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WINNING LEADER

A SITUATIONAL APPROACH

INTRODUCTION BY THE PROGRAMME DESIGNER RAY FOLCARELLI

THE MOST VALUABLE EXECUTIVE IS ONE WHO IS TRAINING SOMEONE TO BE A BETTER MAN

In Module 1 you were introduced to a number of theories and explanations of motivation, personality and people's behaviour. This brief overview built a foundation for the study of leadership. The functional approach to leadership as developed by John Adair was covered in depth, and the three areas of need tas!, "roup and individual, were accepted as an excellent approach to leadership in #imbabwe, as the three areas of need can be reco"nised in any leadership situation and are broadly constant across cultural barriers.

$ele"ates were made aware of the need of the need for leaders to reco"nise and interact with the business environment, both locally and internationally. %usiness is an open system and if the way we lead is si"nificantly different to the &free& mar!et concept or other wealth creation methods, one will eventually destroy the other.

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MODULE 2
In this module we shall be coverin"( ,eadership Models Team ,eadership ,eadership in different situations /eedbac! on dele"ates' leadership styles ,eadin" chan"e

The ideas, concepts, techni)ues and principles of leadership you will be introduced to are aimed at improvin" your personal leadership effectiveness in different situations.

CONTINGENCY THEORY - THE LOOPHOLE

*ituational leadership is NOT contin"ency theory leadership. +ontin"ency theory is a loophole that allows leaders to practice leadership without moral values. ,eaders who don't !now how to listen and who don-t respect their employees lean on the contin"ency theory to excuse their type of leadership &I'm doin" what has to be done.& They say. The problem is that every situation, accordin" to abusive leaders re)uires abuse. That's not contin"ency. That's habit. James 0'Toole 1 ,eadin" +han"e2
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VALUES OF INTEGRITY AND TRUST

The "reatest leaders in political, military and corporate history are those that base leadership on values, not fear. $emocracy increases, not decreases, leader's power %usiness leaders must obey the same moral laws on human ri"hts as other leaders in society Abusive leaders cannot brin" lon"1term fundamental chan"e

LEADERSHIP TRAINING
Just as a top athlete or sports person needs to continually train and brin" himself to pea! fitness, the same dedication and commitment is demanded of business leaders. 4nfortunately, most business leaders in #imbabwe adopt an &I've arrived& attitude and fail to !eep business fit. preface of ,and and *ea Tales(
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Today's business environment demands total fitness from the hi"hest to the lowest. %usiness leaders who cannot stand the strain or who lac! commitment must be weeded out and replaced.

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Ray Folcar ll!

SITUTIONAL LEADERSHIP

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VALUE-BASED LEADERSHIP

OB"ECTIVE( At the end of this part dele"ates will be able to define and apply values1based leadership.

In his memoirs, 8arry Trueman says that( &A leader is a man who has the ability to "et other people to do what they don't want to do, and li!e it.&

,eadership may be too complex for such a brief definition. &The capacity and the will to rally men and women to a common purpose, and the character which inspires confidence& B/ield Marshal Mont"omery2 Merely to have capacity is not enou"h the leader must be willin" to use it. 8is leadership is then based on truth and character there must be truth in the purpose and willpower in the character.

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1. A leader must spea! the truth to those under him if he does not they will soon find out and their confidence in him will decline.
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The "ood leader must dominate events, which surround him once he lets events "et the better of him he loses value as a leader.

.. The effective leader must exercise influence. This will depend on the personality of the man 1 of what he is capable 1 the flame that burns within.

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The matter of decision ma!in" is vital. The modern tendency is to avoid ta!in" decisions, and to procrastinate in the hope that the problem will "o away. The only policy for an effective leader is decision in action and calmness in a crisis.

3. To be effective the leader must !now what he himself wants. To see his obFective clearly and strive to attain it. 6. The leader must create a &winnin"& atmosphere by "ivin" firm "uidance and a clear lead. A. In this world of rapid chan"e thin"s can very )uic!ly "o wron". The leader must maintain a firm "rip. This does not mean interference or the crampin" of initiative. It is essential to ensure that the overall plan is not undermined. %usiness operations must develop within a predetermined pattern. C. The overall plan must never be so ri"id that cannot be varied to suit a chan"in" tactical situation. G. The art of leadership lies in the understandin" that no two situations are always the same each must be tac!led as a wholly new problem to which there will be a wholly new answer. H. The material with which a leader has to deal is men, not iron ore or cotton. Men are not commodities. If a leader does not understand the full implication of this he will fail.

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&There can be no peace without an understandin" of one another amon" the people& B*hona phrase2
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1I. It is vital that a leader does not become immersed in detail. If he "ets involved in detail he will lose si"ht of the essential that really matter. 7o leader who does not ma!e time for )uiet thou"ht and reflection can win battles. 11. +ommunication must be direct and personal, visits and mana"in" by wal!in" about BM.%.<.A.2. ;eople must be trained to act on verbal orders. Those who cannot be trusted to act on clear and concise verbal orders, but want everythin" in writin" are useless. 1'. The effective leader understands that it's a &8earts and Minds Issue&. The wor!er of today can thin!, he can appreciate and he is prepared to criticise. Throu"h technolo"y his visual world is extensive. 8e can now measure his everyday environment in a way, which was impossible, twenty years a"o. 8e wants to !now what is "oin" on and what you want him to do 1 and why, and when. 8e wants to !now that in doin" it his best interests will be secure in your hands.

LEADERSHIP - A SITUATIONAL APPROACH


OB"ECTIVE %y the end of the module, participants will be able to explain and apply the SITUATIONAL leadership model.

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INTRODUCTION 0f all the functions of mana"ement, leadership seems to be the most studied and the least understood. The whole history of research on leadership has led us to no clear conclusion. The ;eters and <aterman study of &:xcellent +ompanies& led the authors to a similar conclusion. 0ne point is clear 1 all the excellent companies seem to have ta!en on their basic culture under the tutela"e of a very special person. These +ompanies, BI%M, Matsushita, ; J ?, J J J2 have a unified character of inte"rity. They don't drift opportunistically into all sorts of unrelated deals and schemes. They !now who they are and what they want to be.

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>oss ;erot :$* B$edication2 :mploys an ex 4.*. +ommando to "o to Iran and free two of his +ompany's executives. ;erot loo!s to his employees Btroops2 to share his dedication. The boo! describin" the mission, &0n <in"s of :a"les& is a best seller. B5onosu!e2 Matsushita B+ommunication2 %elieve in powerful communication. 8e has the ability to "et to people seven levels down B=es, the messen"ers2 and motivates them. &?et to the problem and fix it& is the motto. ;roblems must be isolated at the level they occur

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LEADERSHIP PROCESS
,eadership is the process of influencin" the activities of an individual or "roups towards "oal achievement. Therefore an effective leader must be concerned about TA*5 A7$ 84MA7 >:,ATI07*8I;*. SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT MOVEMENT /rederic! <inslow Taylor B 1HII's2. The best way to increase production was to improve techni)ues and methods used by wor!ers. Mana"ement must be divorced from human affairs and emotions. <or!ers must adFust to mana"ement and not the mana"ement to people. To accomplish this plan Taylor concentrated on( Time and motion studies 7eeds of the or"anisation not the needs of the individual /ollow rules and procedures :xtrinsic motivation >ationally planned or"anisation *trict control system Theory &E& leadership

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HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT :lton Mayo B1H'I's2 Taylorism was replaced at centre sta"e by the 84MA7 >:*04>+:* M09:M:7T initiated by :lton Mayo. It was claimed that real power centers within an or"anisation. The interpersonal relations that developed within the wor!in" unit. 0r"anisations developed around the wor!ers 8uman feelin"s and attitudes :mphasis on individual and "roup needs Intrinsic Motivation Theory &=& leadership

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SITUATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
AN INTRODUCTION The need for a si"nificant *ituational Model in the leadership area has been reco"nised in mana"ement literature for some time.

*ituational ,eadership is based on the interplay amon"( 1. The amount of "uidance or direction a leader "ives. '. The amount of socioemotional support a leader provides .. The readiness that followers exhibit in performin" a specific tas!

The emphasis is on the behaviour of the leader in relation to the ability and willin"ness of the subordinate.

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S#ILLS OF A LEADER It is "enerally a"reed that there are at least three areas of s!ill necessary for carryin" out the process of effective leadership. 1. T c$%!cal S&!ll 1 Ability to use !nowled"e, methods and techni)ues 1 education and trainin" '. H'(a% S&!ll 1 Ability and Fud"ement in wor!in" with people, includin" an understandin" of motivation and an application of effective leadership. .. Co%c )*'al S&!ll 1 Ability to understand the complexities of business, strate"ic plannin", both the micro and macro environment

S#ILLS NEEDED

Top Mana"ement

+onceptual C

Middle Mana"ement

8uman

*upervisory Mana"ement

Technical T

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It is "enerally a"reed that leaders influence their followers by either two ways(

1. They can tell their followers what to do and how to do it. BTheory E2 '. They can share their responsibilities by involvin" them in plannin" and implementation. BTheory =2

The two styles are based on the assumptions leaders ma!e about the source of their power or authority and human nature.

THEORY X A**4M;TI07*

THEORY Y A**4M;TI07* B$ou"las Mc?re"or2

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GROUP DISCUSSION %ased on the wor! underta!en in module 1 1 $iscuss Mc?re"ors Theory E and Theory = prepare a short "roup presentation. 0n what assumptions are the theories basedD
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<hat if Theory E is used inappropriatelyD


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Theory E or"anisations would be characterised byD


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Theory = leadership would be characterised byD


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1G

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CONTINUUM OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR

TANNENBUM AND SCHMIDT refer to the two extremes as( 1. Mana"ement power and influence '. *ubordinate power and influence
INSERTION OF DIAGRAM

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T$ ory X ,eaders whose behaviour is observed to be at the authoritarian BTheory E2 end of the continuum tend to be TA*5 0>I:7T:$ and use their power to influence their followers. T$ ory Y ,eaders whose behaviour appears to be democratic and tend to be "roup oriented and "ive their followers considerable freedom in their wor!.

LEADERSHIP STYLE
VIDEO BASED DISCUSSION In your "roups discuss the followin" points arisin" from the video. 1. <hy was one mana"er successful when consultin" with his "roup and the other mana"er failedD

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'. <hen would you consider an authoritarian style to be appropriateD


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.. :xplain forces in the subordinate, forces in the leader and forces in the situation
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3. +omment on the how the Mana"in" $irector handled the Mar!etin" Mana"ers problem(
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6. <hen would a participative M dele"atin" style be appropriateD


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A. Any other points of interest


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THE MASTER MANAGER


It is important to realise that the &)uality& of mana"ement cannot be separated from the )uality of life or the )uality of the person who does the mana"in". The level of mana"in" is, in fact, a conse)uence of the personal level of bein" the mana"er. The competencies that are now bein" increasin"ly re)uired, in order to cope with the chan"in" demands of the mana"er. The competencies that are now bein" increasin"ly re)uired, in order to cope with the chan"in" demands of the environment, cannot be ac)uired by traditional trainin" methods, but are lar"ely a conse)uence of different consciousness and vision or reality, of life
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"Attitude accounts for 80% of success"

SELF - AWARENESS PROFILE


This exercise is a self1administered inventory that will help you collect and analyse information about the way you thin!, feel and act at wor!. The profile that you will "enerate should "ive you a better understandin" of yourself and the way you respond to situations and people in your wor! and people in your wor! environment. =ou will also "ain insi"hts into the different behaviour patterns of those with whom you wor! and the environmental factors that lead to satisfaction and hi"h productivity for different individuals. The *elf1Awareness ;rofile is not a test. There are no ri"ht and wron" answers. The scores you obtain and the profile that you draw will be !nown only to you and anyone you elect to share it with. *uccess at wor!, whether in leadin" a "roup or in bein" a productive team member, comes from !nowin" one's own behaviour patterns and adaptin" them to meet the needs and demands of the situation.

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In the first part of this exercise, you will "o throu"h 1A sets of four words. In each set, you are to select the word that best describes your behaviour at wor! and assi"n it the number 3. Then find the word that next best describes your behaviour at wor!, assi"nin" it the number .. The next best "ets a ' and the word that is least descriptive of your behaviour at wor! "et the number 1. ,et's repeat the instructions( In each set of four wor!s, the wor! that %est describes your behaviour at wor! "et a LLLLLLLLLLLL. 3 7ext best describes your behaviour at wor! "ets a LLLLLLLLLL . 7ext best describes your behaviour at wor! "ets a LLLLLLLLLL ' ,east describes your behaviour at wor! "ets a LLLLLLLLL.LL.. 1 =ou will probably find it easiest to select the most B32 and the least B12 words first, then decide between the two remainin" words as to which is more li!e you B.2 and the less li!e you B'2. =ou must assi"n a number to every word. ,et's loo! at an example(

loyal

self 1reliant resi"ned ,


-

persuasive

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=our Fob is to put the appropriate number in the unshaded box besides each word. /or example, let's suppose that a fellow named Abraham ,incoln completed the set shown above. 8e mi"ht have put a 3 in the box beside &self1 reliant,& a . beside &persuasive,& a ' beside &loyal,& and a 1 beside &resi"ned.& 8is four ratin"s are shown above. All setD Then "o throu"h the 1A sets of words on the >esponse sheet, printed on the next pa"e. >emember( for each set of four words, you must assi"n a 3, a ., a ', and a 1.

INSTRUCTIONS FOR SCORING The exercise you Fust completed measures the stren"th of four dimensions of your behaviour. :ach is described in brief below. %efore calculatin" your actual scores, you mi"ht want to see how well you !now yourself by "uessin" the outcome. ;lace chec! mar!s in the columns beside the four dimensions to indicate your stron" and wea! dimensions. /or example, if you feel that one is stron" and one is wea!, with the other two bein" avera"e, then you will have only two chec! mar!s. %ut if you see two dimensions as your stron" or wea! ones, then indicate this by chec! mar!. After you've "uessed your stron" and wea! dimensionBs2, follow the instructions and calculate your actual scores.

S*ro%. Do(!%a%c
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W a&

I%/l' %c Co%/or(!*y E0 %% 11

Do(!%a%c is the drive to overcome barriers, see! challen"es and achieve results I%/l' %c is the desire to win acceptance of others throu"h popularity and ability to persuade Co%/or(!*y is the desire to wor! within well1defined standards and controls to assure compliance. E0 %% 11 is the desire to perform at a steady pace and maintain "roup harmony. 7ow that you've "uessed your stron" and wea! dimensions, you are ready to calculate your actual scores. 0n your >esponse *heet, there are four columns beside each set of words. ;lace the letter D over the first column, an I over the second column, a C over the third column and an E over the fourth column. =ou have Fust spelled the word DICE. :nter it twice L.over Items 1 1 G and a"ain over H 11A. 7ow add up all the numbers in your two1D columns and enter their sum in the box below, labelled D. $o the same for all the numbers in your two I columns, enterin" their sum in the box labelled I. >epeat the same process with your C ratin"s and your E ratin"s. If you have added your ratin"s correctly, the four totals will add up to 1AI. BIf your totals do not add up to 1AI, better chec! your

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math also chec! to see whether each set four adFectives received one 3, one ., one ' and one 12 $ I +
N N N

$ominance Influence +onformity

:venness

Total N

1AI

*ince the four scores total 1AI, the avera"e is 3I. If you had an e)ual amount of each of the four characteristics Bwhich is unli!ely2, your scores would each lie in the vacinity of 3I. 8owever, you probably have one or two scores that are si"nificantly above 3I Bperhaps even closer to 6I2, with your other scores bein" si"nificantly below 3I. 8ow did your actual scores compare with the "uesses you made on the previous pa"eD 7otice that the first two scores, D and I, are concerned with acceptin" challen"e and shapin" the environment. The last two, C and E, are concerned with security and maintainin" the status )uo. A detailed description of these four dimensions and the type of wor! environment best suited to each is contained in the section titled, How the DICE Roll. SELF AWARENESS PROFILE

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HOW THE DICE ROLL The letters in the word DICE each stand for a different dimension of your behaviour, D is Dominance, the drive to overcome barriers, see! challen"es and achieve results, I is Influence, the desire to win acceptance of others throu"h one's popularity and ability to persuade. C is Conformity, the desire to wor! within well1defined standards and controls to assure compliance. E is E enness, the desire to perform at a steady pace and maintain "roup harmony. All of us display these four dimensions of behaviours, thou"h in different mixtures and to different de"rees. As you read the descriptions of each that follow, we su""est that you circle those phrases that are especially accurate in describin" you. *imilarly, you mi"ht cross out those descriptions that do not apply to you. Incidentally, it is sometimes useful to "et a close friend or someone who has wor!ed with you for at least a year to read your edited descriptions, indicatin" where they a"ree and disa"ree. ;eople are often very aware of some attributed while blind to others. 7ow let's examine under the ma"nifyin" "lass each of the four dimensions of behaviour that are summarised by the word DICE. D, or Dominance, is the drive to overcome barriers, see! challen"es and achieve results. ;ersons who are hi"h in $ are typically anxious to "et immediate results. They accept challen"es readily, ma!e decisions )uic!ly and ta!e char"e of situations so as to "et thin"s done. *tron"ly action1oriented, they )uestion the status )uo and loo! for new or better ways of achievin" results. They are happiest when tac!lin" and overcomin" a difficult problem or obstacle.

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;ersons hi"h in D would wor! best in an environment that "ives them a broad area of operations, freedom from controls and red tape and minimal supervision. *uch persons are fuelled by the need to achieve, by presti"e and by the challen"e of their wor!. They see! out opportunity for individual accomplishment. They are most productive when "iven difficult assi"nments, personal accountability, direct answers and power and authority commensurate with the tas!. <hen formal authority is lac!in", they will assume it and ban! on their power to "et thin"s done. *ince persons with hi"h D tend to be impatient with others, they often perform alone rather than as team members. It is desirable that they wor! with others who can supplement them in such activities as researchin" the facts, wei"hin" the evidence before ma!in" decisions, reco"nisin" the needs of others and addin" an element of predictability and order to the sometimes stormy environment that the hi"h D is li!ely to create. I2 or Influence is the desire to win the acceptance of others throu"h one's popularity and ability to persuade. ;ersons who are hi"h in I are typically anxious to ma!e favourable impressions and share their infectious enthusiasm with others. They welcome social situations and enFoy contactin" people and ma!in" new friends. They often have a colourful or vivacious personality, are entertainin" and articulate and mana"e to create an environment that draws others to them. ;ersons hi"h in I wor! best in an environment that "ives them freedom of expression that fosters democratic relationships Bi.e., based on popular appeal rather than on authority or autocracy2. They are often active in "roup activities outside of the Fob and are most productive when freed from details and controls so that can use their ability to verbalise ideas, wield influence and persuade others. They are effective in shapin" the opinions of others, both in "roup settin"s and in one1on1one situations where coachin" and counselin" s!ills are called for.
.I

*ince the hi"h I is a &people person& to the point of sometimes ne"lectin" the tas! at hand, they need to wor! with others who can deal with thin"s as well as people, developin" systematic ways of "ettin" the Fob done and providin" follow1throu"h. The hi"h I sometimes needs help on mana"in" time effectively, appraisin" the capability of others realistically, bein" firm and dispensin" discipline when needed. C2 or Conformity2 is the desire wor! within well1defined standards and controls to assure compliance. ;ersons who are hi"h in C are excellent at followin" procedures and meetin" the prescribed standards. They concentrate on detail and are stic!ler for accuracy. The hi"h C is usually diplomatic with others and is an analytical, deliberate thin!er. There is a "reat respect for authority, both of individuals and systems Bpolicy, procedures, controls, standards2. ;ersons hi"h in C wor! best in an environment that is hi"hly structured and well defined. *uch persons re)uire documentation of the Fob to be done 1 standard operatin" procedures, Fob descriptions, chec!lists, etc. They are "uardians of the status )uo and watchdo"s who will assure that )uality controls and standards are met. They often re)uire personal attention, close supervision, and reassurance that they are doin" well Bfre)uent performance appraisal2 and stron" membership in their wor! "roup. The hi"h C is best utilised on wor! that is exactin" or precise in nature re)uirin" careful trainin" and close attention to detail. A person hi"h in C should wor! with others who can ma!e )uic! decisions and who re"ard policy as "uidelines rather than law carved in stone. The hi"h + needs help in developin" a tolerance for the imperfect nature of some Fobs and all people and a respect for personal worth as well as accomplishment.
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E, or :venness, is the desire to perform at a steady pace and maintain harmony. ;ersons who are hi"h in : are typically best at performin" an established wor! pattern that re)uires patience and does not re)uire travel or chan"e of environment. The hi"h : has typically developed specialised s!ills or technical competence and is able to concentrate on a "iven tas! or proFect for a lon" period of time. ;ersons hi"h in : are usually "ood at calmin" others, listenin" and "ettin" the facts, stic!in" with an assi"nment and bein" loyal to the or"anisation. In short, the E supports the status )uo and provides a steadyin" influence on the wor! "roup. ;ersons hi"h in E wor! best in an environment that has stron" Fob security and well1established patterns and routines for "ettin" thin"s done. They need to "ive and "et appreciation for wor! done well and are "ood team members. BIf they have a family, this team membership is often most important and wor! must not be allowed to interfere with their home life.2 The hi"h E wor!s in a methodical pattern, ta!in" one thin" at a time. Thus, it is sometimes desirable to supplement this behaviour by wor!in" with others who can deal effectively with chan"e, ta!e on new challen"es, exercise creativity, become involved in more than one tas! and wor! well in unstructured situations where outcomes are unpredictable.

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,on" before we were born Bnine months to be precise2, the DICE were thrown and we received certain "enes and chromosomes from our parents. =ou probably reco"nise in one or both of your parents some of the same characteristics that we Fust used to describe the dimensionBs2 that you were hi"h in. Thus, heredity had a stron" hand in shapin" your behaviour. %ut so did environment. The way in which you were raised, the people who have influenced your life, the trainin" and education you received and the !inds of Fobs and assi"nments you've had L.all these have also helped to shape your behaviour. To as! which is more important 1 heredity 1 or environment 1 is li!e as!in" whether the area of a rectan"le is influenced more by its len"th or by its width.

..

+an we chan"e the way we areD =es and no. In one sense, we are constantly "rowin" 1 learnin" new thin"s, meetin" new people, handlin" new assi"nments. These exert an influence on us and our &repertoire& of behaviour is enlar"ed accordin"ly. 8owever, on the basic dimensions of our personality, with which this exercise is concerned, most of our "rowth and development too! place in the first half doKen or so years of our life. *o it is not li!ely that any maFor shifts will ta!e place. ;ersons who are hi"h in Conformity and E enness who decide to become Dominant and Influencers are not li!ely to succeed unless the environment were chan"ed dramatically and their survival depend upon the development of these new behaviours. *ince the wor! environment rarely chan"es dramatically and since our &personality clay& is fairly well set, what is the value of !nowin" one's DICE scoresD *imply this( productivity, Fob satisfaction and teamwor! depend upon havin" the ri"ht faces in the ri"ht places. A team of )uarterbac!s is Fust as useless as a team of bloc!ers. <e need to wor! with others whose profiles supplement and complement our own. %oth parties benefit, as does the wor!. <hen selectin" people for assi"nments on a team or tas! force, it is important that the nature of the wor! environment be analysed so that people can be pic!ed who possess the characteristics that will be most at home in such an environment. The ri"ht match is essential to a &win1win& outcome, both for the individual and the or"anisation. APPLYING THE DICE DIMENSIONS If time permits, you mi"ht ta!e the next 6 1 1I minutes to decide which dimensions of DICE should be hi"h for success in each of the followin" Fobs( Accountant lawyer
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,ibrarian +hemist, research +hemist, )uality control +ler"y :xecutive *enator :n"ineer

parts cler! retail sales cler! salesperson with territory boo!!eeper teacher nurse

Actions I plan to ta!e as a result of analysin" my *elf1 Awareness ;rofile(

<ith my boss 0r customers(

<ith my peers

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at wor!

<ith my *ubordinates(

<ith my family and Mor friends

LEADERSHIP STUDIES
M!c$!.a% L a3 r1$!) S*'3! 1 Michi"an 4niversity studies resulted in the identification of two concepts( :M;,0=:: 0>I:7TATI07

;>0$4+TI07 0>I:7TATI07

.A

:mployee orientation stress relationship, accept individuality and personal needs.


;roduction orientation emphasiKes production and the technical aspects of their Fob.

These two orientations parallel the authoritarian Btas!s2 and democratic Brelationships2 concepts of the continuum. MICHIGAN STUDIES

:M;,0=:: 0>I:7TATI07

;>0$4+TI07 0>I:7TATI07

O$!o S*a* U%!0 r1!*y 4 ,5+67 The 0hio studies resulted in the identification of two dimensions(

I7ITIATI7? *T>4+T4>: +07*I$:>ATI07 CONSIDERATION ,isten to "roup members %e willin" to ma!e chan"es /riendly Approachable *hares ideas
.C

INITIATING STRUCTURE Assi"ns tas!s ?ives direction *tandard rules and procedures *ets specific obFectives

P MANAGERIAL E GRID O P %la!e and Jane Mouton2 B>obert L E

In the mana"erial "rid %la!e and Mouton developed a method to help measure a mana"ers relative concern for people and tas!s.

8> N 8i"h >elationship ,T N ,ow Tas!


1.H 8> ,T 5

1 1

8T N 8i"h Tas! ,> N ,ow >elationship


H.H 8T 8> 5

.G

, ,T ,> 1.1

TAS#

,> 8T H.1

,8, N Impoverished Mana"ement 1 low concern for people and low concern for tas!. ,aisseK1faire. The leader abdicates ,85 9 58, 9 686 9 585 9 +ountry +lub Mana"ement 1 8i"h concern for employees but low concern for production. Tas! Mana"ement 1 8i"h concern for production but low concern for people Middle of the >oad 1 An intermediate concern for tas! and people. $oesn't roc! the boat.

Team or $emocratic Mana"ement 1 hi"h concern for production and people. %la!e and Mouton state this is the most effective style. This style will in almost all situations result in PRODUCTIONhi"h performance.

In their MANAGERIAL GRID +oncern for production is seen on the horiKontal axis. ;roduction becomes more important to the leader as his ratin" advances alon" the horiKontal axis. A leader with a ratin" of nineBH2 has a maximum concern for production. PEOPLE +oncern for people is illustrated on the vertical axis. ;eople become more important to the leader as he pro"resses up the vertical axis. A leader with a ratin" of nine BH2 on the vertical axis has maximum concern for people. ONE BEST STYLE

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The mana"erial "rid implies that the most desirable style is a BH,H2 style Bmaximum concern for people and maximum concern for production. GROUP DISCUSSION
$0 =04 A?>:: T8AT T8:>: I* 07: %:*T *T=,:D LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

STYLE ADAPTABILITY

More advanced research indicates that the style of leadership must be adapted to meet the particular situation and the needs of the followers. The forces within the leader also have an impact on the leaders style his confidence, experience, bac!"round, values etc. A sin"le style of leadership does not ta!e into consideration cultural differences, traditions, customs, education levels, standard of livin" and industrial experience.
B>efer to &+ultural $ifferences&, Module 1 /unctional ,eadership2

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://:+TI9:7:** E N f B,, /, *2

/0>+:* I7 T8: LEADER /0>+:* I7 T8: SUBORDINATE Bfollower2 /0>+:* I7 T8: SITUATION

VIDEO DISCUSSIONS

THE STUDY OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR CONFORMITY2 OBEDIENCE2 DISSENT LEADERSHIP DISCUSSION NOTES $iscuss in your "roup the main lessons learnt.
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31

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLL

THEORY X AND THEORY Y

4DOUGLAS MCGREGOR7 THEORY X Accordin" to Mc?re"or, a traditional view of motivation that holds that wor! is distasteful to employees who must be motivated by force or money.

3'

Most people are seen by mana"ers with Theory E assumptions as bein"(

,aKy $isli!e wor! Avoid responsibility 4nambitious Avoid ris! 4ncreative

THEORY Y Accordin" to Mc?re"or, the assumption that people are inherently motivated to wor! and do a "ood Fob. Mana"ers with Theory = assumptions believe that( ;eople li!e wor! *ee! responsibility +reativity is widely distributed +apacity to accept

X AND Y CONTINUUM Theory E and Theory = can be seen as formin" the ends of a continuum.

X----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Y

Mana"ers often hold two sets of assumptions and they vary their style of leadership accordin"ly movin" alon" the continuum from E to = and re"ressin" if their assumptions differ when dealin" with another person or situation.
3.

THEORY X Authoritarian Tall structures >ules and procedures ;olicy manuals +entralised control 4nitary $ownward communication Tellin"

THEORY Y $emocratic ;articipative /lat structure <ide "uidelines $ele"ation ;luralistic 0mni1+ommunication *harin" M discussin" Team wor!

EVOLUTION OF LEADERS
STAGE , %orrow the terminolo"y from the wor! of ,ious Allen, let us discuss three sta"es of leadership(1 The 7atural ,eader 1 4sually promoted because of his technical ability, characteristic of an entrepreneur +ontinues performin" technical wor! +entraliKes authority Ma!e instinctive decisions %uilds around personalities +ommunicates by tellin" +ontrols by personal inspection +oncerned with own needs rather than needs of the "roup :xtrinsic motivation $o it my way 33

STAGE 2 S!.%1 o/ Cr!1!1 *ubordinates "row frustrated Assistant positions created +ommittees abound Morale drops :xpenses rise ;eople leave

STAGE T$ Pro/ 11!o%al Ma%a. r : L a3 r E( r. 1 ?ets results throu"h people $ele"ates ;lans with subordinates ,istens as well as tal!s Assi"ns wor! lo"ically 1 not throu"h personalities +ontrols by exception ;uts the "roup first Intrinsic motivation Team wor!
36

LEADERSHIP STYLES ,eadership research in the 1H6I's and 1HAI's identified two types of leadership behaviour.

,8 THE TAS# CENTRED LEADER 28 THE PEOPLE CENTRED LEADER

TAS# CENTRED STYLES Autocratic >estrictive Tas!1oriented *ocially $istant $irective *tructurin"

PEOPLE CENTRED STYLES $emocratic ;ermissive /ollower10riented ;articipative GROUP WOR# , +onsiderate

>ead the followin" bac!"round information

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John %roo!es is a talented, dynamic .3 year old technician specialisin" in electronic systems. /or the past seven years he has wor!ed at the *tandards Association on research. 8e has achieved a number of maFor brea!throu"hs, two have been patented. %roo!s has a stron" entrepreneurial inclination, an individualist nature and a hi"hly competitive achiever. In 1HHG he decided to set up his own company. 8e hired two talented en"ineerin" "raduates who had wor!ed with him on various proFects. 8e also hired %ill James, a very competent production mana"er. %roo!s also intended to hire more technicians once production commences. 1. <hat )ualifications does %roo!s have at this point to be a mana"erD Be.". entrepreneurial s!ills2
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'. <hat approach to mana"ement will %roo!s adopt as +hief :xecutive of his own +ompanyD <hat structure would he desi"nD 8ow would decisions be madeD +ommunication systemsD etc
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
3C

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL..

.. $escribe how you would see the &people& position of the +ompany in 1G months time BThe production mana"er has resi"ned, why2
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3. =ou are a mana"ement consultant 1 what fundamental steps would you recommend %roo!s should ta!eD
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BUSINESS S#ILLS FOR THE EXPERIENCED MANAGER

3G

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

FORCES IN THE LEADER FORCES IN THE SUBORDINATE FORCES IN THE SITUATION

STYLE PROFILE +onsider the 1' situations "iven and choose the action you would ta!e from the four alternative actions "iven for each situation. The best response is the one that reflects your own feelin"sMassumptions. Try to be spontaneous and truthful in your response.

YOU

YOUR BOSS

SITUATION ,8 Yo'r 1';or3!%a* 1 ar %o* r 1)o%3!%. la* ly *o yo'r /r! %3ly co%0 r1a*!o% a%3 o;0!o'1 co%c r% /or *$ !r < l/ar 8 T$ !r ) r/or(a%c !1 /all!%. A8 B8 C8

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS E()$a1!1 *$ '1 o/ '%!/or( )roc 3'r 1 a%3 *$ % c 11!*y /or *a1& acco()l!1$( %*8 Ma& yo'r1 l/ a0a!la;l /or 3!1c'11!o% ;'* 3o%=* )'1$ Tal& <!*$ 1';or3!%a* 1 a%3 *$ % A8 B8 C8

3H

D8 SITUATION 28 T$ o;1 r0a;l ) r/or(a%c o/ yo'r .ro') !1 !%cr a1!%.8 Yo'r $a0 ; % (a&!%. 1'r *$a* all ( (; r1 < r a<ar o/ *$ *$ !r rol 1 a%3 1*a%3ar31 A8

1 * .oal18 I%* %*!o%ally 3o %o* !%* r0 % ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS E%.a. !% /r! %3ly !%* rac*!o%2 ;'* co%*!%' *o (a& 1'r *$a* all ( (; r1 ar <ar o/ *$ !r rol 1 a%3 1*a%3ar318 Ta& %o 3 /!%!* ac*!o% Do <$a* yo' ca% *o (a& *$ .ro') / l !()or*a%* a%3 !%0ol0 3 E()$a1!1 *$ !()or*a%c o/ 3 a3l!% 1 a%3 *a1&1 ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

D8

A8

B8 C8 D8

B8 C8 D8

SITUATION -8 M (; r1 o/ yo'r .ro') ar '%a;l *o 1ol0 a )ro;l ( *$ (1 l0 18 Yo' $a0 %or(ally l /* *$ ( alo% 8 Gro') ) r/or(a%c a%3 !%* r) r1o%al r la*!o%1 $a0 ; % .oo38 SITUATION +8 Yo' ar co%1!3 r!%. a (a?or c$a%. 8 Yo'r 1';or3!%a* 1 $a0 a /!% r cor3 o/ acco()l!1$( %*8 T$ y r 1) c* *$ % 3 /or c$a%. 8 A8 B8 C8 D8
YOU

A8 B8 C8 D8

I%0ol0 *$ .ro') a%3 *o. *$ r %.a. !% )ro;l ( 1ol0!%. L * *$ .ro') <or& !* o'* Ac* >'!c& a%3 /!r(ly *o corr c* a%3 r 3!r c*8 E%co'ra. .ro') *o <or& o% )ro;l ( a%3 ; a0a!la;l /or 3!1c'11!o% ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

A8 B8 C8 D8

Allo< .ro') !%0ol0 ( %* !% A8 3 0 lo)!%. *$ c$a%. 2 ;'* 3o%=* )'1$8 A%%o'%c c$a%. 1 a%3 *$ % B8 !()l ( %* <!*$ clo1 1') r0!1!o%8 Allo< .ro') *o /or('la* !*1 o<% C8 3!r c*!o%8 I%cor)ora* .ro') D8 r co(( %3a*!o%12 ;'* 3!r c* *$ c$a%. YOUR
BOSS

SITUATION 68 T$ ) r/or(a%c o/ yo'r .ro') $a1 ; % 3ro))!%. 3'r!%. *$ la1* / < (o%*$18 M (; r1 $a0 ; % '%co%c r% 3 <!*$ ( *!%. o;? c*!0 18 R 3 /!%!%. rol 1 $a1 A8 B8 C8

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS Allo< .ro') *o /or('la* !*1 o<% 3!r c*!o%8 I%cor)ora* .ro') r co(( %3a*!o%1 ;'* 1 *$a* o;? c*!0 1 ar ( *8 R 3 /!% .oal1 a%3 1') r0!1 car /'lly8 A8 B8 C8

6I

$ l) 3 !% *$ )a1*8 T$ y $a0 co%*!%'ally % 3 3 r (!%3!%. *o $a0 *$ !r *a1&1 3o% o% *!( 8 SITUATION @8 Yo' 1* )) 3 !%*o a% //!c! %*ly r'% 1!*'a*!o%8 T$ )r 0!o'1 a3(!%!1*ra*or ra% a *!.$* 1$!)8 Yo' <a%* *o (a!%*a!% a )ro3'c*!0 1!*'a*!o%2 ;'* <o'l3 l!& *o ; .!% $'(a%!1!%. *$ %0!ro%( %*8 SITUATION A8 Yo' ar co%1!3 r!%. (a?or c$a%. 1 !% yo'r or.a%!1a*!o%al 1*r'c*'r 8 M (; r1 o/ *$ .ro') $a0 (a3 1'.. 1*!o%1 a;o'* % 3 3 c$a%. 8 T$ .ro') $a1 3 (o%1*ra* 3 /l B!;!l!*y !% !*1 3ay-*o-3ay o) ra*!o%18 SITUATION D8 Gro') ) r/or(a%c a%3 !%* r) r1o%al r la*!o%1 ar .oo38 Yo' / l 1o( <$a* '%1'r a;o'* yo'r lac& o/ 3!r c*!o% !% *$ .ro')8

D8

Allo< .ro') !%0ol0 ( %* !% 1 **!%. .oal1 ;'* 3o%=* )'1$ ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS

D8

A8 B8 C8 D8

Do <$a* yo' ca% *o (a& .ro') / l !()or*a%* a%3 !%0ol0 38 E()$a1!1 *$ !()or*a%c o/ 3 a3l!% 1 a%3 *a1&18 I%* %*!o%ally 3o %o* !%* r0 % 8 G * .ro') !%0ol0 3 !% 3 c!1!o%(a&!%.2 ;'* 1 *$a* o;? c*!0 1 $a0 ; % ( *8 ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS D /!% *$ .ro') a%3 *o. *$ r %.a. !% )ro;l ( 1ol0!%. Ac>'!r .ro')=1 a))ro0al o% *$ c$a%. a%3 allo< ( (; r1 *o or.a%!1 *$ !()l ( %*a*!o%8 B <!ll!%. *o (a& c$a%. 1 a1 r co(( %3 32 ;'* (a!%*a!% co%*rol o/ !()l ( %*a*!o%8 A0o!3 co%/ro%*a*!o%C l a0 *$!%.1 alo% 8 ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS L a0 *$ .ro') alo% 8 D!1c'11 *$ 1!*'a*!o% <!*$ *$ .ro') a%3 *$ % !%!*!a* % c 11ary c$a%. 18 Ta& 1* )1 *o 3!r c* 1';or3!%a* 1 *o<ar3 <or&!%. !% a < ll3 /!% 3 (a%% r8 B car /'l o/ $'r*!%. ;o111';or3!%a* r la*!o%1 ;y ; !%. *oo 3!r c*!0 8

A8 B8 C8 D8

A8 B8 C8 D8

A8 B8 C8 D8

A8 B8 C8 D8

A8 B8 C8 D8

SITUATION

YOU

YOUR BOSS

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS L * *$ .ro') <or& !* )'* I%cor)ora* .ro') r co(( %3a*!o%12 ;'* 1 *$a* o;? c*!0 1 ar ( *8 R 3 /!% .oal1 a%3 1') r0!1 car /'lly8 Allo< .ro') !%0ol0 ( %* !% A8 B8 C8 D8

58 Yo'r 1') r!or $a1 a))o!%* 3 yo' *o $ a3 a *a1& /orc *$a* !1 /ar o0 r3' !% (a&!%. r >' 1* 3 r co(( %3a*!o%1 /or c$a%. 8 T$ .ro') !1 %o* cl ar o% !*1 .oal18 A** %3a%c a* 1 11!o%1 $a1 ; % )oor8

A8 B8 C8 D8

61

T$ !r ( *!%.1 $a0 *'r% 3 !%*o 1oc!al .a*$ r!%.18 Po* %*!ally *$ y $a0 *$ *al %* % c 11ary *o $ l)8 SITUATION ,E8 Yo'r 1';or3!%a* 12 '1'ally a;l *o *a& r 1)o%1!;!l!*y2 ar %o* r 1)o%3!%. *o yo'r r c %* r 3 /!%!%. o/ 1*a%3ar318 A8 B8 C8 D8 SITUATION ,,8 Yo' $a0 ; % )ro(o* 3 *o a % < )o1!*!o%8 T$ )r 0!o'1 1') r0!1or <a1 '%!%0ol0 3 !% *$ a//a!r1 o/ *$ .ro')8 T$ .ro') $a1 a3 >'a* ly $a%3l 3 !*1 *a1&1 a%3 3!r c*!o%8 Gro') !%* rr la*!o%1 ar .oo38 SITUATION ,28 R c %* !%/or(a*!o% !%3!ca* 1 1o( !%* r%al 3!//!c'l*! 1 a(o%. 1';or3!%a* 18 T$ .ro') $a1 a r (ar&a;l r cor3 o/ acco()l!1$( %*8 M (; r1 $a0 // c*!0 ly (a!%*a!% 3 lo%. ra%. .oal18 T$ y $a0 <or& 3 !% $ar(o%y /or *$ )a1* y ar8 All ar < ll >'al!/! 3 /or *$ *a1&8 A8 B8 C8 D8 A8 B8 C8 D8

1 **!%. .oal12 ;'* 3o%=* )'1$8

ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS Allo< .ro') !%0ol0 ( %* !% r 3 /!%!%. 1*a%3ar312 ;'* 3o%=* )'1$8 R 3 /!% 1*a%3ar31 a%3 1') r0!1 car /'lly8 A0o!3 co%/ro%*a*!o% ;y %o* a))ly!%. )r 11'r 8 I%cor)ora* .ro') r co(( %3a*!o%12 ;'* 1 *$a* % < 1*a%3ar31 ar ( *8 ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS Ta& 1* )1 *o 3!r c* 1';or3!%a* 1 *o<ar31 <or&!%. !% a < ll-3 /!% 3 (a%% r8 I%0ol0 1';or3!%a* 1 !% 3 c!1!o% (a&!%. a%3 r !%/orc .oo3 co%*r!;'*!o%18 D!1c'11 )a1* ) r/or(a%c <!*$ .ro') a%3 *$ % yo' Ba(!% *$ % 3 /or % < )rac*!c 18 Co%*!%' *o l a0 .ro') alo% 8 ALTERNATIVE ACTIONS Try o'* yo'r 1ol'*!o% <!*$ 1';or3!%a* 1 a%3 Ba(!% *$ % 3 /or % < )rac*!c 18 Allo< .ro') ( (; r1 *o <or& !* o'* *$ (1 l0 18 Ac* >'!c&ly a%3 /!r(ly *o corr c* a%3 r 3!r c*8 Ma& yo'r1 l/ a0a!la;l /or 3!1c'11!o%2 ;'* ; car /'l o/ $'r*!%. ;o11-1';or3!%a* r la*!o%18 A8 B8 C8 D8

A8 B8 C8 D8 A8 B8 C8 D8

T$ Ba1!c L a3 r B $a0!o'r S*yl 1

6'

H ! . $ R l a * ! o % 1 $ ! ) ; $ a ! 0 ! o ' r L o <

FUADRANT -

FUADRANT 2

8i"h >elationship and ,ow Tas! F'a3ra%* +

8i"h Tas! and 8i"h >elationship F'a3ra%* ,

,ow Tas! and ,ow >elationship

8i"h Tas! and ,ow >elationship

,ow2

Tas! %ehaviour

B8i"h2

D * r(!%!%. L a3 r1$!) S*yl a%3 S*yl Ra%.

4S*yl Ra%. 7 Al* r%a*!0 Ac*!o%1

6.

SITUATIONS ,

4,7 A D

427 C A A D B D C B B D C A 427

4-7 B C D A D A B D D A B D 4-7

4+7 D B B C A C D A A C D B 4+7

2 C B + C 6 B @ A A C D C 5 B ,E A ,, C ,2 4,7 S'; Col'(%1

+ircle the action letter you chose for each situation. Add the circles in each column and transfer to the &styles& dia"ram above.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

VIDEO BASED DISCUSSION

63

LEADER STYLES SPARTICIPATE SELL S2

S+ DELEGATE TELL

S,

,eader style must be appropriate to the Fob !nowled"e, experience confidence and security level of the subordinate

=ou must read the GTRAFFIC LIGHTSG 1 what is the maturity level. M3 M. M' M1

REGRESSION
If the M level re"resses BM3 to M'2 then the leader style B*2 must also chan"e. B*3 to *'2

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

66

A maFor contin"ency approach to leadership is the 8ersey and %lanchard *IT4ATI07A, ,:A$:>*8I; T8:0>= that holds that the most effective leadership style varies with the MAT4>IT= of subordinates. Maturity is not a"e or emotional stability but the desire for achievements, willin"ness to accept responsibilities, tas!1related ability, security and self1 confidence. LEADERSHIP STYLE <e must first understand the relationship between tas!1relevant maturity and the appropriate leadership styles. :ach of four leadership styles(1
TELLING SELLING PARTICIPATING DELEGATING

is a combination of tas! and relationship behaviour.

Ta1& B $a0!o'r This is the extent to which the leader provides direction, tells them what to do when to do it, where to do it, and how to it. It means settin" obFectives and definin" roles.

6A

R la*!o%1$!) B $a0!o'r This is the extent to which a leader en"a"es in two1way communication with people, providin" support, encoura"ement, and psycholo"ical stro!es and facilitatin" behaviours. It means actively listenin" to people and supportin" their efforts. Ma*'r!*y L 0 l1 The maturity of followers is a )uestion of de"ree. M1 N ;eople who are unable and unwillin" to ta!e responsibility. 7ot competent or confident. Thus a clear directive that provides direction and supervision is effective. This is called TELLING and is termed &*1&. M' N ;eople who are unable but willin". +onfident but lac! s!ills. $irective and supportive behaviour is called for. Two1way communication and explanation. The leader tries to "et the follower to &buy in& to the desired behaviour. This involves hi"h tas! and hi"h relationship and is termed SELLING &*'&.

M. N ;eople are able but unwillin" 1 lac! of confidence or insecurity. Two1way communication and active listenin" are called for. *upport that follows efforts to use his ability. Thus a supportive, non1directive style. This is called PARTICIPATING and involves a hi"h relationshipMlow tas! approach &*.&.

6C

M3 N ;eople at this level are both able and willin" or confident to ta!e responsibility. They are permitted to run the show. ,ittle direction or support is needed. ,ow tas! M low relationship &*3&. This is dele"atin".

MATURITY LEVEL APPROPRIATE STYLE M, ,ow Maturity 4nable and 4nwillin" or insecure M2
6G

S, Tellin" 8i"h tas! and ,ow >elationship S2

,ow to moderate maturity 4nable but willin" or +onfident Msecure MModerate to hi"h maturity Able, competent and <illin", confident M+ 8i"h Maturity Able, competent and <illin", confident

*ellin" 8i"h tas! and 8i"h relationship S;articipatin" 8i"h relationship and low tas! behaviour S+ $ele"atin" ,ow relationship and low tas! behaviour

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER GROUP WOR# In your "roups consider some of the theories we have discussed in previous module and list their relationships to the Maturity ,evel.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

STYLE PROFILE

8i

S-

>elationship
6H

T$ ory X - T$ ory Y )ro/!l ?ood people or bad people. <ith me or a"ainst me. +an become a self 1fulfillin" prophecy. Ta!es M' people and move them up or down. $o not develop people they do not li!e Ma!e a mista!e and movement is from *. to *1.

S,
,o a Tas! 8i

8i

>elationship

S+
,o

S, 8i

*imilar to E and =. +ompetent you are left alone 1 Incompetent I will ride you. :ither tellin" or dele"atin". ?ood at "oin" in and turnin" a situation around. ,ac!s the developed s!ills ;eople not developed smoothly B*/;2

8I

S-

S2

>elationship

,o

?ood if wor!in" with people of avera"e maturity levels. ,eader finds discipline B*12 difficult. Most fre)uently found in 4*A 4sually )uite effective. These are &safe& styles. >is!y if used inappropriately. *. with an M3. Must learn to use *1 and *3. #imbabwe hi"h on this dimension 8i ,eaders feel uncomfortable when they are not &callin" the shots&. 9ery characteristic of en"ineers 1 tend to remain technical when promoted. Teachers who have become administrators. 4sually effective in production and in crisis situations. ;eople not fully developed. Must learn to use *. and *3 appropriately.

Tas!

8i

S2
>elationship

,o
AI

S,

Tas!

8i

8i

>elationship

S2

S+
,i o

;rimary style *', secondary *3. $o not feel secure unless they are "ivin" direction. 4sually fail at dele"ation because they move from *' to *3, missin" *.. &leave alone& and &Kap& style.

8i

Top Mana"ement
8I >elationship

*. 1 *3 ,eaders feel uncomfortable with "ivin" instructions M directions. 9ery appropriate with hi"h level of maturity. ;roblems with M1 and M' and when people re"ress. Top mana"ers with competent team. <omen are often found here. ;eople without trainin" find it *. 1 *3 difficult to brea! out this style. *1 1 *'

S-

S+
,0 o Middle

Mana"ement

Tas!

8i

USUAL STYLES FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS


*upervisory *1 *'

A1

O'3 O1G O1' OA I

EFFECTIVE STYLES IN DEALING WITH ,2 SITUATIONS GIVEN


1A 11'
EFFECTIVE

11G 1'3
A'

4ACTIONS7

SITUATION ,

4A7 +2 +2

4B7 -1 -2 -1 -2 +1 +1 +2 -2 +1 -2 +2 +2 H H

4C7 +1 +1 -2 +2 +2 -2 -2B -2 +2 -1 -1 -2 H
TOTAL

4D7 -2 -2 +2 -1 -1A +2 +1 +1 -1 +2 +1 +1 9

2 +1 +1 + -2 6 -1 @ -2 A +2 D -2 5 +1 ,E -2 ,, -1 ,2

INEFFECTIVE

EFFECTIVE STYLES IN DEALING WITH ,2 SITUATIONS GIVEN

SITUATION 1

ACTION A O'

RATIONALE 8TM8> ;rovides the direction to improve in the short run.

A.

' .

A O' $ O' + O' + O' $ O' % O' A O' + O' $ O' % O' % O'

8TM8> /acilitates team maturity. *ome structure is maintained. /riendly interaction 8>M,T ?roup derives its own solution. ,eader available as facilitator. ,TM,> Maximise involvement of mature "roup in implementin" chan"e. 8TM,> ;rovides direction to productivity in short run. 8TM$> ;rovide structures but humanise the environment. 8>M,T $emonstrate consideration, focus "roup involvement ,TM,> ?roup provides own structure and support 8T M,> ;rovide direction for "roup to accomplish "oals. 8TM8> Maintain structures until standards met. ?ood communications. 7ormally a mature "roup 8>M,T Allows "roup to solve problem whilst providin" direction. ,TM,> Allows "roup to solve it own problem

3 6 A C G H 1I

11

1'

MA*,0<'* 7::$* 1 *0+IA, :T+ ,I/: ;0*ITI07* 1 I'M &05& =04 &05& :T+ 8:>#%:>? 1 M0TI9AT0>* A7$ 8=?I:7+: /A+T0>* Mc?>:?0> 1 T8:0>= E A7$ T8:0>= =

Identify the characteristics of each maturity level usin" the above theories.
A3

M1 Maslows basic needs etc


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..

M'
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..

M.
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

M3
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

A6

MATURITY SCALE MANAGERS RATING METHOD

HIGH D M+ A@

MODERATE 6 + MM2 AA - 2

LOW , M,

MATURITY LEVEL 4EXERCISE7


1. 0ne member of the "roup selects a subordinate from his wor!place and explains to the "roup( Job Title of *ubordinate
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..

a.

b.

Main $uties
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

c. 8is "eneral style and leadership with the subordinate Bsee pa"e L.2 ,:A$:> *T=,: 4*:$

28 GROUP DISCUSION Actin" as consultants the team now )uestions the member Bleader2 and establishes the J0% MAT4>IT= and ;*=+80,0?I+A, MAT4>IT= of the subordinate B;a"e L.2

AC

+ompare the Maturity ,evel BM level2 with the matrix on pa"e LLand comment( Is the leader usin" the correct style etc.
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

"o; Ma*'r!*y ;ost Job :xperience Job 5nowled"e ;roblem *olvin" Ability Ability to ta!e >esponsibility Meetin" Job $eadlines
LLLLLLLLLLLLLL.. LLLLLLLLLLLLL.L.. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLL.L.. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

To*al "o; Ma*'r!*y Scor IIIIIIIIIIIIIII P1yc$olo.!cal Ma*'r!*y <illin"ness to ta!e responsibility Achievement motivation
LLLLLLLL.LLLLL.. LLLLLLLLLLLLLL

AG

;ersistence <or! Attitude Independence to wor! alone To*al P1yc$olo.!cal Scor

LLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLL III88IIIIIIIIII8

>an! each of the above ten characteristic on a scale of I to G N ,ow G N hi"h 8i"hest possible score for each cate"ory is 3I.

>:M:M%:> =04 A>: >ATI7? T8: I7$I9I$4A, I7 8I* ;>:*:7T J0% 1 &*:>9I+: MA7A?:>& =04 A>: >ATI7? A* A MA7A?:> 70T A T:+87I+A7 ,I*T T8: /47+TI07* M A+TI9ITI:* 0/ MA7A?:M:7T A7$ >A75 8IM A?AI7*T T8:M

MATURITY LEVEL SCORE INTERPRETATION EBa()l *uppose you rated an individual on a score of 'C on J0% MAT4>IT= and a score of '3 on ;*=+80,0?I+A, MAT4>IT= for a particular tas! or his Fob as a

AH

whole. Accordin" to the $ata Matrix, the individual's overall MAT4>IT= would be M. and the most appropriate leadership style would be *. B8i"h >elationshipM,ow Tas! %ehaviour2.

DATA MATRIX

;*=+80 ,0?I+A, MAT4>IT=

M+

M-

M2

M,

M,

M2

M"OB MATURITY

M+

CI

HOW TO USE THE SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL FIRST $etermine what you want to accomplish throu"h your followerBs2 A*5( &<hat is the tas! or "oalD& SECOND $etermine the maturity level of the follower or "roup that is relevant to the tas!. MAT4>IT= I*( A+8I:9:M:7T M0TI9ATI07 &Is the individual or "roup able to set hi"h but realistic "oalsD >:*;07*I%I,IT= &<illin"ness to assume responsibilityD& &Ability to assume responsibilityD& :$4+ATI07M:E;:>I:7+: &$oes the individual or "roup have the education and M or experience that is necessary to accomplish the tas!D& MA>5 T8: MAT4>IT= ,:9:, 0/ T8: /0,,<:> 0> ?>04; M1DL.LL M'DLLL.. M.D L.LL. M3DLLLL THIRD $raw a line from the maturity level up to the leadership style curve. The point where the lines hit is the M0*T ://:+TI9: ,:A$:>*8I; *T=,: that is appropriate for the follower or "roup.

C1

*1DLLLL*'DLLLLL *.DLLLL. *3DLLLLL ?ive the follower a "roup appropriate combination of tas! behaviour and relationship behaviour. TA*5 %:8A9I04> I*( The extents that a leader en"a"es in spellin" out the role of an individual or "roup. The extent that a leader tells an individual or "roup what, when, where and how to do the tas!. >:,ATI07*8I; %:8A9I04> I*( The extent that a leader en"a"es in two1way communication, listenin", supportin", facilitatin" and "ivin" psycholo"ical stro!es.

#EY WOR#S FOR APPROPRIATE LEADERSHIP STYLES T:,,I7?( *:,,I7?( $:,:?ATI7?( hi"h tas! Mlow relationship hi"h tas!Mhi"h relationship low relationshipMlow tas!

;A>TI+I;ATI7?( hi"h relationshipMlow tas!

C'

GROUP WOR# CASE STUDY , +harles $ondo, havin" completed his apprenticeship wor!ed for a number of years in the company's main wor!shop. 8e proved excellent technically, willin" and hi"h motivated. 8e was always willin" to spend lon" hours of his own time solvin" problems. 0n bein" promoted to foreman, his service mana"er told him 1 &<ell done +harles, Fust carry on and you will have a "reat future, come to me if you have any problems.& After three months the number of customer complaints increased and three s!illed artisans left the company. &8e wants to do it all himself.& *aid one technician. The service mana"er only visited the wor!shop on rare occasion 1 &+harles can handle the problem, he's a "reat technician,& was his usual comment. <hat was $ondo's maturity level as a technicianD <hat was $ondo's maturity level as a foremanD <hat style did his mana"er adopt with $ondo 1D As a technicianD As a foremanD +omment usin" the *IT,:A$ Model

C.

CASE STUDY 2 %ill 5ona was a self1tau"ht accountant who had been with the company for over .I years. >ecently a bri"ht youn" +.A. had been recruited to provide a successor to 5ona who was to retire in nine months. %ill was as!ed to ensure that *mith, the youn" +.A was "iven all the trainin" re)uired. %ill put *mith in char"e of certain functions, salaries, ban! si"natory panel's insurance etc. After three months, 5ona was still si"nin" all the letters and insisted that all the wor! be chec!ed personally before bein" si"ned off. *mith felt frustrated and discussed the matter with the M.$. &<ell 5ona's been with us a lon" time 1 he !nows our systems.& was the reply. The next month *mith resi"ned.

+omment on the maturity levels, re"ression, and leadership styles. <hat did the M$ do wron"D <hy did *mith resi"nD

C3

T8:>: 4* &70 07: %:*T <A=& T0 *0,9: 84MA7 >:*04>+:* ;>0%,:M*. T8: MA7A?:> *804,$ 4*: ;>0%,:M*1 *0,9I7? *T>AT:?= T8AT %:*T /IT* T8: 7::$ 0/ *TA// M:M%:>* I7 T8:I> 47IP4: *IT4ATI07*.

C6

+omment in full usin" the *IT,:A$ model


SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

(HIGH)

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR

(LOW)

(HIGH)

,eaders may need to ma!e a re"ressive intervention when their subordinates are be"innin" to behave less maturely than they have in the past.

+han"e of Fob $omestic problems 0utside interests All can result in re"ression. The leader must avoid the &leave alone and Kap& method. 8is intervention must be timely.

CA

Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

Mature

STYLE of leader

SELECTING AN APPROPRIATE STYLE

EFFECTIVE STYLES
4HIGH7
RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIOUR (L!") Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

Mature

M4

M3

M2

CC

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND POWER BASES

EFFECTIVE STYLES
()I*))

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

(L!")

()I*))

M4
E#$ert

M3
Refere%t

M2
Reward

M
Coer&'(e

I%/or(a*!o%

L .!*!(a*

Co%% c*!o%

A leader may use any of seven power bases 1 +oercive, connection, reward, le"itimates referent, information and expert. An M1 subordinate usually needs stron" direction 1 +oercive power is often needed. +onnection and M'MM. seem to react to le"itimate power. Information and expert power seem to be helpful with M.MM3 subordinates.

CG

Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

Mature

STYLE of leader

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND POWER BASES

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

()I*))

(L!")

()I*)) Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

<hen wor!in" with immature people, as first leaders tend to "ive responsibility and cut bac! on direction and structure. A behaviour matures leaders must increase socio1emotional support Bpositive reforcement2. The "radual development from leader control to partial control by the subordinate to e)ual control and finally to subordinate self1control.

CH

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND McGREGOR X : THEORY Y

THEORY 4A**!*'3 7

(L!")

Theory E

Theory =

Theory

Mature

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

()I*)) ()I*))

Most people prefer to be directed, not interested in assumin" responsibility and want security above all. ;eople are not laKy, see! responsibility, self1directed and creative. +ontinuum Theory

X
M1 *1 M1 *1

Y
M3 *3 M3 *3

GI

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION THEORIES

()I*))

8y"iene /actors

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

MOTIVATORS

(L!")

()I*))

Mature

M
*elf 1 Actualisation :steem

M2

M3
*ocial

M4
;hysiolo"ical

*afety 8y"ienic /actors

Motivators

Motivation can be related to maturity levels. This model only provides a benchmar! but one can plot the styles of leadership appropriate when wor!in" with people motivated by various needs. BMA*,0<2 *1, *', *. may well satisfy 8y"iene factors whilst *.M*3 facilitate the occurrence of motivators.

G1

Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

STYLE o/ l a3 r

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP 4REGRESSION7


()I*))

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

(L!")

()I*))

,eaders may need to ma!e a re"ressive intervention when their subordinates are be"innin" to behave less maturely than they have in the past. +han"e of Fob $omestic problems 0utside interest All can result in re"ression. The leader must avoid the &leave alone and Kap& method. 8is intervention must timely.

G'

Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

Mature

STYLE o/ l a3 r

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIPJ DEVELOPMENT CYCLE


()I*)) (L!")

RELATI!+S)I, -E)AVI!UR

M2

M3

M4

LAW OF EFFECT ;oint + $evelopment %ehaviour *tren"thens


C

Immature MATURITY of followers (s)

Mature

;oint % reward the behaviour

;oint A 1 "ive direction

G.

SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP MATURITY AND FOUR BASIC STYLES

G3

CASE STUDY

THE LENTON CORPORATION

In your "roups discuss the case study and answer the )uestions as!ed.

G6

ORGANISATION DIAGRAM

GENERAL MANAGER

SALES MANAGER

FACTORY MANAGER

PERSONNEL MANAGER

MAINTENANCE SUPERVISOR "8 DONDO

GA

EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP

CASE STUDY

The ,enton +orporation opened a new factory in %ulawayo. The labour force comprises 1'I wee!ly paid wor!ers, G supervisors and four mana"erial staff. John $ondo is a )ualified electrician whose Fob is the maintenance of plant and machinery. 8e is 3A years of a"e and has '3 years of experience. 8e is currently at ni"ht school studyin" for a mana"ement diploma. 8e reports to the /actory Mana"er. The /actory Mana"er is %rian ?atsi a"ed 3C. 8e has been with the company for 'I years, is a )ualified en"ineer and holds a certificate in mana"ement. 8e is very friendly and always Foins the wor!ers for lunch. 8e plays in the factory soccer team. 8e tries to maintain a hi"h relationship with all level of staff. 8e has been considered for promotion on a number of occasions but has never made the "rade. 8e reports to the ?eneral Mana"er. ?atsi and $ondo completed their initial trainin" to"ether. The ?eneral Mana"er is +harles %rown. 8e is .C of a"e and is a )ualified +A. 8e has no en"ineerin" experience but did run a successful small printin" company before Foinin" ,enton. 8e is a !een sportsman and leads an active social life. 8e is an out"oin" personality but does not suffer fools li"htly. 8e accepts responsibility and is earmar!ed for rapid promotion.

GC

After three years of operation, the factory doubled its output and the labour force expanded to over 'II. John's wor! responsibilities also "rew and he was often called out after hours and at wee!ends to carry out repairs. 8e performed his wor! without complaint and could always be relied on. A number of new maintenance men were employed and $ondo was promoted to the position of factory Maintenance *upervisor. 8e was responsible for the supervisor of a maintenance section of seven s!illed artisans and ei"ht semi1s!illed. *ome wee!s after John was promoted, the *ales Mana"er reported that he had received a number of complaints that "oods were not bein" manufactured on time due to machine failures, and len"thy down time. The ;ersonnel Mana"er reported that an artisan, who had recently left the company, had "iven him reasons for leavin" as a lac! of challen"es. John $odo appeared to want to do all the wor! himself and was reluctant to dele"ate. The ?eneral Mana"er later discussed the matter with %rian ?atsi and instructed him to interview $ondo and sort the problem out. ?atsi tried to explain but the ?M said,

&7o excuse. ?et a "rip on your staff and if $ondo cannot mana"e, "et someone who can, you are in char"e. I loo! to you to sort the problem out&.

After his discussion with the ?M, B%rian ?atsi2, the factory mana"er interviewed John and discussed with him his supervisory responsibilities. %ecause of the "rowth of the factory and the complexity of the new e)uipment, it was no lon"er possible for one man to do the wor!. 8e explained that John must select and train

GG

suitable subordinates to do the maintenance and direct them so that the maintenance was carried out accordin" to a planned schedule and in an efficient manner. 8e must reduce his technical involvement. After the interview John discarded his overalls and came to wor! in a collar and tie and wore a white supervisor's dustcoat. 8e appeared subdued and very )uiet. *ome wee! later the factory mana"er a"ain received a number of complaints that the e)uipment was in need of repair, downtime was increasin" and production was fallin" behind tar"et. <hen maintenance men were called they always called John before completin" the Fob. John was also often seen in overalls wor!in" on the machines, with maintenance new assistin" him. 0ne artisan reported that John $ondo appeared to be extremely possessive about the machinery and often wor!ed lon" hours overtime. 8e had also been reluctant to train his subordinates in the maintenance of new computerised e)uipment. &<hy is he doin" my Fob, & he as!ed. The factory mana"er had to ta!e some positive action, he also !new that John was experienced technical man and had many years of loyal devoted service. To dischar"e or down"rade him appeared out of the )uestion. %ut what would the ?M a"ree toD <hat can I doD

GH

GROUP DISCUSSION
1. <hat was John $ondo's maturity level as an electrician Bartisan2D
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.LLLLLLLLLLLLLL

'.

<hat was %rian ?atsi's leadership style with John $ondo as an electricianD
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

..

<hat is %rian ?atsi 's life position &o!ayness&D


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

3.

<hat was +harles %rown's leadership style with %rian ?atsiD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

6.

<hat is %rian ?atsi's maturity level as a /actory Mana"erD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

A.

<hat is John $ondo's maturity level as a maintenance supervisorD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

C.

<hat style of leadership did %rian ?atsi use on $ondo as a maintenance supervisorD
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..

<as this appropriateD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

G.

<hat is +harles %row's life position &o!aynessD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.LLLLLLLLLLLL

HI

H.

<hat is %rian ?atsi's "reatest &Maslow& needD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL..

<hy do you say soD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

1I.

<hat is +harles %rown's &Maslow& needD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

A.

<hat would you do now if you were %rian ?atsi to sort the maintenance problem outD
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

%.

/our Months ,ater =ou as the ?M are still receivin" adverse reports. <hat action would you ta!eD ;roduction is fallin", tar"ets are not bein" met@
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

H1

SUMMARY
A SITUATIONAL APPROACH

:ach of the four leadership styles 1 tellin", sellin", participatin" and dele"atin" in the &prescriptive curve& is a combination of tas! behaviour and relationship behaviour. !as" #eha iour is the extent to which the leader provides direction for people, settin" "oals and definin" their roles Be."., tellin" people what to do, when, where and how to do it2. Relationshi$ #eha iour is the extent to which the leader en"a"es in two1way or multi1way communication Be". facilitatin" behaviour2. !ellin% B*12 tends to be most effective for low maturity individuals. ;eople who are both unable and unwillin" to perform a specific tas! need clear directions and close supervision. In emphasisin" hi"h tas!Mlow relationship behaviour, *tyle one re)uires the leader to define roles and to tell people what, where when and how to perform tas!s. At the same time, supportive behaviour is minimised to avoid bein" perceived as permissive or rewardin" of poor performance. &ellin% B*'2 tends to be most effective for low moderate maturity individuals. ;eople who are willin" but unable to ta!e responsibility for a need to display very directive behaviour but should also provide lar"e amounts of supportive behaviour to reinforce followers' willin"ness and enthusiasm. *tyle two is called &sellin"& because most of the direction

H'

is provided by the leader, who now uses two1day communication to explain decisions and "ain follower support.Q 'artici$atin% B*.2 tends to be most effective for moderate to hi"h maturity individuals. /ollowers at this level BM.2 have the ability to perform the specific tas! but lac! confidence or enthusiasm. ,eaders usin" this hi"h level of supportive behaviour, includin" two1way communication and active listenin". *tyle three is called &participatin"& because the leader and follower share decision ma!in", with the primary role of the leader shiftin" to facilitatin" and communicatin". Dele%atin% B*32 tends to be most effective for hi"h maturity people who are both able and willin" to perform the specific tas!. ,eaders usin" this low tas!Mlow relationship style demonstrate little directive or supportive behaviour, because the followers are self1motivated and re capable of self1direction. 4sin" the *ituational ,eadership Model, leaders assess the maturity level of an individual or "roup and provide leadership as the model prescribes( this tends to be the hi"h1probability leadership style for the "iven situation. ,eaders can also use the model to help followers develop in maturity by adFustin" leadership behaviour throu"h the four styles alon" the prescriptive curve. This development cycle is accomplished throu"h a series of two1step processes( first, the leader reduces directive behaviour to encoura"e the follower to assume "reater tas!1relevant responsibility second, as soon as performance improvement is noted, the leader rewards the follower by increasin" supportive behaviour as

H.

positive reinforcement and finally, as the follower reaches hi"her levels of maturity BM. and M32, the leader responds by decreasin" both tas! and relationship behaviour, because very mature people tend to need autonomy more than socio1emotional support. +onversely, the leader can arrest and reserve tendencies toward declinin" performance in followers by reassessin" their maturity level and movin" bac!wards throu"h the prescriptive curve Bthe re"ressive cycle2 to provide the necessary amounts of tas! and relationship behaviour.

H3

MOTIVATION K INTEGRATION OF THEORIES

M3 M. M' M1
8:>*:=
S.A. ESTEEM SOCIAL SECURITY BASIC

MA*,0<

MAI7T:7A7+: /A+T0>* 8:>#%:>? M0TI9AT0>*


A%,: <I,,I7? 70T A%,:
I-m 0.5. I-m 0.5. I-m not I-m not

=ou-re 0.5 =ou-re not =ou-re 0.5 =ou-re not

47 <I,,I7?

%:>7:

H6

VIDEO CASE STUDY


THE DAVID STORY /ollowin" the viewin" of the video 1 discuss the main points and answer the )uestions on pa"e C1 and C'. Mi!e the M$ has been transferred. 8e is bein" replaced by $avid. This is the best division in the "roup.

ORGANISATIONAL DIAGRAM

M$ N $A9I$
>eplaces Mi!e

A,,I*07 *ales Mana"er

%0% Admin Mana"er

J:77= Accountant

J0: *alesman

JA+5I: Accountin" Assistant

HA

VIDEO CASE STUDY


THE DAVID STORY 1. 8ow mature was the team under Mi!eD B<hat indicates thisD2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.. LLLLLLLLLLL

'. <hat was the sales mana"er's Maslow 7eed 1 before $avid's arrivalD BAllison2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL

.. +omment on $avid's belief's about leadership Bstyle, assumptions etc2


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

HC

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL

3. $raw a profile of Jac!ie. +onsider the followin"( a. 8er Maslow need before $avid's arrivalD
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLL.LLLL. b. 8er life position before $avid's arrivalD LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

c. $avid's leader style with Jac!ieD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LL.

d. $id the law of effect play a partD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.

e. 8er Maslow need after $avid's arrivalD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. ..LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

HG

6. <hat was Mi!e's overall leadership style Bwhat indicates thisD2


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL

A. +omment on Mi!e's social distance. B8i"h or low, why do you say soD2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL

C. $avid's overall leadership styleD B$id he follow the "o day principleD2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL.

G. $avid's Maslow needs positionD $oes this have an impact on leadership styleD

HH

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLL..L.

H. Mi!e's life positionD B<hy do you thin! soD2


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLL

1I. The team's maturity level after $avid's arrival. Bwhy do you say so2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

1II

11. +omment on the Accountant's BJenny2 handlin" of the Jac!ie situation. B<as she loyalD $id she accept responsibilityD2
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLL..

1'. +omment on the youn" salesman's behaviour and after $avid's arrival.
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLL

MAIN LESSON LEARNED


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

1I1

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLL

POWER AND DELEGATION

OB"ECTIVE At the end of this lesson dele"ates will be able to discuss the advanta"es of dele"ation and understand the "uidelines to effective dele"ation and better apply the techni)ues in their company. DEFINITION $:,:?ATI07 1 The act of assi"nin" formal and responsibility for completion of specific tas!s to a subordinate

1I'

I* !1 0!*al *$a* *$ l a3 r 1$o'l3 & ) $!(1 l/ /ro( . **!%. !(( r1 3 !% 3 *a!l8 No l a3 r <$o1 3a!ly l!/ !1 1) %* !% *$ co%1!3 ra*!o% o/ 3 *a!l a%3 <$o $a1 %o *!( /or >'! * *$o'.$* a%3 r /l c*!o% ca% 3 0 lo) 1o'%3 )la%1 or (a& $!.$ >'al!*y 3 c!1!o%18

WHAT DELEGATING IS NOT $ele"ation is not wor! dumpin" $ele"ation is not abdication $ele"ation is not loss of control $ele"ation is not a loss of decision ma!in"

ADVANTAGES
*ubordinates are developed *ubordinates are motivated 0pportunity for increased responsibility *peeds up decision ma!in" *elf1confidence and willin"ness to be built up

BARRIERS TO DELEGATION /ears of losin" control ,ac! of self1confidence *ubordinates are not readyD <henD /ear of power loss

1I.

Too disor"anised Insecurity and confusion /ear of bein" blamed EFFECTIVE DELEGATION *et clear obFectives and discuss them. <hat results do you wantD 5now your staff and their MAT4>IT= level +onfidence 1 Abilities 1 security short1comin"s

Increase relationship and motivation $iscuss and ensure commitment to the tas! :stablish suitable chec!s, monitorin" and controls DON=T PASS THE BUC# =ou remain accountable Ma!e full use of Action ;lans

1I3

GROUP WOR# A. <hy do some subordinates in your or"anisation avoid dele"ationD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

%. 8ow can you improve trust and willin"nessD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
1I6

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

+. <hy do some Mana"ers refuse to dele"ateD


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LL

WHY SUBORDINATES AVOID DELEGATION %elow are seven of the more common obstacles to dele"ation expressed by subordinates. 8ow would you deal with theseD 0n the followin" pa"e are listed ei"ht remedies. *elect and record, in the space provided. <hat you consider to be the best remedy for each obstacle. 1. ,ac! of necessary information
1IA

>:M:$=
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

'. ,ac! of time >:M:$=


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL.LLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLL

.. ,ac! of resources Bmoney, e)uipment or manpower2 >:M:$=


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

3. ,ac! of !nowled"e or s!ills >:M:$=


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

1IC

LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

6. ,ac! of self1confidence >:M:$=


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

A. ,ac! of motivation and unwillin"ness to accept responsibility for the proFect >:M:$=
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

C. /ear of unwarranted criticism >:M:$=


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL. LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL

POSSIBLE REMEDIES

1IG

1. Trainin" or retainin" '. ;rovide support. Indicate possibilities for advancement and "rowth. *earch for appropriate non1financial incentives. Try to find proFects that the person is interested in. .. Indicate support and confidence. %uild self1confidence by dele"atin" less complex Fobs or havin" person assist someone else on a similar Fob. 3. ;ersonal assurance and support. Assure person that you will obtain information if re)uested. 6. A"ree on performance "uidelines beforehand. A. *et realistic deadlines for specific sections of the proFect and help person with or"aniKin" his or her time. C. *tress that proper plannin" should help. *earch for efficient methods to !eep the proFect within the resources allocated to it. <hen additional resources are necessary, try to obtain them.

*u""ested remedies for each obstacle(

1IH

OBSTACLE 1 ' . 3 6 A C

REMEDY 3 A C 1 . ' 6

SOME REASONS WHY MANAGERS WILL NOT DELEGATE 1. /eelin" threatened or insecure '. /ear of losin" power or control .. >eluctance to "ive up enFoyable tas!s 3. ,ac! of thrust in subordinates 6. 4nderminin" authority A. /ailure to plan ahead C. It is )uic!er and easier to do it my self G. Mista!es are expensive

A FEW SUGGESTIONS

11I

:ffective dele"ation is often one of the most difficult s!ills for a new mana"er to learn. 8ere are some tips for improvin" poor dele"ation( Ca'1 ;ersonal insecurity Po11!;l Sol'*!o%1 >emember that you probably learned most of your mista!es. Teach your people to anticipate problems and use your own experience to "uide them %uild faith in them throu"h trainin", coachin" and appraisin" their performance +oach and measure your people on the basis of results, not activities Trainin" yourself and your people. ,et your staff accept a tas! by repeatin" your instructions in their own words ?ive your people an opportunity of developin" s!ills and showin" their result %e "rateful instead. The whole department will benefit. 7obody is expected to be e)ually "ood at everythin". The better your people, the better your own promotion prospects. $ele"ate the detail to others $on't try to be perfectionist ;ractice mana"in" techni)ues. The better you them, the more comfortable you will feel with them. 8elp them determine priorities. Ma!e realistic demands. Always have an overview of your people's wor!load.

,ow faith in others 0ver1control Incomplete instructions

,ac! of assi"nin" of responsibility /ear of my staff doin" Fob better than me

$oin" too much detail I can do it better myself I feel more comfortable doin" than mana"in" 0verwor!ed staff

111

DELEGATION

RUNNING THE SHOW DISCUSSION NOTES TYPES OF POWER

Types of power
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL

Advanta"es of dele"ation
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL

11'

%arriers to $ele"ation
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL

?eneral lessons learnt


LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL LLLLL..

11.