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*E-mail: chenyinchiang@gmail.com
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1 1997166

200532

2007232

Niche
Hochschild (2000) Global Nanny
Chainthe
International Division of Reproductive Labor
1980

gendering

family care

Brody, 1984
1997221

Hooyman & Gonyea19951999104

1990

199515 2000

2003148
2002

2008

a labor
of love
2
20

2003
2005

20

1985

care about
care for Finch
& Groves19831999105
a labor for loveWareness & Ringer (1987)
caring: both work and feeling
well-being

Wareness (1984: 65-87)

1. personal service care

2. care-giving work
(1)
(2)

3. spontaneous care

Wareness (1)
(2)
caring as a work activity
1999106
Thomas (1993: 649-59)
6

Ungerson, 1990: 8-33


Williams (2003: 2)

social organization
20047

4 diasporas of care

Global
Care Chain
5
4

199760

1999113 6

2003150

Oakley1974
2003150

Graham, 1983

199761

1990
2004 1564
81 1 24.0%
48.3% 6 3
3
69.7%

10

8
motherhoodfemininity
ethnics of family
ethnics of care

15
2000254

1990 9
199210 15 25 2000
11

2003

2000254

10

2000254

11

11

12
2000 13

2002 -

2000254
12

13

2000254

12

200225
2002 5

2000
1990 72%2000 61.8%
12.2% 10.5%

2004

14

14

85

200434

13

199773-81

200417-18

82,000 70
123,000
25,000 104,000

(1)

14

(2)
15
(3)
5 1
200 1,331 5
20036

15

(1)
2 105 16 (2) 3 3
137 (3) 98
16-20 (4) 493 3 (5)
98 6 (6) 3
468 3
(1) 4 3 151 (2)
3
995 36 497 (3)
18 65 (4)
80240 CAF

Dorion and Guionnet, 1997: 30-33 & 4453

15

2000

5,000

2,520 5,000
2004 71 16

17

2001 2007

16

17

1994 45.4%2004 47.71% 1994


13.33%2004 16.37% 180.8
185.7 2003 2.3 200521

16

2003128

parental leave

Sainsbury, 1996
2003131
8 3
4 1
5 3
2001 2005 1
83.5% 1 7.5
57.2% 22.4% 1.2%
16.8% 30
17.9% 39.5%
2.3
18

18

2001 2 2.3
2007
3

17

2002.05

78.1

6.8

65.5

9.4

3.2

21.9

2003.02

79.5

6.8

66.4

10.0

3.2

20.49

20.5

2005.01

83.5

7.5

57.2

22.4

1.2

16.8

2002.05

41.6

58.4

2003.02

47.5

52.5

2005.01

39.5

60.5

2002.05

29.0

2.3

71.0

2003.02

36.8

2.3

63.2

2005.01

42.8

2.3

57.2

2002.05

38.9

61.1

2003.02

57.3

42.7

2005.01

56.7

43.3

2003
2004
18

16
30 1 3
3 2
200551 30
56.7% 43.3% 16
20
22
22
16 20

2009 3
6
7
2002 3
2008 5 6 2 3823 19
6

2003131

19


http://www.awakeningtw.com/awakening/
news_center/show.php?itemid=45552010/06/01

19

20

21

199773 Millar and Goldman (1989: 408410)


respite care service
Millar and Goldman (1989: 408-410)
24

20

4
3 31
2/3 16 2
Dorion and Guionnet, 1997: 30-33
26 34 46
& 44-53

21

20 7

20

1992

13

21

22
2006193

23

22

TIWA

23

200465-68
79.16% 20.84%
12 79.09% 1012 10.38%
810 10.24% 13.5

4.02% 44.66%

22

Graham (1983: 22)

1997165
200517 2003
2.02 162
34.3%2004 23,543
24,261 97%
3% 79.6%
79.5%66.8%
2004
9.5%
43.84% 51.32% 50.56%

1989

23

8.2%
1.9% 0.6%
0.6%

20%

3% 2002
4.1% 5.9% 2004 3.9%
4.8% 6 19992004

200541

2003 1564
331 1,000
30.23%
23.7%

2549
49.4%

2554

24

Carnoy, 1999: 428

Tronto (1993: 180)

25

24

Marshall (1950: 10-11)

1997
104-5

24

2001

26

2000
2000
2002
2002
20042005
2009
52% 2009 12
17

2009

17

27

Connelly, 1992:
26

200548

28

2002

2004

20032003

20042004

20052004

1997

2003
2(4)147-174
2004

1999

101-134
1997
29

57-92

2006
191-195

2003
2003

2002
48
219-234
1997
93-125
2000
39: 93-152
2003
5195-142
1990

1997

161-183
2001
26163-210
2000-
4(1)237-289
30

2009

1995
1995 7-36

2003

1997

185-226
1997
3859-90
2005

11 26
2004
843-97
2007
225-248
2002

48235-286

31

Carnoy, M. (1999). The family, flexible work and social cohesion at


risk. International Labour Review 138(4): 411-429.
Connelly, M. P. (1999). Gender matters: Global Restructuring and
Adjustment. Social Politics 3(1): 12-32.
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Groves D. (eds.), A Labor of Love: Women, work and Caring,
pp.13-30. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Hooyman, Nancy R. and Gonyea, Judith (1995). Feminist
Perspectives on Family Care: Policies for Gender Justice.
Thousand Oaks: Sage Pubications.
Marshall, Thomas H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class. London:
Cambridge University Press.
Millar, D. B. and Goldman, L. (1989). Perceptions Of Caregivers
About Special Respite Service of the Elderly. The Gerontologist
29(3): 408-410.
Oakley, A. (1974). Womens Work: The Housewife, Past and Present.
New York: Pantheon Books.
Thomas, C. (1993). De-constucting Concepts Of Care. Sociology
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Ungerson, Clare ed. (1990). Gender and caring: work and welfare in
Britain and Scandinavia. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
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the Case of Formal and Informal Old-Age Care. The
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Scandinavian Model: Welfare States and Welfare Reasearch. M.


G. Sharpy Inc.
Williams, F. (2003). Rethinking Care in Social Policy. Paper
presented at the Annual Conference of the Finnish Social Policy
Association, University of Joensuu, Finland, Oct. 24.

Dorion, Georges and Guionnet, Andr (2003). La scurit sociale,


8me edition. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

33

Nation and Gender:


An analysis of the gendering of policies
toward caregivers in Taiwan
Chen-Yin Chiang

Abstract
This study examines how national policy influences individual
women and their families from a gender perspective. On the one hand,
national policy constantly constructs women as the primary source of
caregiving. At the same time, it shifts caregiving tasks to foreign
caregivers, thereby deepening and consolidating national, class, and
gender-based inequality. This paper analyzes policies toward caregivers in
Taiwan from five levels: cultural and moral norms; legal framework;
policy value orientation; the lack of alternative caregiving policy
proposals; and the pressure of the economic gender gap. This research
examines how Taiwan genderizes caregiving responsibilities and suggests
four ways to degender policy toward caregivers: promoting caregivers
exercise of their social rights and citizens rights; enhancement of
womens economic security; improvement of foreign caregivers labor
rights; and improvement of foreign caregivers labor conditions.
Keywords: policy, caregiving responsibility, gendering, family care, foreign
caregiver

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