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# Tafila technical university Facultry of engineering

## Lecturer name : dr.ali alahmer.

Introduction Thermal conductivity of materials cant be measured directly unlike electrical conductivity. There are two different types of techniques for measurement of thermal conductivity, namely steady-state techniques and transient techniques. In general, steady-state techniques perform a measurement when the temperature of the materials measured does not change with time. This makes signal analysis simple. The transient techniques perform a measurement during the process of heating up and it is not simple. The advantage is that measurements can be made quickly.

Theory In this experiment, you will observe the flow of heat from one end of a metal bar to another. From your data, you will determine the thermal conductivity of the material. It is no coincidence that the term conductivity appears both in the context of heat flow and of electrical circuits. In an electrical circuit, electrical current flows due to a difference in electrostatic potential from one location to another. In an analogous way, heat flows in response to differences in temperature from one location to another in a material, as shown in Figure 1.

Thermal conductivity is an intrinsic property of a material that determines the rate of heat flow through that material. A change in the temperature can affect the thermal conductivity of that material, so that to be accurate one must specify thermal conductivity at a particular temperature. For aluminum in the vicinity of room temperature, thermal conductivity tends to increase with temperature because the greater thermal motion of the atoms in the material mean that they communicate more readily with their neighbors. The relationship between heat energy per unit time (or equivalently, power) Q flowing down a bar of a given cross sectional area

A is
{ }

in which K is the thermal conductivity. In other words, the greater the temperature gradient , the more readily heat can flow. Also, as with

electrical current, heat flows more readily the larger the cross section of material is has to flow through. This analysis assumes that the heat has somewhere to go in other words, that the material in question is conducting heat from a source of thermal energy to a sink of thermal energy.

Methodology Aluminum : L=102 mm, D=18mm Copper: L=64, D=25mm Stainless Steel: L=38, D=25mm T in= 17 c, T out = 25 V=100cm3/120s

Data Analysis

*for Aluminum T(c) 212 194 176 161 X(mm) 4.5 35.5 66.5 97.5

K(avg) 204.9

250

200

150

100

50

figure ( 2)

## X(mm) 6.5 57.5 6 32

N 1-2 3-4

K(w/mk) 44.8

226 224 222 220 218 0 50 thickness 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 thickness 40 100

temp

temp

figure(4)

## Temp/thickness for Copper & Stainless Steel

300 250 200 temp 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 thickness 80 100 120

figure ( 5)

Sample of calculation

For Aluminum

w/m.k

## For Copper And Stainless Steel

w/m.k

Conclusion
It is well known that the thermal conductivity of Article depend on several characteristics of each heat and space and so on., And shape the first graph, which represents the relationship between temperature and distance, we find that the relationship sin because it is in the same material and decreasing the temperature the greater the distance and I Compared to sample the other a copper and Style Steel we find the relationship non-

linear, the spectrum due to the presence of two articles in two different in conductivity so of shape note that the copper conductor excellent heat so that there was no significant difference in the variation jolt heat and I note that the Style Steel lower than even the conductivity due to the difference similarities large Compared with copper We were able to chart both articles to determine the temperature of the upper and lower surface So for Aluminum ( T surface in =215 K) (T surface out=159 k) & for copper & Style Steel as best line calculation (T surface in=228k) (T surface out= 104K)