstrations on 6 October in Ramses Square. His whereabouts remain unknown, and it has been impossible to contact him. Journalist and political activist Khaled Dawoud was physically attacked during the demonstrations of Friday October 4, 2013, and was hospitalized for a life-saving operation.

3. Multimedia Trends
Because of the dramatic increase in the number of media outlets and in light of increased competition and rapid technological developments, most newspapers and television channels are now using multimedia tools to reach out to their audiences. Coordination is taking place between private satellite TV channel CBC and al Masry al Youm, with newspaper reporters working alongside CBC reporters as correspondents for the news on television.
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Similarly, private satellite TV channel al Nahar is coordinating with the reporters of Youm7 to cover events. The websites of ONA and al Mogaz are increasing their spread by offering news toolbars that are compatible with browsers such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox and Microsoft Internet Explorer, allowing readers to read the news from the toolbar without having to access the website directly. www.hoqook.com is providing a new service on its website: audible reports, which allows visitors to listen to articles. www.almogaz.com website is now covering live broadcasts of some satellite TV channels and of some state owned and independent radio stations, including internet Radio Sawa, Radio FM, Radio Middle East and BBC TV. Read the news is a recent application for the Egyptian market for Android smartphones and tablets, which collects and collates information from Arabic newspapers, providing it to the reader. The new application was developed by technology company ITIDA through a program to support small and medium-sized companies in 2013. Youm7 launched a new English language website called Cairo Post: http://thecairopost. youm7.com/

4. Media and Interactivity


Commercial satellite TV channels and private and state-owned news websites are competing to achieve the largest number of followers on social networks, as these have become an indicator of the success of the channels and websites, and indicate their spread. In September the followers of al Masry al Youms (AMAY) page on Facebook exceeded two million. This page enables users to follow AMAYs news from moment to moment, in addition to directly interacting with news stories, pictures and videos. AMAYs main Twitter account has nearly one and a half million followers, as well as nearly one million followers on Google+. In addition, it has opened a YouTube channel where it has more than 167 thousand subscribers and more than 32 million views. Its total number of followers on various social networks exceeds four and a half million. Al Masry al Youm provides various digital services alongside its main news content via interactive discussions conducted between readers and public figures via Twitter. In addition to being able to instantly follow news topics and issues, the expanded use of multimedia gives audiences access to video, sound and pictures, as well as citizen journalism. The interactive tools of Facebook and Twitter also offer information about the interests of readers. The website affiliated to ONA, owned by businessman Nageeb Sawiris, www.onaeg.com, has collated its numbers of social media followers so as to get an understanding of its reach. It has 47,138 followers on Twitter, 57,298 on Facebook and 1,766 YouTube subscribers. Aswat Masreya website (www.aswatmasriya.com) has invited its viewers to send in their own articles and the website will each week publish an article sent by a reader. Readers contributions
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will be scrutinized by Aswats editorial team to verify their validity for publication, taking into consideration the following points: the materials exclusivity; objectivity; diversity of opinion; accuracy of information; and clarity of thought. Al Watan privately owned newspaper has added a new service for its visitors and followers who have websites in order to quickly obtain news and follow recent developments in various fields. Owners of websites can now log into services for owners of websites and choose the sections that they want to follow in terms of news and recent updates. They can then copy and paste the relevant code to their website in order to have a mini-portal on their own website. This service is free. The number of Facebook users in Egypt increased by about 41% during the first nine months of 2013, in comparison to the same period of 2012, to reach a total of 16 million users, equivalent to about half of the internet users and 19% of the total population of Egypt, according to the annual report of E-Marketing Egypt, which specializes in e-competition studies. According to the latest report of the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the number of total internet users in Egypt decreased by 0.39% by the end of July to reach 35.8 million users, representing 42.8% of the population, in comparison with 35.9 million users in the previous month, but it had increased on an annual basis by 15.4%, in comparison with 31 million users in July 2012.

5. Independent news websites


A new news website has been created, http://www.cairoportal.com/, which produces its own news and publishes in Arabic. www.sinainow.tv, Sinai Now, is the first internet television channel concerned with the affairs of Sinai. It aims to reach the inhabitants of Sinai and offer them news, culture and other information, as well as balancing the negative image of Sinai in the media and portraying the reality. It has a channel on YouTube (www.youtube.com/sinainow) and a Twitter account.

6. Egyptian Radio and TV Union


Maspero is witnessing a period of reorientation between staff and the new Minister of Information Doria Sharef al Deen, related to disagreements about Masperos new financial regulations and administration systems Nile TV is now broadcast via the satellite Galaxy 19, which covers the USA, in addition to being broadcast via the international satellite Intelsat, which covers all of Africa, and Nilesat 201, which covers the Middle East and the south of Europe. Terrestrial channels are now beginning to work on the digital system. These channels include Channel 2, Cairo, Nile Cinema, Nile Drama, Nile Varieties, Nile Comedy, Nile Sports, Nile News and Nile TV. This change will begin in the greater Cairo area in order to gradually update Egyptian media systems to cope with the latest technology in broadcasting.

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Abdulhamid Khaled, Deputy of the Administrative Authority, has fired some employees from the specialized TV channels of ERTU and sent others to the police on accusations of financial corruption. The Maspero Coordination Group, which is formed from staff of the Radio and TV Union, announced in its first conference entitled Egyptian media and the inevitability of change its founding statement in addition to discussing methods of developing the national media. The group will work on restructuring the Radio and TV Union without harming the staff, drafting a code of conduct and enforcing it, combating all forms of corruption, whether financial, administrative or media corruption, and will also work to support the newly formed syndicate of the media, which is in the process of being established. In the light of the austerity policy adopted by Maspero, heads of sections, channels and broadcast networks have been instructed not to allow any Maspero staff to occur travel expenses abroad. If accepting any official invitations from abroad, the host entity shall bear all the expenses. The Minister of Information Doria Sharef al Deen made changes in the leadership of Channels I and II, and Egyptian satellite channels. The union is still witnessing protests because of the current financial crisis.

7. Commercial satellite TV
Private satellite TV channels have in the news regularly during his period. Some were criticized for not abiding by professional standards. New channels Honest TV, a new satellite channel, started broadcasting in September. The channel is headed by Director Yahia Momtaz. MBC has announced the appointment of Mohamed Abdulmetaa as General Manager. This is a new post to be based in Cairo. Mohamed Abdulmetaa was formerly head of al Hayat network and previously worked for Mehwar channel. The Administrative Court officially stopped the broadcast of channels al Jazeera Mubasher Masr, Yarmuk, al Quds and Ahrar 25. This comes in light of accusations leveled against these channels of threatening the peace and spreading rumors in addition to false and misleading news that could lead to sedition. The Ministers of Investment, Communications and Information Technology and Information decided in late August 2013 to consider al Jazeera Mubasher Masr as a channel working in Egypt without legal grounds or professional standards, and it is no longer authorized to operate in Egypt. The three Ministers asked the concerned bodies to act on this decision. An administrative court issued a sentence to stop the broadcast of Islamic satellite TV channel al Hafez, the content for which is produced by al Baraheen. Egyptian security forces entered the office of Turkish satellite TV channel TRT on 10 September 2013 and confiscated equipment due to the lack of documents related to the authorization of the channel.

The Media Free Zone Authority decided to amend the decision to shut down satellite TV channel al Faraeen from a final shutdown to a temporary shutdown for two months, after the apology of the owner. The channel was shut down and its authorization was withdrawn due to not abiding by professional standards. This decision came after the first episode of the program Hala Masuliyity, presented by Mortada MansourHalla, as Mortada Mansour exposed many political and public figures in Egypt to disrespect, committing slander and libel against them. Mona al Shazly, anchor of the program Gomla Mufida on MBC Masr was released to her residence regarding her case for insulting the judiciary, from when she worked at private TV satellite channel Dream.

8. Freedom of Expression
Draft article no. 48 of the new constitution ensures freedom of thought and expression, stating that everyone has the right to expression in speech, writing, photography or anything related to the means of expression and publishing. The American Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) granted its International Press Freedom Award 2013 to Bassem Youssef, anchor of al Barnameg on CBC, as part of honoring four journalists who have been jailed or suffered other forms of repression due to exposing the facts in Ecuador, Egypt, Turkey and Vietnam. In a statement, CPJ stated that Bassem Youssef had been subjected to legal investigation because of his satirical program, which is considered a vehicle for free expression. CPJ added that the show has more than 40 million Egyptian and Arab viewers when it is televised, and it uses sharp humor to report on and critique government failures to improve the economy and public services.

9. Infringements and casualties


Freedom of expression saw a sharp decline in the third quarter of 2013. The most prominent infringements were assaults on journalists, according to the report issued by the Unit for Supporting Media of the Elhak Center for Democracy and Human Rights. The report states that six deaths of journalists and media assistants while performing their professional work had been recorded, in addition to two deaths that happened in the scope of protests and demonstrations, although they were not related to any professional work. In contrast, in the period from January 1, 2013 until May 30, 2013, no deaths of journalists or media professionals were recorded. The number of assaults on journalists increased from 17 in the period from January 1, 2013 until May 30, 2013 to 63 assaults in the period from June 1, 2013 until August 30, 2013. The number of media professionals and journalists summoned to court slightly increased, as ten journalists were summoned to court and investigated in the third quarter of 2013, compared to six during the first half of the year. The Support for Information Technology Center has issued a report related to violations against journalists in the period from August 14, 2013 until September 7, 2013. During this period there were 63 violations, including six murders, 34 injuries and 23 arrests and disappearances.
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10. Access to Information


Draft article no. 50 of the new constitution sets out that every citizen has the right to know and the state shall disclose information and statistics, which shall be easily obtained and transparently circulated. The state shall deposit the official documents after their expiration in the Egyptian National Library and Archives. Whoever has an interest in obtaining information may resort to the court to solve any problems related to the withholding of information, details, statistics or official documents. Civil society organizations are beginning to establish campaigns to press the new government to issue a law dealing with the exchange of information. The Executive Director of the Center for the Defense of the Freedom of Journalists (CDFJ), Nidal Mansour, stated on International Right to Know Day that the right to know and obtain information is still absent in the Arab world: governments are possessive of information and do not allow people to access it. Achieving progress in the right to obtain information needs political will to implement this right and to abide by international standards, in addition to questioning those who do not observe the law. Preservation and flows of information inside public institutions are also required, as well as good governance.

11. State and government institutions


The Interim President Adly Mansour met a large group of prominent Egyptian media professionals at the Federal Palace to discuss the media in the coming period. The Minister of Information demanded a prompt investigation to establish responsibility within the Egyptian Radio and TV Union (ERTU) for not reporting on the confrontations in Kerdassa village of September 19, 2013 between security forces and elements of armed Islamic groups, whereas Arab and international media covered these events live on air. In a statement on September 24 2013, the Minister of Information decided to take steps to rationalize expenditure, including not giving more than one bonus to individuals who are members of Boards of Directors of more than one company. She also stated that representatives of ERTU, who are members of Boards of Directors and work in executive positions in the same companies and receive a share of the profits of the company may not receive bonuses. Finally, she stated that the monthly bonus of ERTU representatives in the National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority shall be restored, but representatives will only receive the allowances related to attending sessions. The Public Prosecution of Nasr City I, headed by the First Solicitor General of eastern Cairo, issued a decree to arrest the former Minister of Information Abdel Maqsoud, who has been accused in case no. 52/2013 related to seizing two TV broadcast transmission vans in the area of Rabaa al Adaweya in August. Broadcast engineer Amr al Khafif has also been sent to court in relation to the same incident. Mohamed al Selmawy, official spokesperson of the Committee of Fifty, charged with drafting the new constitution, stated that it will propose the creation of a Supreme Council, charged
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with regulating the media and the press in Egypt. This authority will be independent and its members will not be appointed by the government. It will be legally constituted and its mission will be to protect freedom of expression and safeguard media organizations, publishing houses and news websites from monopolistic practices. Alongside this supreme authority, two national councils will be created: the first to administer the media and the second to administer the state-owned press. These two councils will only address administrative issues with regard to newspapers, radio and television stations and media websites. They will be independent of the supreme authority for the media and will not be supervised by it. Mohamed al Selmawy also stated that the Shura Council, which will be like the Senate under the new constitution, will not have any dealings with the press or any jurisdiction in it. The role of the Shura Council will end with the drafting of the new constitution, and the House of Representatives will issue legislation relating to that. Al Selmawy proposed that the funding of the independent press should be subject to oversight from the Central Auditing Organization (CAO). The Supreme Council of the Press The Supreme Council of the Press, during its first meeting in October, revoked a recommendation issued in October 2012 that set the age of retirement at 60, and applied instead the provision of article no. 61 of law no. 96, which allows yearly extensions until the age of 65. Osama Ayoub, the Secretary-General of the Council, decided to offer support of 300 thousand EGP to the Egyptian Syndicate of Journalists (ESJ) to contribute to solving the problems of journalists of party affiliated and privately owned newspapers in addition to newspapers that are no longer operating. The Council demanded that all national newspapers review their situation in relation to the journalists who have submitted grievances regarding the non-extension of their services as of October 2012. The Council also upheld the employment of 25 journalists by the National Company for Distribution, and stated that these journalists should now be paid by the company, rather than by the Council.

12. Journalism Syndicates


Draft article no. 56 of the new constitution establishes syndicates and unions on a democratic basis ensured by law. The draft article states that syndicates and unions shall exercise their activities freely and contribute to promoting efficiency among their members, defending their rights and protecting their interests. The draft article also sets out that the state shall ensure the independence of such syndicates and unions, and their boards of directors cannot be dissolved or without a court order. The Syndicate Performance Committee filed a complaint to Diaa Rashwan, the President of the Egyptian Syndicate of Journalists (ESJ) regarding the continued intransigence of the army against journalists during the curfew in Mohandiseen and Sudan Street. The Committee said
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that although what Rashwan had stated that an agreement with the army had been made to let the journalists pass on presentation of their press card, the army has claimed that official permission from the Syndicate is required. Khaled al Balshy, a member of the Board of ESJ, demanded an independent judicial committee to investigate the deaths of more than six journalists and the assaults of many others while they were performing their duties. To date, none of the assault cases following the 25th of January Revolution have been addressed. The Husseiny abu Deif Committee to Protect the Profession of Journalism has condemned through activist Alaa Zaghloul the sentence issued against Ahmed abu Dera of al Masry al Youm. He concluded that the committee will organize an event, to be announced later, to denounce the sentence issued and to reject military trials for civilians in general. Hanan Fakry, another member of the Board of ESJ, stated that the Syndicate refuses to send journalists to the courts in general, whether civilian or military, especially in cases related to the publication of news and reports. She added that the ESJ is the entity authorized to question journalists, not the Public Prosecution or the military judiciary. She said that since its formation, the Syndicate has been struggling to prevent civil or military trials of journalists for publications and continues to do so in the constitution that is currently being amended by the Committee of Fifty. The Electronic Journalism Syndicate (EJS) announced of the establishment of the Internet Radio Union, in which every station will be represented by one seat in the union. The Syndicate of Media Professionals, currently being formed, has honored a number of journalists and photojournalists working for Egyptian television and independent newspapers, who covered the events in Kerdassa and the May 15th Bridge that occurred in September 2013. The Board of the Egyptian Syndicate of Journalists has approved the granting of unemployment benefit for a limited time to colleagues working for suspended newspapers or newspapers that are not publishing. Such journalists should submit applications to the Syndicate in accordance with strict conditions and controls that guarantee that they are not working elsewhere.

13. Activities of civil society organizations related to the media


Draft article no. 55 of the new constitution sets out that citizens have the right to establish non-governmental associations on a democratic basis. Such associations shall exercise their activities freely and no administration shall intervene in their affairs, dissolve them or dissolve their board of directors without a court order. The CTPJF has launched a hotline service to receive reports of violations against journalists, columnists and media professionals. This line is one of the tools of the National Observatory for Media Freedom and one of the centers programs. Reporters Without Borders announced that following the arrest of the Sinai-based journalist Ahmed abu Dera, a reporter for al Masry al Youm and ONTV, the number of journalists under arrest in Egypt is seven.

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Forming the first Association for Reporters in Kafr el-Sheikh, Amr Seda, the President of the Association stated at its first meeting that the association was concerned with the affairs of reporters and journalists in Kafr el-Sheikh. There are 15 members of the Board of Directors, and there are 50 members of the association. The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) and the Center for Law and Democracy published a manual on international standards of media legislation in the Arab world. It analyzes international standards of freedom of the media and assesses the extent to which the legal regulations that govern the media in Arab countries correspond with international standards. This manual has been produced to support journalists and activists in the Arab world in their struggle for freedom of the press and media reform in the region. The manual also offers solutions and proposals to address the challenges that face Arab journalists based on international standards. Jim Boumelha, the president of the IFJ, stated that: Arab journalists and their syndicates face enormous challenges as a result of disputes between political factions, social conflicts and pressures resulting from the benefits of change. Therefore, providing a full manual related to the reform of media laws and regulations is considered a necessary support for them to build a new press culture that is able to put an end to the laws of aggression that control the flow of information. The Committee for Defending the Independence of the Press demanded that the Supreme Council of the Press solve the crisis of al Ahrar party-affiliated newspaper, which was shut down due to financial and administrative corruption, leading to all its journalists being fired. On 3 October, the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (CIHRS) launched a new special report called Surrounding the Truth. The report monitors and analyzes patterns of violations against media professionals covering the events and confrontations that took place in the country between 30 June and the end of August 2013. The report notes that in the past, Egyptian journalists faced harassment from the government security forces, but they are now facing threats from others such as supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood, and supporters of the interim government. The report argues that the transitional authorities and the Muslim Brotherhood may have a common ground, which is to make the media responsible for their political failures. According to the violations documented in this report, CIHRS notes that the results of quantitative analysis show that the majority of violations were the responsibility of the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters (85 violations), but the qualitative analysis shows that the most serious and violent violations were conducted by the security forces and the army, especially in relation to killings, which included a number of Egyptian and foreign journalists, as the security forces were proven to be involved in at least two incidents, as well as detention procedures that targeted dozens of journalists (40 cases). 13 journalists were still in custody at the time of the preparation of this report. The Husseiny abu Deif Committee for the protection the profession of journalism announced its full solidarity with the 40 journalists who were arbitrarily sacked by private newspaper al Masry al Youm.

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Part II
Broadcast media and professional and ethical standards
A report on the media performance of four satellite TV channels between September 10 and 25, 2013

Study prepared by al Sawt al Hurr, the Arab Network for Media Support, in cooperation with the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies.
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According to many studies, television is the most influential media in a society with high levels of illiteracy. In Egypt, talk shows are the first source of information for a broad section of the public, and they have a great impact on public opinion through their presentation of various points of view, including those of politicians, academics, journalists and other popular and respected public figures. For this reason, al Sawt al Hurr, the Arab Network for Media Support, chose to carry out a study related to the performance of selected broadcast media and the way in which it contributes positively or negatively to public opinion and acceptance of different viewpoints and attitudes. In particular, al Sawt al Hurr chose to look at two aspects: the type of guests invited to these television programs and the behavior of the talk show hosts. Through identifying the type of guests hosted on these shows, general indications or conclusions can be drawn regarding the orientation of specific talk shows and perhaps of the channels on which they appear. By analyzing the ways in which the hosts of these shows deal with their guests, conclusions regarding the extent of compliance of these media outlets to professional media standards can be made, particularly in relation to diversity, balance, objectivity, incitement of hatred or violence, and exercising any exclusion or discrimination. For this study, a sample of four satellite television channels was chosen, taking into consideration their viewing figures, their political orientation and their ownership: state owned Nile News, Qatar-based al Jazeera Mubasher Masr and al Hayat and CBC, both privately owned. Their daily programs were followed during peak viewing hours from 8pm until midnight over a period of two weeks, beginning on September 10, 2013, and ending on the 25th of the same month. A total of 169 program segments were monitored: 43 on Nile News, 46 on al Jazeera Mubasher Masr, 47 on al Hayat and 33 on CBC. The research methodology of this study was developed in collaboration with the Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies. The institutes research team, supervised by Ms Mona Nader has wide experience in monitoring media, and conducted the actual monitoring, while the analysis was carried out by al Sawt al Hurr.

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Summary of the Findings:


The following are the main findings of the study: 1. The programs of all four satellite channels monitored showed biases in terms of diversity and balance when dealing with subjects of great political significance, particularly with regard to political conflicts and religious matters. Such biases were not seen in the case of subjects related to economic or social problems, where professional standards were generally respected. It was not possible to establish whether these biases are systematic, or linked to the extremely tense political situation during the monitoring period. 2. The four satellite channels take opposing positions: the views and opinions presented on Nile News, CBC and al Hayat can be found on one side, and those of al Jazeera Mubasher Masr on the other side of the spectrum. This was clear through the words and actions of the hosts, the amount of time they gave to various guests and their responses to guests statements or use of words (for example referring to the events following 30 June as a revolution or a coup, or referring to Muslim Brotherhood members as terrorists or defenders of a legitimate government). In terms of breaching professional standards, particularly neutrality, all four channels in the sample committed the same mistakes, albeit to varying degrees. 3. All four channels exercised bias positive or negative in news related to the Muslim Brotherhood, the Freedom and Justice Party and their supporters. This was characterized by unprofessional practices such as mixing news and opinions, truncating information, presenting information out of context, drawing false conclusions, and even accusations and insults. 4. Professional standards were most often violated in cases of talk shows with a single guest; in such cases, the host usually agreed with all the opinions presented and refrained from seeking balance by presenting absent opinions. 5. The guests of the channels included writers, economists, security officials, members of political parties, university professors, researchers and government ministers. In general, Nile News, CBC and al Hayat did not have any guests representing political Islam and particularly the Muslim Brotherhood, with a few exceptions when leaders of the Nour Party appeared. On the other hand, al Jazeera Mubasher Masr mostly presented leaders and supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood. Although it hosted guests supporting other views of the events following June 30, it mostly invited the same guests repeatedly, which negatively affected balance and diversity, and the hosts always displayed bias against these guests. 6. Talk show hosts sometimes demonstrated a commitment to professional ethical standards when dealing with certain subjects, while at other times, usually in connection to more contentious political issues, these standards were completely ignored. Hosts at Nile News, al Hayat and CBC did engage in verbal abuse or derisive gestures with regard to opinions linked to the Muslim Brotherhood, which were sometimes treated to laughter or mockery. All other guests were treated with respect.

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7. Talk show hosts often represented absent opinions when the topic under discussion related to the interests of ordinary Egyptian citizens, such as problems relating to day to day life. However, hosts on Nile News, CBC and al Hayat did not represent such opinions when these related to the views of the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters. 8. The use of inappropriate words and gestures was repeatedly observed on all four channels, and is worth mentioning that these words did not always emanate from guests, but sometimes from hosts. While Nile News, CBC and al Hayat used such inappropriate words to attack the Muslim Brotherhood and its supporters, al Jazeera Mubasher Masr used such words to attack what it referred to as supporters of the coup. 9. Some of the most important findings of this study are around hate speech and incitement to violence, which were committed by all the sample channels.

Nile News
The period monitored was the evening period, from 8pm until 12am. This period includes news, The Talk of the Picture program and the daily talk show Here is Cairo. 43 segments were monitored. Guests: The channels hosted nearly 80 people in their studios. The vast majority of the guests were writers, deputy editors-in-chief of newspapers, economists, security experts, heads of political parties and spokespersons of other parties (including the Nour Party, the only party representing the Islamist movement in the Committee of Fifty Members, media professors and researchers into political and Islamic affairs. Government representatives made limited appearances; during the two weeks monitored only the Ministers of Supply, Local Development and Education were hosted. The channels hosted about 50 people over the telephone, most of them correspondents from different governorates of Egypt and military experts in order to specifically follow the security situation in Sinai and some areas in Giza, such as Kerdassa and Nahya. Calls were conducted with correspondents to validate news developments and to gather more details. 1. Balance and diversity in presenting different views on the issue at hand: Most of the talk shows on Nile News lacked a commitment to balance and diversity in the selection of guests.The monitoring found that balance was not achieved 30 times (in 69.77% of cases). In such cases, the channel brought two guests with the same intellectual background or with very similar points of view, and the host did not fill the gap by adopting an opposing point of view but was instead biased to the point of view of the guest. Even when the host tried to convey the opposing point of view it was done in a sarcastic way. Nile News fully achieved balance and diversity ten times (in 23.26% of cases), and achieved it to some extent three times (in 6.97% of cases). In these cases, the hosts questions were objective and unbiased, and guests with different opinions were given the opportunity to present their points of view on certain issues; the views of the citizens on both sides were also presented, through comments on Facebook, phone calls or video reports designed to establish the views of citizens. It is worth noting that the issues for which balance and variety in selecting the guests were achieved were for example re18 Media Monitor 08

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lated to the situation of Egyptians abroad with regard to the new constitution, the judicial arrest law in universities, proposals to amend the constitution that could increase media freedom, and economic issues, which are less controversial. In generally, the guests and hosts of Nile News were supporters of the army and the police, and were always opponents of the MB. 2. Respecting the opposing views presented: The research found that 35 segments (81.40%) on Nile News didnt include any opposing views, as the segments were just narrations of the news, or the guests of the programs had the same point of view as the host, as mentioned above. This was clear through the questions asked during the segment. Six segments respected opposing views (13.95%), and these dealt with topics with limited scope for opposing views, such expert economic information presented by an economist, or segments designed for the start of the academic year. In only two segments (4.65%) were opposing views not respected. One of these two segments involved discussion of the news, presented in pictures. One picture was of a group of Cairo University students engaging with the police during a visit of the Minister of Higher Education; the host said that they were MB students, and although the guest made it clear that they were students opposing the application of the law of judicial arrest inside the university, the host insisted on her position. 3. Use of improper words or gestures: The guests and hosts on Nile News did not use improper words or gestures in 86.05% of cases, but in four segments (9.30% of cases) there were exchanges of improper words between guests, and in two segments (4.65% of cases), some negative gestures and mockery was made against the MB. * 4. Presenting the absent point of view: The results of the monitoring show that 22 segments (51.16%) on Nile News did not present the absent viewpoint; the host supported the views of the guests, and thus the whole show reflected a single perspective. Even when an absent and opposing viewpoint was presented it was done cynically. Ten segments (23.26%) did not include an absent viewpoint because of the nature of the segment: these segments didnt include any contentious issues, or the subject of the segment was not related to the MB or their supporters. For cases in which absent views were presented, they were as follows: in six segments (13.95%) the host presented the absent viewpoint in the show, and in five segments (11.63%) the host did so to some extent; however, in such cases the absent viewpoint always represented a large segment of the public. For example, when the guest was Minister for Local Development, discussing his plans for issues such as traffic, street cleaning and so on, the host adopted the point of view of the average citizen.

* In an episode of Here is Cairo on 15 September 2013, a guest talked about the occupation of the headquarters of State Security by MB-supporters who raised the banner of al-Qaeda, commenting that this showed their bad intentions, at which point the voice of the heard is heard saying yes, yes. 19

5. Instigation or incitement of hatred or exclusion against any party: More than half of the segments that were monitored on Nile News did not display any form of incitement to hatred (60.47%). 11 segments (25.58%) displayed incitement to hatred, and sixsegments (13.95%) displayed incitement to hatred and exclusion to some extent. Such incitement included linking the MB with Hamas, stating that the MB supported Hamas and was helping them to dig tunnels and commit violence in Sinai, and that the MB were plotting to destroy the Egyptian state.* Another example related to the position of Turkish President Recep Erdogan in opposition to the events following 30 June, about which one guest stated that even those Egyptians who were not strongly patriotic would not stay silent in response to Erdogans anti-Egyptian statements, adding that all foreign Arabic-language channels had an agenda and were seeking to implement specific plans.

Some general points on Nile News:


There was a clear bias against the MB. One of the videos shown during the news was about events in Nahia, where security forces disarmed Islamist groups, and showed pictures of army personnel accompanied by the song Teslam al Ayadi, which means thanks to these hands. One piece of news included a report on a shop that provided chocolate on which the image of Minister of Defense Abdulfatah al Sisi was printed. During program breaks, pictures from the demonstrations of 30 June were shown, accompanied by quotes from Abdulfatah al Sisi, including his famous statement: Egypt is the mother of the world, and will be the world. Also shown were excerpts from interviews with military officers reassuring the citizens, and pictures of the army, accompanied by the sentence: a hand to build, a hand to protect and hand to defend. The last part of the program break included images of violence from the MB-supporters demonstrations, accompanied by a comment by the channel saying a hand to destroy, a hand to kill and to burn. During the monitoring period, Nile News broadcast the words of religious leader Sheikh al Sharawi twice, as well as some shots of the January 25 Revolution and removal of Mubarak after the armys intervention, followed by the armys ousting of Morsi, accompanied by the words: the revolution of the people is protected by the army. Al Jazeera was mentioned more than once as promoting wrong information aboutthe murder of Brigadier General Nabeel Farag. The channel presented a video entitled Rabaa Protesters, which included images of some bearded people carrying arms and injured security personnel, accompanied by the words bladed weapons and guns, armed protesters and finally together against terrorism.
* On 16 September 2013, one of the hosts on NileNews stated that the MB used opportunism to achieve its goals, believing that the ends justified in the means, even if it involved paralyzing the people, destroying the economy, spreading chaos and disorder in the country. On 22 September 2013, a guest referred to the MB as religious fascism and a puppet regime, adding that the Muslim Brotherhood is a spidery entity that has relations with all systems of intelligence around the world, The organization does not work in the economy for the economy, it doesnt build factories to employ workers and produce, This is not its goal, It is just a cover for other activities we do not know about, Funds from suspicious sources and for suspicious goals. 20 Media Monitor 08

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Al Hayat
The monitoring included the program al Hayat al Youm, which means Life Today, broadcast on al Hayat channel from 8pm to 11pm or later. 47 segments were monitored from the al Hayat al Youm show. The first segment of the program is the news: the host narrates the news, verifying it and gathering additional details through phone calls with concerned persons, without giving her opinion.* Guests: The channel hosted nearly 110 guests throughout the monitoring period, and generally it did not repeat guests: columnist Abdallah Sinawi was the only guest who appeared more than once during the monitoring period, while Mohammed al Salmawi, the spokesperson for the Committee of Fifty Membersappeared once in the studio and once over the phone to answer questions related to the drafting of the new constitution. The channel was characterized by the variety of its guests and their political and religious backgrounds, but the vast majority of guests were broadly liberal. Despite this, al Hayat was the only channel that hosted over the phone MB leader Mohamed Ali Basher and other significant MB members after the arrest of most of its leaders. It was also the channel that hosted the highest number of leaders from the Nour Party. The channel hosted the highest number of prominent figures, including a number of ministers and heads of political parties, as well as presidents of Egyptian universities, as the academic year began during the monitoring period and many thorny issues related to the universities and their safety were discussed. The channel hosted the highest number of women among the channels monitored. Life Today hosted Sekina Fouad, the presidents advisor for womens affairs, ambassador Mervat al Telawi, the president of the WomensCouncil, a female member of the Committee of FiftyMembers drafting the constitution, in addition to Amal Abdulhady, the Chair of the Board of Trustees for a new womens foundation to discuss womens issues in the transition. 1. Balance and diversity in presenting different views on the issue at hand: The channel achieved diversity and balance 25 times in the monitoring period (53.19% of cases), compared to 16 times when it was not achieved (34.04%) and six times when it was partly achieved (12.77%). It was clear in the monitoring that the more balanced and diverse segments in terms of the presentation of different points of view were the first parts of the show that were devoted to the narration of the daily news, as they reflected different views and allowed the public to comment. The segments in which the balance was not realized involved the host bringing on a guest who supported the government and the army, with whom the host would agree. When balance did occur it appeared to be merely a formality, with the host inviting opposing parties but giving more time to one party at the expense of the other. For example, in the episode discussing the articles of the draft constitution related to not trying civilians in military courts, the host gave
* al Hayat is a channel owned by al Hayat Television Network, a private network owned by businessman and politician Sayed al Badawi, President of al Wafd Party. However, the channel is described as a private channel, and is not the mouthpiece of the al Wafd Party. It is worth noting that, according to the latest report on viewers conducted by IpsosMediaCT, the Media Content and Technology Research Specialists, al Hayat has the highest number of followers and viewers in Egypt. 21

the greatest opportunity to speak to Brigadier General Sayed Hashem, during which he expressed his point of view without any interruption, at the expense of the other guest, Mona Seif, a member of a group campaigning against military trials for civilians. Another example of balance as a formality is the segment presenting news about marches of the MB without being accompanied by video reports or photos of these marches. 2. Respecting the opposing views presented: The guests of the channel tended to haveconverging views and similar political and ideological backgrounds. On 28 occasions (59.57%) no opposing views were presented, so it cannot be said whether they were respected. Opposing views were respected 14 times (29.78%), and fivesegments (10.63%) didnt include respect for the opinions of others. 3. Use of improper words or gestures: 68% of the time the hosts and guests on Life Today did not use improper words, but in 19.14%of cases while improper words may not have been used, there were hints of negativity towards the MB. On one occasion a guest used improper words that were not fit to be on air. For example, while discussing the son of Khairat al Shater and the claim that he received 8 billion dollars from Barack Obama, the guest sarcastically said: In fact I wanted to ask him, did he receive it in cash or did he sign a check? in response to which the host laughed, rather than presenting an opposing viewpoint. Six situations were also recorded (12.59%) in which amusing gestures were made by the host in reaction to comments mocking the MB and their rule. 4. Presenting the absent point of view: The biggest professional mistake made byal Hayat in the monitoring periodwas its lack of interest in presenting absent perspectives. Absent points of view were presented in 34.04% of cases, and by coincidence absent points of view were not presented in 34.04% of cases also. In 31.91% of cases (15 segments) there was no need to present absent points of view as both sides of the story were represented.The host of the program was always willing to showthe absent perspective when the absent party was the public, whether the family of martyrs, ordinary citizens, students of schools or universities, or the Nour Party, but when the MB or those affiliated to it the host only twice presented this viewpoint. 5. Instigation or incitement to hatred or exclusion against any party: The general trend of the program was not to incite hatred or exclusion of any party. In 70.22% of cases there was no incitement to hatred or exclusion, in contrast to 14 segments (29.78%) including this element: 12 cases of statements made against the MB and Hamas, and two cases of statements made against Turkey and its ambassador in Cairo.

Some general points on al Hayat:


In general, the host Lubna Assal did not mix the news with her personal opinion, but it was noted that when she did share her opinion, she was clearly against the MB and all their marches that violated the curfew. She also held Hamas and Islamic groups responsible for terrorist acts taking place in Egypt, Syria and Libya, and believed the MB to be implicitly responsible for such acts. For example, she made a comment implying that
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the MB were responsible for the attempted assassination of the Minister of the Interior, although investigations were not concluded. She also made comments regarding the USAs support for Islamist regimes, although these regimes commit terrorist acts.

Al Jazeera Mubasher Masr


The evening period was monitored from 8pm to 12am. This period included interviews, news bulletins and the daily program Editorial Secretary, which presents the most important news published in Egyptian newspapers for the next day, accompanied by comments of one of the channels guests. The monitoring period included a documentary produced by al Jazeera about testimonies of eye-witnesses related to the dispersal of the Rabaa sit-in, but this documentary series has been excluded from this research as it does not fit with the objectives of the research. Guests: The channel hosted around 60 guests in the studio and 53 via phone calls during the monitoring period. Many guests appeared several times during the monitoring, especially those supporting the events following 30 June. For example, Amr Hashem Rabie and Yusri al Azbawy, researchers at al Ahram Center for Strategic Studies both appeared five times. Mohamed Sharf, a member of the Conscience Front that supports the MB also appeared more than once. The channel is deemed to be the mouthpiece of the MB in Egypt, and most of its guests are from the MB or MB supporters. In addition, most of the phone calls received are from people who are affiliated to or who sympathize with the MB, with few exceptions. Even those who do not belong to the MB or disagree with them oppose the armed forces playing a political role, even if it is transitional; they believe that June 30 was a military coup rather than a popular revolution, and oppose the deposing of Morsi. 46 segments were monitored. 1. Balance and diversity in presenting different views on the issue at hand: Although al Jazeera Mubasher Masr is the only channel monitored in this research that tried to achieve a balance in hosting guests from both sides of the political divide, this balance was in form only. This is for several reasons, including al Jazeeras close association with the MB, especially after the closure of all religious channels supporting the MB and deposed president Mohamed Morsi. As a result, all its guests and even its hosts are supporters of the MB, in opposition to the events following June 30, and these guests refuse to appear on channels that are described as liberal or as supportive of the army and the events following June 30. The guests who are not MB supporters are very limited in number, and appear again and again. During the monitoring period it was found that 23 times (50% of cases), the channel didnt achieve balance and variety in selecting guests, as all the guests were in opposition to events following June 30, and the host referred to these events as a coup. The guests repeatedly attacked the Egyptian Military Administration. In addition, the Editorial Secretary program depends entirely upon the opinions and comments of a single guest, and therefore there is not more than one point of view to discuss. In three segments (6.52%) balance and diversity were achieved, and in ten segments (21.74%) they were partly achieved. Ten segments (21.74%) did not have any issue to discuss, as the segmentwas covering demonstrations against Morsis deposal in several governorates.

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2. Respecting the opposing views presented: The results shows that 33 segments by (71.74%) did not present conflicting views: this could be because all the guests and hosts agreed in their opposition to Morsis deposal, because the episode focused on a single guest, or because the episode was covering pro-MB demonstrations in the governorates. The monitoring shows that in six segments (13.04%), in conflicting opinions were respected, and in four (8.70%), conflicting opinions were somewhat respected. It was also found that found that in three segments (6.52%), guests offering opposing opinions were not respected; these episodes tendedto get out of the control of the host due to the different views of the guests, the intensification of the debate between them and the lack of accepting each other views. 3. Use of improper words or gestures: The results show that 35 segments (76.09%) were free of improper words, as the host and the guests spoke in very calm tones. This could be due to the fact that 70% of the segments asmentioned above didnt include any opposing views. The monitoring also shows that when guests were hosted with different ideological views, the discussion tended to intensify to the point that one of the guests left the studio. 11 segments (23.91%) involvedthe use of improper words between the guests; for example, one guest described the Minister of Defense, First Lieutenant Abdulfatah al Sisi as al Sisi the fascist killer.* 4. Presenting the absent point of view: The absent point of view was presented in 19 episodes (41.30%); the host never spoke about the supporting view of the military, but strongly attacked the armys use of what he termed excessive violence. The absent viewpoint was presented in six episodes by (13.04%), and in 14 segments (30.43%) it was presented to some extent. It was noted that the majority of those segments were related to the new constitution and the Committee of Fifty Members, to statements by the Minister of Higher Education about the security of universities and the judicial arrest law, to talks about the Egyptian judiciary, or to the passing of a law on the minimum level of salaries. In a few cases, the segment discussed the legal status of the MB or compared the Attorney General in the Morsi era to the present Attorney General, who has been widelydescribed as the Attorney General for hire, a reference to his perceived lack of neutrality. In this case, the host played the role of the absent party objectively. In seven segments (15.22%) no points of view were displayed due to the nature of the segments. 5. Instigation or incitement to hatred or exclusion against any party: Most of the segments (78.26%) did not incite hatred. In ten cases (21.74%) incitement was found, and came from both sides, whether in support of or against the MB. One guest described the MB as a terrorist, fascist, racist and non-peaceful group, and stated that the group has a different religion from Islam as we know it. This guest also stated that the MB is responsible for all violent events that have occurred in Egypt since June 28.
* On 17 September, Dr. Amr Hashem Rabie left the studio in protest against the behavior of the host and demanded an apology.On 11 September 2013, during a discussion related to judicial arrests, Dr. Rabie attacked Hassan Abdullah, a teacher at the University of Damietta for his views, as well as attacking the host for not letting him express his opinion. 24 Media Monitor 08

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On the other hand, guests who support the MB described the dispersals of Rabaa and al Nahda as genocide by the armed forces. These guests also strongly criticized the military rule and encouraged the masses to stand against it. In other episodes, there was no explicit incitement or exclusion, but one guest attacked the authorities who created the bloody coup.

Some general points on al Jazeera Mubasher Masr:


There are three main hosts on the channel: Ahmed Taha, Ayman al Azzam and Zine al Abdin Tawfiq. The host of the Editorial Secretary program is Mujahid Sharar. These hosts are opposed to the events following 30 June, referring to it as the military coup. When guests objectedto the use of this expression, thehosts answered that neutrality and objectivity required them to describe it like that, and one of them pointed out that the American channel CNN described what happened as a coup, not a revolution. When guests were hosted from different political backgrounds, the episode was always on the edge of chaos due to their different views and the intensification of debate between the guests. In its daily reports on the dispersals of Rabaa and al Nahda, al Jazeera used words such as massacre, slaughter and martyrs. The footage shown during program breaks combined the opinions of citizens who are in support of and against the events following 30 June with photographs from Tahrir and Rabaa. Another piece of footage shown in breaks for included quotes by Abdulfatah al Sisi about the risk of having an army on the streets, accompanied by pictures of victims from Rabaa dying, leaving the judgment to the audience. In addition, a Turkish song dedicated to Asmaa al Beltagy, the daughter of the Muslim Brotherhood leader Mohamed al Beltagy who died in the dispersal of the Rabaa demonstrations, was played multiple times daily. The channel kept pace with press releases from the Freedom and Justice Party and the National Alliance to Support Legitimacy. It also aired multiple times in every bulletin audio recordings of Essam al Erian, MB leader who is wanted by the security forces, calling on citizens to demonstrate on Friday, Saturday and after that, to show the care for the martyrs, and another recording encouraging citizens who support the MB to continue to support legitimacy and demand the state forces to refrain from violence. A third recording congratulates students on the new academic year and calls on them to be united against what he calls the bloody fascist coup. Also in the breaks, the channel focused on the arrests of its journalists Abdallah al Shami and Mohammed Badry by the Egyptian authorities and repeated appeals in each news program for the release of the detainees. It also announced that al Jazeera will sue the Egyptian authorities in the international courts because of the continued campaign against the staff of al Jazeera in Egypt. It should be noted in this context that most of the external reporting and direct broadcast of marches and demonstrations came either via Skype or using videos from YouTube.

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Al Jazeera announced the documentary series entitled The Witnesses of the Massacre; each episode included an eye witness description of the dispersals of Rabaa and al Nahda. Al Jazeera has launched an attack on the Egyptian media through its reports, holding a seminar on media coverage during the Egyptian crisis. Al Jazeera focused on the demonstrations of the MB that violated the curfew, and also on the marches of students supporting the MB from universities and schools in different governorates of Egypt. It also allocatedlong periods for them to be broadcast live.

CBC
The evening period from 8pm until 12pm includes the airing of programs Hunna al Asima presented by Lamis al Hadidy and the program Possible presented by Khairy Ramadan; however he was on vacation during the monitoring period and only returned on the final day. During his absence his colleague Dina Abdulrahman presented his program. Guests: Throughout the monitoring period, the channel hosted 43 guests in the studio and 122 people via the phone, in addition to receiving many calls from citizens in some episodes.The channels guests were very diverse, and no guests appeared more than once during the monitoring period. However, the channel didnt host any guests from Islamist groups, Nour Party members, MB members or sympathizers, or anyone opposing the events following June 30. The one exception was an episode of Hunna al Asima marking the beginning of the academic year, which hosted the deputy presidents of the Universities of Cairo, Ain Shams and al Azhar and heads of the three student unions; host Lamis al Hadidy invited representatives of MB students to present their views, but the students refused to appear on the program. The channel exclusively hosted writer Mohamed Hassanein Heikal in a series of episodes that aired on Thursday instead of Hunna al Asima. The channel also hosted Mostafa al Faki, prominent economist Galal Amin, ambassador Ezzaldeen Shukri, four ministers and several police generals. 33 segments of Hunna al Asima were monitored, including phone calls for news coverage and different issues across a network of correspondents in various governorates, in addition to a diversity of public figures to comment on the news of the day or analyze the most important events. Economic issues took top priority for the program; for example, Hashem Ramez, the Governor of the Central Bank was hosted by telephone, as well as Maged Riad, the leader of the Association of Egyptian Businessmen in America, Mounir Fakhry, the Minister of Industry and Trade and Mohammed al Suwaidi, President of the Federation of Industries. Many of the calls discussed the recovery of the economy and steps to be taken to reverse the economic crisis. In second place was the discussion of security issues, especially events at Kerdassa, Delga and Nahia, followed by issues related to the security of universities. 1. Balance and diversity in presenting different views on the issues at hand: The monitoring shows that CBC didnt achieve the balance in 12 segments (36.36% of the total); for example, one of the segments was about the court ruling to ban the MB, and all the phone calls taken had the same point of view. Balance was not achieved in any subjects related to the MB, but it was achieved with regard to other subjects, such as the Committee of Fifty Membersand its proposals.
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Balance and diversity were achieved nine times (27.27%) and to some extent seven times (21.21%), through suitable presentation of the issue or via preparing a report presenting different views. Five segments monitored (15.15% of the total) were just comments on the news. 2. Respecting the opposing views presented: 69.70% of CBCsmonitored segments were news programs and did not involve the presentation of opposing views. In seven segments (21.21%), opposing views were respected through discussion and giving the opportunity for each party to speak. Three segments (9.09%) did not respect the opinions of the guests. One of these segments was an episode with the economist Galal Amin. Amin was asked about who could be president, and Amin said that he could see a lot of figures in the National Salvation Front and the Committee of Fifty Members, but the host did not let him continue and did not discuss his opinions, stating instead that many people hope for a civil president with a military background, such as Abdulfatah al Sisi. 3. Use of improper words or gestures: 24 segments (72.73%) were free from improper words, but improper words and expressions on the part of the hosts were note in nine segments (27.27%). One example that was repeated more than once in Hunna al Asima was the hosts comparison of the MB to insects and fleas, commenting on the news of the Hurriya wa Adela newspaper that these campaigns ravage the body of the regime as fleas do the body of the mad dog. She added that they are fleas and we all know how to kill the fleas, miming how to do so. Similar words and gestureswere repeated the following day, and again during a phone interview while the MB were trying to storm al Koba palace. 4. Presenting the absent point of view: CBC was the channel most committed to presenting the absent viewpoint. In 15 segments (45.45%) the host presented the viewpoint of the absent party, and in five segments by (15.15%) this was done to some extent. It should be noted that the vast majority of these segments were about the suffering of citizens, whether in terms of the economy, security or education levels, with the hosts presenting the views these people. During a phone discussion with the Assistant of the Minister of Interior, the channel also presented the viewpoint of people who feel that they are harassed by the police forces. The channel has adopted the view of Abdulfatah al Sisi as the leader of the revolution, but allows for the opinion of guests who do not see him in this way. Perhaps most notably, the channel presented the point of view of foreign journalists who accuse the Egyptian media ofspecifically excluding the MB. On the other hand, the monitoring found that eight segments (24.24%) did not present the absent point of view. Five segments (15.15%) did not deal with controversial issues with conflicting opinions. 5. Instigation or incitement to hatred or exclusion against any party: On 22 occasions (66.67%) no incitement to hatred was demonstrated.On seven occasions (21.21%) there was incitement, and in four segments (12.12%) there was some degree of incitement. For example, when discussing the international arm of the MB preparing for meetings in Turkey and Pakistan, the host commented that they are con27

vening in Turkey and Pakistan to consider how to destroy things. In another example, in the context of addressing chants opposing the former Supreme Mufti Ali Goma, the host said: [the MB] dont have religion or morals. Religion and morals are inseparable. Those are people who dont have morals oreducation; they dont have the ability to disagree with each other. On another program, one of the guests called the MB stupid and ignorant, saying that they have rabies.

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Channel

Balance and diversity: achieved 21.74% 6.97% 12.77% 21.21% 36.36% 15.15% 21.21% 0% 9.09% 34.04% 0% 29.78% 0% 10.63% 69.77 0% 13.95% 0% 5.65% 50.00% 21.74% 13.04% 8.70% 6.52% 71.74% 81.40% 59.57% 69.70%

Balance and diversity: partly achieved Balance and diversity: not achieved

Balance and diversity: not applicable

Respecting the others opinion: achieved

Respecting the others opinion: partly achieved Respecting the others opinion: not achieved Respecting the others opinion: not applicable

Al Jazeera Mubasher Masr

6.52%

Nile News

23.26%

Al Hayat

53.19%

CBC

27.27%

Channel

Free of improper words

Use of improper words

Use of improper words to some extent 0% 4.65% 12.59% 0% 45.45% 34.04% 0% 15.15% 13.95% 11.63% 13.04% 30.43% 41.30% 51.16% 34.04% 24.24% 15.22% 23.26% 31.91% 15.15%

Presenting the absent point of view

Presenting the absent point of view to some extent Not presenting the absent point of view Presenting the absent point of view not applicable

Inciting hatred or exclusion

Inciting hatred or exclusion to some extent 21.74% 25.58% 29.78% 21.21% 0% 13.95% 0% 12.12%

Not inciting exclusion

Al Jazeera Mubasher Masr

76.09%

23.91%

78.26% 60.47% 70.22% 66.67%

Nile News

86.05%

9.30%

Al Hayat

68.00%

19.41%

CBC

72.73%

27.27%

Arab Network for Media Support

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