You are on page 1of 8

Tafila technical university Facultry of engineering

Title: lab report of Heat Exchanger

Student name: salam albaradie.

Date of submission: 21/11/2013

Lecturer name : dr.ali alahmer.

introduction:
A heat exchanger is a piece of process equipment in which heat exchange takes place between two fluids that enter and exit at different temperatures. The primary design to a cold fluid. objective of the equipment may be either to remove heat from a hot fluid or to add heat Depending upon the relative direction of fluid motion, shell-and-tube heat exchangers

are classified as parallel flow, counter flow, cross flow. In parallel flow, the hot and cold exit the exchanger on the same end. In counter flow, the two fluids flow in opposite

fluids flowin the same direction and therefore enter the exchanger on the same end and directions and thus enter the exchanger and exit the exchanger from opposite ends.

Cross flow heat exchangers will not beanalyzed as a part of this laboratory experiment.
Figure

Figure 1 - Diagram of Parallel and Counter Flow Configurations

The Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger


Another part of this experiment involves measurements using a commercially available shell and tube heat exchanger. The approximate dimensions as well as positions of inlets and outlets are shown in Fig. 2 along with a generic diagram of a shell and tube heat exchanger. A demonstration unit can be found at the lab station. If you closely examine this unit, you will see that the heat exchanger consists of a bank of tubes containing the hot water surrounded by a shell containing the cold water. The heat exchanger is a part of the overall experimental apparatus, which is shown in Fig. 1. The same sources of hot and cold water and flow meters are employed as for the concentric tube heat exchanger. The previously mentioned thermocouples are employed to measure the fluid temperatures.

General Description
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the flexibility the designer has to allow for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. There are two main categories of Shell and Tube exchanger: 1. those that are used in the petrochemical industry which tend to be covered by standards from TEMA, Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (see TEMA Standards); 2. those that are used in the power industry such as feedwater heaters and power plant condensers. Regardless of the type of industry the exchanger is to be used in there are a number of common features (see Condensers). A shell and tube exchanger consists of a number of tubes mounted inside a cylindrical shell. Figure 3 illustrates a typical unit that may be found in a petrochemical plant. Two fluids can exchange heat, one fluid flows over the outside of the tubes while the second fluid flows through the tubes. The fluids can be single or two phase and can flow in a parallel or a cross/counter flow arrangement.

Figure 3 Shell and tube exchanger.


The shell and tube exchanger consists of four major parts: Front Headerthis is where the fluid enters the tubeside of the exchanger. It is sometimes referred to as the Stationary Header. Rear Headerthis is where the tubeside fluid leaves the exchanger or where it is returned to the front header in exchangers with multiple tubeside passes. Tube bundlethis comprises of the tubes, tube sheets, baffles and tie rods etc. to hold the bundle together. Shellthis contains the tube bundle.

Theory:

Methodology

Data and analysis

First in parallel T hot 67 58 53 T cold 18 29 35 U 0.8680

in mid out

49

18

30.95

80 70 60 50 temp 40 30 20 10 0 length

Figure 4 temp with length in parallel heat exchanger

Second in counter T hot 65 59 52 T cold 18 26 34 U 31 34 32.47

in mid out

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

temp

length

Figure 5 temp with length in counter heat exchanger

sample of calculation

First in parallel

Second in counter

Conclusions:
From the data, the general characteristics of parallel flow and counter flow heat exchangers can be observed. In the parallel flow configuration, the exit temperature of the hot fluid must be higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. This is supported by the data taken. In the counter flow configuration, the exit temperature of the hot fluid must be higher than the entrance temperature of the cold fluid, but it does not necessarily need to be higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. This is also supported by the data, even though in this case the exit temperature of the hot fluid is still hotter than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. From the calculations resulting in overall effectiveness, it is shown that the counter flow heat exchanger is more effective than the parallel flow heat exchanger. This supports generally held knowledge and experimental data concerning the two types of heat exchanger, governed by the Clausius Statement. Additionally, in the counter flow heat exchanger, had the exit temperature of the cold fluid been hotter than the exit temperature of the hot fluid, the effectiveness would have been even higher, reflecting common data in many textbooks. From the, the temperature differences under constant flow rates are shown. Under constant flow rate conditions, the ratio between temperature differences is also constant. If there is a rise in the temperature difference of the hot fluid, there will also be a rise in the temperature difference in the cold fluid. This is governed by a special case of the First Law of Thermodynamics. In this case, the energy is transferred from hot to cold fluids with constant mass flow rates. Therefore the ratio between temperature differences does not change even though the numerical values of the temperature differences may change. From the data, the temperature differences under different flow rates are shown. In this case, the ratio between temperature difference in the hot fluid and temperature difference in the cold fluid changes with respect to the flow rates. This is governed by the First Law of Thermodynamics. In this case, the energy removed from the hot fluid is the energy added to the cold fluid. The higher the flow rate of a fluid, the lower the temperature change in that fluid will be. The opposite is also true, the lower the flow rate of the fluid, the higher the temperature change in the fluid will be.