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The geography of Pakistan is a profound blend of landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakoram range in the north. Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the urasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Pun!ab provinces lie on the north"western corner of the Indian plate while #alochistan and most of the Khyber"Pakhtunkhwa lie within the urasian plate which mainly comprises the Iranian plateau, some parts of the $iddle ast and %entral Asia. The &orthern Areas and A'ad Kashmir lie mainly in %entral Asia along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earth(uakes where the two tectonic plates collide. Pakistan is bordered by Afghanistan to the north"west and Iran to the west while the People)s *epublic of %hina borders the country in the north and India to the east. The nation is geopolitically placed within some of the most controversial regional boundaries which share disputes and have many"a"times escalated military tensions between the nations, e.g., that of Kashmir with India and the +urand ,ine with Afghanistan. Its western borders include the Khyber Pass and #olan Pass that have served as traditional migration routes between %entral urasia and South Asia. Are) * +omp)r),-.e: more than twice the si'e of %alifornia, slightly larger than Alberta

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M)r-,-me +1)-ms: contiguous 'one- ./ nautical miles 0// km1 continental shelf- .22 nautical miles 0342 km1 or to the edge of the continental margin e5clusive economic 'one- .22 nautical miles 0342 km1 territorial sea- 6. nautical miles 0.. km1

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Pakistan shares its borders with four neighboring countries 7 Afghanistan, %hina, India, and Iran 7 adding up to about 8,94: km 0/,33/.6 mi1 in length 0e5cluding the coastal areas1. Pakistan definitely borders Afghanistan at the +urand ,ine, .,.:2 km 06,39;.6 mi1, which runs from the <indu Kush and the Pamir $ountains. Pak border between the People)s *epublic of %hina and Pakistan spanning about :62 km 0368.9 mi1. It carries on south" eastward and ends near the Karakoram Pass. This line was determined from 6986 to 698: in a series of agreements between %hina and Pakistan and finally on 23"23"6983 both the governments, of Islamabad and #ei!ing, formally agreed. The boundary with Iran, 96. km 0:88.4 mi1, was first delimited by a #ritish commission in the same year as the +urand ,ine was demarcated= separating Iran from what was then #ritish India)s #aluchistan province. The &orthern Areas has five of the world)s seventeen highest peaks along with highest range of mountains the Karakoram and <imalayas. The Siachen >lacier in northern Kashmir has been an important arena for fighting between the two sides since 69;/, although far more soldiers have died of e5posure to the cold than from any skirmishes in the conflict between their &ational Armies facing each other. The Pakistan"India ceasefire line runs from the Karakoram Pass west"southwest to a point about 632 kilometers northeast of ,ahore. This line, about 442 kilometers long, was arranged with ?nited &ations 0?&@1 assistance at the end of the Indo"Pakistani Aar of 69/4"/;. The ceasefire line came into effect on Banuary 6, 69/9, after eighteen months of fighting between Indian forces and Afridi tribals which Pakistan had sent to occupy Kashmir and was last ad!usted and agreed upon by the two countries according to the Simla Agreement of Buly ., 694. between Indira >andhi and Culfikar Ali #hutto. Since then, it has been generally known as the ,ine of %ontrol or the 0,o%1.

The Pakistan"India boundary continues irregularly southward for about 6,.;2 kilometers, following the line of the 69/4 *adcliffe Award, named for Sir %yril *adcliffe, the head of the #ritish boundary commission on the division of the Pun!ab of Pakistan and in united #engal of India into Pakistan)s astern wing of $ashri(i"Pakistan on 63 August 69/4. Although this boundary with India referring only to present"day Pakistan and not aimed at formerly ast Pakistan borders e5cept only all three governments claiming the status of the district of Diro'pur and Pathankot between Pakistan and India. It remains another unresolved issue although it is not formally disputed= passions still run very high indeed on both sides of the international border. $any had e5pected the original boundary line to run farther to the west, thereby ceding the ,ahore region to India, possibly granting them all of >u!ranwala +ivision- Sialkot, &arowal, >u!rat, districts and Sheikhupura, @kara, Kasur districts of ,ahore +ivision= and others had e5pected the line to run much farther east, possibly granting them control of +elhi, the imperial capital of the $ughal mpire including an east Pun!ab state for Sikhs of their own to govern. The southern borders are far less contentious than those in northern Pakistan 0Kashmir1. The Thar +esert in the province of Sindh is separated in the south from the salt flats of the *ann of Kachchh 0Kutch1 by a boundary that was first delineated in 69.3"./. After independence and dissolution of mpire, Independent and free Pakistan contested the southern boundary of Sindh, and a succession of border incidents resulted. They were less dangerous and less widespread, however, than the conflict that erupted in Kashmir in the Indo"Pakistani Aar of August 698: started with this decisive core of issues. These southern hostilities were ended by #ritish mediation during <arold Ailson)s era, and both sides accepted the award of the Indo"Pakistan Aestern #oundary %ase Tribunal designated by the ?& secretary general himself. The tribunal made its award on Debruary 69, 698;= delimiting a line of /23 kilometers that was later demarcated by !oint survey teams, @f its original claim of some 9,622 s(uare kilometers, Pakistan was awarded only about 4;2 s(uare kilometers. #eyond the western terminus of the tribunal)s award, the final stretch of Pakistan)s border with India is about ;2 kilometers long, running east and southeast of Sindh to an inlet of the Arabian Sea.

'HYSI2AL %&A"U$&S:
')3-s,)/ -s 0-.-0e0 -/,o ,4ree m)5or 6eo6r)p4-+ )re)s: ,4e /or,4er/ 4-641)/0s7 ,4e I/0us $ p1)-/8 9-,4 ,9o m)5or sub0-.-s-o/s +orrespo/0-/6 rou641: ,o ,4e pro.-/+es o; 'u/5)b )/0 S-/047 )/0 ,4e <)1o+4-s,)/ '1),e)u. Some geographers designate additional ma!or regions. Dor e5ample, the mountain ranges along the western border with Afghanistan are sometimes described separately from the #alochistan Plateau, and on the eastern border with India, south of the Sutle! *iver, the Thar +esert may be considered separately from the Indus Plain. levation e5tremeslowest point- Indian @cean 2 m highest point- K. 0$t. >odwin"Austen1 ;,866 m "4e /or,4er/ 4-641)/0s: The northern highlands include parts of the <indu Kush, the Karakoram *ange, and the <imalayas. This area includes such famous peaks as K. 0$ount >odwin Austen, at ;,866 meters the second highest peak in the world1. $ore than one"half of the summits are over /,:22 meters, and more than fifty peaks reach above 8,:22 meters. Travel through the area is difficult and dangerous, although the government is attempting to develop certain areas into tourist and trekking sites. #ecause of their rugged topography and the rigours of the climate, the northern highlands and the <imalayas to the east have been formidable barriers to movement into Pakistan throughout history. South of the northern highlands and west of the Indus *iver plain are the Safed Koh *ange along the Afghanistan border and the Suleiman *ange and Kirthar *ange, which define the western e5tent of the province of Sindh and reach almost to the southern coast. The lower reaches are far more arid than those in the north, and they branch into ranges that run generally to the southwest across the province #alochistan. &orth"south valleys in #alochistan and Sindh have

restricted the migration of peoples along the $akran %oast on the Arabian Sea east toward the plains. Several large passes cut the ranges along the border with Afghanistan. Among them are the Kho!ak Pass, about eighty kilometers northwest of Euetta in #alochistan= the Khyber Pass, forty kilometers west of Peshawar and leading to Kabul= and the #roghol Pass in the far north, providing access to the Aakhan %orridor. ,ess than one"fifth of Pakistan)s land area has the potential for intensive agricultural use. &early all of the arable land is actively cultivated, but outputs are low by world standards. %ultivation is sparse in the northern mountains, the southern deserts, and the western plateaus, but the Indus *iver basin in Pun!ab and northern Sindh has fertile soil that enables Pakistan to feed its population under usual climatic conditions. "4e I/0us p1)-/: The name Indus comes from the Sanskrit word sindhu, meaning ocean, from which also come the words Sindh, <indu, and India. The Indus, one of the great rivers of the world, rises in southwestern Tibet only about 682 kilometers west of the source of the Sutle! *iver, which !oins the Indus in Pun!ab, and the #rahmaputra, which runs eastward before turning southwest and flowing through #angladesh. The catchment area of the Indus is estimated at almost 6 million s(uare kilometers, and all of Pakistan)s ma!or riversFthe Kabul, Bhelum, %henab, *avi, and Sutle!Fflow into it. The Indus *iver basin is a large, fertile alluvial plain formed by silt from the Indus. This area has been inhabited by agricultural civili'ations for at least :,222 years. The upper Indus #asin includes Pun!ab= the lower Indus #asin begins at the Pan!nad *iver 0the confluence of the eastern tributaries of the Indus1 and e5tends south to the coast. In Pun!ab 0meaning the Gland of five watersG1 are the Indus, Bhelum, %henab, *avi, and Sutle! rivers. The Sutle!, however, is mostly on the Indian side of the border. In the southern part of the province of Pun!ab, the #ritish attempted to harness the irrigation power of the water over 622 years ago when they established what came to be known as the %anal %olonies. The

irrigation pro!ect, which facilitated the emergence of intensive cultivation despite semi"arid conditions, resulted in important social and political transformations. Pakistan has two ma!or river dams- the Tarbela +am on the Indus, near the early #uddhist site at Ta5ila, and the $angla +am on the Bhelum, where Pun!ab borders A'ad Kashmir built as part of the Indus #asin Pro!ect. The Aarsak +am on the Kabul *iver near Peshawar is smaller. These dams, along with a series of headworks and barrages built by the #ritish and e5panded since independence, are of vital importance to the national economy and played an important role in calming the raging floodwater of 699., which devastated large areas in the northern highlands and the Pun!ab plains. The high plain of the Indus Plain is also called Potwar Plateau and is located near the foothills of <imalayas 0e.g. $argalla <ills1. The deserts located in the Indus plain of Pakistan are Thal, Indus Halley desert, Thar and %holistan. S-s,)/ <)s-/: #alochistan is located at the eastern edge of the Iranian plateau and in the border region between Southwest, %entral, and South Asia. It is geographically the largest of the four provinces at 3/4,692 kmI or 063/,2:6 s(uare miles1 of Pakistani territory= and composes /;J of the total land area of Pakistan. The population density is very low due to the mountainous terrain and scarcity of water. The southern region is known as $akran. The central region is known as Kalat. The Suleiman $ountains dominate the northeast corner and the #olan Pass is a natural route into Afghanistan towards Kandahar. $uch of the province south of the Euetta region is sparse desert terrain with pockets of inhabitable towns mostly near rivers and streams. The largest desert is the Kharan +esert which occupies the most of Kharan +istrict. This area is sub!ect to fre(uent seismic disturbances because the tectonic plate under the Indian plate hits the plate under urasia as it continues to move northward and to push the <imalayas ever higher. The region surrounding Euetta is highly prone to earth(uakes. A

severe (uake in 6936 was followed by one of more destructive force in 693:. The small city of Euetta was almost completely destroyed, and the ad!acent military cantonment was heavily damaged. At least .2,222 people were killed. Tremors continue in the vicinity of Euetta= the most recent ma!or earth(uake occurred in @ctober .22;. In Banuary 6996 a severe earth(uake destroyed entire villages in the Khyber"Pakhtunkhwa, but far fewer people were killed in the (uake than died in 693:. A ma!or earth(uake centred in the Khyber" Pakhtunkhwa)s Kohistan +istrict in 698: also caused heavy damage.

Pakistan lies in the temperate 'one, immediately above the tropic of cancer. The climate varies from tropical to temperate. Arid conditions e5ist in the coastal south, characteri'ed by a monsoon season with ade(uate rainfall and a dry season with lesser rainfall, while abundant rainfall is e5perienced by the province of Pun!ab, and wide variations between e5tremes of temperature at given locations. *ainfall varies from as little as less than 62 inches a year to over 6:2 inches a year, in various parts of the nation. These generali'ations should not, however, obscure the distinct differences e5isting among particular locations. Dor e5ample, the coastal area along the Arabian Sea is usually warm, whereas the fro'en snow"covered ridges of the Karakoram *ange and of other mountains of the far north are so cold year round that they are only accessible by world"class climbers for a few weeks in $ay and Bune of each year. Pakistan has four seasons- a cool, dry winter marked by mild temperatures from +ecember through Debruary= a hot, dry spring from $arch through $ay= the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from Bune through September= and the retreating monsoon period of @ctober and &ovember. The onset and duration of these seasons vary somewhat according to location. Pakistan)s largest city, Karachi, which is also the country)s industrial center, is more humid than Islamabad but gets significantly lesser rainfall. @nly Buly and August average more than :2 millimeters 06.94 in1 of rainfall in the Karachi area= the remaining months are e5ceedingly dry with little rainfall. The temperature is also more uniform in Karachi than in Islamabad, ranging from an average daily

low of 63 K% 0::./ KD1 during winter evenings to an average daily high of 3/ K% 093.. KD1 on summer days. Although the summer temperatures do not get as high as those in Pun!ab, the high humidity causes the residents a great deal of discomfort.

N),ur)1 resour+es )/0 pr-m)r: -/0us,r::

=),er resour+es: <ydrological power is a renewable resource which benefits Pakistan a lot. As Pakistan is far behind in economics it should develop its hydrological power. After the Indus Aater Treaty on 6982 Aorld #ank decided that *iver Sutle!, *avi and bias water will be used by India and *iver Indus, Behlum and %hennab water will be used by Pakistan. Pakistan was told to built . +ams one Tarbela And second $angla, / #arrages and 62 ,ink %anals. Dor this India was told to Participate 82J while Pakistan will participate /2J. Pakistan is considering to develop wind turbines to fulfill the demand for electricity. Solar power is now slowly flourishing but it is still installed on a small scale. Pakistan ,argest *iver is known as *iver Indus which Dlows from Tibet %hina and nters through Pakistan by KPK. *iver Indus System is Known as Indus System. It is divided Into Two Plains. ?pper Indus Plain Ahich Starts Drom &orthern Pakistan and ends ?p to $ithankot. *iver Indus has Tributaries on both western and eastern side. *iver Indus eastern tributaries are *iver Behlum, %hennab,Sutle!, *avi. these Dour *ivers Dlow in Pun!ab. These four *ivers meet at Pa!nad from where they are known as *iver Pa!nad. *iver Indus western Tributaries are *iver Swat, Kabul, Kurrram, Tochi, >omal, Chob. These rivers !oin *iver Indus at KPK. At $ithankot these *ivers Dinally $eet with *iver Indus. After this *iver Indus Dlows Alone Through ,ower Indus Plain. ,ower Indus Plain Starts from $ithankot up to Thatta where *iver Indus $eets with Arabian Sea. This place is also known as Indus +elta.

%ue1 resour+es Pakistan has e5tensive energy resources, including fairly si'able natural gas reserves, petroleum oil reserves, coal fields and large hydropower potential. A6r-+u1,ure About :4J of Pakistan)s total land area is under cultivation and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. The most important crops are cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane, mai'e, sorghum, millets, pulses, oil seeds, barley, fruits and vegetables, which together account for more than 4:J of the value of total crop output. %-s4er: Dishery and fishing industry plays an important role in the national economy of Pakistan. Aith a coastline of about ;6/ km, Pakistan has enough fishery resources that remain to be fully developed. It is also a ma!or source of e5port earning. %ores,r:: About only /J of land in Pakistan is covered with forests. The forests of Pakistan are a main source of food, lumber, paper, fuel wood, late5, medicine as well as used for purposes of wildlife conservation and co tourism. M-/-/6: The Salt *ange in the Potwar Plateau has large deposits of rock salt. Pakistan has e5tensive mineral resources, including fairly si'able reserves of gypsum, limestone, chromites, iron ore, rock salt, silver, gold, precious stones, gems, marbles, tiles, copper, sulfur, fire clay and silica sand.

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The environmental issue is a great problem for the nature and nation of Pakistan and has been disturbing the balance between economic development and environmental protection. As Pakistan is a large importer of both e5haustible and renewable natural resources and a large consumer of fossil fuels, the $inistry of nvironment of >overnment of Pakistan takes responsibility to conserve and protect the environment. 2urre/, -ssueswater pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff= limited natural fresh water resources= a ma!ority of the population does not have access to potable water= deforestation= soil erosion= desertification. N),ur)1 0-s)s,ers Pakistan is sub!ect to fre(uent earth(uakes which are often severe 0especially in north and west1 and severe flooding along the Indus after heavy rains 0Buly and August1. ,andslides are common in the northern mountains.

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Parts of region and settlement names Abad means settlement or town. 5ample- Islamabad, Daisalabad. +era"means settlement or town. 5ample- +era >ha'i Khan. >arh means fort or settlement. 5ample- Islamgarh. >oth means settlement or town. 5ample- Lousuf >oth. Istan means land. 5ample- Pakistan.

Kot means settlement or town. 5ample- Islamkot, Sialkot. &agar means settlement or town. 5ample- Islamnagar. Pur means settlement or town. 5ample- &asarpur. Aal means settlement or town. 5ample- Khanewal.
Aala means settlement or town.

5ample- >u!ranwala