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Nontraditional Machining

Definition: A group of processes that remove excess material by various techniques i involving l i mechanical, h i l thermal, th l electrical, l t i l or chemical h i l energy (or ( combinations bi ti of f these th energies). They do not use a sharp cutting tool as in the conventional machining.

Classification of nontraditional machining processes based on principal energy form.


1 1. Mechanical M h i l Energy E Processes P (hi h velocity (high l i stream of f abrasives b i or fluid fl id (or ( both) b h) Ultrasonic machining (USM) Water jet cutting (WJC) Abrasive Ab i W Water t j jet t cutting tti (WJC) Abrasive jet machining (AJM) Electrochemical Processes (ECM) reverse of f electroplating l l i Thermal Processes (EDM, EDWC, EBM, LBM, PAC) vaporizing of a small area of work surface Chemical Processes (CHM, Chemical Blanking, PCM) chemical etching of areas unprotected by maskant

2. 3. 4.

Nontraditional Machining
Applications of nontraditional machining processes Nontraditional processes are important for the following cases: Shape new materials that are very hard, brittle or both that difficult to machine by conventional processes Machining comples part geometry that impossible with conventional methods. Need to avoid surface damage, which is often associated with conventional machining.

1. Mechanical Energy Processes


a) Ultrasonic machining b) Water jet cutting c) Abrasive water jet cutting d) ) Abrasive A i j jet machining i i

Ultrasonic Machining (USM)


Abrasives contained in a slurry are driven at high velocity against work by a tool vibrating at low amplitude and high frequency. The abrasives, impinging against the work surface, perform the cutting. Tool oscillation is perpendicular to work surface material removed by erosion with abrasive particles. Abrasive materials include: boron nitride, boron carbide, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide bid and d diamond. di d Grit size ranges between 100 and 2000 Tool is fed slowly into work Shape Sh of f tool l is i formed f d into i part
The vibration amplitude should be set approximately equal to the grit size, and the gap size should be maintained at about two times the high velocity to fine abrasive grains grit size g The ratio of work material to tool material removed during the The tip of the tool vibrates at low amplitude (0.0075 cutting process ranges from ~100:1 ) and at high g frequency q y (20,000 ( , Hz). ) mm) for cutting glass down to ~1:1 for This vibration transmits a high velocity to fine abrasive cutting tool steel grains between tool and the surface of the work piece

Ultrasonic Machining (USM)


Abrasives contained in a slurry are driven at high velocity against work by a tool vibrating at low amplitude and high frequency Tool oscillation is perpendicular to work surface material removed by erosion with abrasive particles. Abrasive materials include: boron nitride, boron carbide, aluminum oxide, silicon ili carbide bid and d diamond. di d Tool is fed slowly into work Shape of tool is formed into part
The vibration amplitude should be set approximately equal to the grit size, and the gap size should be maintained at about two times the grit size Grit size ranges between 100 and 2000 (grit ( i size i determines d i the h surface f finish of the machined part).

high velocity to fine abrasive grains

Characteristics of the USM Process.

Cutting parameters include:


1. Grit size that determines the surface finish of the machined part (Ranged from 100 to 2000 2 Concentration of abrasives in water (slurry) ranges from 20% to 60%. 2. 60% circulated in order to bring fresh grains into action at the tool-work gap. It also washes away chips and worn grits created by the cutting process. 3. The tip p of the tool vibrates at low amplitude p (0.0075 mm) ( ) and at high g frequency q y( (20,000 , Hz). The removal rate in USM increases with increasing frequency and amplitude of vibration. y into work 4. Tool is fed slowly

Tool Wear
The cutting action in USM operates on the tool as well as the work. As the abrasive particles erode the work surface they also erode the tool, surface, tool thus affecting its shape. This ratio of work material removed to tool wear varies for different work materials materials, ranging from around 100:1 for cutting glass down to about 1:1 for cutting tool steel.

Amplitude

Frequency

Ultrasonic Machining (USM)


USM Applications
Used only on hard and brittle work materials such as: ceramics, glass, and carbides Also successful on certain metals, metals such as stainless steel and titanium The process is not limited to produce circular. The tool can be made to the shape required, and hence extremely complicated shapes can be produced in h d materials. hard t i l Thread cutting in ceramics by rotating the tool or the WP Coining operations - pattern on tool is imparted to a flat work surface Produces virtually stress free shapes Holes as small as 0.076 mm have been made The p process is characterized by y the absence of any y thermal effects on the machined part.

Water Jet Cutting (WJC)


Uses high pressure, high velocity stream of water directed at work surface for cutting

Process parameters include: 1. Standoff distance (should be small to minimize dispersion of the fluid stream before it strikes the work 3.2 mm), 2. Nozzle opening diameter, 3 Water 3. W t pressure, and d 4. Cutting feed rate (range from 5 to 500 mm/s).

Smallest S ll t k kerf f width idth about b t 0.4 0 4 mm for f metals, t l and 0.1mm for plastics and non-metals.

Water Jet Cutting (WJC)

(a) Schematic illustration of the water-jet machining process.

Examples of various nonmetallic lli parts produced by the waterjet cutting process.

Water Jet Cutting (WJC)


WJC Applications
Usually automated by CNC or industrial robots to manipulate nozzle along desired trajectory Used to cut narrow slits in flat stock such as plastic, textiles, fiber-reinforced plastic composites, composites floor tile tile, carpet carpet, leather, leather and cardboard

Water Jet Cutting (WJC)


Advantages
1. Ease of automation 2. Water is cheap, nontoxic, and can be easily disposed and re-circulated. 3. The process requires a limited volume of water (100200 L/h). 4. The tool (nozzle) does not wear and therefore does not need sharpening. 5. No thermal degrading of the work material, as the process does not generate heat. heat 6. Minimum material loss because of the narrow cut slit 7. It is ideal for cutting g asbestos, g glass fiber insulation, beryllium, y and fiberreinforced plastics (FRP), because the process provides a dustless atmosphere. For this reason, the process is not hazardous and is environmentally safe. 8 The process provides clean and sharp cuts that are free from burrs. 8. burrs 9. Starting holes are not needed to perform the cut. 10.Noise is minimized, , as the p power unit and intensifier can be kept p away y from the cutting station.

Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC)


When WJC is used on metals, abrasive particles must be added to jet stream to facilitate cutting. g Additional p process p parameters: abrasive type, yp , g grit size, , and flow rate 1. Abrasives: aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and garnet (a silicate mineral) 2. Grit sizes range between 60 and 120 3. Grits added to water stream at about 0.25 kg/min after it exits nozzle 4. Entrance direction (angle) of abrasives (to eliminate the formation of kerf) The remaining process parameters include those that are common to WJC: 4. Standoff distance (1/2 to 1/4 of WJC), 5. Nozzle opening p g diameter ( (0,25-0.63 , mm), ), 6. Water pressure, and 7. Cutting feed rate (range from 5 to 500 mm/s).

Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC)


Application
1. 1 2. 3. 4 4. 5. Cutting C i of f metallic lli materials: i l Cu, C Al, Al Mo, Ti, i W. Cutting carbides and ceramics. Cutting concrete, marble, and granite. C tti plastics Cutting l ti and d asbestos. b t Cutting composites such as FRP, and sandwiched Ti-honeycomb without burr formation. 6 The latter is used in aerospace industry. 6. industry 7. Cutting of acrylic and glass.

Jet cross-sectional view.

Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)


Abrasive jet machining (AJM) is a material removal process that results from the action of a high-velocity stream of gas containing small abrasive particles. Process Parameters
The gas is dry, dry and pressures of 0.2-1.4 MPa Nozzle orifices diameter of 0.0751 0 mm 1.0 Stream velocities of 2.5-5.0 m/s Gases include dry air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide dioxide, and helium. helium Distances between nozzle tip and work surface range 3 to 75 mm.
Applications

The process is usually performed manually by an operator who directs the nozzle at the work work. Normally used as a finishing process rather than cutting process (e.g. gas sandpaper) Applications: deburring, cleaning, and polishing.

Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)

(a) Schematic illustration of the abrasive-jet machining process. (b) Examples E le of f parts t produced d ed through th h abrasive-jet b i e jet machining, hi i produced in 50-mm (2-in.) thick 304 stainless steel. (b)

Electrochemical Machining Processes (ECM)


Electrical energy used in combination with chemical reactions to accomplish material t i lremoval. l Reverse of electroplating Work material must be a conductor Processes:

1. Electrochemical machining (ECM) 2 Electrochemical deburring (ECD) 2. 3. Electrochemical grinding (ECG)

Electrochemical Machining (ECM)


Material removal by anodic dissolution, using electrode (tool) in close proximity to work but separated by a rapidly flowing electrolyte

ECM Operation
Material is deplated from anode workpiece k i (positive ( iti pole) l ) and d transported to a cathode tool (negative pole) in an electrolyte bath Electrolyte flows rapidly between two poles to carry off deplated material, so it does not plate onto tool Electrode materials: Cu, brass, or stainless steel Tool has inverse shape of part Tool size and shape must allow for the gap To accomplish metal removal, the electrode l t d is i fed f d into i t the th work k at ta rate equal to the rate of metal removal from the work.
Form tool (cathode)

Metal removal rate is determined by Faraday Faraday's s First Law Law, whieh states that the amount of chemical change produced by an electric current (i.e., the amount of metal dissolved) is proportional to the quantity of electricity passed (current x time):

Electrochemical Machining (ECM)

The schematic of electrochemical machining process

(a) hole sinking

with ith insulated i l t d tool t l

(b) sinking of stepped through hole

(c) ECM of turbine blade

Electrochemical machining is generally used in the following cases: Work metal is very hard or difficult to machine, Workpart p g geometry y is difficult (or impossible) to accomplish by conventional machining methods.

(c) Multiple hole drilling

(d) ECM surfacing f i