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SHAPING

Planing/Shaping is a manufacturing process of material removal in which the work piece reciprocates against a stationary single-point cutting tool producing a plane or sculpted surface. Planing is analogous to shaping. The main difference between these two processes is that in shaping the tool reciprocates across the stationary work piece. Planning motion is the opposite of shaping. Both planning and shaping are rapidly being replaced by milling. The mechanism used for this process is known as a planer. The size of the planer is determined by the largest work piece that can be machined on it. The cutting tools are usually carbide tipped or made of high speed steel and resemble those used in facing and turning. Process Characteristics 1. Uses single-point cutting tools . !nvolves a reciprocating motion between the tool and work piece ". Produces plane or sculpted surfaces #. leaves parallel feed marks PROCESS: !n shaping$ the tool is brought into position with the work piece. The tool then repeatedly moves in a straight line while the work piece is incrementally fed into the line of motion of the tool$ this produces a flat$ smooth$ and sculpted surface. %or shaped pieces the tool reciprocates across the stationary work piece. The tools are usually tilted or lifted after each stroke. This is done hydraulically or manually in order to prevent the tool surface from chipping when the work piece travels back across.

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Planing can be used to produce flat surfaces$ as well as cross-sections with grooves and notches are produced along the length of workpiece. *haping is basically the same as planing$ e+cept the workpiece is usually smaller$ and it is the tool that moves and not the workpiece. Planing can be used to produce horizontal$ vertical$ or inclined flat surfaces on workpieces usually too large for shaping. *haping is used not only for flat surfaces$ but also for e+ternal or internal surfaces ,either horizontal or inclined-. .urved and irregular surfaces can also be produced by using special attachments. SET-UP an E!UIP"ENT %lat$ angular$ and contoured surfaces are made by horizontal shapers. .oncerning shaping$ the device that holds the piece being worked on has a very heavy movable /aw to withstand cutting forces. The size of the planer needed is determined by the

workpiece. 0epending on the size of the workpiece many clamps and supporting devices may be used to hold it on the planer. T#PICA$ TOO$S an GEO"ETR# PRO%UCE% The tools for shaping1planing are usually made of high speed steel or carbide tipped. 2+cept for some slight angle difference$ cutting tools resemble those used in facing and turning. *ome advantages of using single-point cutting tools over multipoint tools is that they are more easily sharpened and fabricated. !nternal shapes can be made by using a special e+tension tool. "ATERIA$ PROPERTIES 'lthough the most common material to be planed or shaped is wood$ there are planers and shaping machines capable of processing anything from metal pieces to plastic ob/ects. E&A"P$ES:

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- "illing is the 'ost co''on (or' o( 'achining) a 'aterial re'o*al process) +hich can create a *ariet, o( (eat-res on a part ., c-tting a+a, -n+ante 'aterials. -it incl- es a n-'.er o( highl, *ersatile 'achining operation capa.le o( pro -cing a *ariet, con(ig-ration +ith the -se o( 'illing c-tter "I$$ING CUTTER - A '-lti tooth tool that pro -ces a n-'.er o( chips in one re*ol-tion "I$$ING "ACHINE Instr-'ent -se in 'illing. It has a co''on part/ the (i0t-re an the c-tter 1i0t-re sec-res the +or2piece +hile in a process. C-tter is a c-tting tool that c-ts a+a, portion o( the +or2piece to create the esire shape.

%I11ERENT "I$$ING OPERATION:


Sla. 'illing -'lso called peripheral milling$ the a+is cutter rotation is parallel to the workpiece surface to be machined -.utters for slab milling may have straight or helical teeth resulting in$ respective$ orthogonal or obli4ue cutting action. 1ace 'illing -!n face milling$ the cutter is mounted on a spindle having an a+is of rotation perpendicular to the workpiece surface. -The cutter rotates at a rotational speed and the workpiece moves along a straight path at a linear speed En 'illing -%lat surfaces as well as various profile can be produced by end milling. -The cutter in end milling has either straight or tapered shank for smaller and larger cutter sizes$ repectively. Stra le 'illing

-Two or more cutters are mounted on an arbor and are used to machine two parallel surfaces on the workpiece. 1or' 'illing -Produces curve profile$ uses cutter that have specially shaped teeth$ such cutter are also used for cutting gear teeth.

PROCESS C#C$E:
$oa /-nloa ti'e The time re4uired to load the workpiece into the milling machine and secure it to the fi+ture$ as well as the time to unload the finished part. The load time can depend on the size$ weight$ comple+ity of the workpiece$ as well as the type of fi+ture. C-t ti'e The time re4uired for the cutter to make all the necessary cuts in the workpiece for each operation. The cut time for any given operation is calculated by dividing the total cut length for the operation by the feed rate$ which is the speed of the cutter relative to the workpiece. I le ti'e 'lso referred to as non-productive time$ this is the time re4uired for any tasks that occur during the process cycle that do not engage the workpiece and therefore remove material. This idle time includes the tool approaching and retracting from the workpiece$ tool movements between features$ ad/usting machine settings$ and changing tool. Tool replace'ent ti'e The time re4uired to replace a tool has e+ceeded its lifetime and therefore become to worn to cut effectively. This time is typically not performed in every cycle$ but rather only after the lifetime of a tool has been reach. !n determining cycle time$ the tool replacement time is ad/usted for the production of a single part by multiplying by the fre4uency of a tool replacement$ which is the cut time divided by the tool lifetime. A%3ANTAGES: -'ll materials compatible -5ery good tolerance -*hort lead time %ISA%3ANTAGES: -&imited shape comple+ity -Part may re4uire several operations and machines -6igh e4uipment cost -*ignificant tool wear -&arge amount of scrap

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PROCESS: -' basic cutting process that uses a blade with a series of teeth on its edge to cut a narrow opening in a workpiece. *awing may be used to produce slots or grooves or to separate the workpiece into two pieces. HISTOR#: -!n ancient 2gypt$ saws made of copper are documented as early as the 2arly 0ynastic Period$ circa "$8889 $:88. 2+amples of saws and models of saws have been found in many conte+ts throughout 2gyptian history. Particularly useful are tomb wall illustrations of carpenters at work that show sizes and the use of different types. 2gyptian saws were set with the teeth pro/ecting only on one side$ rather than in the modern fashion with the more advantageous alternating set. 'ccording to .hinese tradition$ the saw was invented by &u Ban. !n archaeological reality$ saws date back to prehistory and most probably evolved from bone tools. The identities of the a+e$ chisel$ and saw were clearly established more than #$888 years ago.

T#PES o( SA4:
HAN% SA4S
- use the blade thickness to remain stiff. The pull stroke also reduces the amount of stiffness re4uired. 5Coping sa+ - for cutting wood patterns. 5Crossc-t sa+ - for making cuts perpendicular to the grain. 51ret sa+ - for cutting intricate wood patterns. 5Hac2sa+ - fine-toothed tempered blade under tension for cutting metal$ bone$ and other hard materials. 5Pa sa+ 2e,hole sa+ - narrow bladed saw 5Pl,+oo sa+- fine-toothed blade to reduce tearing of plywood. 5Rip sa+- for cutting along the grain. 5T+o-'an sa+ - for cutting large logs or trees. 53eneer sa+- two edged saw with fine teeth used to cut veneer.

6AC7 SA4S
- The second category of hand saws utilizes a thinner blade by reinforcing it with a steel or brass back. Back saws are differentiated by the length of the blade. 5"iter sa+- used to make accurate crosscuts and miters in a work piece. 5Tenon sa+- also called a 0ovetail saw or sash saw is used in woodworking for precise work.

"ECHANICA$$# PO4ERE% SA4S


5Circ-lar .la e sa+s

Circ-lar sa+- used in industrial sawing of log and beams$ typically found in sawmills 9 also name given to smaller hand-held saws. Ta.le sa+ -circular blade rising through a slot in a table. ' smaller direct-drive versions can be set on a workbench is called workbench saw. !f set on steel legs it is called a .ontractor;s *aw. Ra ial ar' sa+- is a versatile machine used mainly for cross-cutting. The blade is pulled on a guide arm through a piece of wood held stationary on the saw;s table Rotar, sa+- is used to make accurate cuts without the need for a pilot hole in wallboard$ plywood$ and other thin materials. !t can be called a spiral cut saw or a <=oto>ip<. Electric 'iter sa+ ,also called chop saw$ cut-off saw or power miter bo+- is used for making accurate cross cuts and miter cuts. The basic model has its circular blade fi+ed at a ?8@ angle to the vertical$ a compound miter saw;s blade can be ad/usted to other angles. ' sliding compound miter saw has a blade which can be pulled through the work similar to the action of a radial arm saw$ which gives a greater capacity for cutting wider workpieces. Concrete sa+ usually powered by an internal combustion engine and used with a 0iamond Blade to cut concrete or asphalt pavement. A.rasi*e sa+ which uses an abrasive disc for cutting rather than a toothed blade. 'brasive saws are used for cutting very hard materials$ such as metal. Pen -l-' sa+ or S+ing sa+ the saw is hung on a swinging arm. Aften used for rough cross cutting wood in a saw mill. 'lso for cutting ice out of a frozen river.

BReciprocating .la e sa+s


8igsa+ or sa.er sa+- ,U*- has a narrow blade for cutting irregular shapes. The term /igsaw was also commonly used for what is now called a scroll saw. Reciprocating sa+ or sa.re sa+-,UC and 'ustralia- use an action similar to a /igsaw. They are larger$ more powerful and use a longer stroke with the blade parallel to the barrel. Scroll sa+- is a saw for making intricate curved cuts ,scrolls-. %rag sa+- is used for bucking logs before the advent of the chainsaw. Sternal sa+- is used in surgery to open a patient;s sternum.

BContin-o-s .an
6an sa+-with motor-driven continuous band. Chainsa+- motor-driven for falling trees

sa+s

REA"ING
- the process of enlarging the hole with a high degree of accuracy.

REA"ER- a type of rotary cutting tool used in metalworking. ' typical reamer consists of a set of parallel straight or helical cutting edges along the length of a cylindrical body. 2ach cutting edge is ground at a slight angle and with a slight undercut below the cutting edge. =eamers must combine both hardness in the cutting edges$ for long life$ and toughness$ so that the tool does not fail under the normal forces of use. They should only be used to remove small amounts of material. This ensures a long life for the reamer and a superior finish to the hole. T#PES O1 REA"ER: 9. A :-sta.le han rea'er - can cover a small range of sizes. They are generally referenced by a letter which e4uates to a size range. The disposable blades slide along a tapered groove. The act of tightening and loosening the restraining nuts at each end varies the size that may be cut. The absence of any spiral in the flutes restricts them to light usage ,minimal material removal per setting- as they have a tendency to chatter. They are also restricted to usage in unbroken holes. !f a hole has an a+ial split along it$ such as a split bush or a clamping hole$ each straight tooth will in turn drop into the gap causing the other teeth to retract from their cutting position. This also gives rise to chatter marks and defeats the purpose of using the reamer to size a hole. ;. Straight rea'er - is used to make only a minor enlargement to a hole. The entry end of the reamer will have a slight taper$ the length of which will depend on its type. This produces a self centering action as it enters the raw hole. The larger proportion of the length will be of a constant diameter. =eamed holes are used to create holes of precise circularity and size$ for e+ample with tolerances of -81D8.8 mm,.888:<- This will allow the force fitting of locating dowel pins$ which need not be otherwise retained in the body holding them. Ather holes$ reamed slightly larger in other parts$ will fit these pins accurately$ but not so tightly as to make disassembly difficult. <. Han rea'er - has a longer taper or lead in at the front than a machine reamer. This is to compensate for the difficulty of starting a hole by hand power alone. !t also allows the reamer to start straight and reduce the risk of breakage. The flutes may be straight or spiral. =. "achine rea'er - only has a very slight lead in. Because the reamer and work piece are pre-aligned by the machine there is no risk of it wandering off course. !n addition the constant cutting force that can be applied by the machine ensures that it starts cutting immediately. *piral flutes have the advantage of clearing the swarf automatically but are also available with straight flutes as the amount of swarf generated during a reaming operation should be very small. >. Rose rea'er- has no relief on the periphery and is offset by a back taper to prevent binding. They are primarily used as roughing reamers. ?. Shell rea'er - are designed for reaming bearing and other similar items. They are fluted almost their whole length. @. Tapere rea'er - is used to make a tapered hole to later receive a tapered pin. ' taper pin is a self tightening device due to the shallow angle of the taper.

They may be driven into the tapered hole such that removal can only be done with a hammer and punch. They are sized by a number se4uence. A. "orse taper - reamer is used manually to finish more taper sleeves. These sleeves are a tool used to hold machine cutting tools or holders in the spindles of machines such as a drill or milling machine. The reamer shown is a finishing reamer. ' roughing reamer would have serrations along the flutes to break up the thicker chips produced by the heavier cutting action used for it. B. Co'.ination rea'er - has two or more cutting surfaces. The combination reamer is precision ground into a pattern that resembles the partEs multiple internal diameters. The advantage of using a combination reamer is to reduce the number of turret operations$ while more precisely holding depths$ internal diameters and concentricity.