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Document No. Intended Users Writing Dept.

Huawei engineers Techincal Support Department

Product Name Product Version Document Version 2.0

Guide to CDMA Network Interference Test


or Interna! Use "n!#

Prepared $# %e&iewed $# %e&iewed $# Appro&ed $#

Wang Jianyong

Date Date Date Date

2007.03

'uawei Tec(no!ogies Co.) *td. A!! %ig(ts %eser&ed

Guide to D!" #etwor$ %nter&erence Test

'or internal use

%e&ision %ecords
Date 200(.0) 2007.03 %e&ision Version *.0 2.0 Description 'irst dra&t !odi&ied Aut(or Tan +ang,o Wang Jianyong

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Contents
+ "&er&iew..................................................................................................................................... , *.* %mpact and *.2 lassi&ication o& %nter&erence........................................................................../ alculation o& %nter&erence ............................................................................................... /

- Interference Test !owc(art ..................................................................................................... . / Interference Test Met(od ......................................................................................................... 0 3.* %ntroduction to +0T2(0..................................................................................................... ) 3.*.* 1ey %ndices............................................................................................................. ) 3.*.2 2peration !ethod................................................................................................. ** 3.*.3 %nter&erence Test................................................................................................... *) 3.*.. 34porting the Test Data .......................................................................................2* 3.*.( Sa5ing the Test Settings.......................................................................................22 3.2 6e5erse %nter&erence Test............................................................................................... 22 3.2.* 0TS30/* ............................................................................................................ 22 3.2.2 0TS3/0/ .............................................................................................................. 2. 3.2.3 0TS3/*2 .............................................................................................................. 2( 3.2.. -recautions........................................................................................................... 2/ 3.3 'orward %nter&erence Test...............................................................................................2) 3.3.* %nter&erence o& the 34ternal %nter&erence Source on the D!" Signal.................2) 3.3.2 %nter&erence o& the D!" 'orward Signal on "nother System.............................27 3.. 2ther %ssues &or "ttention in the %nter&erence Test..........................................................27 3...* Tester8Speci&ic -ro,lem ......................................................................................27 3...2 %n&ormation ollection ..........................................................................................27

1 Co!!ection of Interference 2pectrums..................................................................................../3 ..* 6e5erse 0road,and %nter&erence &rom 6epeaters...........................................................3* ..2 %nter&erence &rom T9 "cti5e 2utdoor "ntenna ...............................................................32 ..3 %nter&erence aused ,y Signal :ea$age o& a,le T9 "mpli&ier ......................................3. ... %nter&erence &rom the omputer Jammer .......................................................................3/ ..( %nter&erence &rom the Wal$ie8Tal$ie................................................................................37 ../ %nter&erence &rom the #eon :ight ....................................................................................3) ..7 %nter&erence &rom the 3TS.(0 "nalog ommunication System .....................................37

4 56amp!es of Interference Test ............................................................................................... 1(.* 6"S+S 2&&ice %nter8!odulation -ro,lem ........................................................................2 (.2 Wal$ie8Tal$ie %nter&erence Test in Heyuan ity...............................................................3 (.3 T9 Station %nter&erence Test .......................................................................................... .3

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(.. T9

hannel Supplementer %nter&erence Test...................................................................3

(.( 3TS.(0 %nter&erence Test ...............................................................................................3

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7e#words D!"; 60W; span; dynamic range; re&erence le5el; trap &ilter A$stract< This document descri,es the inter&erence test process; $ey indices and operation method o& the inter&erence tester +0T2(0; re5erse inter&erence test method o& the 0TS3/*2= 0TS3/0/=0TS3/0*; &orward inter&erence test method; inter&erence spectrum diagram; and e4amples o& inter&erence test .

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+ "&er&iew
+.+ Impact and C!assification of Interference
%nter&erence is a $ey &actor a&&ecting the networ$ >uality. %t also a&&ects the call >uality; call drop; hando&&; con5ersation >uality; networ$ co5erage; and capacity. How to reduce or eliminate the inter&erence is an important tas$ o& radio networ$ planning and optimi?ation. This document pro5ides a systematic description a,out the inter&erence test methods. D!" inter&erence ,asically consists o& e4ternal inter&erence and non8e4ternal inter&erence.

34ternal inter&erence comes &rom the repeater; radar; analog 0TS @such as the 3TS.(0 and "!-SA; T9 station; wal$ie8tal$ie; con&erence inter&erence system; T9 acti5e recei5er; and other communication e>uipment.

#on8e4ternal inter&erence comes &rom the sel&8inter&erence o& the system; illegal terminals; parameter setting pro,lems; and &aults o& 0TS e>uipment. D!" inter&erence includes &orward inter&erence and re5erse

!eanwhile; inter&erence.

6e5erse inter&erence ,rings the &ollowing impacts on the system<


6educe the 0TS sensiti5ity. 6educe the system capacity. %ncrease the call drop rate and access success rate o& the system. %ncrease the call origination time o& the mo,ile station @!SA. %ncrease the transmit power o& the !S.

'orward inter&erence ,rings the &ollowing impacts on the system<


6educe the 3c=%o and &orward co5erage area o& the 0TS. 'orward inter&erence is generally area8,ased. The &orward le5el in the 0TS co5erage area is generally high; and the wea$er inter&erence has little e&&ect on the system.

+.- Ca!cu!ation of Interference


%nter&erence directly deteriorates the recei5er sensiti5ity. The inter&erence deterioration @d0A is calculated as &ollows<

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%nter&erence deterioration @d0A B *0Clog @@inter&erence power @mWA D thermal noise power @mWAA = thermal noise power @mWAA @*.aA

wherein; the inter&erence noise power is calculated according to &ormula @3A. The sensiti5ity deterioration is calculated as &ollows< Sensiti5ity deterioration @d0mA B nominal sensiti5ity @d0mA D inter&erence deterioration @d0A @*.bA

- Interference Test !owc(art


%s the 6SS% o& the T6F greater than 87( d0mE @Tra&&ic measurement or :!T tracingA + "re 6SS%s o& ,oth the main and di5ersity higher than 87( d0mE + onnect the +0T2(0 to the antenna &eeder connector on top o& the ca,inet. hec$ whether the noise &loor is greater than 8 7( d0m. + # Swap the main and di5ersity Gumpers on top o& the ca,inet. hec$ whether the 6SS%s o& the main and di5ersity are also swapped. + %t can ,e determined that the component on the 0TS 6' channel; the T6F ,oard; or antenna is &aulty; or the Gumper connections are wrong. Stop the T6F. onnect the +0T2(0 to the +agi antenna and test the &orward inter&erence in the open s$y. @%t is recommended to add the &ilter in the test to ensure a su&&icient dynamic range.A

Does &orward inter&erence e4istE

+ #

Sweep the &re>uency at 3/0 degrees in the open s$y. -er&orm directional tests at three di&&erent places. The intersection o& directions tested at three places is the location o& the inter&erence source. "lternati5ely; dri5e the 5ehicle around the 0TS to test the location o& the inter&erence source.

%& the strengths o& inter&erence on the main and di5ersity are inconsistent; chec$ whether the 0TS is connected with repeaters.

3nd

igure +.+ %nter&erence test &lowchart

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/ Interference Test Met(od


D!" networ$ &orward=re5erse recei5ers ha5e lower power spectrum o& input signal and are sensiti5e o& the electromagnetism en5ironment. The detection capacity o& wea$ signal is an important criterion &or the selection o& inter&erence tester. To e&&ecti5ely test the &orward=re5erse inter&erence; the inter&erence testers must ha5e the capa,ility o& detecting at least 8*23 d0m=30 1H? signal. urrently; among the testers used ,y Huawei; +0T2(0 supplied ,y the Te$troni4 meets the a,o5e re>uirements. +0T2(0 is recommended &or the &ield test. %& the +0T2(0 is una5aila,le; "gilent7.7(0; H-)(/* series tester; H-)720 tester; or 3TS.(0 electrical tester is optional. !ost Huawei regional di5isions and representati5e o&&ices ha5e the +0T2(0; so this section introduces the usage o& +0T2(0 only.

/.+ Introduction to 89T-43


/.+.+ 7e# Indices
+. 2ensiti&it#
Generally; the recei5er sensiti5ity o& the spectrum analy?er is de&ined as the minimum recei5ed le5el o& the signal ,andwidth * H?. %& the signal ,andwidth is 4 H?; the recei5er sensiti5ity is calculated as &ollows< Sensiti5ity when the signal ,andwidth is * H? D *0log4 'or e4ample; i& the ,andwidth o& the D!" signal is *.2( !H?; the recei5er sensiti5ity

is e>ual to the sensiti5ity o& the spectrum analy?er D *0log@*.2(H*000000A. The +0T2(0 can detect 8*2(d0m=301H? signal with the setting and input le5el; and the signal is in the same le5el with the thermal noise o& the recei5ers. There&ore; any inter&erence signals a&&ecting the recei5ers can ,e analy?ed; and there is no detection ,lin$ ?one. The small monologue inter&erence and thermal noise ,road,and inter&erence can ,e detected.

-. D#namic %ange
The disad5antage o& +0T2(0 is its limited dynamic range @a,out 70d0A; namely; there is a &i4ed di&&erence ,etween the re&erence le5el and detecta,le minimum signal le5el. When the input le5el is more than re&erence le5el; the spurious emission e4ists in the

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+0T2(0 to result in the decepti5e inter&erence. When using the +0T2(0; pay attention to the &ollowing two points<

The dynamic range is &i4ed. To detect a 5ery small le5el; you must lower the re&erence le5el. The input signal close to tested channel num,er cannot e4ceed re&erence le5el @&or e4ample; the e&&ect o& downlin$ power during the uplin$ detectionA. 2therwise; the decepti5e inter&erence is present.

0ased on the a,o5e principles; do as &ollows during the test< *A 2A 3A .A (A Set the re&erence le5el to a higher 5alue; &or e4ample 820 d0m. 0roaden the S-"# properly; &or e4ample 20 !. hec$ the strongest signal close to tested channel num,er. Set the re&erence le5el ,ased on the strongest signal to ensure no Input o&errange alarm on the tester screen. %& the setting o& the re&erence le5el is too high ,ecause there is a 5ery strong signal le5el close to tested channel num,er; the tester cannot detect the small in,and signal. %n this case; add the ,andpass &ilter. When using the +0T2(0 to test the 3TS.(0D electromagnetism en5ironment; you can set the re&erence le5el to 8.0 d0m in order to detect the signal at a,out 8*23 d0m.

/. %eso!ution 9and Widt( :%9W;


60W is the minimum signal ,andwidth that the spectrum analy?er can identi&y. The inter&erence can ,e captured and analy?ed &rom the perspecti5e o& power spectrum. " smaller setting o& the 60W indicates a higher recei5er sensiti5ity and lower noise o& the tester. #ote that the span and 60W o& the +0T2(0 are associated with each other. The 60W cannot ,e set independently. Inder a certain range o& span; you can o,tain the 60W ,y tapping 5DIT on the main inter&ace. "&ter you set the span; the tester will automatically set the corresponding 60W. Ta$!e +.+ !apping ,etween the span and 60W on the +0T2(0 2PAN 0.0*!H? 0.02!H? 0.0(!H? 0.*!H? 0.2!H? *00H? *00H? 300H? *$H? *$H? %9W

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2PAN 0.(!H? *!H? 2!H? (!H? *0!H? 20!H? (0!H? *00!H? 200!H? (00!H? *000!H? 2000!H? 2.70!H? 3$H? *0$H? *0$H? 30$H? *00$H? *00$H? 300$H? *!H? *!H? 3!H? /!H? /!H? /!H?

%9W

1. Video 9and Widt( :V9W;


90W is used to eliminate the ,urrs on the spectrum cur5e. The smaller the 90W is; the smoother the cur5e will ,e. The 90W; howe5er; cannot ,e too small. 2therwise; wa5e distortion is resulted. 60W<90WB38*0<*

4. 2upported 9and
30 !H? to 2.( GH?

,. Center re<uenc# : ";


'2 re&ers to the center &re>uency o& the testa,le spectrum o& the spectrum analy?er.

.. 2pan
Span re&ers to the width o& the testa,le spectrum o& the spectrum analy?er.

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0. %eference *e&e! :%ef*&!;


0ased on the setting o& the testing signal; you must try to $eep the signal in the middle o& the spectrum analy?er. The disad5antage o& the +0T2(0 is its limited dynamic range @a,out 70 d0A. That is; there is a &i4ed di&&erence @a,out 70 d0A ,etween the re&erence le5el and detecta,le minimum signal le5el. When the input le5el is more than re&erence le5el; the spurious emission e4ists in the +0T2(0 to result in the decepti5e inter&erence. When using the +0T2(0; pay attention to the &ollowing two points<

The dynamic range is &i4ed. To detect a 5ery small le5el; you must lower the re&erence le5el. The input signal close to tested channel num,er cannot e4ceed re&erence le5el @&or e4ample; the e&&ect o& downlin$ power during the uplin$ detectionA. 2therwise; the decepti5e inter&erence is present.

0ased on the a,o5e principles; do as &ollows during the test< *A 2A 3A .A (A Set the re&erence le5el to a higher 5alue; &or e4ample 820 d0m. 0roaden the S-"# properly; &or e4ample 20 !. hec$ the strongest signal close to tested channel num,er. Set the re&erence le5el ,ased on the strongest signal to ensure no Input o&errange alarm on the tester screen. %& the setting o& the re&erence le5el is too high ,ecause there is a 5ery strong signal le5el close to tested channel num,er; the tester cannot detect the small in,and signal. %n this case; add the ,andpass &ilter. When using the +0T2(0 to test the 3TS.(0D electromagnetism en5ironment; you can set the re&erence le5el to 8.0 d0m in order to detect the signal at a,out 8*23 d0m.

/.+.- "peration Met(od

igure +.+ +0T2(0 operation procedure To use the +0T2(0 &or the inter&erence test; per&orm the &ollowing steps<

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*A 2A 3A .A (A

onnect the +agi antenna with the +0T2(0 as re>uired. -ress the -ower ,utton to start the +0T2(0 and enter the !easure inter&ace. Set the parameters; such as the span; '2; and 6e&:e5. 3nsure that the inter&erence signal is displayed. 6ecord the &re>uency; strength; and direction o& the inter&erence signal. -er&orm the inter&erence test according to the recorded &re>uency and direction and then locate the inter&erence source.

+. 2#stem Connection
'igure (.* shows the system connection &or the to detect the possi,le inter&erence. D!" electromagnetic inter&erence

test. Signals on all ,ands are scanned and signal strength on each ,and is o,ser5ed

igure 4.+ System connection &or the

D!" electromagnetic inter&erence test onnect the antenna &irst. The +0T2(0 is

onnect the system as shown in 'igure (.*

e>uipped with the low8gain omni antenna and +agi directional antenna to per&orm the electromagnetic en5ironment test and locate the inter&erence source. The +0T2(0 is also e>uipped with ,atteries. 2ne ,attery can last &or a,out two hours. The +0T2(0 can ,e installed with up to two ,atteries. %t can also ,e connected with e4ternal power supply.

-. Power=on Procedure
-ress the ,lue Power ,utton at the ,ottom o& the panel to power on the +0T2(0. "&ter the +0T2(0 is powered on; it enters the Windows des$top to enter the Measure inter&ace. 3 operating system. The +0T2(0 adopts the touch screen. +ou can dou,le8tap the +0T2(0 icon on the

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Caution> The +0T2(0 operation inter&ace is similar to the Windows inter&ace. The operations are almost the same as those o& the Windows operating system.

2n the right o& the Measure inter&ace; there are three icons; as shown in 'igure *.*. They stand &or three measurement &unctions o& the +0T2(0. These &unctions are 0TS in&ormation measurement; spectrum test; and inter&erence test.

igure +.+ Three measurement &unctions o& the +0T2(0

/. "perations on t(e unctiona! Window

Spectrum window Display the test main inter&ace o& the +0T2(0. 2n the drop8down menu at the upper le&t corner; select the system to ,e used and then enter the &re>uency num,er in the C(anne! or re< te4t ,o4. Generally; you can enter the channel num,er to ,e tested in the C(anne! te4t ,o4. Then; the tester displays the corresponding &re>uency in the re< te4t ,o4 automatically. "lternati5ely; you re< te4t ,o4. Then; the tester can enter the &re>uency to ,e tested in the

*A

automatically calculates the channel num,er corresponding to this &re>uency. @The auto calculation &unction can ,e set in the 5dit menu. +ou are recommended to chec$ whether the setting is correct ,e&ore the test.A

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igure +.+ 2perations on the +T2(0 &unctional window @*A 2A Tap the ,utton la,eled as - on the right o& the main inter&ace to display the power spectrum test inter&ace. Then select 2pectrum.

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igure -.+ 2perations on the +T2(0 &unctional window @2A 3A 2n the Spectrum inter&ace; select %ef *e&e!> ???d9m and enter the re&erence le5el @&or e4ample; 8.0A in the 5alue input ,o4 on the right o& the inter&ace. 2n the precondition that the tester does not generate the Input o&errange alarm; reduce the re&erence le5el as much as possi,le. .A Tap 2PAN>???d9m and enter the range o& span in the 5alue input ,o4 on the right o& the inter&ace. During the test; i& you want to sa5e the current screen @&or e4ample; when the inter&erence is detectedA; manual operation is re>uired. Two sa5ing methods are a5aila,le. Generally; to meet the re>uirement o& writing a report and ma$e the layout more pleasing; the &irst method is recommended to sa5e the data. (A Select the i!e J 56port 2creen as menu to display the 2a&e as dialog ,o4. 2n this dialog ,o4; enter the &ile name and storage location @0uilt%nDis$ or ':"SH cardA to record the spectrum in the &orm o& screen copy. /A Select the i!e J 56port Trace as menu to display the 2a&e as dialog ,o4. 3nter the &ile name and storage location @0uilt%nDis$ or ':"SH cardA to record the spectrum in the &orm o& te4t.

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igure ,.+ 2perations on the +T2(0 &unctional window @3A

Spectrogram window Display the test main inter&ace o& the +0T2(0. 2n the drop8down menu at the upper le&t corner; select the system to ,e used and then enter the &re>uency num,er in the C(anne! or re< te4t ,o4.

*A

2A 3A

Tap the ,utton la,eled as - on the right o& the main inter&ace to display the power spectrum test inter&ace. Then select 2pectrogram. 2n the 2pectrogram inter&ace; select %ef *e&e!> ???d9m and enter the re&erence le5el in the 5alue input ,o4 on the right o& the inter&ace. 2n the precondition that the tester does not generate the Input o&errange alarm; reduce the re&erence le5el as much as possi,le.

.A (A

Tap 2PAN>???d9m and enter the span in the 5alue input ,o4 on the right o& the inter&ace. Select the 2pectrogram ta, to display the time8&re>uency spectrum. During the test; i& you want to sa5e the test data; use either o& the &ollowing method<

Select the i!e J 56port 2creen as menu to display the 2a&e as dialog ,o4. 2n this dialog ,o4; enter the &ile name and storage location @0uilt%nDis$ or ':"SH cardA to record the time8&re>uency spectrum in the &orm o& screen copy.

Select the

i!e J 56port Trace as menu to display the 2a&e as dialog ,o4.

3nter the &ile name and storage location @0uilt%nDis$ or ':"SH cardA to record

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the time8&re>uency spectrum data in the &orm o& te4t. /A Tap 5DIT. The 25TUP inter&ace is displayed. Select 3 minutes in the Data collection time o& the 2pectrum inter&ace; and tap Auto 56port resu!ts. Select 2a&e @ 56port J Defau!t format for e6ported resu!ts J Ta$=separated:A.t6t;. Then; select the &ile storage path. %n this way; the time8&re>uency spectrum data can ,e sa5ed automatically.

igure ,.+ 2perations on the +T2(0 &unctional window @.A

%n,and power window @6'-2W36A Display the test main inter&ace o& the +0T2(0. 2n the drop8down menu at the upper le&t corner; select the system to ,e used and then enter the &re>uency num,er in the C(anne! or re< te4t ,o4.

*A

2A

Tap the ,utton la,eled as + on the right o& the main inter&ace. The Measure inter&ace is displayed. 2n this inter&ace; tap 2e!ect Measurement to display the inde4 selection inter&ace. 2n the inde4 selection inter&ace; select % P"W5% to display the C(an Power inter&ace; &rom which you can read the ind,and power

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igure -.+ 2perations on the +T2(0 &unctional window @(A

/.+./ Interference Test


Tap the inter&erence test ,utton @la,eled as /A. "t the le&t upper corner; there are &our ,uttons corresponding to &our display modes. These &our modes are Identif#; 2trengt(; Audio Demod; and Noise; as shown in 'igure *.*. Generally; only Identif#; 2trengt(; and Noise are used.

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igure +.+ Test results displayed in %denti&y mode

+. Met(od for Identif#ing t(e Interference 2igna!


To identi&y the inter&erence signal; per&orm the &ollowing steps< *A 2A 3A %n the inter&erence test; select the Identif# mode. 2,ser5e the signal where the inter&erence is present. Set the central &re>uency to the central &re>uency o& the inter&erence signal. 2,ser5e the lower le&t corner o& the display area. "ll the possi,le signal standards that match the central &re>uency o& the inter&erence signal are displayed in this area. .A Tap Measure and e4ecute the matching &unction. %& matched records are &ound; the results will ,e displayed on the lower right corner o& the display area.

-. Met(od for *ocating t(e Interference 2igna!


To locate the inter&erence signal; per&orm the &ollowing steps< *A %n the inter&erence test; select the 2trengt( mode; as shown in 'igure 2.*. Set the central &re>uency to the central &re>uency o& the inter&erence signal. Then; set the span. Measurement 9andwidt( displayed in 'igure 2.* is associated with the span. %t changes with the span.

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2A

hange the direction o& the directional antenna to locate the inter&erence signal and &ind out the direction in which the inter&erence signal is the strongest. The sound emitted ,y the loudspea$er and the signal strength indicator at the right lower corner change with the signal strength.

igure -.+ Test results displayed in Strength mode

/. Met(od for Measuring Noise !oor in t(e CDMA +.-4 M'B 9and
To measure the noise &loor in the *.2( !H? ,and o& &ollowing steps< *A 2A %n the inter&erence test; select the Noise mode. Select the signal standard and the uplin$ or downlin$ test channel. Set the central &re>uency and span according to the &re>uency to ,e tested. The test result o& the noise &loor is displayed at the lower part o& the display area; as shown in 'igure 2.*. D!" channel; per&orm the

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igure -.+ #oise &loor test result %n the the D!" test; it is 5ery important to Gudge the noise &loor in the *.23 !H? ,and o&

D!" channel. Generally; i& the noise &loor is larger than 87( d0m; inter&erence

e4ists in the ,and. %n this case; you need to sa5e the screen that displays the noise &loor test result. Then; you must enter the 2pectrum inter&ace to learn a,out the &re>uency strength in the whole D!" ,and; including the strengths o& the narrow,and signal and the ,road,and signal.

/.+.1 56porting t(e Test Data


Two methods are a5aila,le to e4port the data &rom the +0T2(0.

The &irst method is to copy the sa5ed inter&erence test data to the storage card o& the +0T2(0.

To copy the test data to the storage card o& the +0T2(0; per&orm the &ollowing steps< *A 2A 3A

Select the data to ,e e4ported.

opy and paste the data to the storage card.

@The operation is the same as that o& the Windows system.A 2pen the co5er on the right o& the +0T2(0; remo5e the storage card; and insert it into the laptop. Select the data on the storage card. the laptop. The second method is to use the serial port ca,le to connect the laptop to the opy and paste the data to the hard dis$ o&

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+0T2(0. The serial port is on top o& the +0T2(0 and close to the 6' input port. Then; you can e4port the data ,y using the method similar to HyperTerminal. The &irst method is recommended ,ecause the operation is con5enient and &ast.

/.+.4 2a&ing t(e Test 2ettings


The +0T2(0 can sa5e its test settings &or later recall. This sa5es the trou,le &or re8 setting the parameters and also reduces the test time. To sa5e the test settings; per&orm the &ollowing steps< *A 2A 3A .A (A Set all parameters re>uired on the +0T2(0. 'or detailed operations; see the pre5ious description. Select 2etup J 2a&e. 3nter the &ile name. Select the directory where the &ile will ,e sa5ed and tap "7. #e4t time when you per&orm a test; select 2etup J "pen to recall the settings.

/.- %e&erse Interference Test


urrently; Huawei supplies three series o& The 0TS3/0* is tested at the includes 20d0 gainA.

D!" 0TS; including 0TS3/0*; 0TS3/0/;

and 0TS3/*2. These 0TSs ha5e di&&erent test ports.


DDI 6F Test port; without any gain.

0TS3/*2 is tested at 6:DI test port and the gain is 20d0 gain @that is; the result 0TS3/0/ is tested at 6F8T3ST port and the gain is ,asically e>ual to 0d0.

/.-.+ 9T2/3,+C
'igure *.* shows 0TS3/0* 6' &ront8end module @!'3!A.

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Test port

igure +.+ -orts on the !'3! o& the 0TS3/0*

@schematic drawingA

T4 test port

64 main test port

64 di5ersity test port

igure +.- -orts on the !'3! o& the 0TS3/0*

@photoA

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During the re5erse inter&erence test; connect the +0T2(0 to the 6FD8Test* port. +ou can also connect the +0T2(0 to the 6FD8Test2 port. The dynamic inde4 o& the +0T2(0; howe5er; is a&&ected; ,ecause part o& the power lea$s out &rom the transmission channel and goes to the recei5ing channel. There&ore; the result is inaccurate. %n addition; 'igure *.* shows that the :#" and *=2 power splitter are a5aila,le on the recei5ing channel. The gain o&&sets the power loss; so the test result directly re&lects the 6SS% in real en5ironment.

/.-.- 9T2/,3,
'igure *.* shows the ports on the DDI o& the 0TS3/0/.

igure +.+ -orts on the

DDI o& the 0TS3/0/ @schematic drawingA

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Test port

Top of t(e CDDU

igure +.- -orts on the

DDI o& the 0TS3/0/ @photoA

During the re5erse inter&erence test; connect the +0T2(0 to the 6F* port and disconnect the 6F2 port.

/.-./ 9T2/,+'igure *.* shows the 6:DI panel o& the 0TS3/*2.

igure +.+ 6:DI panel o& the 0TS3/*2 @schematic drawingA

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Test port

igure +.- 6:DI panel o& the 0TS3/*2 @photoA During the re5erse inter&erence test; connect the +0T2(0 to 6F"D8T3ST and 6F0D8 T3ST respecti5ely; and chec$ the test results.

%& the test results at two ports are less than C.4 d9m @K7( d0m D 20 d0; wherein; 20 d0 is the 6:DI gain; and K7( d0m is thermal noiseA; the inter&erence does not e4ist.

%& the results at two ports are di&&erent @one is greater than K7( d0m; ,ut the other is close to K7( d0mA; the inter&erence does not e4ist. %& the two results at two ports are greater thanK7(d0m; the inter&erence e4ists.

/.-.1 Precautions
The re5erse inter&erence test should ,e per&ormed ,ased on the networ$ acti5ation and num,er allocation status. %& the system is Gust put into ser5ice; the system load is 5ery load. With the increase o& num,ers allocated; the system load increases gradually. "t this time; you are recommended to per&orm the re5erse inter&erence test when the system load is low. %& the test is per&ormed during the daytime when the system load is high; the inter&erence caused ,y su,scri,ers themsel5es in the sector must ,e e4cluded &rom the test result. 'or e4ample; 3 d0 must ,e deducted &rom the test result in a system

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loaded with (0L capacity. Generally; reser5es ,road,and inter&erence is rare. %& such inter&erence is detected during the test; try to lower the 0TS power and test whether the reser5e ,road,and inter&erence comes &rom the tester itsel&. %& the re5erse ,road,and inter&erence is reduced a&ter the 0TS transmit power is lowered; it can ,e concluded that the inter&erence comes &rom the tester itsel&. This document analy?es the inter&erence test o& re5erse narrow ,and @,andwidth is less than *.223 !H?A only. When the re5erse narrow,and inter&erence e4ists on the system; adGust the span o& the +0T2(0 to &ind the inter&erence &re>uency and amplitude. %& the +0T2(0 is used to test the inter&erence o& a networ$; set the span to *0 !H?; and 60W to *00 $H?. The test result is " d0m=*00$H?. 0ecause the result amplitude is higher; re5erse narrow,and inter&erence is co5ered ,y the thermal noise. %n this case; lower the span to ( !H?; and 60W to 30 $H?. Then; the result is "D*0Clg@30$H? = *00$H?AB@"K(.23Ad0m = 30$H?. %& the re5erse narrow,and inter&erence is strong; the inter&erence can ,e displayed on the +0T2(0. %& the re5erse narrow,and inter&erence still cannot ,e displayed on the +0T2(0; lower the span again; and adGust the 60W to *0 $H?. Then; the result is " D *0Clg@*0$H? = *00$H?AB@"K*0Ad0m =*0$H?. 0ased on the result displayed on the +0T2(0; Gudge whether the re5erse narrow,and inter&erence e4ists; or adGust the span and reduce the 60W again. T(e purpose of adDusting t(e %9W is to re&ea! t(e re&erse narrow$and interference (idden $# t(e t(erma! noise. %& multiple re5erse narrow,and inter&erences are detected ,y the +0T2(0; o5erlap the inter&erences to o,tain the total energy o& re5erse inter&erence. %n this way; you can $now the total energy o& in,and re5erse inter&erences. The &ollowing descri,es how to calculate the total energy o& in,and re5erse inter&erence in di&&erent cases< *A "ssumptions< The 60W is set to *00 $H?. The inter&erence ,andwidth is less than 30 $H?. Three re5erse narrow,and inter&erences are tested. Their amplitudes are " d0m; 0 d0m; and alculation procedure< d0m. into mW and add them. -er&orm on5ert the "; 0; and

a logarithm on the 5alue; and o,tain the total 5alue o& re5erse in,and narrow,and inter&erences. The &ollowing is the &ormula< TotalM64M%nter&erenceM-owerB*0Clg@*0N@" = *0AD*0N@0 = *0AD*0N@ = *0AA @2A

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2A

"ssumptions< The accuracy o& the +0T2(0 is set to 60W $H? accurately @&or e4ample; 60W J *00 $H?A. The inter&erence ,andwidth is greater than 60W and is set to %nterM0W $H?. Three re5erse narrow,and inter&erences are tested. Their amplitudes are "d0m; 0d0m; and ,andwidth &or the "; 0; and The &ollowing is the &ormula< "OB"D*0Clg@%nterM0W = 60WA 0OB0D*0Clg@%nterM0W = 60WA OB D*0Clg@%nterM0W = 60WA @3.aA @3.bA @3.cA d0m. alculation procedure< onsider the and con5ert them into mW and add them. -er&orm

a logarithm to o,tain the total 5alue o& re5erse in,and narrow,and inter&erence.

TotalM64M%nter&erenceM-owerB*0Clg@*0N@"O = *0AD*0N@0O = *0AD*0N@ O = *0AA @3.dA

/./

orward Interference Test


The &orward inter&erence test aims to test the inter&erence o& the e4ternal inter&erence source on the another system. D!" signal and the inter&erence o& the D!" &orward signal on

/./.+ Interference of t(e 56terna! Interference 2ource on t(e CDMA 2igna!


This type o& &orward inter&erence test is recommended ,e&ore the site is put into ser5ice. "&ter the 0TS starts to output power; the inter&erence will ,e hidden ,y the system signal and is hard to detect. %& the site has ,een put into operation; the 0TS must ,e stopped ,e&ore the inter&erence test is per&ormed to ensure the accurate test result. 2wing to the uncertainty o& the &orward inter&erences @&or e4ample; randomness o& the time and placeA; you are recommend to select the suitable sites, preferably the higher site, and check the external interferences. +ou can use the +agi antenna &or the test. %& strong signal inter&erence e4ists; the +0T2(0 must ,e connected to the trap &ilter and then to the +agi antenna to a5oid insu&&iciency o& the dynamic range o& the tester. @The signal can ,e attenuated in the speci&ied ,and; ,ut remains unchanged in other ,ands. 'or e4ample; attenuate the signal in the D!" )00 !H? ,and; ,ut $eep the signal unchanged in the GS! 700 !H? ,and. %n this way; the dynamic range o& the tester can ,e wide enough. %& the dedicated trap &ilter is una5aila,le on site; you can use the 6' &ront8end module; such as the DDI and D'I as the trap &ilter.A

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/./.- Interference of t(e CDMA orward 2igna! on Anot(er 2#stem


This type o& inter&erence is o&ten &ound in the spurious inter&erence caused ,y the D!" )00 !H? system to the GS! 700 !H? system; or caused ,y the GH? system to the I!TS 2.* GH? system. To test this type o& inter&erence; you can connect the +0T2(0 to the trap &ilter; and then to the T48Test port o& the 6' &ront8end module. @The coupling attenuation is a,out 3( d0 &or the 0TS3/0* ; 0TS3/0/; or 0TS3/*2.A "lternati5ely; you can connect the attenuator and the trap &ilter to the &eeder port on top o& the 0TS ca,inet. @The purpose o& connecting the attenuator is to attenuate the input signal and protect the +0T2(0.A %t is stronger recommended that the attenuator ,e added to the &eeder port on top o& the 0TS ca,inet; ,ecause the test result is inaccurate when the +0T2(0 is directly connected to the T48Test port o& the 6' &ront8end module during the test. When the test is carried out Gointly with the State 6adio 6egulatory ommission @S66 A; the S66 may suspect the accuracy o& the test result. D!" *.7

6emem,er i& the +0T2(0 is connected to the T48Test port; the test result must ,e added with 3( d0. This is ,ecause the signal is attenuated &or 3( d0. When the +0T2(0 is connected to the &eeder port on top o& the ca,inet top; attenuation o& the input signal caused ,y the attenuator must also ,e ta$en into consideration.

/.1 "t(er Issues for Attention in t(e Interference Test


/.1.+ Tester=2pecific Pro$!em
The inter&erence test sets a 5ery re>uirement on the accuracy o& the tester. There&ore; the tester must ,e in good condition and well cali,rated. 2n the other hand; the accuracy o& the tester must meet the test re>uirement. %& it is re>uired to test the adGacent channel power ratio @" -6A; you are recommended to use the +0T.00=.*0; ,ecause the +0T2(0 does not pro5ide this &unction. +ou also pay attention to the dynamic range o& the tester; which is li$ely to ,e ignored during the test. 'or detailed principles and method; see the related description in section 3.*.*P1ey %ndicesQ.

/.1.- Information Co!!ection


:ocation o& the inter&erence source is time and e&&ort consuming. "5aila,ility o& the ad5anced tester and accurate test method are important. To locate the source in the shortest time; you must also collect related in&ormation as much as possi,le; &or

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e4ample< -laces where call drop is caused ,y the inter&erence; and it is e4tremely di&&icult to originate a call -laces where other communication e>uipment is used and the company or indi5iduals that use such e>uipment -laces where there are &actories that may cause inter&erence; such as the iron wor$s; cement mill; and gal5ani?ation &actory. To collect the in&ormation; you must &re>uently communicate with the customer; as$ the people li5ing or wor$ing around the site; and chec$ whether there are companies or indi5iduals that may use the wireless communication system or de5ices that may cause inter&erence. This can impro5e the wor$ e&&iciency in locating the inter&erence source.

1 Co!!ection of Interference 2pectrums


There are many types o& inter&erence. 'ailure to $now the spectrum o& each type o& inter&erence will a&&ect accurate location o& the inter&erence source. This section pro5ides the &re>uently8seen inter&erence spectrums to help you &ind out the inter&erence source as soon as possi,le.

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1.+ %e&erse 9road$and Interference from %epeaters

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the re5erse ,road,and inter&erence &rom repeaters

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1.- Interference from TV Acti&e "utdoor Antenna

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the outdoor acti5e T9 antenna @*A

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igure +.- Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the outdoor acti5e T9 antenna @2A

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1./ Interference Caused $# 2igna! *eakage of Ca$!e TV Amp!ifier

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence caused ,y signal lea$age o& ca,le T9 ampli&ier @*A

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igure +.- Spectrum o& the inter&erence caused ,y signal lea$age o& ca,le T9 ampli&ier @2A

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1.1 Interference from t(e Computer Eammer

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the computer Gammer

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1.4 Interference from t(e Wa!kie=Ta!kie

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the wal$ie8tal$ie

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1., Interference from t(e Neon *ig(t

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the neon light

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1.. Interference from t(e 5T2143 Ana!og Communication 2#stem

igure +.+ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the 3TS.(0 analog communication system @*A

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igure +.- Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the 3TS.(0 analog communication system @2A

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igure +./ Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the 3TS.(0 analog communication system @3A

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igure +.1 Spectrum o& the inter&erence &rom the 3TS.(0 analog communication system @.A

4 56amp!es of Interference Test


4.+ %A282 "ffice Inter=Modu!ation Pro$!em

RASYS BTS I nt er- M odul at i on Probl emi n Bol uo, H ui zhou Ci t y

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4.- Wa!kie=Ta!kie Interference Test in 'e#uan Cit#

H eyuan Busi ness Tri p Report

4./ TV 2tation Interference Test

A !rbi l I nt er" eren#e Anal ysi s Report

4.1 TV C(anne! 2upp!ementer Interference Test

Troubl eshoot i n$ Report o" % &erhi $h M ai n RSSI Probl emo" BTS at 'u#huan Tra" " i # Pol i #e S(uad ) *++,- +-- +*.

4.4 5T2143 Interference Test

I nt er" eren#e Test i n Sout hern Anhui Pro&i n#e

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