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TrendSiters Digital Content And Web Technologies

3rd EDITION

Sam Vaknin, Ph.D.

Editing and Design:

Lidija Rangelovska

Lidija Rangelovska A Narcissus Publications Im rint! Sko je "##"$% Not &or Sale' Non$commercial edition(

2002, 2005 Copyright Lidija Rangelovska. All rights reserved. This book, or an !art thereo", ma not be #sed or re!rod#$ed in an manner %itho#t %ritten !ermission "rom: &idi'a (angelovska ) %rite to: !alma*#net.$om.mk or to vaknin*link.$om.mk Visit the TrendSiters We Site! http!""sa#vak.tripod.$o#" %si&e .ht#l 'nternet ( ) *edi%# or a *essage+ htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om+internet.html World in Con,li$t and Transition htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om+g#ide.html

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)dditional arti$les a o%t 3igital Content on the We ! htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om+b#si%eb.html 4ssays dedi$ated to the ne& #edia, doing %siness on the &e , digital $ontent, its $reation and distri %tion, e1p% lishing, e1 ooks, digital re,eren$e, 3R* te$hnology, and other related iss%es. htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om+internet.html Visit Sa# Vaknin5s 6nited 7ress 'nternational 867'9 )rti$le )r$hive ) Click )*R*' This letter $onstit#tes a !ermission to re!rint or mirror an and all o" the materials mentioned or linked to herein s#b'e$t to a!!ro!riate $redit and linkba$k. 4very arti$le p% lished *6ST in$l%de the a%thor io, in$l%ding the link to the a%thor5s &e site.

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Sam Vaknin 4 htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om 5 is the a#thor o" 3alignant Sel" &ove 6 Nar$issism (evisited and A"ter the (ain 6 7o% the 8est &ost the East. 7e served as a $ol#mnist "or ,entral E#ro!e (evie%, Po!3atters, 1ellaonline, and e1ook8eb, a 0nited Press International 40PI5 Senior 1#siness ,orres!ondent, and the editor o" mental health and ,entral East E#ro!e $ategories in The O!en Dire$tor and S#ite9:9. 0ntil re$entl , he served as the E$onomi$ Advisor to the .overnment o" 3a$edonia. Visit Sam;s 8eb site at htt!:++samvak.tri!od.$om

The )rti$les 4!lease s$roll do%n to revie% them5:

*$books and e$ ublishing


The 2#t#re o" Ele$troni$ P#blishing I. The Disintermediation o" ,ontent II. E4merging5 1ooks III. Invasion o" the Ama<ons IV. (evolt o" the S$holars V. The /idna!!ing o" ,ontent VI. The 3ira$#lo#s ,onversion VII. The 3edi#m and the 3essage VIII. The Idea o" (e"eren$e I=. 8ill ,ontent ever be Pro"itable> =. -amai$an OverDrive 6 &D,;s and &,D;s =I. An Embarrassment o" (i$hes =II. The 2all and 2all o" !6?ines =III. The Internet and the &ibrar =IV. A 1rie" 7istor o" the 1ook =V. The A""air o" the Vanishing ,ontent =VI. (evolt o" the Poor 6 The Demise o" Intelle$t#al Pro!ert =VII. The Territorial 8eb =VIII. The In6$redible 8eb =I=. Does 2ree ,ontent Sell> ==. ,o! right and 2ree Online S$holarshi! ==I. The Se$ond .#tenberg ==II. The E6book Evangelist ==III. .erman @s ,o! right &ev

==IV. The 2#t#re o" Online (e"eren$e ==V. 1attle o" the Titans ) En$arta vs. 1ritanni$a ==VI. Pro'e$t .#tenberg@s Anabasis

Web Technolog+ and Trends


I. 1right Planet, Dee! 8eb II. The Seamless Internet III. The Pol glottal Internet IV. De'a .oogled V. 3a!s o" , bers!a$e VI. The 0niversal Inter"a$e VII. Internet Advertising ) 8hat 8ent 8rong> VIII. The E$onomi$s o" S!am I=. Don@t 1link ) Intervie% %ith -e""re 7arro% =. The ,ase o" the ,om!ressed Image =I. 3anage IT ) In"ormation Te$hnolog at a ,rossroads

The Internet and the Digital Divide


I. The Internet ) A 3edi#m or a 3essage> II. The Internet in the ,o#ntries in Transition III. &ea!"rogging Transition IV. The Sel"ish Net ) The Semanti$ 8eb )%thor! Sa# Vaknin Conta$t 'n,o: !alma*#net.$om.mkA vaknin*link.$om.mk

41-;;<S ).3 4176-L'S:'.=


The ,uture o& *lectronic Publishing ,irst ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/ 0+1 Sam 2aknin
0NES,O;s some%hat arbitrar de"inition o" BbookB is: BBNon6!eriodi$al !rinted !#bli$ation o" at least CD !ages eE$l#ding $oversB. The emergen$e o" ele$troni$ !#blishing %as s#!!osed to $hange all that. Fet a bloodbath o" #n#s#al !ro!ortions has taken !la$e in the last "e% months. Time 8arner;s iP#blish and 3ight 8ords 4!artl o%ned b 1arnes and Noble5 %ere the last in a string o" reso#nding "ail#res %hi$h $ast in do#bt the b#siness model #nderl ing digital $ontent. Ever thing seemed to have gone %rong: the dot.$oms dot bombed, vent#re $a!ital dried #!, $om!eting standards "ra$t#red an alread "ragile market!la$e, the hard%are 4e6book readers5 %as $l#nk and a%k%ard, the so"t%are #n%ield , the e6books badl %ritten or alread in the !#bli$ domain. Terri"ied b the ineEorable !ro$ess o" disintermediation 4the establishment o" dire$t $onta$t bet%een a#thor and readers, eE$l#ding !#blishers and bookstores5 and b the ease %ith %hi$h digital $ontent $an be re!li$ated 6 !#blishers resorted to dra$onian $o! right !rote$tion meas#res 4e#!hemisti$all kno%n as Bdigital rights managementB5. This "#rther alienated the "e% !otential readers le"t. The o!!osite model o" BviralB or Bb#<<B marketing 4b en$o#raging the dissemination o" "ree $o!ies o" the !romoted book5 %as onl marginall more s#$$ess"#l. 3oreover, e6!#blishing;s deliver !lat"orm, the Internet, has been trans"ormed be ond re$ognition sin$e 3ar$h G:::. 2rom an o!en, some%hat anar$hi$, %eb o" net%orked $om!#ters 6 it has evolved into a territorial, $ommer$ial, $or!orate eEtension o" Bbri$k and mortarB giants, s#b'e$t to government reg#lation. It is less "riendl to%ards inde!endent 4small5 !#blishers, the ba$kbone o" e6!#blishing. In$reasingl , it is eE!ro!riated b !#blishing and media behemoths. It is treated as a medi#m "or $ross !romotion, s#!!l $hain management, and $#stomer relations management. It o""ers onl some minor s nergies %ith non6$ bers!a$e, real %orld, "ran$hises and media !ro!erties. The likes o" Disne and 1ertelsmann have s%#ng a "#ll $ir$le "rom $onsidering the Internet to be the neEt big thing in Ne% 3edia deliver 6 to "ranti$ e""orts to $ontain the red ink it oo<ed all over their other%ise im!e$$able balan$e sheets. 1#t %ere the no% silent !#ndits right all the same> Is the "#t#re o" !#blishing 4and other media ind#stries5 ineEtri$abl intert%ined %ith the Internet> The ans%er de!ends on %hether an old habit dies hard. Internet s#r"ers are #sed to "ree $ontent. The are ver rel#$tant to !a "or in"ormation 4%ith !re$io#s "e% eE$e!tions, like the B8all Street -o#rnalB;s ele$troni$ edition5. 3oreover, the Internet, %ith 3 billion !ages listed in the .oogle sear$h engine 4and another 9H billion in BinvisibleB databases5, !rovides man

"ree s#bstit#tes to ever in"ormation !rod#$t, no matter ho% s#!erior. 8eb based media $om!anies 4s#$h as Salon and 1ritanni$a.$om5 have been eE!erimenting %ith !a ment and !ri$ing models. 1#t this is besides the !oint. 8hether in the "orm o" s#bs$ri!tion 41ritanni$a5, !a !er vie% 4I#estia5, !a to !rint 42athom5, sam!le and !a to b# the !h si$al !rod#$t 4(eal(ead5, or mi$ro!a ments 4Ama<on5 6 the !#bli$ re"#ses to $o#gh #!. 3oreover, the advertising6s#bsidi<ed "ree $ontent 8eb site has died together %ith 8eb advertising. .eo$ities 6 a $omm#nit o" "ree hosted, ad6s#!!orted, 8eb sites !#r$hased b FahooJ 6 is no% sele$tivel sh#tting do%n 8eb sites 4%hen the eE$eed a $ertain level o" tra""i$5 to $onvin$e their o%ners to revert to a monthl hosting "ee model. 8ith & $os in tro#ble in E#ro!e, Tri!od ma %ell "ollo% s#it shortl . Earlier this ear, 3i$roso"t has sh#t do%n &ist1ot 4a host o" dis$#ssion lists5. S#ite9:9 has sto!!ed !a ing its editors 4$ontent a#thors5 e""e$tive -an#ar 9Hth. Abo#t.$om "ired h#ndreds o" $ategor editors. 8ith the #gl demise o" Themestream, 8ebSeed is the onl $ontent aggregator %hi$h tries to b#$k the trend b rel ing 4!artl 5 on advertising reven#e. ParadoEi$all , e6!#blishing;s main ho!e ma lie %ith its ostensible adversar : the librar . 0nbelievabl , e6!#blishers a$t#all tried to limit the a$$ess o" librar !atrons to e6books 4i.e., the lending o" e6books to m#lti!le !atrons5. 1#t, libraries are not onl re!ositories o" kno%ledge and $omm#nit $entres. The are also dominant !romoters o" ne% kno%ledge te$hnologies. The are alread the largest b# ers o" e6books. Together %ith s$hools and other ed#$ational instit#tions, libraries $an serve as de$isive so$iali<ation agents and introd#$e generations o" !#!ils, st#dents, and readers to the !ossibilities and ri$hes o" e6!#blishing. .overnment #se o" e6books 4e.g., b the militar 5 ma have the same bene"i$ial e""e$t. As standards $onverge 4Adobe;s Portable Do$#ment 2ormat and 3i$roso"t;s 3S (eader &IT "ormat are likel to be the %inners5, as hard%are im!roves and be$omes #biK#ito#s 4%ithin m#lti6!#r!ose devi$es or as standalone higher K#alit #nits5, as $ontent be$omes more attra$tive 4alread man ne% titles are !#blished in both !rint and ele$troni$ "ormats5, as more versatile in"ormation taEonomies 4like the Digital Ob'e$t Identi"ier5 are introd#$ed, as the Internet be$omes more gender6ne#tral, !ol glot, and $osmo!olitan 6 e6!#blishing is likel to re$over and "lo#rish. This renaissan$e %ill !robabl be aided b the grad#al de$line o" !rint maga<ines and b a strengthening movement "or "ree o!en so#r$e s$holarl !#blishing. The !#blishing o" !eriodi$al $ontent and a$ademi$ resear$h 4in$l#ding, grad#all , !eer revie%ed resear$h5 ma be alread shi"ting to the 8eb. Non6"i$tion and teEtbooks %ill "ollo%. Alternative models o" !ri$ing are alread in eviden$e 4a#thor !a s to !#blish, a#thor !a s to obtain !eer revie%, !#blisher !a s to !#blish, b# a !h si$al !rod#$t and gain a$$ess to enhan$ed online $ontent, and so on5. 8eb site rating agen$ies %ill hel! to dis$riminate bet%een the $redible and the in6 $redible. P#blishing is moving 6 albeit ki$king and s$reaming 6 online.

The Disintermediation o& Content 0+1 Sam 2aknin


Are $ontent brokers 6 !#blishers, distrib#tors, and re$ord $om!anies 6 a thing o" the !ast> In one %ord: disintermediation The grad#al removal o" la ers o" $ontent brokering and intermediation 6 mainl in man#"a$t#ring marketing 6 is the $ontin#ation o" a long term trend. ,onsider m#si$ "or instan$e. Streaming a#dio on the internet 4Bso"t radioB5, or do%nloadable 3P3 "iles ma render the ,D obsolete 6 b#t the %ere !re$eded b radio m#si$ broad$asts. 1#t the novelt is that the Internet !rovides a ven#e "or the marketing o" ni$he !rod#$ts and red#$es the barriers to entr !revio#sl im!osed b the need to invest in $ostl BbrandingB $am!aigns and man#"a$t#ring and distrib#tion a$tivities. This trend is also likel to restore the balan$e bet%een artists and the $ommer$ial eE!loiters o" their !rod#$ts. The ver de"inition o" BartistB %ill eE!and to en$om!ass all $reative !eo!le. One %ill seek to disting#ish onesel", to BbrandB onesel" and to a#$tion one;s servi$es, ideas, !rod#$ts, designs, eE!erien$e, !h siK#e, or biogra!h , et$. dire$tl to end6#sers and $ons#mers. This is a ret#rn to !re6ind#strial times %hen artisans r#led the e$onomi$ s$ene. 8ork stabilit %ill s#""er and %ork mobilit %ill in$rease in a lands$a!e o" shi"ting allegian$es, head h#nting, remote $ollaboration, and similar labo#r market trends. 1#t distrib#tors, !#blishers, and re$ord $om!anies are not going to vanish. The are going to metamor!hose. This is be$a#se the "#l"il a "e% "#n$tions and !rovide a "e% servi$es %hose im!ortan$e is onl enhan$ed b the B"ree "or allB Internet $#lt#re. ,ontent intermediaries grade $ontent and se!arate the K#alitative "rom the e!hemeral and the atro$io#s. The del#ge o" sel"6!#blished and vanit !#blished e6books, m#si$ tra$ks and art %orks has generated "e% master!ie$es and a lot o" trash. The absen$e o" '#di$io#s "iltering has #n'#stl given a bad name to %hole segments o" the ind#str 4e.g., small, or %eb6based !#blishers5. ,ons#mers 6 in#ndated, disa!!ointed and eEha#sted 6 %ill !a a !remi#m "or $ontent rating servi$es. Tho#gh driven b $rass $ommer$ial $onsiderations, most !#blishers and re$ord $om!anies do a!!l $ertain K#alit standards ro#tinel and th#s are !ositioned to !rovide these rating servi$es reliabl . ,ontent brokers are relationshi! managers. ,onsider distrib#tors: the !rovide instant a$$ess to $entrali<ed, $ontin#o#sl #!dated, BaddressbooksB o" $lients 4stores, $ons#mers, media, et$.5. This red#$es the time to market and in$reases e""i$ien$ . It alters reven#e models ver s#bstantiall . ,ontent $reators $an th#s $on$entrate on %hat the do best: $ontent $reation, and red#$e their overhead b o#tso#r$ing the "#n$tions o" distrib#tion and relationshi!s management. The eEisten$e o" $entral Brelationshi! ledgersB ields s nergies %hi$h $an be a!!lied to all the $lients o" the distrib#tor. The distrib#tor !rovides a single address that $ontent re6sellers $onverge on and "eed o"". Distrib#tors, !#blishers and re$ord $om!anies also !rovide logisti$al s#!!ort: %areho#sing, $onsolidated sales re!orting and transa$tion a#diting, and a single, !eriodi$ !a ment. Fet, having said all that, $ontent intermediaries still over6$harge their $lients 4the $ontent

$reators5 "or their servi$es. This is es!e$iall tr#e in an age o" '#st6in6time inventor and digital distrib#tion. Net%ork e""e$ts mean that $ontent brokers have to invest m#$h less in marketing, branding and advertising on$e a !rod#$t;s "irst mover advantage is established. E$onomi$ la%s o" in$reasing, rather than diminishing, ret#rns mean that ever additional #nit sold ields a 7I.7E( !ro"it 6 rather than a de$lining one. The !ie is getting bigger. 7en$e, the meteori$ in$rease in ro alties !#blishers !a a#thors "rom sales o" the ele$troni$ versions o" their %ork 4an %here "rom (andom 7o#se;s 3HL to H:L !aid b smaller !#blishers5. As this te$toni$ shi"t reverberates thro#gh the %hole distrib#tion $hain, retail o#tlets are beginning to transa$t dire$tl %ith $ontent $reators. The borders bet%een the t !es o" intermediaries are bl#rred. 1arnes and Noble 4the Ameri$an bookstores $hain5 has, in e""e$t, be$ome a !#blisher. 3an !#blishers have virt#al store"ronts. 3an a#thors sell dire$tl to their readers, a$ting as !#blishers. The introd#$tion o" Bbook AT3sB 6 POD 4Print On Demand5 ma$hines, %hi$h %ill !rint ever $on$eivable title in min#tes, on the s!ot, in Bbook kiosksB 6 %ill give rise to a host o" ne% intermediaries. Intermediation is not gone. It is here to sta be$a#se it is sorel needed. 1#t it is in a state o" "l#E. Old maEims break do%n. Ne% modes o" o!eration emerge. 2#n$tions are amalgamated, o#tso#r$ed, dis!ensed %ith, or $reated "rom s$rat$h. It is an eE$iting s$ene, "#ll %ith o!!ort#nities.

*.merging/ 0ooks 0+1 Sam 2aknin


A novel re6de"inition thro#gh eE!erimentation o" the $lassi$al "ormat o" the book is emerging. ,onsider the no% de"#n$t 1ookTailor. It #sed to sell its book $#stomi<ation so"t%are mainl to travel agents 6 b#t s#$h so"t%are is likel to $onK#er other ni$hes 4s#$h as the legal and medi$al !ro"essions5. It allo%s #sers to sele$t bits and !ie$es "rom a librar o" e6books, $ombine them into a totall ne% tome and !rint and bind the latter on demand. The $lient $an also $hoose to b# the end6!rod#$t as an e6book. ,onsider %hat this sim!le b#siness model does to entren$hed and age old notions s#$h as BoriginalB and B$o!iesB, $o! right, and book identi"iers. 8hat is the BoriginalB in this $ase> Is it the "inal, #ser6$#stomi<ed book 6 or its so#r$es> And i" no $#stomi<ed book is identi$al to an other 6 %hat ha!!ens to the int#itive notion o" B$o!iesB> Sho#ld 1ookTailor6generated books $onsidered to be #niK#e eEem!lars o" one6$o! !rint r#ns> I" so, sho#ld ea$h one re$eive a #niK#e identi"ier 4"or instan$e, a #niK#e IS1N5> Does the #ser !ossess an rights in the "inal !rod#$t, $om!osed and sele$ted b him> 8hat abo#t the $o! rights o" the original a#thors> Or take 1ook,rossing.$om. On the "a$e o" it, it !resents no !ro"o#nd $hallenge to established !#blishing !ra$ti$es and to the modern $on$e!t o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert . 3embers register their books, obtain a 1,ID 41ook,rossing ID N#mber5 and then give the book to someone, or sim!l leave it l ing aro#nd "or a total stranger to "ind. 7en$e"orth, "ate determines the $hain o" events. Event#al s#$$essive o%ners o" the vol#me are s#!!osed to re!ort to 1ook,rossing 4b e6mail5 abo#t the book;s and their %hereabo#ts, thereb generating moving !lots and ma!!ing the territor o" litera$ and bibliomania. This inno$#o#s model s#bversivel #ndermines the $on$e!t 6 legal and moral 6 o" o%nershi!. It also eE!ro!riates the book "rom the realm o" !assive, inert ob'e$ts and trans"orms it into a $atal st o" h#man intera$tions a$ross time and s!a$e. In other %ords, it ret#rns the book to its origins: a time $a!s#le, a time ma$hine and the embodiment o" a histori$al narrative. E6books, hitherto, have largel been nothing b#t an e!hemeral rendition o" their !rint !rede$essors. 1#t e6books are another medi#m altogether. The $an and %ill !rovide a di""erent reading eE!erien$e. ,onsider Bh !erlinks %ithin the e6book and %itho#t it 6 to %eb $ontent, re"eren$e %orks, et$., embedded instant sho!!ing and ordering links, divergent, #ser6 intera$tive, de$ision driven !lotlines, intera$tion %ith other e6books 4#sing 1l#etooth or another %ireless standard5, $ollaborative a#thoring, gaming and $omm#nit a$tivities, a#tomati$all or !eriodi$all #!dated $ontent, ,m#ltimedia $a!abilities, database, 2avo#rites and 7istor 3aintenan$e 4re$ords o" reading habits, sho!!ing habits, intera$tion %ith other readers, !lot related de$isions and m#$h more5, a#tomati$ and embedded a#dio $onversion and translation $a!abilities, "#ll %ireless !i$onet%orking and s$atternet%orking $a!abilities and moreB.

Invasion o& the Ama3ons 0+1 Sam 2aknin


The last "e% months have %itnessed a bloodbath in te$h sto$ks $o#!led %ith a "ranti$ re6 de"inition o" the %eb and o" ever !la er in it 4as "ar as $ontent is $on$erned5. This e""ort is three !ronged: Some $om!anies are gambling on $ontent distrib#tion and the !ossession o" the attendant digital in"rastr#$t#re. 3ight 8ords, "or eEam!le, stealthil trans"ormed itsel" "rom a B"ree6 "or6all6ever one6%el$omeB e6!#blisher to a distrib#tion $hannel o" $hoi$e %orks 4mainl b midlist a#thors5. It no% aims to "eed its $ontent to $ontent6starved %eb sites. In the !ro$ess, it shed tho#sands o" #n"ort#nate a#thors %ho did not meet its 4never stated5 sales $riteria. Others bet the "arm on $ontent $reation and !a$kaging. 1n.$om invaded the digital !#blishing and POD 4Print on Demand5 b#sinesses in a series o" lightning !#r$hases. It is no% the largest e6book store b a %ide margin. 1#t Ama<on seemed to have got it right on$e more. The %eb;s o%n virt#al mall and the "ormer darling o" 8all Street has diversi"ied into mi$ro!a ments. The Internet started as a "ree medi#m "or "ree s!irits. E6$ommer$e %as on$e $onsidered a dirt %ord. 8eb s#r"ers be$ame #sed to "ree $ontent. 7en$e the 4ver lo%5 glass $eiling on the !ri$e o" $ontent made available thro#gh the %eb 6 and the need to $harge $#stomers less than 9 0S dollars to a "e% dollars !er transa$tion 4Bmi$ro6!a mentsB5. Vario#s servi$e !roviders 4s#$h as Pa 6Pal5 emerged, none be$ame s#""i$ientl dominant and all6!ervasive to $onstit#te a standard. 8eb mer$hants; abilit to a$$e!t mi$ro!a ments is $r#$ial. E6$ommer$e 4let alone m6$ommer$e5 %ill never take o"" %itho#t it. Enter Ama<on. Its B7ono#r S stemB is li$en$ed to third !art %eb sites 4s#$h as 1artleb .$om and Satire8ire5. It allo%s !eo!le to donate mone or e""e$t mi$ro6!a ments, a!!arentl thro#gh its !atented one6$li$k s stem. As "ar as the %eb sites are $on$erned, there are t%o ma'or dra%ba$ks: all donations and !a ments are re"#ndable %ithin 3: da s and Ama<on $harges them 9H $ents !er transa$tion !l#s 9H4J5 !er$ent. 1 "ar the %orst deal in to%n. So, %h the "#ss> 1e$a#se o" Ama<on;s $#stomer list. This develo!ment em!hasi<es the gro%ing reali<ation that one;s list o" $#stomers 6 !ro!erl data mined 6 is the greatest asset, greater even than original $ontent and more im!ortant than distrib#tion $hannels and digital right management or asset management a!!li$ations. 3er$hants are %illing to !a "or a$$ess to this ever eE!anding virt#al neighbo#rhood 4even i" the are not made !riv to the $#stomer in"ormation $olle$ted b Ama<on5.

The 7ono#r S stem looks s#s!i$io#sl similar to the !a ment s stem designed b Ama<on "or Ste!hen /ing;s seriali<ed e6novel, BThe PlantB. Interesting to note ho% the needs o" a#thors and !#blishers are no% in the driver;s seat, hel!ing to s!#r along innovations in b#siness methods.

Revolt o& the Scholars 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.reals$i.$om+ S$indeE;s Instant P#blishing Servi$e is abo#t em!o%erment. The !ri$e o" s$holarl , !eer6 revie%ed 'o#rnals has sk ro$keted in the last "e% ears, o"ten %a o#t o" the limited means o" libraries, #niversities, individ#al s$ientists and s$holars. A Bs$holarl divideB has o!ened bet%een the haves 4a$ademi$ instit#tions %ith ri$h endo%ments and %ell6heeled $or!orations5 and the haves not 4all the others5. ParadoEi$all , a$$ess to a#thoritative and a#thenti$ated kno%ledge has de$lined as the n#mber o" !ro"essional 'o#rnals has !roli"erated. This is not to mention the long 4and o"ten $r#$ial5 dela s in !#blishing resear$h res#lts and the shodd %ork o" man #nder6!aid and over6%orked !eer revie%ers. The Internet %as s#!!ose to $hange all that. Originall , a $om!#ter net%ork "or the eE$hange o" 4restri$ted and o!en5 resear$h res#lts among s$ientists and a$ademi$s in !arti$i!ating instit#tions 6 it %as s#!!osed to !rovide instant !#blishing, instant a$$ess and instant grati"i$ation. It has delivered onl !artiall . Pre!rints o" a$ademi$ !a!ers are o"ten !la$ed online b their eager a#thors and s#b'e$ted to !eer s$r#tin . 1#t this ha!ha<ard !#blishing $ottage ind#str did nothing to dethrone the !rint in$#mbents and their avari$io#s !ri$ing. The ma'or missing element is, o" $o#rse, res!e$tabilit . 1#t there are others. No agreed #!on $ontent or kno%ledge $lassi"i$ation method has emerged. Some %eb sites 4s#$h as S#ite9:95 #se the De%e de$imal s stem. Others invented and im!lemented s stems o" their making. Additionall , one $li$k !#blishing te$hnolog 4s#$h as 8ebseed;s or 1logger;s5 $ame to be identi"ied stri$tl to non6s$holarl material: !ersonal reminis$en$es, $orres!onden$e, arti$les and ne%s. Enter S$indeE and its A$ademi$ (eso#r$e ,hannel. Established b a$ademi$s and so"t%are eE!erts "rom 1#lgaria, it e!itomi<es the tearing do%n o" geogra!hi$al barriers heralded b the Internet. 1#t it does m#$h more than that. S$indeE is a %hole, sel"6$ontained, stand6alone, instant sel"6!#blishing and sel"6assembl s stem. Sel"6!#blishing s stems do eEist 4"or instan$e, P#rd#e 0niversit ;s5 6 b#t the in$or!orate onl $ertain $om!onents. S$indeE $overs the %hole range. 7aving 4"reel 5 registered as a member, a s$ientist or a s$holar $an !#blish their !a!ers, essa s, resear$h res#lts, arti$les and $omments online. The have to s#bmit an abstra$t and #se S$iendeE;s $lassi"i$ation 4B$allB5 n#mbers and s$ien$e des$ri!tors, arranged in a massive dire$tor available in the B(ealS$i &o$atorB. The &o$ator $an be also do%nloaded and #sed o""6line and its is s#r!risingl #ser6"riendl . The s#bmission !ro$ess itsel" is totall a#tomated and ver short. The s stem in$l#des a long series o" themati$ 'o#rnals. These 'o#rnals sel"6assemble, in a$$ordan$e %ith the $all n#mbers sele$ted b the s#bmitters. An arti$le s#bmitted %ith $ertain $all n#mbers %ill a#tomati$all be in$l#ded in the relevant 'o#rnals. The "l in the ointment is the absen$e o" !eer revie%. As the s stem moves "rom beta to

$ommer$iali<ation, S$indeE intends to address this iss#e b introd#$ing a s stem o" in$entives and ind#$ements. (evie%ers %ill be granted B$redit !ointsB to be a!!lied against the 4!aid5 !#bli$ation o" their o%n !a!ers, "or instan$e. S$indeE is the model o" things to $ome. P#blishing be$omes more and more a#tomated and kno%ledge6orientated. Peer revie%ed !a!ers be$ome more o#tlandishl eE!ensive and irrelevant. S$ientists and s$holars are getting im!atient and rebellio#s. The $on"l#en$e o" these three trends s!ells 6 at the least 6 the $reation o" a %eb based #niverse o" !arallel and alternative s$holarl !#blishing.

The 4idna ing o& Content 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.!lagiarism.org and htt!:++%%%.T#rnitin.$om &atin kidna!!ed the %ord B!lagionB "rom an$ient .reek and it ended #! in English as B!lagiarismB. It literall means Bto kidna!B 6 most $ommonl , to misa!!ro!riate $ontent and %rongl attrib#te it to onesel". It is a $lose kin o" !ira$ . 1#t %hile the so"t%are or $ontent !irate does not bother to hide or alter the identit o" the $ontent;s $reator or the so"t%are;s a#thor 6 the !lagiarist does. Plagiarism is, there"ore, more !erni$io#s than !ira$ . Enter T#rnit.$om. An o""6shoot o" %%%.i!aradigms.$om, it %as established b a gro#! o" $on$erned 4and $ommer$iall minded5 s$ientists "rom 0, 1erkele . 8hereas digital rights and asset management s stems are geared to !revent !ira$ 6 !lagiarism.org and its $ommer$ial arm, T#rnit.$om, are the $ ber eK#ivalent o" a la% en"or$ement agen$ , a$ting a"ter the "a$t to dis$over the $#l!rits and #n$over their misdeeds. This, the $laim, is a "irst stage on the %a to a !lagiarism6"ree Internet6based a$ademi$ $omm#nit o" both tea$hers and st#dents, in %hi$h the ed#$ational !otential o" the Internet $an be "#ll reali<ed. The !roblem is es!e$iall severe in a$ademia. Vario#s s#rve s have dis$overed that a staggering M:L4J5 o" 0S st#dents $heat and that at least 3:L !lagiari<e %ritten material. The Internet onl eEa$erbated this !roblem. 3ore than G:: $heat6sites have s!r#ng #!, %ith tho#sands o" !a!ers available on6line and tens o" tho#sands o" satis"ied !lagiarists the %orld over. Some o" these h#bs 6 like $heater.$om, $heat%eb or $heatho#se.$om 6 make no bones abo#t their o""erings. 3an o" them are lo$ated o#tside the 0SA 4in .erman , or Asia5 and at least one o""ers !a!ers in a "e% lang#ages, 7ebre% in$l#ded. The !roblem, tho#gh, is not limited to the ivor to%ers. E6<ines !lagiari<e. The !rint media !lagiari<e. Individ#al 'o#rnalists !lagiari<e, man %ith abandon. Even advertising agen$ies and "inan$ial instit#tions !lagiari<e. The amo#nt o" material o#t there is so over%helming that the !lagiarist develo!s a 4"airl '#sti"ied5 sense o" imm#nit . The tem!tation is irresistible, the re%ards big and the !ress#res o" modern li"e great. Some o" the !lagiarists are straight"or%ard $o!iers. Others s#bstit#te %ords, add senten$es, or $ombine t%o or more so#r$es. This raises the K#estion: B%hen sho#ld $ontent be $onsidered original and %hen 6 !lagiari<ed>B. Sho#ld the test "or !lagiarism be more stringent than the one a!!lied b the ,o! right O""i$e> And %hat rights are im!li$itl granted b the material;s gen#ine a#thors or !#blishers on$e the !la$e the $ontent on the Internet> Is the 8eb a !#bli$ domain and, i" es, to %hat eEtent> These K#estions are not easil ans%ered. ,onsider re!orts generated b #sers "rom a database.

Are these re!orts $o! righted 6 and i" so, b %hom 6 b the database $om!iler or b the #ser %ho de"ined the !arameters, %itho#t %hi$h the re!orts in K#estion %o#ld have never been generated> 8hat abo#t B"air #seB o" teEt and %orks o" art> In the 0SA, the ba$klash against digital $ontent !ira$ and !lagiarism has rea$hed !re!ostero#s legal, litigio#s and te$hnologi$al nadirs. Plagiarism.org has develo!ed a statisti$s6based te$hnolog 4the BDo$#ment So#r$e Anal sisB5 %hi$h $reates a Bdigital "inger!rintB o" ever do$#ment in its database. 8eb $ra%lers are then #nleashed to s$o#r the Internet and "ind do$#ments %ith the same "inger!rint and a $olo#r6 $oded re!ort is generated. An instr#$tor, tea$her, or !ro"essor $an then #se the re!ort to !rove !lagiarism and $heating. Pira$ is o"ten $onsidered to be a "orm o" viral marketing 4even b so"t%are develo!ers and !#blishers5. The a#thor;s, !#blisher;s, or so"t%are ho#se;s data are !reserved inta$t in the $ra$ked $o! . Pirated $o!ies o" e6books o"ten $ontrib#te to in$reased sales o" the !rint versions. ,ri!!led versions o" so"t%are or !irated $o!ies o" so"t%are %itho#t its man#als, #!dates and s#!!ort 6 o"ten lead to the !#r$hase o" a li$en$e. Not so %ith !lagiarism. The identities o" the a#thor, editor, !#blisher and ill#strator are deleted and re!la$ed b the details o" the !lagiarist. And %hile !ira$ is dis$#ssed "reel and "o#ght vigoro#sl 6 the dis$#ssion o" !lagiarism is still taboo and a$tivel s#!!ressed b image6$ons$io#s and endo%ment6 %ear a$ademi$ instit#tions and media. It is an #!hill str#ggle b#t !lagiarism.org has taken the "irst resol#te ste!.

The 5iraculous Conversion 0+1 Sam 2aknin


http!""&&&.ideavir%s.$o# The re$ent bloodbath among online $ontent !eddlers and digital media !rosel tisers $an be tra$ed to t%o deadl sins. The "irst %as to ass#me that tra""i$ eK#als sales. In other %ords, that a mira$#lo#s $onversion %ill s!ontaneo#sl o$$#r among the hordes o" visitors to a %eb site. It %as taken as an arti$le o" "aith that a $ertain !er$entage o" this mass %ill inevitabl and nigh h !noti$all rea$h "or their b#lging !o$ketbooks and !#r$hase $ontent, ho%ever !a$kaged. 3oreover, ad reven#es 4more reasonabl 5 %ere ass#med to be $losel $orrelated %ith Be eballsB. This m th led to an obsession %ith $o#nters, !age hits, im!ressions, #niK#e visitors, statisti$s and demogra!hi$s. It "ailed, ho%ever, to take into a$$o#nt the d%indling e""i$a$ o" %hat Seth .odin, in his brilliant essa 4B0nleashing the IdeaVir#sB5, $alls BInterr#!tion 3arketingB 6 ads, banners, s!am and "liers. It also ignored, at its !eril, the ethos o" "ree $ontent and o!en so#r$e !revalent among the Internet o!inion leaders, movers and sha!ers. These t%o negle$ted as!e$ts o" Internet h !e and $#lt#re led to the tro#n$ing o" erst%hile !romising %eb media $om!anies %hile their b#siness models %ere eE!osed as %ish"#l thinking. The se$ond mistake %as to eE$l#sivel $ater to the needs o" a highl idios n$rati$ gro#! o" !eo!le 4Sili$one Valle geeks and nerds5. The ass#m!tion that the 0SA 4let alone the rest o" the %orld5 is Sili$one Valle %rit large !roved to be $alamito#s to the ind#str . In the 9DN:s and 9DM:s, evol#tionar biologists like (i$hard Da%kins and (#!ert Sheldrake develo!ed models o" $#lt#ral evol#tion. Da%kins; BmemeB is a $#lt#ral element 4like a behavio#r or an idea5 !assed "rom one individ#al to another and "rom one generation to another not thro#gh biologi$al 6geneti$ means 6 b#t b imitation. Sheldrake added the notion o" $ontagion 6 Bmor!hi$ resonan$eB 6 %hi$h $a#ses behavio#r !atterns to s#ddenl emerged in %hole !o!#lations. Ph si$ists talked abo#t s#dden B!hase transitionsB, the emergent res#lts o" a $riti$al mass rea$hed. A latter da thinker, 3i$hael .lad%ell, $alled it the Bti!!ing !ointB. Seth .odin invented the $on$e!t o" an Bideavir#sB and an attendant marketing terminolog . In a n#tshell, he sa s, to #se his o%n s#mmation: B3arketing b interr#!ting !eo!le isn;t $ost6e""e$tive an more. Fo# $an;t a""ord to seek o#t !eo!le and send them #n%anted marketing, in large gro#!s and ho!e that some %ill send o# mone . Instead the "#t#re belongs to marketers %ho establish a "o#ndation and !ro$ess %here interested !eo!le $an market to ea$h other. Ignite $ons#mer net%orks and then get o#t o" the %a and let them talk.B

This is so#nd advi$e %ith a shak $on$l#sion. The $onversion "rom eE!os#re to a marketing message 4even "rom !eers %ithin a $ons#mer net%ork5 6 to an a$t#al sale is a $onvol#ted, m#lti6la ered, highl $om!leE !ro$ess. It is not a Bbla$k boEB, better le"t #nattended to. It is the same deadl sin all over again 6 the belie" in a mira$#lo#s $onversion. And it is highl 0S6 $entri$. Peo!le in other !arts o" the %orld intera$t entirel di""erentl . Fo# $an get them to visit and o# get them to talk and o# $an get them to eE$ite others. 1#t to get them to b# 6 is a %hole di""erent ballgame. Dot.$oms had better begin to st#d its r#les.

The 5edium and the 5essage 0+1 Sam 2aknin


A debate is raging in e6!#blishing $ir$les: sho#ld $ontent be en$r !ted and !rote$ted 4the 1arnes and Noble or Digital goods model5 6 or sho#ld it be distrib#ted "reel and th#s serve as a "orm o" viral marketing 4Seth .odin;s Bideavir#sB5> P#blishers "ear that "reel distrib#ted and $ost6"ree B$ra$kedB e6books %ill $annibali<e !rint books to oblivion. The more !aranoid !oint at the m#si$ ind#str . It "ailed to $o6o!t the emerging !eer6to6!eer !lat"orms 4Na!ster5 and to o""er a viable digital assets management s stem %ith an eK#itable sharing o" ro alties. The res#lts> A !rotra$ted legal battle and !ira$ r#n amok. BP#blishersB 6 goes this $reed 6 Bare !ositioned to in$or!orate en$r !tion and !rote$tion meas#res at the ver in$e!tion o" the digital !#blishing ind#str . The o#ght to learn the lesson.B 1#t this vie% ignores a vital di""eren$e bet%een so#nd and teEt. In m#si$, %hat matter are the song or the m#si$al !ie$e. The medi#m 4or $arrier, or !a$king5 is marginal and inter$hangeable. A ,D, an a#dio $assette, or an 3P3 !la er are all "ine, as "ar as the $ons#mer is $on$erned. The listener bases his or her !#r$hasing de$isions on so#nd K#alit and the "aith"#lness o" re!rod#$tion o" the listening eE!erien$e 4"or instan$e, in a $on$ert hall5. This is a ver narro%, rational, meas#rable and K#anti"iable $riterion. Not so %ith teEt. ,ontent is onl one element o" man o" eK#al "ooting #nderl ing the de$ision to !#r$hase a s!e$i"i$ teEt6B$arrierB 4medi#m5. Vario#s media en$a!s#lating IDENTI,A& teEt %ill still "are di""erentl . 7en$e the "ail#re o" ,D6(O3s and e6learning. Peo!le tend to $ons#me $ontent in other "ormats or media, even i" it is "#ll available to them or even o%ned b them in one s!e$i"i$ medi#m. Peo!le !re"er to !a to listen to live le$t#res rather than read "reel available online trans$ri!ts. &ibraries b# !rint 'o#rnals even %hen the have s#bs$ribed to the "#ll teEt online versions o" the ver same !#bli$ations. And $ons#mers over%helmingl !re"er to !#r$hase books in !rint rather than their e6versions. This is !artl a K#estion o" the slo% demise o" old habits. E6books have et to develo! the #ser6"riendliness, !lat"orm6inde!enden$e, !ortabilit , bro%sabilit and man other attrib#tes o" this ingenio#s medi#m, the .#tenberg tome. 1#t it also has to do %ith marketing !s $holog . 8here teEt 4or teEt eK#ivalents, s#$h as s!ee$h5 is $on$erned, the medi#m is at least as im!ortant as the message. And this %ill hold tr#e even %hen e6books $at$h #! %ith their !rint brethren te$hnologi$all .

There is no do#bting that "inall e6books %ill s#r!ass !rint books as a medi#m and o""er n#mero#s o!tions: h !erlinks %ithin the e6book and %itho#t it 6 to %eb $ontent, re"eren$e %orks, et$., embedded instant sho!!ing and ordering links, divergent, #ser6intera$tive, de$ision driven !lotlines, intera$tion %ith other e6books 4#sing 1l#etooth or another %ireless standard5, $ollaborative a#thoring, gaming and $omm#nit a$tivities, a#tomati$all or !eriodi$all #!dated $ontent, ,m#ltimedia $a!abilities, database, 2avo#rites and 7istor 3aintenan$e 4re$ords o" reading habits, sho!!ing habits, intera$tion %ith other readers, !lot related de$isions and m#$h more5, a#tomati$ and embedded a#dio $onversion and translation $a!abilities, "#ll %ireless !i$onet%orking and s$atternet%orking $a!abilities and more. The same teEt#al $ontent %ill be available in the "#t#re in vario#s media. Ostensibl , $ons#mers sho#ld gravitate to the "eat#re6ri$h and m#$h $hea!er e6book. 1#t the %on;t 6 be$a#se the medi#m is as im!ortant as the teEt message. It is not eno#gh to o%n the same $ontent, or to gain a$$ess to the same message. O%nershi! o" the right medi#m does $o#nt. Print books o""er $onne$tivit %ithin an histori$al $onteEt 4tradition5. E6books are $old and im!ersonal, alienated and deta$hed. The !rinted %ord o""ers !ermanen$e. Digital teEt is e!hemeral 4as an one %hose %ritings !erished in the re$ent dot.$om bloodbath or De'a takeover b .oogle $an attest5. Printed vol#mes are a %hole sensori#m, a sens#al eE!erien$e 6 ol"a$tor and ta$tile and vis#al. E6books are one dimensional in $om!arison. These are di""eren$es that $annot be over$ome, not even %ith the advent o" digital BinkB on digital B!a!erB. The %ill kee! the !rint book alive and !#blishers; reven#es "lo%ing. Peo!le b# !rinted matter not merel be$a#se o" its $ontent. I" this %ere tr#e e6books %ill have %on the da . Print books are a !a$kaged eE!erien$e, the s#bstan$e o" li"e. Peo!le b# the medi#m as o"ten and as m#$h as the b# the message it en$a!s#lates. It is im!ossible to $om!ete %ith this mistiK#e. Sa"e in this kno%ledge, !#blishers sho#ld let go and im!ose on e6 books Ben$r !tionB and B!rote$tionB levels as rigoro#s as the do on the their !rint books. The latter are here to sta alongside the "ormer. 8ith the !ro!er !ri$ing and a modi$#m o" tr#st, e6 books ma even end #! !romoting the old and tr#sted !rint versions.

The Idea o& Re&erence 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.britanni$a.$om There is no so#r$e o" re"eren$e remotel as a#thoritative as the En$ $lo!aedia 1ritanni$a. There is no brand as venerable and as veteran as this mammoth labo#r o" kno%ledge and ideas established in 9NOM. There is no better val#e "or mone . And, a"ter a "e% s!#tters and b#gs, it no% $omes in all sha!es and si<es, in$l#ding t%o ,D6(O3 versions 4standard and del#Ee5 and an a!!ealing and reader6"riendl %eb site. So, %h does it al%a s a!!ear to be on the brink o" eEtin$tion> The 1ritanni$a !rovides "or an interesting st#d o" the $hanging "ort#nes 4and "ormats5 o" vendors o" re"eren$e. As late as a de$ade ago, it %as still selling in a leather6imitation bo#nd set o" 3G vol#mes. As !rint en$ $lo!aedias %ent, it %as a daring innovator and a !ioneer o" h !erlinked6like teEt#al design. It s!orted a s#b'e$t indeE, a leEi$al !art and an al!habeti$all arranged series o" in6de!th essa s a#thored b the best in ever "ield o" h#man er#dition. 8hen the ,D6(O3 er#!ted on the s$ene, the 1ritanni$a mismanaged the transition. As late as 9DDN, it %as still selling a sordid teEt6onl $om!a$t dis$ %hi$h in$l#ded a !art o" the en$ $lo!aedia. Onl in 9DDM, did the 1ritanni$a s%it$h to m#ltimedia and added tables and gra!hs to the ,D. Video and so#nd %ere to make their a!!earan$e even later. This error in trend anal sis le"t the "ield %ide o!en to the likes o" En$arta and .rolier. The 1ritanni$a "ailed to gras! the irreversible shi"t "rom $#mbersome !rint vol#mes to slender and "reel sear$hable ,D6(O3s. (e"eren$e %as going digital and the 1ritanni$a;s sales !l#mmeted. The 1ritanni$a %as also late to $ash on the %eb revol#tion 6 b#t, %hen it did, it be$ame a %orld leader overnight. Its #nbeatable brand %as a de$isive "a$tor. A "ailed eE!eriment %ith an anno ing s#bs$ri!tion model gave %a to #nrestri$ted a$$ess to the "#ll $ontents o" the En$ $lo!aedia and m#$h more besides: s!e$iall $ommissioned arti$les, "ora, an annotated internet g#ide, ne%s in $onteEt, do%nloads and sho!!ing. The site en'o s health tra""i$ and the 1ritanni$a;s ,D6(O3 intera$ts s nergisti$all %ith its $ontents 4thro#gh h !erlinks5. Fet, re$entl , the 1ritanni$a had to "ire h#ndreds o" %orkers 4in its %eb division5 and a ret#rn to a !a 6"or6$ontent model is $ontem!lated. 8hat %ent %rong again> Internet advertising did. The 1ritanni$a;s reven#e model %as based on moneti<ing e eballs, to #se a "addish re"rain. 8hen the !er!et##m mobile o" Badvertisers !a "or $ontent and #sers get it "reeB $r#mbled 6 the 1ritanni$a "o#nd itsel" in "amiliar dire straits. Is there a lesson to be learned "rom this ard#o#s and $onvol#ted tale> Are %orks o" re"eren$e not sel"6s#!!orting regardless o" the reven#e model 4s#bs$ri!tion, ad6based, !rint, ,D6 (O35> This might %ell be the $ase. ,lassi$ %orks o" re"eren$e 6 "rom Diderot to the En$arta 6 o""ered a series o" advantages to their #sers: 9. A#thorit 6 8orks o" re"eren$e are a#thored b eE!erts in their "ields and !eer6revie%ed. This ens#res both ob'e$tivit and a$$#ra$ .

G. A$$essibilit 6 7#ge amo#nts o" material %ere assembled #nder one Broo"B. This abolished the need to s$o#r n#mero#s so#r$es o" variable K#alit to obtain the data one needed. 3. Organi<ation 6 This !ile o" kno%ledge %as organi<ed in a $onvenient and re$ogni<able manner 4al!habeti$all or b s#b'e$t5 3oreover, a#thoring an en$ $lo!aedia %as s#$h a da#nting and eE!ensive task that onl states, a$ademi$ instit#tions, or %ell6"#nded b#sinesses %ere able to !rod#$e them. At an given !eriod there %as a dearth o" reliable en$ $lo!aedias, %hi$h eEer$ised a mono!ol on the dissemination o" kno%ledge. ,om!etitors %ere "e% and "ar bet%een. The !ri$e o" these tomes %as, there"ore, al%a s eEorbitant b#t !eo!le !aid it to se$#re ed#$ation "or their $hildren and a "o#nt o" kno%ledge at home. 7en$e the long gone !henomenon o" Bdoor to door en$ $lo!aedia salesmenB and instalment !lans. Fet, all these advantages %ere eroded to "ine d#st b the Internet. The %eb o""ers a !lethora o" highl a#thoritative in"ormation a#thored and released b the leading names in ever "ield o" h#man kno%ledge and endeavo#r. The Internet, is, in e""e$t, an en$ $lo!aedia 6 "ar more detailed, "ar more a#thoritative, and "ar more $om!rehensive that an en$ $lo!aedia $an ever ho!e to be. The %eb is also "#ll a$$essible and "#ll sear$hable. 8hat it la$ks in organi<ation it $om!ensates in breadth and de!th and re$entl emergent s#b'e$t !ortals 4dire$tories s#$h as FahooJ or The O!en Dire$tor 5 have be$ome the indi$es o" the Internet. The a"orementioned anti6$om!etition barriers to entr are gone: %eb !#blishing is $hea! and immediate. Te$hnologies s#$h as %eb $omm#nities, $hat, and e6mail enable massive $ollaborative e""orts. And, most im!ortant, the b#lk o" the Internet is "ree. 0sers !a onl the $omm#ni$ation $osts. The long6heralded transition "rom "ree $ontent to "ee6based in"ormation ma revive the "ort#nes o" online re"eren$e vendors. 1#t as long as the Internet 6 %ith its G,:::,:::,::: 4J5 visible !ages 4and H times as man !ages in its databases5 6 is "ree, en$ $lo!aedias have little b %a o" a $om!etitive advantage.

Will Content *ver be Pro&itable 0+1 Sam 2aknin


T:4 C6RR4.T W;RR'4S >. Content S%ppliers The 4thos o, ?ree Content ,ontent S#!!liers is the #nder!rivileged se$tor o" the Internet. The all lose mone 4even sites %hi$h o""er basi$, standardi<ed goods 6 books, ,Ds5, %ith the eE$e!tion o" sites !ro""ering seE or to#rism. No #ser seems to be grate"#l "or the e""ort and reso#r$es invested in $reating and distrib#ting $ontent. The re$ent breakdo%n o" traditional roles 4bet%een !#blisher and a#thor, re$ord $om!an and singer, et$.5 and the dire$t a$$ess the $reative artist is gaining to its !a ing !#bli$ ma $hange this attit#de o" ingratit#de b#t hitherto there are s$ar$e signs o" that. 3oreover, it is either K#alit o" !resentation 4%hi$h onl a !#blisher $an a""ord5 or o%nershi! and 4o"ten shodd 5 dissemination o" $ontent b the a#thor. A reall K#alitative, "#ll $ommer$e enabled site $osts #! to H,:::,::: 0SD, eE$l#ding site maintenan$e and $#stomer and visitor servi$es. Des!ite these heav o#tla s, site designers are $onstantl $riti$i<ed "or la$k o" $reativit or "or too m#$h $reativit . 3ore and more is asked o" $ontent !#rve ors and $reators. The are eE!loited b intermediaries, hit$hhikers and other !arasites. This is all an o""6shoot o" the ethos o" the Internet as a "ree $ontent area. 3ost o" the #sers like to s#r" 4bro%se, visit sites5 the net %itho#t reason or goal in mind. This makes it di""i$#lt to a!!l to the %eb traditional marketing te$hniK#es. 8hat is the meaning o" Btargeted a#dien$esB or Bmarket sharesB in this $onteEt> I" a s#r"er visits sites %hi$h deal %ith aberrant seE and n#$lear !h si$s in the same session 6 %hat to make o" it> 3oreover, the !#bli$ and legislative ba$klash against the gathering o" s#r"er;s data b Internet ad agen$ies and other %eb sites 6 has led to gro%ing ignoran$e regarding the !ro"ile o" Internet #sers, their demogra!h , habits, !re"eren$es and dislikes. B2reeB is a ke %ord on the Internet : it #sed to belong to the 0S .overnment and to a b#n$h o" #niversities. 0sers like in"ormation, %ith em!hasis on ne%s and data abo#t ne% !rod#$ts. 1#t the do not like to sho! on the net 6 et. Onl 3ML o" all s#r"ers made a !#r$hase d#ring 9DDM. It %o#ld seem that #sers %ill not !a "or $ontent #nless it is #navailable else%here or K#alitativel rare or made rare. One %a to Brare" B $ontent is to revie% and rate it.

2. @%ality1rated Content There is a long term trend o" $l#tter6breaking %ebsite6rating and $ritiK#e. It ma have a limited in"l#en$e on the $ons#m!tion de$isions o" some #sers and on their %illingness to !a "or $ontent. 1ro%sers alread s!ort B8hat;s Ne%B and B8hat;s 7otB b#ttons. 3ost Sear$h Engines and dire$tories re$ommend s!e$i"i$ sites. 1#t #sers are still $a#tio#s. St#dies dis$overed that no #ser, no matter ho% heav , has $onsistentl re6visited more than G:: sites, a min#s$#le n#mber. Some re$ommendation servi$es o"ten !rod#$e random 6 at times, %rong 6 sele$tions "or their #sers. There are also $on$erns regarding !riva$ iss#es. The ba$klash against Ama<on;s Breaders $ir$lesB is an eEam!le. 8eb ,riti$s, %ho %ork toda mainl "or the !rinted !ress, !#blish their %ares on the net and $ollaborate %ith intelligent so"t%are %hi$h h !erlinks to %eb sites, re$ommends them and re"ers #sers to them. Some %eb $riti$s 4g#ides5 be$ame identi"ied %ith s!e$i"i$ a!!li$ations 6 reall , eE!ert s stems 6%hi$h in$or!orate their kno%ledge and eE!erien$e. 3ost vol#nteer6based dire$tories 4s#$h as the BO!en Dire$tor B and the late B.oB dire$tor 5 %ork this %a . The "li! side o" the $oin o" $ontent $ons#m!tion is investment in $ontent $reation, marketing, distrib#tion and maintenan$e. 2. The *oney 8here is the $a!ital needed to "inan$e $ontent likel to $ome "rom> Again, there are t%o s$hools: A$$ording to the "irst, sites %ill be "inan$ed thro#gh advertising 6 and so %ill sear$h engines and other a!!li$ations a$$essed b #sers. ,ertain ASPs 4A!!li$ation Servi$e Providers %hi$h rent o#t a$$ess to a!!li$ation so"t%are %hi$h resides on their servers5 are $onsidering this model. The re$ent $olla!se in online advertising rates and $li$k6thro#gh rates raised serio#s do#bts regarding the validit and viabilit o" this model. 3arketing g#r#s, s#$h as Seth .odin %ent as "ar as de$laring Binterr#!tion marketingB 4Pads and banners5 dead. The se$ond a!!roa$h is sim!ler and allo%s "or the eEisten$e o" non6$ommer$ial $ontent. It !ro!oses to $olle$t negligible s#ms 4$ents or "ra$tions o" $ents5 "rom ever #ser "or ever visit 4Bmi$ro6!a mentsB5. These a$$#m#lated $ents %ill enable the site6o%ners to #!date and to maintain them and en$o#rage entre!rene#rs to develo! ne% $ontent and invest in it. ,ertain $ontent aggregators 4es!e$iall o" digital teEtbooks5 have ado!ted this model 4I#estia, 2athom5. The adherents o" the "irst s$hool !oint to the H million 0SD invested in advertising d#ring 9DDH and to the O: million or so invested d#ring 9DDO. Its o!!onents !oint eEa$tl at the same n#mbers : ridi$#lo#sl small %hen $ontrasted %ith more $onventional advertising modes. The !otential o" advertising on the Net is limited to 9.H billion 0SD ann#all in 9DDM, th#ndered the !essimists. The a$t#al "ig#re %as do#ble the !redi$tion b#t still %oe"#ll small and inadeK#ate to s#!!ort the internet;s $ontent develo!ment. ,om!are these "ig#res to the sale o" Internet so"t%are 4C billion5, Internet hard%are 43 billion5, Internet a$$ess !rovision 4C.G billion in 9DDH aloneJ5.

Even i" online advertising %ere to be restored to its erst%hile glor da s, other bottlene$ks remain. Advertising en$o#rages the $ons#mer to intera$t and to initiate the deliver o" a !rod#$t to him. This 6 the deliver !hase 6 is a slo% and enervating e!ilog#e to the eE$iting a""air o" ordering online. Too man $ons#mers still $om!lain o" late deliver o" the %rong or de"e$tive !rod#$ts. The sol#tion ma lie in the integration o" advertising and $ontent. The late Point$ast, "or instan$e, integrated advertising into its ne%s broad$asts, $ontin#o#sl streamed to the #ser;s s$reen, even %hen ina$tive 4it had an a$tive s$reen saver and ti$ker in a B!#sh te$hnolog B5. Do%nloading o" digital m#si$, video and teEt 4e6books5 leads to the immediate grati"i$ation o" $ons#mers and in$reases the e""i$a$ o" advertising. 8hatever the $ase ma be, a #ni"orm, agreed #!on s stem o" rating as a basis "or $harging advertisers, is sorel needed. There is also the K#estion o" %hat does the advertiser !a "or> The rates o" man advertisers 4Pro$ter and .amble, "or instan$e5 are based not on the n#mber o" hits or im!ressions 4Pentries, visits to a site5. 6 b#t on the n#mber o" the times that their advertisement %as hit 4!age vie%s5, or $li$ked thro#gh. . 2inall , there is the !aid s#bs$ri!tion model 6 a "lo! to '#dge b the eE!erien$e o" the meagre n#mber o" sites o" venerable and leading ne%s!a!ers that are on a s#bs$ri!tion basis. Do% -ones 48all Street -o#rnal5 and The E$onomist. Onl t%o. All this is not ver !romising. 1#t one sho#ld never "orget that the Internet is !robabl the $losest thing %e have to an e""i$ient market. As $ons#mers re"#se to !a "or $ontent, investment %ill dr #! and $ontent %ill be$ome s$ar$e 4thro#gh $los#res o" %eb sites5. As s$ar$it sets in, $ons#mer ma re$onsider. Fo#r arti$le deals %ith the "#t#re o" the Internet as a medi#m. 8ill it be able to s#!!ort its $ontent $reation and distrib#tion o!erations e$onomi$all > I" the Internet is a b#dding medi#m 6 then %e sho#ld derive great bene"it "rom a st#d o" the histor o" its !rede$essors. The ?%t%re :istory o, the 'nternet a *edi%# The internet is sim!l the latest in a series o" net%orks %hi$h revol#tioni<ed o#r lives. A $ent#r be"ore the internet, the telegra!h, the rail%a s, the radio and the tele!hone have been similarl heralded as BglobalB and trans"orming. Ever medi#m o" $omm#ni$ations goes thro#gh the same evol#tionar $ $le:

)nar$hy The 7% li$ 7hase At this stage, the medi#m and the reso#r$es atta$hed to it are ver $hea!, a$$essible, #nder no reg#lator $onstraints. The !#bli$ se$tor ste!s in : higher ed#$ation instit#tions, religio#s instit#tions, government, not "or !ro"it organi<ations, non governmental organi<ations 4N.Os5, trade #nions, et$. 1edevilled b limited "inan$ial reso#r$es, the regard the ne% medi#m as a $ost e""e$tive %a o" disseminating their messages. The Internet %as not eEem!t "rom this !hase %hi$h ended onl a "e% ears ago. It started %ith a $om!lete $om!#ter anar$h mani"ested in ad ho$ net%orks, lo$al net%orks, net%orks o" organi<ations 4mainl #niversities and organs o" the government s#$h as DA(PA, a !art o" the de"en$e establishment, in the 0SA5. Non $ommer$ial entities '#m!ed on the band%agon and started se%ing these net%orks together 4an a$tivit "#ll s#bsidi<ed b government "#nds5. The res#lt %as a globe en$om!assing net%ork o" a$ademi$ instit#tions. The Ameri$an Pentagon established the net%ork o" all net%orks, the A(PANET. Other government de!artments 'oined the "ra , headed b the National S$ien$e 2o#ndation 4NS25 %hi$h %ithdre% onl latel "rom the Internet. The Internet 4%ith a di""erent name5 be$ame semi6!#bli$ !ro!ert 6 %ith a$$ess granted to the $hosen "e%. (adio took !re$isel this $o#rse. (adio transmissions started in the 0SA in 9DG:. Those %ere anar$hi$ broad$asts %ith no dis$ernible reg#larit . Non $ommer$ial organi<ations and not "or !ro"it organi<ations began their o%n broad$asts and even $reated radio broad$asting in"rastr#$t#re 4albeit o" the $hea! and lo$al kind5dedi$ated to their a#dien$es. Trade #nions, $ertain ed#$ational instit#tions and religio#s gro#!s $ommen$ed B!#bli$ radioB broad$asts. The Co##er$ial 7hase 8hen the #sers 4e.g., listeners in the $ase o" the radio, or o%ners o" P,s and modems in the $ase o" the Internet5 rea$h a $riti$al mass 6 the b#siness se$tor is alerted. In the name o" $a!italist ideolog 4another religion, reall 5 it demands B!rivati<ationB o" the medi#m. This har!s on ver sensitive strings in ever 8estern so#l: the e""i$ient allo$ation o" reso#r$es %hi$h is the res#lt o" $om!etition. ,orr#!tion and ine""i$ien$ are int#itivel asso$iated %ith the !#bli$ se$tor 4BOther Peo!le;s 3one B 6 OP35. This, together %ith the #lterior motives o" members o" the r#ling !oliti$al e$helons 4the in"amo#s Ameri$an Paranoia5, a la$k o" variet and o" $atering to the tastes and interests o" $ertain a#dien$es and the a#tomati$ eK#ation o" !rivate enter!rise %ith demo$ra$ lead to a !rivati<ation o" the o#ng medi#m. The end res#lt is the same: the !rivate se$tor takes over the medi#m "rom Bbelo%B 4makes o""ers to the o%ners or o!erators o" the medi#m that the $annot !ossibl re"#se5 6 or "rom BaboveB 4s#$$ess"#l lobb ing in the $orridors o" !o%er leads to the a!!ro!riate legislation and the medi#m is B!rivati<edB5. Ever !rivati<ation 6 es!e$iall that o" a medi#m 6 !rovokes !#bli$ o!!osition. There are 4#s#all "o#nded5 s#s!i$ions that the interests o" the !#bli$ are $om!romised and sa$ri"i$ed on the altar o" $ommer$iali<ation and rating.

2ears o" mono!oli<ation and $arteli<ation o" the medi#m are evoked 6 and !roven $orre$t in d#e $o#rse. Other%ise, there is "ear o" the $on$entration o" $ontrol o" the medi#m in a "e% hands. All these things do ha!!en ) b#t the !a$e is so slo% that the initial "ears are "orgotten and !#bli$ attention reverts to "resher iss#es. A ne% ,omm#ni$ations A$t %as ena$ted in the 0SA in 9D3C. It %as meant to trans"orm radio "reK#en$ies into a national reso#r$e to be sold to the !rivate se$tor %hi$h %as s#!!osed to #se it to transmit radio signals to re$eivers. In other %ords : the radio %as !assed on to !rivate and $ommer$ial hands. P#bli$ radio %as doomed to be marginali<ed. The Ameri$an administration %ithdre% "rom its last ma'or involvement in the Internet in A!ril 9DDH, %hen the NS2 $eased to "inan$e some o" the net%orks and, th#s, !rivati<ed its hitherto heav involvement in the net. A ne% ,omm#ni$ations A$t %as legislated in 9DDO. It !ermitted Borgani<ed anar$h B. It allo%ed media o!erators to invade ea$h other;s territories. Phone $om!anies %ere allo%ed to transmit video and $able $om!anies %ere allo%ed to transmit tele!hon , "or instan$e. This %as all !hased over a long !eriod o" time 6 still, it %as a revol#tion %hose magnit#de is di""i$#lt to ga#ge and %hose $onseK#en$es de" imagination. It $arries an eK#all momento#s !ri$e tag 6 o""i$ial $ensorshi!. BVol#ntar $ensorshi!B, to be s#re, some%hat toothless standardi<ation and en"or$ement a#thorities, to be s#re 6 still, a $ensorshi! %ith its o%n instit#tions to boot. The !rivate se$tor rea$ted b threatening litigation 6 b#t, beneath the s#r"a$e it is $aving in to !ress#re and tem!tation, $onstr#$ting its o%n $ensorshi! $odes both in the $able and in the internet media. 'nstit%tionaliAation This !hase is the neEt in the Internet;s histor , tho#gh, it seems, "e% reali<e it. It is $hara$teri<ed b enhan$ed a$tivities o" legislation. &egislators, on all levels, dis$over the medi#m and l#r$h at it !assionatel . (eso#r$es %hi$h %ere $onsidered B"reeB, s#ddenl are trans"ormed to Bnational treas#res not to be dis!ensed %ith $hea!l , $as#all and %ith "rivolit B. It is $on$eivable that $ertain !arts o" the Internet %ill be Bnationali<edB 4"or instan$e, in the "orm o" a li$ensing reK#irement5 and tendered to the !rivate se$tor. &egislation %ill be ena$ted %hi$h %ill deal %ith !ermitted and disallo%ed $ontent 4obs$enit > in$itement > ra$ial or gender bias >5 No medi#m in the 0SA 4not to mention the %ide %orld5 has es$he%ed s#$h legislation. There are s#re to be demands to allo$ate time 4or s!a$e, or so"t%are, or $ontent, or hard%are5 to BminoritiesB, to B!#bli$ a""airsB, to B$omm#nit b#sinessB. This is a taE that the b#siness se$tor %ill have to !a to "end o"" the eager legislator and his n#isan$e val#e. All this is bo#nd to lead to a mono!oli<ation o" hosts and servers. The im!ortant broad$ast $hannels %ill diminish in n#mber and be s#b'e$ted to severe $ontent restri$tions. Sites %hi$h %ill re"#se to s#$$#mb to these reK#irements 6 %ill be deleted or ne#trali<ed. ,ontent g#idelines 4e#!hemism "or $ensorshi!5 eEist, even as %e %rite, in all ma'or $ontent !roviders 4,om!#Serve, AO&, FahooJ6.eo$ities, Tri!od, Prodig 5.

The -lood ath This is the !hase o" $onsolidation. The n#mber o" !la ers is severel red#$ed. The n#mber o" bro%ser t !es %ill settle on G63 4Nets$a!e, 3i$roso"t and O!era>5. Net%orks %ill merge to "orm !rivatel o%ned mega6net%orks. Servers %ill merge to "orm h !er6servers r#n on s#!er$om!#ters in Bserver "armsB. The n#mber o" ISPs %ill be $onsiderabl $#t. H: $om!anies r#led the greater !art o" the media markets in the 0SA in 9DM3. The n#mber in 9DDH %as 9M. At the end o" the $ent#r the %ill n#mber O. This is the stage %hen $om!anies 6 "ighting "or "inan$ial s#rvival 6 strive to a$K#ire as man #sers+listeners+vie%ers as !ossible. The !rogramming is shallo%ed to the lo%est 4and %idest5 $ommon denominator. Shallo% !rogramming dominates as long as the bloodbath !ro$eeds. ?ro# Rags to Ri$hes To#gh $om!etition !rod#$es "o#r !ro$esses: 9. A 3a'or Dro! in 7ard%are Pri$es This ha!!ens in ever medi#m b#t it do#bl a!!lies to a $om!#ter6de!endent medi#m, s#$h as the Internet. ,om!#ter te$hnolog seems to abide b B3oore;s &a%B %hi$h sa s that the n#mber o" transistors %hi$h $an be !#t on a $hi! do#bles ever 9M months. As a res#lt o" this miniat#ri<ation, $om!#ting !o%er K#adr#!les ever 9M months and an eE!onential series ens#es. Organi$6biologi$al6DNA $om!#ters, K#ant#m $om!#ters, $haos $om!#ters 6 !rom!ted b vast !ro"its and s!a%ned b inventive geni#s %ill ens#re the $ontin#ed a!!li$abilit o" 3oore;s &a%. The Internet is also s#b'e$t to B3et$al";s &a%B. It sa s that %hen %e $onne$t N $om!#ters to a net%ork 6 %e get an in$rease o" N to the se$ond !o%er in its $om!#ting !ro$essing !o%er. And these N $om!#ters are more !o%er"#l ever ear, a$$ording to 3oore;s &a%. The gro%th o" $om!#ting !o%ers in net%orks is a m#lti!le o" the e""e$ts o" the t%o la%s. 3ore and more $om!#ters %ith ever in$reasing $om!#ting !o%er get $onne$ted and $reate an eE!onential 9O times gro%th in the net%ork;s $om!#ting !o%er ever 9M months. G. ,ontent related 2ees This %as !revalent in the Net #ntil re$entl . Even !otentiall $ommer$ial so"t%are $an still be do%nloaded "or "ree. In man $o#ntries television vie%ers still !a "or television broad$asts 6 b#t in the 0SA and man other $o#ntries in the 8est, the basi$ !a$kage o" television $hannels $omes "ree o" $harge. As #sers + $ons#mers "orm a habit o" #sing 4or $ons#ming5 the so"t%are 6 it is $ommer$iali<ed and begins to $arr a !ri$e tag. This is %hat ha!!ened %ith the advent o" $able television : $ontents are sold "or s#bs$ri!tion or !er #sage 4Pa Per Vie% 6 PPV5 "ees. .rad#all , this is %hat %ill ha!!en to most o" the sites and so"t%are on the Net. Those %hi$h s#rvive %ill begin to $olle$t #sage "ees, a$$ess "ees, s#bs$ri!tion "ees, do%nloading "ees and other, a!!ro!riatel named, "ees. These "ees are bo#nd to be lo% 6 b#t it is the !rin$i!le that $o#nts. Even a "e% $ents !er transa$tion ma a$$#m#late to he"t s#ms %ith the tra""i$ %hi$h $hara$teri<es some %eb sites on the Net 4or, at least its more !o!#lar lo$ales5.

3. In$reased 0ser 2riendliness As long as the $om!#ter is less #ser "riendl and less reliable 4!redi$table5 than television 6 less o" a bla$k boE 6 its !otential 4and its "#t#re5 is limited. Television attra$ts 3.H billion #sers dail . The Internet stands to attra$t 6 #nder the most eE#berant s$enario 6 less than one tenth o" this n#mber o" !eo!le. The onl reasons "or this dis!arit are 4the la$k o"5 #ser "riendliness and reliabilit . Even bro%sers, among the most #ser "riendl a!!li$ations ever 6are not s#""i$ientl so. The #ser still needs to kno% ho% to #se a ke board and m#st !ossess some basi$ a$K#aintan$e %ith the o!erating s stem. The more mat#re the medi#m, the more "riendl it be$omes. 2inall , it %ill be o!erated #sing s!ee$h or $ommon lang#age. There %ill be room le"t "or #ser Bh#n$hesB and b#ilt in "leEible res!onses. C. So$ial TaEes Sooner or later, the b#siness se$tor has to molli" the .od o" !#bli$ o!inion %ith o""erings o" !oliti$al and so$ial nat#re. The Internet is an a""l#ent, ed#$ated, #!!ie medi#m. It reK#ires litera$ and n#mera$ , live interest in in"ormation and its vario#s #ses 4s$ienti"i$, $ommer$ial, other5, a lot o" reso#r$es 4"ree time, mone to invest in hard%are, so"t%are and $onne$t time5. It em!o%ers ) and th#s dee!ens the divide bet%een the haves and have6nots, the develo!ed and the develo!ing %orld, the kno%ing and the ignorant, the $om!#ter illiterate. In short: the Internet is an elitist medi#m. P#bli$l , this is an #nhealth !ost#re. BInterneto!hobiaB is alread dis$ernible. Peo!le 4and !oliti$ians5 talk abo#t ho% #nsa"e the Internet is and abo#t its !ossible #ses "or ra$ial, seEist and !ornogra!hi$ !#r!oses. The %ider !#bli$ is in a state o" a%e. So, site b#ilders and o%ners %ill do %ell to begin to im!rove their image: !rovide "ree a$$ess to s$hools and $omm#nit $entres, bankroll internet litera$ $lasses, "reel distrib#te $ontents and so"t%are to ed#$ational instit#tions, $ollaborate %ith resear$hers and so$ial s$ientists and engineers. In short: en$o#rage the vie% that the Internet is a medi#m $atering to the needs o" the $omm#nit and the #nder!rivileged, a mostl altr#ist endeavo#r. This also ha!!ens to make good b#siness sense b ed#$ating and $onditioning a "#t#re generation o" #sers. 7e %ho visited a site %hen a st#dent, "ree o" $harge 6 %ill !a to do so %hen made an eEe$#tive. S#$h a #ser %ill also !ass on the in"ormation %ithin and %itho#t his organi<ation. This is $alled media eE!os#re. The "#t#re %ill, no do#bt, %ill be %itness to !#bli$ Internet terminals, s#bsidi<ed ISP a$$o#nts, "ree Internet $lasses and an alternative Bnon6$ommer$ial, !#bli$B a!!roa$h to the Net. This ma !rove to be one more so#r$e o" reven#e to $ontent $reators and distrib#tors.

6amaican 7verdrive $ LDC8s and LCD8s 0+1 Sam 2aknin


OverDrive 6 an e6$ommer$e, so"t%are $onversion and e6!#blishing a!!li$ations leader 6 has '#st eE!anded an e6book te$hnolog $entre b adding G:: e6book editors. This ha!!ened in 3ontego 1a , -amai$a 6 one o" the less !rivileged s!ots on earth. The $entre no% !rovides a verti$al e6!#blishing servi$e 6 "rom man#s$ri!t editing to $onversion to I#ark 4"or POD5, Adobe, and 3S (eader ebook "ormats. Th#s, it is not $on"ined to the $lassi$ s%eatsho! $#m !rod#$tion $entre so $ommon in &ess Develo!ed ,o#ntries 4&D,;s5. It is a "#ll "ledged o!eration %ith a$$ess to $#tting edge te$hnolog . The -amai$an OverDrive is the harbinger o" things to $ome and the o#t$ome o" a $on"l#en$e o" a "e% trends. 2irst, there is the insatiable a!!etite big !#blishers 4s#$h as 3$.ra%67ill, (andom 7o#se, and 7ar!er ,ollins5 have develo!ed to $onverting their hitherto inertial ba$klists into e6books. .one are the da s %hen e6books %ere !er$eived as merel a novel "orm o" !a$kaging. P#blishers #nderstood the $ash !otential this ne% distrib#tion $hannel o""ers and the val#e added to stale !rint tomes in the $onversion !ro$ess. This e!i!han is es!e$iall mani"est in ed#$ation and teEtbook !#blishing. Then there is the mat#ration o" ind#str standards, readers and a#dien$es. 1oth the s#!!l side 4title lists5 and the demand side 4readershi!5 have in$reased. .iants like 3i$roso"t have s#$$ess"#ll entered the "ra %ith ne% e6book reader a!!li$ations, $learer "onts, and massive marketing. (etailers 6 s#$h as 1arnes and Noble 6 o!ened their gates to e6books. A host o" inde!endent !#blishers make good #se o" the negligible6$ost distrib#tion $hannel that the Internet is. ,om!etition and !ositioning are alread "ier$e 6 a good sign. The Internet #sed to be an English, a""l#ent middle6$lass, %hite $ollar, male !henomenon. It has long lost these attrib#tes. The digital divides that o!ened #! %ith the earl ado!tion o" the Net b a$ademe and b#siness 6 are narro%ing. Alread there are more %omen than men #sers and English is the lang#age o" less than hal" o" all %eb sites. The %ireless Net %ill grant develo!ing $o#ntries the $han$e to $at$h #!. Ast#te entre!rene#rs are bo#nd to take advantage o" the b#siness6"riendl !ro"ile o" the man!o%er and investment6h#ngr governments o" some develo!ing $o#ntries. It is not #n$ommon to "ind a master o" English, a $ollege degree in the s$ien$es, readiness to %ork o#tlandish ho#rs at a "ra$tion o" %ages in .erman or the 0SA 6 all $ombined in one em!lo ee in these de!rived $o#ntries. India has s!ro#ted a %hole ind#str based on these $om!etitive endo%ments. 7ere is ho% Steve Potash, OverDrive;s ,EO, eE!lains his daring move in OverDrive;s !ress release dated 3a GG, G::9: BEver one %e are !artnering %ith in the 0S and %orld%ide has been ver eE$ited and delighted b the tremendo#s s#$$ess and K#alit o" e1ook !rod#$tion "rom OverDrive -amai$a. -amai$a has tremendo#s #nta!!ed talent in its o#ng !eo!le. -amai$a is the largest English6s!eaking nation in the ,aribbean and their ed#$ational and te$hni$al !rograms !rovide #s %ith a %ealth o" K#alit $andidates "or $areers in ele$troni$ !#blishing. 8e $o#ld not have had this s#$$ess %itho#t the s#!!ort and res!onsiveness o" the -amai$an government

and its agen$ies. At ever stage the agen$ies assisted #s in o!ening o#r te$hnolog $entre and sta""ing it %ith trained and $om!etent e1ook !ro"essionals. OverDrive -amai$a %ill be !ioneering man o" the advan$es "or eEtending books, re"eren$e materials, teEtbooks, literat#re and 'o#rnals into ne% digital $hannels 6 and %ill shortl be$ome the "oremost $entre "or e1ook a#tomation serving both 0S and international marketsB. Dr#anne 3artin, OverDrive;s Dire$tor o" !#blishing servi$es elaborates: BB8ith -amai$a and ,leveland, Ohio sharing the same time <one 4EST5, %e have o#r 0S and -amai$an !rod#$tion teams in s n$. -amai$a !rovides a bea#ti"#l and %arm $limate, literall , "or #s to b#ild long6term !artnershi!s and to invite o#r !#blishing and $ontent $lients to $ome and visit their books in !rod#$tionB. The -amai$an 3inister o" Ind#str , ,ommer$e and Te$hnolog , the 7on. Philli! Pa#l%ell re$i!ro$ates: B8e are !ro#d that OverDrive has sele$ted -amai$a to eEtend its leadershi! in e1ook te$hnolog . OverDrive is bene"iting "rom the investments -amai$a has made in develo!ing the needed in"rastr#$t#re "or IT $om!anies to lo$ate and b#ild skilled %ork"or$es here.B There is nothing ne% in o#tso#r$ing ba$k o""i$e %ork 4ins#ran$e $laims !ro$essing, air ti$ket reservations, medi$al re$ords maintenan$e5 to third %orld $o#ntries, s#$h as 4the notable eEam!le5 India. (esear$h and Develo!ment is ro#tinel "armed o#t to as!iring "irst %orld $o#ntries s#$h as Israel and Ireland. 1#t OverDrive;s -amai$an "a$ilit is an eEam!le o" something more so!histi$ated and more d#rable. 8estern "irms are dis$overing the immense !ools o" skills, talent, innovation, and to! not$h s$ienti"i$ and other ed#$ation o"ten o""ered even b the !oorest o" nations. These m#ltinationals entr#st the lo$als no% %ith more than ke boarding and res!onding to $#stomer K#eries #sing "ake names. The -amai$an vent#re is a b#siness !artnershi!. In a %a , it is a to!s 6t#rv %orld. Digital animation is !rod#$ed in India and $ons#med in the States. The lo% $om!ensation o" s$ientists attra$ts the te$hnolog and (QD arms o" the likes o" .eneral Ele$tri$ to Asia and Intel to Israel. In other %ords, there are b#dding signs o" a reversing brain drain 6 "rom 8est to East. E6!#blishing is at the "ore"ront o" so"t%are engineering, e6$ons#merism, intelle$t#al !ro!ert te$hnologies, !a ment s stems, $onversion a!!li$ations, the mobile Internet, and, basi$all , ever im!ortant trend in net%ork and $om!#ting and digital $ontent. Its migration to %armer and $hea!er $limates ma be inevitable. OverDrive so#nds ha!! eno#gh.

An Ambarrassment o& Riches 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.doi.org+ The Internet is too ri$h. Even !o%er"#l and so!histi$ated sear$h engines, s#$h as .oogle, ret#rn a lot o" trash, dead ends, and Error C:C;s in res!onse to the most %ell6de"ined K#er , 1oolean o!erators and all. Dire$tories $reated b h#man editors 6 s#$h as FahooJ or the O!en Dire$tor Pro'e$t 6 are o"ten over%helmed b the amo#nt o" material o#t there. &ike the legendar blob, the Internet is $learl o#t o" $lassi"i$ator $ontrol. Some %eb sites 6 like S#ite9:9 6 have introd#$ed the old and tried De%e s#b'e$t $lassi"i$ation s stem s#$$ess"#ll #sed in non6virt#al libraries "or more than a $ent#r . 1ooks 6 both !rint and ele$troni$ 6 4a$t#all , their !#blishers5 get assigned an IS1N 4International Standard 1ook N#mber5 b national agen$ies. Periodi$al !#bli$ations 4maga<ines, ne%sletters, b#lletins5 s!ort an ISSN 4International Serial Standard N#mber5. National libraries dole o#t ,IP;s 4,atalog#ing in P#bli$ation n#mbers5, %hi$h hel! lesser o#t"its to $atalog#e the book #!on arrival. 1#t the emergen$e o" ne% book "ormats, inde!endent !#blishing, and sel" !#blishing has strained this alread $reaking s stem to its limits. In short: the %hole thing is "ast develo!ing into an a%"#l mess. (esol#tion is one sol#tion. (esol#tion is the linking o" identi"iers to $ontent. An identi"ier $an be a %ord, or a !hrase. (ealNames im!lemented this a!!roa$h and its !ro!rietar so"t%are is no% in$or!orated in most bro%sers. The #ser t !es a %ord, brand name, !hrase, or $ode, and gets re6dire$ted to a %eb site %ith the a!!ro!riate $ontent. The onl snag: (ealNames identi"iers are "or sale. Th#s, its identi"iers are not g#aranteed to lead to the best, onl , or relevant reso#r$e. Similar s stems are available in man lang#ages. NeEet, "or eEam!le, !rovides s#$h a resol#tion servi$e in 7ebre%. The Asso$iation o" Ameri$an P#blishers 4APA5 has an Enabling Te$hnologies ,ommittee. 2ittingl , at the 2rank"#rt 1ook 2air o" 9DDN, it anno#n$ed the DOI 4Digital Ob'e$t Identi"ier5 initiative. An International DOI 2o#ndation 4ID25 %as set #! and invited all !#blishers 6 Ameri$an and non6Ameri$an alike 6 to a!!l "or a #niK#e DOI !re"iE. DOI is a$t#all a !rivate $ase o" a larger s stem o" BhandlesB develo!ed b the ,N(I 4,or!oration "or National (esear$h Initiatives5. Their B7andle (esolverB is a bro%ser !l#g6in so"t%are, %hi$h re6dire$ts their handles to 0(&;s or other !ie$es o" data, or $ontent. 8itho#t the (esolver, t !ing in the handle sim!l dire$ts the #ser to a "e% !roE servers, %hi$h B#nderstandB the handle !roto$ols.

The interesting 4and ne%5 "eat#re o" the s stem is its abilit to resolve to 30&TIP&E lo$ations 40(&;s, or data, or $ontent5. The same identi"ier $an resolve to a 0niverse o" inter6 related in"ormation 4e""e$tivel , to a mini6librar 5. The $ontent th#s resolved need not be limited to teEt. 3#lti!le resol#tion %orks %ith a#dio, images, and even video. The ID2;s !ress release is %orth some eEtensive K#oting: BImagine o#;re the manager o" an Internet $om!an reading a stor online in the B8all Street -o#rnalB %ritten b Sta$e E. 1ressler, a $o6a#thor o" ,omm#nities o" ,ommer$e, and at the end o" the stor there is a link to !#r$hase o!tions "or the book. No% imagine o# are an online retailer, a s ndi$ator or a re!orter "or an online ne%s servi$e and o# are reading a revie% in BP#blishers 8eekl B abo#t ,omm#nities o" ,ommer$e and o# r#n a$ross a link to related reso#r$es. And imagine o# are in 1#enos Aires, and in an online !#bli$ation o# en$o#nter a link to BD6&ib 3aga<ineB, an ele$troni$ 'o#rnal !rod#$ed in 8ashington, D.,. %hi$h o""ers o# lo$ale6s!e$i"i$ $hoi$es "or do%nloading an arti$le. The above eEam!les demonstrate ho% m#lti!le resol#tion $an !resent o# %ith a list o" links "rom %ithin an ele$troni$ do$#ment or !age. The links beneath the labels 6 0(&s and email addresses 6 %o#ld all be stored in the DOI S stem, and m#lti!le resol#tion means an or all o" those links $an be dis!la ed "or o# to sele$t "rom in one men#. An $ombination o" links to related reso#r$es $an be in$l#ded in these men#s. ,a!able o" !roviding m#$h ri$her eE!erien$es then single resol#tion to a 0(&, 3#lti!le (esol#tion o!erates on the !remise that $ontent, not its lo$ation, is identi"ied. In other %ords, %here $ontent and related reso#r$es reside is se$ondar in"ormation. 3#lti!le (esol#tion enables $ontent o%ners and distrib#tors to identi" their intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ith bo#nd $olle$tions o" related reso#r$es at a h !erlink;s !oint o" de!art#re, instead o" reK#iring a #ser to leave the !age to go to a ne% lo$ation "or "#rther in"ormation. A $ontent o%ner $ontrols and manages all the related reso#r$es in ea$h o" these men#s and $an determine %hi$h in"ormation is a$$essible to ea$h b#siness !artner %ithin the s#!!l $hain. 8hen an administrator $hanges an "a$et o" this in"ormation, the $hange is sim#ltaneo#s on all internal net%orks and the Internet. A DOI is a !ermanent identi"ier, analogo#s to a tele!hone n#mber "or li"e, so tomorro% and ears "rom no% a #ser $an lo$ate the !rod#$t and related reso#r$es %herever the ma have been moved or ar$hived to.B The ID2 !rovides a limited, teEt6onl , online demonstration. 8hen s%ee!ing %ith the $#rsor over a linked item, a !o!6do%n men# o" o!tions is !resented. These o!tions are !re6de"ined and $#stomi<ed b the $ontent $reators and o%ners. In the "irst eEam!le above 4book !#r$hase o!tions5 the DOI resolves to retail o#tlets 4$ategori<ed b book "ormats5, in"ormation abo#t the title and the a#thor, digital rights management in"ormation 4!ermissions5, and more. The DOI server generates this in"ormation in Breal timeB, Bon the "l B. 1#t it is the a#thor, or 4more o"ten5 the !#blisher that $hoose the in"ormation, its modes o" !resentation, sele$tions, and marketing and sales data. The ingen#it is in the "a$t that the DOI server;s "iles and re$ords $an be #!dated, re!la$ed, or deleted. It does not a""e$t the resol#tion !ath 6 onl the $ontent resolved to. 8hi$h brings #s to e6!#blishing. The DOI 2o#ndation has #nveiled the DOI6E1 4E1 stands "or e6books5 Initiative in the 1ook EE!o Ameri$a Sho% G::9, to, in their %ords: BDetermine reK#irements %ith res!e$t to the a!!li$ation o" #niK#e identi"iers to e1ooks

Develo! !roo"s6o"6$on$e!t "or the #se o" DOIs %ith e1ooks Develo! te$hni$al demonstrations, !ossibl in$l#ding a !rotot !e e1ook (egistration Agen$ .B It is ba$ked b a "e% ma'or !#blishers, s#$h as 3$.ra%67ill, (andom 7o#se, Pearson, and 8ile . This ostensibl modest agenda $on$eals a revol#tionar and ambitio#s attem!t to #nambig#o#sl identi" the origin o" digital $ontent 4in this $ase, e6books5 and link a #niverse o" in"ormation to ea$h and ever ID n#mber. A%are o" $om!eting e""orts #nder%a , the DOI 2o#ndation is a$tivel $o#rting the likes o" Binde$sB 4Intero!erabilit o" Data in E6,ommer$e S stem5 and Oe12 4O!en e61ook5. ,om!anies ,like En!ia S stems o" So#th /orea 4a DOI (egistration Agen$ 5, have alread im!lemented a DOI6$#m6inde$s s stem. On November G:::, the APA;s 4Ameri$an P#blishers; Asso$iation5 O!en E6book P#blishing Standards Initiative has re$ommended to #se DOI as the !rimar identi"i$ation s stem "or e6books; metadata. The 3PE. 43otion Pi$t#res EE!erts .ro#!5 is said to be $onsidering DOI serio#sl in its e""orts to $ome #! %ith n#mbering and metadata standards "or digital videos. A DOI $an be eE!ressed as a 0(N 40niversal (eso#r$e Name 6 IET2;s s ntaE "or generi$ reso#r$es5 and is $om!atible %ith O!en0(& 4a s ntaE "or embedding !arameters s#$h as identi"iers and metadata in links5. Shortl , a BNames!a$e Di$tionar B is to be !#blished. It %ill en$om!ass M:: metadata elements and %ill ta$kle e6books, 'o#rnals, a#dio, and video. A %orking gro#! %as started to develo! a Bservi$es de"initionB inter"a$e 4i.e., to allo% %eb6 enabled s stems, es!e$iall e6$ommer$e and m6$ommer$e s stems, to de!lo DOI5. The DOI, in other %ords, is designed to be all6in$l#sive and all6!ervasive. Ea$h DOI n#mber is made o" a !re"iE, s!e$i"i$ to a !#blisher, and a s#""iE, %hi$h $o#ld end #! !ainlessl assimilating the IS1N and ISSN 4or an other n#mbering and database5 s stem. Th#s, a DOI $an be assigned to ever e6book based on its IS1N and to ever !art 4$ha!ter, se$tion, or !age5 o" ever e6book. This "leEibilit $o#ld s#!!ort Pa Per Vie% models 4s#$h as I#estia;s or 2athom;s5, POD 4Print On Demand5, and a$ademi$ B$o#rse !a$ksB, %hi$h $om!rise material "rom man teEtbooks, %hether on digital media or do%nloadable. The DOI, in other %ords, $an #nderlie D6,3S 4Digital ,ontent 3anagement S stems5 and Ele$troni$ ,atalog#e ID 3anagement S stems. 3oreover, the DOI is a !aradigm shi"t 4tho#gh, $on$e!t#all , it %as !re$eded b the likes o" the 0P, $ode and the ISO;s 7 Time m#ltimedia standard5. It bl#rs the borders bet%een t !es o" digital $ontent. Imagine an e6novel %ith the video version o" the novel, the so#nd tra$k, still !hotogra!hs, a to#rist g#ide, an a#dio book, and other digital $ontent embedded in it. Ea$h $ontent t !e and ea$h segment o" ea$h $ontent t !e $an be identi"ied and tagged se!aratel and, th#s, sold se!aratel 6 et all #nder the #mbrella o" the same DOIJ The nightmare o" D(3 4digital rights management5 ma be "inall over.

1#t the DOI is m#$h more than a so!histi$ated tagging te$hnolog . It $omes %ith m#lti!le resol#tion 4see BEmbarrassment o" (i$hes 6 Part IB5. In other %ords, as o!!osed to the 0(& 40niversal (eso#r$e &o$ator5 6 it is generated d nami$all , Bon the "l B, b the #ser, and is not Bhard $odedB into the %eb !age. This is be$a#se the DOI identi"ies $ontent 6 not its lo$ation. And %hile the 0(& resolves to a single %eb !age 6 the DOI resolves to a lot more in the "orm o" !#blisher6$ontrolled 4ONI=6=3&5 BmetadataB in a !o!6#! 4-avas$ri!t or other5 s$reen. The metadata in$l#de ever thing "rom the a#thor;s name thro#gh the book;s title, edition, bl#rbs, sam!le $ha!ters, other !romotional material, links to related !rod#$ts, a rights and !ermissions !ro"ile, e6mail $onta$ts, and a$tive links to retailers; %eb !ages. Th#s, ever book6related %eb !age be$omes a "#ll "ledged book retailing gate%a . The Ban$hor do$#mentB 4in %hi$h the DOI is embedded5 remains #n$l#ttered. ONI= G.: ma $ontain standard metadata "ields and eEtensions s!e$i"i$ to e6!#blishing and e6books. This latter "eat#re 6 the abilit to link to the s stems o" retailers, distrib#tors, and other t !es o" vendors 6 is the Bbar$odeB "#n$tion o" the DOI. &ike bar$ode te$hnolog , it hel!s to a#tomate the s#!!l $hain, and #!date the inventor , ordering, billing and invoi$ing, a$$o#nting, and re6ordering databases and "#n$tions. 1esides tra$king $ontent #se and distrib#tion, the DOI allo%s to seamlessl integrate hitherto dis!arate e6$ommer$e te$hnologies and "a$ilitate intero!erabilit among D(3 s stems. The resol#tion itsel" $an take !la$e in the $lient;s bro%ser 4#sing a so"t%are !l#g6in5, in a !roE server, or in a $entral, d nami$ server. (esolving "rom the $lient;s P,, e6book reader, or PDA has the advantage o" being able to res!ond to the #ser;s s!e$i"i$ $ondition 4lo$ation, time o" da , et$.5. No !l#g6in is reK#ired %hen a !roE server 7TTP is #sed 6 b#t then the DOI be$omes '#st another 0(&, embedded in the !age %hen it is $reated and not resolved %hen the #ser $li$ks on it. The most #ser6"riendl sol#tion is, !robabl , "or a $entral server to look #! val#es in res!onse to a #ser;s !rom!t and serve her %ith $as$ading men#s or links. Admittedl , in this o!tion, the resol#tion tables 4%hat DOI links to %hat 0(&;s and to %hat $ontent5 is not reall d nami$. It $hanges onl %ith ever server #!date and is stati$ bet%een #!dates. 1#t this is a minor in$onvenien$e. As it is, #sers are likel to res!ond %ith some tre!idation to the need to install !l#g6ins and to the avalan$he o" in"ormation their single, inno$#o#s, mo#se $li$k generates. The DOI 2o#ndation has $om!iled this im!ressive list o" bene"its 6 and bene"i$iaries: B7% lishers to enable $ross re"eren$ing to related in"ormation, $ontrol over metadata, viral distrib#tion and sales, eas a$$ess to $ontent, sale o" gran#lar $ontent Cons%#ers to in$rease val#e "or time and mone , and !#r$hase o!tions 3istri %tors to "a$ilitate sale and distrib#tion o" materials as %ell as #ser needs Retailers to b#ild related materials on their sites, heighten $ons#mer #sabilit and $o! right !rote$tion Conversion :o%ses"Wholesaler Repositories to in$rease a$$ess to and #se o" metadata 3R* Vendors"Rights Clearing :o%ses to enable intero!erabilit and #se o" standards 3ata )ggregators to enable $om!ilation o" !rimar and se$ondar $ontent and !rint on demand Trade )sso$iations "a$ilitate dialog on so$ial level and attend to legal and te$hni$al !ers!e$tives !ertaining to m#lti!le versions o" ele$troni$ $ontent e- ook so,t&are 3evelopers to enable management o" !ersonal $olle$tions o" e1ooks in$l#ding !#r$hase re$ei!t in"ormation as re"eren$e "or K#i$k ret#rn to retailer Content *anage#ent Syste# Vendors to enable internal s n$hing %ith eEternal #sage

Syndi$ators to drive sales to retailers, add val#e to retail online store+sales, and in$rease sales "or !#blishersB The DOI is assigned to !#blishers b (egistration Agen$ies 4o" %hi$h there are $#rrentl three 6 ,ross(e" and ,ontent Dire$tions in the States and the a"orementioned En!ia S stems in Asia5. It is alread %idel #sed to $ross re"eren$e almost H,::: !eriodi$als %ith a database o" 3,:::,::: $itations. The !ri$e is stee! 6 it $osts a !#blisher RG:: to get a !re"iE and s#bmit DOI;s to the registr . 1#t as (egistration Agen$ies !roli"erate, $om!etition is bo#nd to slash these !ri$es !re$i!ito#sl .

The ,all and ,all o& the P$9ine 0+1 Sam 2aknin
htt!:++home.%#li%eb.$om+indeE.shtml htt!:++%%%.!shares.org+ The $ir$#lation o" !rint maga<ines has de$lined !re$i!ito#sl in the last GC months. This dissol#tion o" s#bs$riber bases has a$$elerated dramati$all as e$onomi$ re$ession set in. 1#t a diminishing %ealth e""e$t is onl !artl to blame. The managements o" !rinted !eriodi$als 6 "rom dailies to K#arterlies 6 "ailed miserabl to gras! the Internet;s !otential and !otential threat. The %ere "ooled b the la$k o" $onvenient and $hea! e6reading devi$es into believing that old habits die hard. The do 6 b#t maga<ine reading is not habit "orming. (eaders; lo alties are "i$kle and shi"t a$$ording to $ontent and !ri$e. The 8eb o""ers $orn#$o!ial and ni$he6targeted $ontent 6 "ree o" $harge or ver $hea!l . This is hard to beat and is getting harder b the da as nat#ral sele$tion among dot.bombs s!ares onl K#alit $ontent !roviders. ,onsider Plo#ghshares, the &iterar -o#rnal. It is a venerable, not "or !ro"it, !rint 'o#rnal !#blished b Emerson ,ollege, no% marking its 3:th anniversar . It re$entl ina#g#rated its %eb sibling. The !ro'e$t $ons#med three ears and R9GH,::: 4grant "rom the 8alla$e6(eader;s Digest 2#nds5. Ever title Plo#ghshares has ever !#blished %as indeEed 4over 9M,::: 'o#rnal !ages digiti<ed5. In all, the B%ebsite %ill o""er "ree a$$ess to over G,NH: !oems and short stories "rom !ast and $#rrent iss#es.B The more than G::: 4J5 a#thors ever !#blished in Plo#ghshares %ill ea$h maintain a !ersonal %eb !age $om!rising biogra!hi$al notes, !ress releases, ne% books and events anno#n$ements and links to other %eb sites. This is the FahooJ "orm#la. ,ontent generated b the a#thors %ill th#s trans"orm Plo#ghshares into a leading literar !ortal. 1#t Plo#ghshares did not sto! at this standard "eat#res. A Bbookshel"B %ill link to book revie%s $ontrib#ted online 4and a#gmented b the maga<ine;s o%n !restigio#s o""erings5. An annotated bookstore is '#st a ste! a%a 4tho#gh Plo#ghshares; %eb site does not in$l#de one hitherto5. The neEt best thing is a rights6management a!!li$ation #sed b the 'o#rnal;s a#thors to grant online !#blishing !ermissions "or their %ork to third !arties. No !rint literar maga<ine $an beat this one sto! sho!. So, ho% $an !rint !#bli$ations de"end themselves> 1 being $reative and b not $on$eding de"eat is ho%. ,onsider 8#li8eb;s eEam!le o" thinking o#tside the !rinted boE.

It is a sim!le online a!!li$ation %hi$h enables its #sers to Bsend, save and share material "rom !rint !#bli$ationsB. Parti$i!ating maga<ines and ne%s!a!ers !rint B8#li,odesB on their 4!h si$al5 !ages and 8#li8eb s#bs$ribers bar$ode6s$an, or man#all enter them into their online B,ontent 3anagerB via ke board, PDA, !ager, $ell !hone, or "iEed !hone 4#sing a PIN5. The servi$e is "ree 4!aid "or b the maga<ine !#blishers and advertisers5 and, a$$ording to 8#li8eb, o""ers these advantages to its #sers: BOn$e o# $hoose to #se 8#li8eb;s "ree servi$e, o# %ill no longer have to laborio#sl Btear and shareB !rint arti$les or ads that o# %ant to ar$hive or share %ith $olleag#es or "riends. Fo# %ill be able to store material so#r$ed "rom !rint !#bli$ations !ermanentl in o#r o%n se$#re, ele$troni$ "iles, and o# $an share this material instantl %ith an n#mber o" !eo!le. 3aga<ine and Ne%s!a!er P#blishers %ill no% have the abilit to distrib#te their online $ontent more %idel and to o""er a ri$her eE!erien$e to their readers. Advertisers %ill be able to de!lo d nami$ and media6ri$h $ontent to attra$t and $onvert $#stomers, and %ill be able to $omm#ni$ate more $om!letel %ith their $#stomers.B &inks to the shared material are stored in 8#li8eb;s $entral database and #sers gain a$$ess to them b signing #! "or a 4"ree5 8#li8eb a$$o#nt. Th#s, the #ser;s mailboE is #nen$#mbered b h#ge do%nloads. 3oreover, 8#li8eb allo%s "or a ke %ords6based sear$h o" arti$les saved. Perha!s the onl serio#s dra%ba$k is that 8#li8eb !rovides its #sers onl %ith &IN/S to $ontent stored on !#blishers; %eb sites. It is a dire$tor servi$e 6 not a "#ll teEt database. This $reates de!enden$e. &inks ma get broken. 8hole %eb sites vanish. 3aga<ines and their !#blishers go #nder. All the more reason "or !#blishers to ado!t this servi$e and make it their o%n.

The Internet and the Librar+ 0+1 Sam 2aknin


:In this digital age! the custodians o& ublished ;orks are at the center o& a global co +right controvers+ that casts them as villains sim l+ &or doing their job1 letting eo le borro; books &or &ree(: .9DNet <uoted b+ :Publisher8s Lunch on 6ul+ =>! "##=/ It is ama<ing that the traditional ar$hivists o" h#man kno%ledge 6 the libraries 6 "ailed so s!e$ta$#larl to ride the tiger o" the Internet, that e!itome and a!eE o" kno%ledge $reation and distrib#tion. At "irst, libraries, the inertial re!ositories o" !rinted matter, %ere over%helmed b the ra!id !a$e o" te$hnolog and b the e!hemeral and anar$hi$ $ontent it s!a%ned. The %ere red#$ed to !roviding a$$ess to d#ll $ard $atalog#es and #nimaginative $olle$tions o" %eb links. The more daring added online eEhibits and digiti<ed $olle$tions. A t !i$al librar %eb site is still $om!rised o" stati$ re!resentations o" the librar ;s !h si$al assets and a "e% K#asi6intera$tive servi$es. This tenden$ 6 b both !#blishers and libraries 6 to inadeK#atel and ina!!ro!riatel !o#r old %ine into ne% vessels is %hat $a#sed the re$ent "#ror over e6books. The lending o" e6books to !atrons a!!ears to be a nat#ral eEtension o" the $lassi$al role o" libraries: !h si$al book lending. &ibraries so#ght also to eEtend their ar$hival "#n$tions to e6 books. 1#t librarians "ailed to gras! the essential and s#bstantive di""eren$es bet%een the t%o "ormats. E6books $an be easil , stealthil , and $hea!l $o!ied, "or instan$e. ,o! right violations are a real and !resent danger %ith e6books. 3oreover, e6books are not a tangible !rod#$t. B&endingB an e6book 6 is tantamo#nt to $o! ing an e6book. In other %ords, e6books are not books at all. The are so"t%are !rod#$ts. &ibraries have !ioneered digital $olle$tions 4as the have other in"ormation te$hnologies thro#gho#t histor 5 and are still the main !romoters o" e6!#blishing. 1#t no% the are at risk o" be$oming !ira$ !ortals. Sol#tions are, a!!ro!riatel , being borro%ed "rom the so"t%are ind#str . Net&ibrar has latel granted m#lti!le #ser li$en$es to a #niversit librar s stem. S#$h li$en$es allo% "or #nlimited a$$ess and are !ri$ed a$$ording to the n#mber o" the librar ;s !atrons, or the n#mber o" its reading devi$es and terminals. Another !ossibilit is to im!lement the share%are model 6 a trial !eriod "ollo%ed b a !#r$hase o!tion or an eE!iration, a6la (osetta;s eE!iring e6book. Distrib#tor 1aker Q Ta lor have #nveiled at the re$ent A&A a !rotot !e e6book distrib#tion s stem 'ointl develo!ed b ibooks and Digital O%l. It %ill be sold to libraries b 1QT;s In"ormata division and (e$i!ro$al.

The ann#al s#bs$ri!tion "or #se o" the digital librar $om!rises Ba $atalog o" digital $ontent, brandable !ages and %eb based tools "or ea$h !arti$i!ating librar to $#stomi<e "or their !atrons. Patrons o" !arti$i!ating libraries %ill then be able to bro%se digital $ontent online, or do%nload and $he$k o#t the $ontent the are most interested in. ,ontent ma be $he$ked o#t "or an eEtended !eriod o" time set b ea$h librar , in$l#ding $he$king o#t e1ooks "rom home.B Still, it seems that 1QT;s a!!roa$h is heavil in"l#en$ed b so"t%are li$en$ing 4Bone $o! one #seB5. 1#t, there is an #nderl ing, "#ndamental in$om!atibilit bet%een the Internet and the librar . The are $om!etitors. One vitiates the other. 2ree Internet a$$ess and e6book reading devi$es in libraries not%ithstanding 6 the Internet, #nless harnessed and integrated b libraries, threatens their ver eEisten$e b de!riving them o" !atrons. &ibraries, in t#rn, threaten the b#dding so"t%are ind#str %e, misleadingl , $all Be6!#blishingB. There are ma'or o!erational and !hiloso!hi$al di""eren$es bet%een !h si$al and virt#al libraries. The "ormer are based on the tried and !roven te$hnolog o" !rint. The latter on the $haos %e kno% as $ bers!a$e and on #ser6averse te$hnologies develo!ed b geeks and nerds, rather than b marketers, #sers, and librarians. Ph si$al libraries en'o great advantages, not the least being their habit6"orming head start 4G,H:: ears o" "irst mover advantage5. &ibraries are h#bs o" so$ial intera$tion and entertainment 4the %a $inemas #sed to be5. &ibraries have $atered to #sers; re"eren$e needs in re"eren$e $entres "or $ent#ries 4and, latel , thro#gh Sele$tive Dissemination o" In"ormation, or SDI5. The %ar is b no means de$ided. BProgressB ma et $onsist o" the assimilation o" hi6 te$h gadgets b lo6te$h libraries. It ma t#rn o#t to be $onvergen$e at its best, as librarians be$ome $om!#ter savv 6 and $om!#ter t !es $reate kno%ledge and disseminate it.

A 0rie& )istor+ o& the 0ook 0+1 Sam 2aknin


"The free communication of thought and opinion is one of the most precious rights of man; every citizen may therefore speak, write and print freely." (French National ssem!ly, "#$%& '. What is a -ook+ 0NES,O;s arbitrar and #ngro#nded de"inition o" BbookB is: BBNon6!eriodi$al !rinted !#bli$ation o" at least CD !ages eE$l#ding $oversB. 1#t a book, above all else, is a medi#m. It en$a!s#lates in"ormation 4o" one kind or another5 and $onve s it a$ross time and s!a$e. 3oreover, as o!!osed to $ommon o!inion, it is 6 and has al%a s been 6 a rigidl "ormal a""air. Even the latest BinnovationsB are nothing b#t an$ient %ine in s!arkling ne% bottles. ,onsider the s$rolling !roto$ol. O#r e es and brains are limited readers6de$oders. There is onl that m#$h that the e e $an en$om!ass and the brain inter!ret. 7en$e the need to segment data into $ognitivel digestible $h#nks. There are t%o "orms o" s$rolling 6 lateral and verti$al. The !a! r#s, the broadsheet ne%s!a!er, and the $om!#ter s$reen are three eEam!les o" the verti$al s$roll 6 "rom to! to bottom or vi$e versa. The e6book, the mi$ro"ilm, the vell#m, and the !rint book are instan$es o" the lateral s$roll 6 "rom le"t to right 4or "rom right to le"t, in the Semiti$ lang#ages5. In man res!e$ts, a#dio books are m#$h more revol#tionar than e6books. The do not em!lo vis#al s mbols 4all other t !es o" books do5, or a straight"or%ard s$rolling method. E6 books, on the other hand, are a thro%ba$k to the da s o" the !a! r#s. The teEt $annot be o!ened at an !oint in a series o" $onne$ted !ages and the $ontent is $arried onl on one side o" the 4ele$troni$5 Blea"B. Par$hment, b $om!arison, %as m#lti6!aged, easil bro%seable, and !rinted on both sides o" the lea". It led to a revol#tion in !#blishing and to the !rint book. All these advan$es are no% being reversed b the e6book. &#$kil , the e6book retains one innovation o" the !ar$hment 6 the h !erteEt. Earl -e%ish and ,hristian teEts 4as %ell as (oman legal s$holarshi!5 %as %ritten on !ar$hment 4and later !rinted5 and in$l#ded n#mero#s inter6teEt#al links. The Talm#d, "or eEam!le, is made o" a main teEt 4the 3ishna5 %hi$h h !erlinks on the same !age to n#mero#s inter!retations 4eEegesis5 o""ered b s$holars thro#gho#t generations o" -e%ish learning. Another disting#ishing "eat#re o" books is !ortabilit 4or mobilit 5. 1ooks on !a! r#s, vell#m, !a!er, or PDA 6 are all trans!ortable. In other %ords, the re!li$ation o" the book;s message is a$hieved b !assing it along and no loss is in$#rred thereb 4i.e., there is no !h si$al metamor!hosis o" the message5.

The book is like a !er!et##m mobile. It s!reads its $ontent virall b being $ir$#lated and is not diminished or altered b it. Ph si$all , it is eroded, o" $o#rse 6 b#t it $an be $o!ied "aith"#ll . It is !ermanent. Not so the e6book or the ,D6(O3. 1oth are de!endent on devi$es 4readers or drives, res!e$tivel 5. 1oth are te$hnolog 6s!e$i"i$ and "ormat6s!e$i"i$. ,hanges in te$hnolog 6 both in hard%are and in so"t%are 6 are liable to render man e6books #nreadable. And !ortabilit is ham!ered b batter li"e, lighting $onditions, or the availabilit o" a!!ro!riate in"rastr#$t#re 4e.g., o" ele$tri$it 5. ''. The Constant Content Revol%tion Ever generation a!!lies the same age6old !rin$i!les to ne% B$ontent6$ontainersB. Ever s#$h transm#tation ields a great s#rge in the $reation o" $ontent and its dissemination. The in$#nab#la 4the "irst !rinted books5 made kno%ledge a$$essible 4sometimes in the verna$#lar5 to s$holars and la men alike and liberated books "rom the s$ri!toria and BlibrariesB o" monasteries. The !rinting !ress te$hnolog shattered the $ontent mono!ol . In H: ears 49CH:69H::5, the n#mber o" books in E#ro!e s#rged "rom a "e% tho#sand to more than D millionJ And, as 3$&#han has noted, it shi"ted the em!hasis "rom the oral mode o" $ontent distrib#tion 4i.e., B$omm#ni$ationB5 to the vis#al mode. E6books are threatening to do the same. B1ook AT3sB %ill !rovide Print on Demand 4POD5 servi$es to "ara%a !la$es. Peo!le in remote $orners o" the earth %ill be able to sele$t "rom !#blishing ba$klists and "ront lists $om!rising millions o" titles. 3illions o" a#thors are no% able to reali<e their dream to have their %ork !#blished $hea!l and %itho#t editorial barriers to entr . The e6book is the Internet;s !rodigal son. The latter is the ideal distrib#tion $hannel o" the "ormer. The mono!ol o" the big !#blishing ho#ses on ever thing %ritten 6 "rom roman$e to s$holarl 'o#rnals 6 is a thing o" the !ast. In a %a , it is ironi$. P#blishing, in its earliest "orms, %as a revolt against the %riting 4letters5 mono!ol o" the !riestl $lasses. It "lo#rished in non6theo$rati$ so$ieties s#$h as (ome, or ,hina 6 and lang#ished %here religion reigned 4s#$h as in S#meria, Eg !t, the Islami$ %orld, and 3edieval E#ro!e5. 8ith e6books, $ontent %ill on$e more be$ome a $ollaborative e""ort, as it has been %ell into the 3iddle Ages. A#thors and a#dien$e #sed to intera$t 4remember So$rates5 to generate kno%ledge, in"ormation, and narratives. Intera$tive e6books, m#ltimedia, dis$#ssion lists, and $olle$tive a#thorshi! e""orts restore this great tradition. 3oreover, as in the not so distant !ast, a#thors are et again the !#blishers and sellers o" their %ork. The distin$tions bet%een these "#n$tions is ver re$ent. E6books and POD !artiall hel! to restore the !re6modern state o" a""airs. 0! #ntil the G:th $ent#r , some books "irst a!!eared as a series o" !am!hlets 4o"ten !#blished in dail !a!ers or maga<ines5 or %ere sold b s#bs$ri!tion. Seriali<ed e6books resort to these erst%hile marketing !lo s. E6books ma also hel! restore the balan$e bet%een best6sellers and midlist a#thors and bet%een "i$tion and teEtbooks. E6books are best s#ited to $ater to ni$he markets, hitherto negle$ted b all ma'or !#blishers.

'''. Literat%re ,or the *illions E6books are the K#intessential Bliterat#re "or the millionsB. The are $hea!er than even !a!erba$ks. -ohn 1ell 4$om!eting %ith Dr. -ohnson5 !#blished BThe Poets o" .reat 1ritainB in 9NNN6M3. Ea$h o" the 9:D vol#mes $ost siE shillings 4$om!ared to the #s#al g#inea or more5. The (ail%a &ibrar o" novels 49,3:: vol#mes5 $osts 9 shilling a!ie$e onl eight de$ades later. The !ri$e $ontin#ed to dive thro#gho#t the neEt $ent#r and a hal". E6books and POD are likel to do #nto !a!erba$ks %hat these re!rints did to originals. Some re!rint libraries s!e$iali<ed in !#bli$ domain %orks, ver m#$h like the b#lk o" e6book o""ering no%ada s. The !l#nge in book !ri$es, the lo%ering o" barriers to entr d#e to ne% te$hnologies and !lenti"#l $redit, the !roli"eration o" !#blishers, and the $#tthroat $om!etition among booksellers %as s#$h that !ri$e reg#lation 4$artel5 had to be introd#$ed. Net !#blisher !ri$es, trade dis$o#nts, list !ri$es %ere all anti6$om!etitive inventions o" the 9Dth $ent#r , mainl in E#ro!e. The %ere a$$om!anied b the rise o" trade asso$iations, !#blishers organi<ations, literar agents, a#thor $ontra$ts, ro alties agreements, mass marketing, and standardi<ed $o! rights. The sale o" !rint books over the Internet $an be $on$e!t#ali<ed as the $ontin#ation o" mail order $atalog#es b virt#al means. 1#t e6books are di""erent. The are detrimental to all these $os arrangements. &egall , an e6book ma not be $onsidered to $onstit#te a BbookB at all. EEisting $ontra$ts bet%een a#thors and !#blishers ma not $over e6books. The serio#s !ri$e $om!etition the o""er to more traditional "orms o" !#blishing ma end #! !#shing the %hole ind#str to re6de"ine itsel". (ights ma have to be re6assigned, reven#es re6distrib#ted, $ontra$t#al relationshi!s re6tho#ght. 3oreover, e6books have hitherto been to !rint books %hat !a!erba$ks are to hard$overs 6 re6"ormatted renditions. 1#t more and more a#thors are !#blishing their books !rimaril or eE$l#sivel as e6books. E6books th#s threaten hard$overs and !a!erba$ks alike. The are not merel a ne% "ormat. The are a ne% mode o" !#blishing. Ever te$hnologi$al innovation %as bitterl resisted b &#ddite !rinters and !#blishers: stereot !ing, the iron !ress, the a!!li$ation o" steam !o%er, me$hani$al t !e$asting and t !esetting, ne% methods o" re!rod#$ing ill#strations, $loth bindings, ma$hine6made !a!er, read 6bo#nd books, !a!erba$ks, book $l#bs, and book tokens. 8itho#t eE$e!tion, the relented and ado!ted the ne% te$hnologies to their $onsiderable $ommer$ial advantage. It is no s#r!rise, there"ore, that !#blishers %ere hesitant to ado!t the Internet, POD, and e6 !#blishing te$hnologies. The s#r!rise lies in the relative haste %ith %hi$h the $ame to ado!t it, egged on b a#thors and booksellers. 'V. 'ntelle$t%al 7irates and 'ntelle$t%al 7roperty Des!ite the te$hnologi$al breakthro#ghs that $oales$ed to "orm the modern !rinting !ress 6 !rinted books in the 9Nth and 9Mth $ent#ries %ere derided b their $ontem!oraries as in"erior to their laborio#sl hand6made ante$edents and to the in$#nab#la. One is reminded o" the $#rrent $om!laints abo#t the ne% media 4Internet, e6books5, its shodd %orkmanshi!, shabb a!!earan$e, and the ram!ant !ira$ .

The "irst de$ades "ollo%ing the invention o" the !rinting !ress, %ere, as the En$ $lo!edia 1ritanni$a !#ts it Ba restless, highl $om!etitive "ree "or all ... 4%ith5 enormo#s vitalit and variet 4o"ten leading to5 $areless %orkB. There %ere egregio#s a$ts o" !ira$ 6 "or instan$e, the illi$it $o! ing o" the Aldine &atin B!o$ket booksB, or the all6!ervasive !ira$ in England in the 9Nth $ent#r 4a dire$t res#lt o" over6reg#lation and $oer$ive $o! right mono!olies5. Shakes!eare;s %ork %as !#blished b notorio#s !irates and in"ringers o" emerging intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights. &ater, the Ameri$an $olonies be$ame the %orld;s $entre o" ind#striali<ed and s stemati$ book !ira$ . ,on"ronted %ith ab#ndant and $hea! !irated "oreign books, lo$al a#thors resorted to "reelan$ing in maga<ines and le$t#re to#rs in a vain e""ort to make ends meet. Pirates and #nli$en$ed 6 and, there"ore, s#bversive 6 !#blishers %ere !rose$#ted #nder a variet o" mono!ol and libel la%s 4and, later, #nder national se$#rit and obs$enit la%s5. There %as little or no di""eren$e bet%een ro al and Bdemo$rati$B governments. The all a$ted r#thlessl to !reserve their $ontrol o" !#blishing. -ohn 3ilton %rote his !assionate !lea against $ensorshi!, Areo!agiti$a, in res!onse to the 9OC3 li$en$ing ordinan$e !assed b Parliament. The revol#tionar ,o! right A$t o" 9N:D in England established the rights o" a#thors and !#blishers to rea! the $ommer$ial "r#its o" their endeavo#rs eE$l#sivel , tho#gh onl "or a !res$ribed !eriod o" time. V. )s Readership 4Bpanded The battle bet%een ind#strial6$ommer$ial !#blishers 4"orti"ied b ever more !otent te$hnologies5 and the arts and $ra"tsmanshi! $ro%d never $eased and it is raging no% as "ier$el as ever in n#mero#s dis$#ssion lists, "ora, tomes, and $on"eren$es. 8illiam 3orris started the B!rivate !ressB movement in England in the 9Dth $ent#r to $o#nter %hat he regarded as the $allo#s $ommer$iali<ation o" book !#blishing. 8hen the !rinting !ress %as invented, it %as !#t to $ommer$ial #se b !rivate entre!rene#rs 4traders5 o" the da . Established B!#blishersB 4monasteries5, %ith a "e% eE$e!tions 4e.g., in A#gsb#rg, .erman and in S#bia$o, Ital 5 sh#nned it and regarded it as a ma'or threat to $#lt#re and $ivili<ation. Their atta$ks on !rinting read like the litanies against sel"6!#blishing or $or!orate6$ontrolled !#blishing toda . 1#t, as readershi! eE!anded 4%omen and the !oor be$ame in$reasingl literate5, market "or$es rea$ted. The n#mber o" !#blishers m#lti!lied relentlessl . At the beginning o" the 9Dth $ent#r , innovative lithogra!hi$ and o""set !ro$esses allo%ed !#blishers in the 8est to add ill#strations 4at "irst, bla$k and %hite and then in $olor5, tables, detailed ma!s and anatomi$al $harts, and other gra!hi$s to their books. 1attles "o#ght bet%een !#blishers6librarians over "ormats 4book si<es5 and "onts 4.othi$ vers#s (oman5 %ere #ltimatel de$ided b $ons#mer !re"eren$es. 3#ltimedia %as born. The e6book %ill, !robabl , #ndergo a similar transition "rom being the stati$ digital rendition o" a !rint edition 6 to being a livel , $olor"#l, intera$tive and $ommer$iall enabled $reat#re. The $ommer$ial lending librar and, later, the "ree librar %ere t%o additional rea$tions to in$reasing demand. As earl as the 9Mth $ent#r , !#blishers and booksellers eE!ressed the "ear that libraries %ill $annibali<e their trade. T%o $ent#ries o" a$$#m#lated eE!erien$e demonstrate that the o!!osite has ha!!ened. &ibraries have enhan$ed book sales and have be$ome a ma'or market in their o%n right. V'. The State o, S% version P#blishing has al%a s been a so$ial !#rs#it and de!ended heavil on so$ial develo!ments,

s#$h as the s!read o" litera$ and the liberation o" minorities 4es!e$iall , o" %omen5. As ever ne% "ormat mat#res, it is s#b'e$ted to reg#lation "rom %ithin and "rom %itho#t. E6books 4and, b eEtension, digital $ontent on the 8eb5 %ill be no eE$e!tion. 7en$e the re$#rrent and $#rrent attem!ts at reg#lation. Ever ne% variant o" $ontent !a$kaging %as labeled as Bdangero#sB at its in$e!tion. The ,h#r$h 4"ormerl the largest !#blisher o" bibles and other religio#s and Bearthl B teEts and the #!holder and !rote$tor o" reading in the Dark Ages5 $astigated and $ensored the !rinting o" Bhereti$alB books 4es!e$iall the verna$#lar bibles o" the (e"ormation5 and restored the InK#isition "or the s!e$i"i$ !#r!ose o" $ontrolling book !#blishing. In 9HHD, it !#blished the IndeE &ibror#m Prohibitor#m 4BIndeE o" Prohibited 1ooksB5. A "e% 4mainl D#t$h5 !#blishers even %ent to the stake 4a habit %orth reviving, some $#rrent a#thors %o#ld sa ...5. E#ro!ean r#lers iss#ed !ro$lamations against Bna#ght !rinted booksB 4o" heres and sedition5. The !rinting o" books %as s#b'e$t to li$en$ing b the Priv ,o#n$il in England. The ver $on$e!t o" $o! right arose o#t o" the "or$ed registration o" books in the register o" the English Stationer;s ,om!an 4a ro al instr#ment o" in"l#en$e and intrig#e5. S#$h obligator registration granted the !#blisher the right to eE$l#sivel $o! the registered book 4o"ten, a $lass o" books5 "or a n#mber o" ears 6 b#t !oliti$all restri$ted !rintable $ontent, o"ten b "or$e. 2reedom o" the !ress and "ree s!ee$h are still distant dreams in man $orners o" the earth. The Digital 3illenni#m ,o! right A$t 4D3,A5, the V6$hi! and other !riva$ invading, dissemination inhibiting, and $ensorshi! im!osing meas#res !er!et#ate a veteran i" not so venerable tradition. V''. The *ore it Changes The more it $hanges, the more it sta s the same. I" the histor o" the book tea$hes #s an thing it is that there are no limits to the ingen#it %ith %hi$h !#blishers, a#thors, and booksellers, re6invent old !ra$ti$es. Te$hnologi$al and marketing innovations are invariabl !er$eived as threats 6 onl to be ado!ted later as arti$les o" "aith. P#blishing "a$es the same iss#es and $hallenges it "a$ed "ive h#ndred ears ago and res!onds to them in m#$h the same %a . Fet, ever generation believes its eE!erien$es to be #niK#e and #n!re$edented. It is this denial o" the !ast that $asts a shado% over the "#t#re. 1ooks have been %ith #s sin$e the da%n o" $ivili<ation, millennia ago. In man %a s, books $onstit#te o#r $ivili<ation. Their traits are its traits: resilien$e, ada!tation, "leEibilit , sel" re6invention, %ealth, $omm#ni$ation. 8e %o#ld do %ell to a$$e!t that o#r most "amiliar arti"a$ts 6 books 6 %ill never $ease to ama<e #s.

The A&&air o& the 2anishing Content 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.ar$hive.org+ "'igitized information, especially on the (nternet, has such rapid turnover these days that total loss is the norm. )ivilization is developing severe amnesia as a result; indeed it may have !ecome too amnesiac already to notice the pro!lem properly." 4Ste%art 1rand, President, The &ong No% 2o#ndation 5 Tho#sands o" arti$les and essa s !osted b h#ndreds o" a#thors %ere lost "orever %hen themestream.$om s#r!risingl sh#t its virt#al gates. A si<able !ortion o" the 9DO: $ens#s, re$orded on 0NIVA, II6A ta!es, is no% ina$$essible. 8eb hosts $rash dail , erasing in the !ro$ess val#able $ontent. A$$ess to %eb sites is o"ten s#s!ended 6 or blo$ked altogether 6 be$a#se o" a real 4or imagined5 violation b the %ebmaster o" the host;s Terms o" Servi$e 4TOS5. 3illions o" other %eb sites 6 the res#lts o" $olle$tive, m#lti6ann#al, trans$ontinental e""orts 6 $ontain #niK#e stores o" in"ormation in the "orm o" databases, arti$les, dis$#ssion threads, and links to other %eb sites. ,onsider B,entral E#ro!e (evie%B. Its ar$hives $om!rise more than GH:: arti$les and essa s abo#t ever $on$eivable as!e$t o" ,entral and Eastern E#ro!e and the 1alkan. It is one o" $o#ntless s#$h $olle$tions. Similar and m#$h larger treas#res have !erished sin$e the da%n o" the digital age in the 9DG:;s. Ver "e% earl radio and TV !rograms have s#rvived, "or instan$e. The $#rrent Bdigital dark ageB $an be $om!ared onl to the one %hi$h "ollo%ed the tor$hing o" the &ibrar o" AleEandria. The more a$$essible and ab#ndant the in"ormation available to #s 6 the more deval#ed and $ommon it be$omes and the less instit#tional and $#lt#ral memor %e seem to !ossess. In the battle bet%een !a!er and s$reen, the "ormer has %on "ormidabl . Ne%s!a!er ar$hives, dating ba$k to the 9N::;s are no% being digiti<ed 6 testi" ing to the end#ran$e, resilien$e, and longevit o" !a!er. Enter the BInternet &ibrariesB, or Digital Ar$hival (e!ositories 4DA(5. These are libraries that !rovide "ree a$$ess to digital materials re!li$ated a$ross m#lti!le servers 4Bsa"et in red#ndan$ B5. The $ontain 8eb !ages, television !rogramming, "ilms, e6books, ar$hives o" dis$#ssion lists, et$. S#$h materials $an hel! ling#ists tra$e the develo!ment o" lang#age, 'o#rnalists $ond#$t resear$h, s$holars $om!are notes, st#dents learn, and tea$hers tea$h. The Internet;s evol#tion mirrors $losel the so$ial and $#lt#ral histor o" North Ameri$a at the end o" the G:th $ent#r . I" not !reserved, o#r #nderstanding o" %ho %e are and %here %e are going %ill be severel ham!ered. The $l#es to o#r "#t#re lie ens$on$ed in o#r !ast. It is the onl g#arantee against re!eating the mistakes o" o#r !rede$essors. &ong gone 8eb !ages $a$hed b the likes o" .oogle and AleEa $onstit#te the "irst tier o" s#$h ar$hival #ndertaking. The Stan"ord Ar$hival Va#lt 4SAV5 in Stan"ord 0niversit assigns a n#meri$al handle to ever digital Bob'e$tB 4re$ord5 in a re!ositor .

The handle is the $lever n#meri$al res#lt o" a mathemati$al "orm#la %hose in!#t is the n#mber o" in"ormation bits in the original ob'e$t being de!osited. This allo%s to tra$k and #niK#el identi" re$ords a$ross m#lti!le re!ositories. It also !revents tam!ering. SAV also o""ers a!!li$ation la ers. These allo% !rogrammers to develo! digital ar$hive so"t%are and !ermit #sers to $hange the Bvie%B 4the inter"a$e5 o" an ar$hive and th#s to mine data. Its Breliabilit la erB veri"ies the $om!leteness and a$$#ra$ o" digital re!ositories. The Internet Ar$hive, a leading digital de!ositor , in its o%n %ords: "...is working to prevent the (nternet * a new medium with ma+or historical significance * and other "!orn,digital" materials from disappearing into the past. )olla!orating with institutions including the -i!rary of )ongress and the .mithsonian, we are working to permanently preserve a record of pu!lic material." Data storage is the "irst !hase. It is not as sim!le as it so#nds. The !roli"eration o" "ormats o" digital $ontent has made it ne$essar to develo! a standard "or ar$hiving Internet ob'e$ts. The si<e o" the digiti<ed $olle$tions m#st !ose a serio#s $hallenge as "ar as timel retrieval is $on$erned. Intero!erabilit iss#es 4n#mero#s "ormats and readers5 !robabl reK#ires so"t%are and hard%are !l#g6ins to render a smooth and trans!arent #ser inter"a$e. 3oreover, as time !asses, digital data, stored on magneti$ media, tend to deteriorate. It m#st be $o!ied to ne%er media ever 9: ears or so 4BmigrationB5. Advan$es in hard%are and so"t%are a!!li$ations render man o" the digital re$ords inde$i!herable 4tr reading o#r %ord !ro$essing "iles "rom 9DM9, stored on H.GHB "lo!!iesJ5. S!e$ial em#lators o" older hard%are and so"t%are m#st be #sed to de$ode an$ient data "iles. And, to ameliorate the im!a$t o" inevitable nat#ral disasters, a$$idents, bankr#!t$ies o" !#blishers, and !oliti$all motivated destr#$tion o" data 6 m#lti!le $o!ies and red#ndant s stems and ar$hives m#st be maintained. As time !asses, data "ormatting Bdi$tionariesB %ill be needed. Data !reservation is hardl #se"#l i" the data $annot be sear$hed, retrieved, eEtra$ted, and resear$hed. And, as BThe E$onomistB !#t it 4BThe E$onomist Te$hnolog I#arterl , Se!tember GGnd, G::95, %itho#t a B(osetta StoneB o" data "ormats, "#t#re de$i!hering o" stored the data might !rove to be an ins#rmo#ntable obsta$le. &ast, b#t b no means least, Internet libraries are Internet based. The themselves are as e!hemeral as the histori$al re$ord the aim to !reserve. This ten#o#s $ ber eEisten$e goes a long %a to%ards eE!laining %h o#r !a!erless o""i$es $ons#me m#$h more !a!er than ever be"ore.

Revolt o& the Poor $ The Demise o& Intellectual Pro ert+ 0+1 Sam 2aknin
Three ears ago I !#blished a book o" short stories in Israel. The !#blishing ho#se belongs to Israel;s leading 4and eE$eedingl %ealth 5 ne%s!a!er. I signed a $ontra$t %hi$h stated that I am entitled to re$eive ML o" the in$ome "rom the sales o" the book a"ter $ommissions !a able to distrib#tors, sho!s, et$. A "e% months later 49DDN5, I %on the $oveted Pri<e o" the 3inistr o" Ed#$ation 4"or short !rose5. The !ri<e mone 4a "e% tho#sand D3s5 %as snat$hed b the !#blishing ho#se on the legal gro#nds that all the mone generated b the book belongs to them be$a#se the o%n the $o! right. In the m tholog generated b $a!italism to !a$i" the masses, the m th o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert stands o#t. It goes like this : i" the rights to intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ere not de"ined and en"or$ed, $ommer$ial entre!rene#rs %o#ld not have taken on the risks asso$iated %ith !#blishing books, re$ording re$ords, and !re!aring m#ltimedia !rod#$ts. As a res#lt, $reative !eo!le %ill have s#""ered be$a#se the %ill have "o#nd no %a to make their %orks a$$essible to the !#bli$. 0ltimatel , it is the !#bli$ %hi$h !a s the !ri$e o" !ira$ , goes the re"rain. 1#t this is "a$t#all #ntr#e. In the 0SA there is a ver limited gro#! o" a#thors %ho a$t#all live b their !en. Onl sele$t m#si$ians eke o#t a living "rom their nois vo$ation 4most o" them ro$k stars %ho o%n their labels 6 .eorge 3i$hael had to "ight Son to do '#st that5 and ver "e% a$tors $ome $lose to deriving s#bsisten$e level in$ome "rom their !ro"ession. All these $an no longer be tho#ght o" as mostl $reative !eo!le. 2or$ed to de"end their intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights and the interests o" 1ig 3one , 3adonna, 3i$hael -a$kson, S$h%ar<enegger and .risham are b#sinessmen at least as m#$h as the are artists. E$onomi$all and rationall , %e sho#ld eE!e$t that the $ostlier a %ork o" art is to !rod#$e and the narro%er its market 6 the more em!hasi<ed its intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights. ,onsider a !#blishing ho#se. A book %hi$h $osts H:,::: D3 to !rod#$e %ith a !otential a#dien$e o" 9::: !#r$hasers 4$ertain a$ademi$ teEts are like this5 6 %o#ld have to be !ri$ed at a a minim#m o" 9:: D3 to re$o#! onl the dire$t $osts. I" illegall $o!ied 4thereb shrinking the !otential market as some !eo!le %ill !re"er to b# the $hea!er illegal $o!ies5 6 its !ri$e %o#ld have to go #! !rohibitivel to re$o#! $osts, th#s driving o#t !otential b# ers. The stor is di""erent i" a book $osts 9:,::: D3 to !rod#$e and is !ri$ed at G: D3 a $o! %ith a !otential readershi! o" 9,:::,::: readers. Pira$ 4illegal $o! ing5 sho#ld in this $ase be more readil tolerated as a marginal !henomenon. This is the theor . 1#t the "a$ts are tellingl di""erent. The less the $ost o" !rod#$tion 4bro#ght do%n b digital te$hnologies5 6 the "ier$er the battle against !ira$ . The bigger the market 6 the more !ress#re is a!!lied to $lam! do%n on sami<dat entre!rene#rs. .overnments, "rom ,hina to 3a$edonia, are introd#$ing intelle$t#al !ro!ert la%s 4#nder !ress#re "rom ri$h %orld $o#ntries5 and en"or$ing them belatedl . 1#t %here one "a$tor is $losed on shore 4as has been the $ase in mainland ,hina5 6 t%o s!ro#t o"" shore 4as is the $ase in 7ong /ong and in 1#lgaria5.

1#t this de"ies logi$ : the market toda is global, the $osts o" !rod#$tion are lo%er 4%ith the eE$e!tion o" the m#si$ and "ilm ind#stries5, the marketing $hannels more n#mero#s 4hal" o" the in$ome o" movie st#dios emanates "rom video $assette sales5, the s!eed re$o#!ing o" the investment virt#all g#aranteed. 3oreover, !ira$ thrives in ver !oor markets in %hi$h the !o!#lation %o#ld an ho% not have !aid the legal !ri$e. The illegal !rod#$t is in"erior to the legal $o! 4it $omes %ith no literat#re, %arranties or s#!!ort5. So %h sho#ld the big man#"a$t#rers, !#blishing ho#ses, re$ord $om!anies, so"t%are $om!anies and "ashion ho#ses %orr > The ans%er l#rks in histor . Intelle$t#al !ro!ert is a relativel ne% notion. In the near !ast, no one $onsidered kno%ledge or the "r#its o" $reativit 4art, design5 as ;!atentable;, or as someone;s ;!ro!ert ;. The artist %as b#t a mere $hannel thro#gh %hi$h divine gra$e "lo%ed. TeEts, dis$overies, inventions, %orks o" art and m#si$, designs 6 all belonged to the $omm#nit and $o#ld be re!li$ated "reel . Tr#e, the $hosen ones, the $ond#its, %ere hono#red b#t %ere rarel "inan$iall re%arded. The %ere $ommissioned to !rod#$e their %orks o" art and %ere salaried, in most $ases. Onl %ith the advent o" the Ind#strial (evol#tion %ere the embr oni$ !re$#rsors o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert introd#$ed b#t the %ere still limited to ind#strial designs and !ro$esses, mainl as embedded in ma$hiner . The !atent %as born. The more massive the market, the more so!histi$ated the sales and marketing te$hniK#es, the bigger the "inan$ial stakes 6 the larger loomed the iss#e o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert . It s!read "rom ma$hiner to designs, !ro$esses, books, ne%s!a!ers, an !rinted matter, %orks o" art and m#si$, "ilms 4%hi$h, at their beginning %ere not $onsidered art5, so"t%are, so"t%are embedded in hard%are, !ro$esses, b#siness methods, and even #nto geneti$ material. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights 6 des!ite their noble title 6 are less abo#t the intelle$t and more abo#t !ro!ert . This is 1ig 3one : the markets in intelle$t#al !ro!ert o#t%eigh the total ind#strial !rod#$tion in the %orld. The aim is to se$#re a mono!ol on a s!e$i"i$ %ork. This is an es!e$iall grave matter in a$ademi$ !#blishing %here small6 $ir$#lation maga<ines do not allo% their $ontent to be K#oted or !#blished even "or non6$ommer$ial !#r!oses. The mono!olists o" kno%ledge and intelle$t#al !rod#$ts $annot allo% $om!etition an %here in the %orld 6 be$a#se theirs is a %orld market. A !irate in Sko!'e is in dire$t $om!etition %ith 1ill .ates. 8hen he sells a !irated 3i$roso"t !rod#$t 6 he is de!riving 3i$roso"t not onl o" its in$ome, b#t o" a $lient 4P"#t#re in$ome5, o" its mono!olisti$ stat#s 4$hea! $o!ies $an be sm#ggled into other markets5, and o" its $om!etition6deterring image 4a ma'or mono!ol !reserving asset5. This is a threat %hi$h 3i$roso"t $annot tolerate. 7en$e its e""orts to eradi$ate !ira$ 6 s#$$ess"#l in ,hina and an #tter "ail#re in legall 6relaEed (#ssia. 1#t %hat 3i$roso"t "ails to #nderstand is that the !roblem lies %ith its !ri$ing !oli$ 6 not %ith the !irates. 8hen "a$ed %ith a global market!la$e, a $om!an $an ado!t one o" t%o !oli$ies: either to ad'#st the !ri$e o" its !rod#$ts to a %orld average o" !#r$hasing !o%er 6 or to #se dis$retionar di""erential !ri$ing 4as !harma$e#ti$al $om!anies %ere "or$ed to do in 1ra<il and So#th A"ri$a5. A 3a$edonian %ith an average monthl in$ome o" 9O: 0SD $learl $annot a""ord to b# the En$ $lo!aedia En$arta Del#Ee. In Ameri$a, H: 0SD is the in$ome generated in C ho#rs o" an average 'ob.

In 3a$edonian terms, there"ore, the En$arta is G: times more eE!ensive. Either the !ri$e sho#ld be lo%ered in the 3a$edonian market 6 or an average %orld !ri$e sho#ld be "iEed %hi$h %ill re"le$t an average global !#r$hasing !o%er. Something m#st be done abo#t it not onl "rom the e$onomi$ !oint o" vie%. Intelle$t#al !rod#$ts are ver !ri$e sensitive and highl elasti$. &o%er !ri$es %ill be more than $om!ensated "or b a m#$h higher sales vol#me. There is no other %a to eE!lain the !irate ind#stries : evidentl , at the right !ri$e a lot o" !eo!le are %illing to b# these !rod#$ts. 7igh !ri$es are an im!li$it trade6o"" "avo#ring small, elite, sele$t, ri$h %orld $lientele. This raises a moral iss#e : are the $hildren o" 3a$edonia less %orth o" ed#$ation and a$$ess to the latest in h#man kno%ledge and $reation > T%o develo!ments threaten the "#t#re o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights. One is the Internet. A$ademi$s, "ed #! %ith the mono!olisti$ !ra$ti$es o" !ro"essional !#bli$ations 6 alread !#blish on the %eb in big n#mbers. I !#blished a "e% book on the Internet and the $an be "reel do%nloaded b an one %ho has a $om!#ter or a modem. The "#ll teEt o" ele$troni$ maga<ines, trade 'o#rnals, billboards, !ro"essional !#bli$ations, and tho#sands o" books is available online. 7a$kers even made sites available "rom %hi$h it is !ossible to do%nload %hole so"t%are and m#ltimedia !rod#$ts. It is ver eas and $hea! to !#blish on the Internet, the barriers to entr are virt#all nil. 8eb !ages are hosted "ree o" $harge, and a#thoring and !#blishing so"t%are tools are in$or!orated in most %ord !ro$essors and bro%ser a!!li$ations. As the Internet a$K#ires more im!ressive so#nd and video $a!abilities it %ill !ro$eed to threaten the mono!ol o" the re$ord $om!anies, the movie st#dios and so on. The se$ond develo!ment is also te$hnologi$al. The o"t6vindi$ated 3oore;s la% !redi$ts the do#bling o" $om!#ter memor $a!a$it ever 9M months. 1#t memor is onl one as!e$t o" $om!#ting !o%er. Another is the ra!id sim#ltaneo#s advan$e on all te$hnologi$al "ronts. 3iniat#ri<ation and $on$#rrent em!o%erment b so"t%are tools have made it !ossible "or individ#als to em#late m#$h larger s$ale organi<ations s#$$ess"#ll . A single !erson, sitting at home %ith H::: 0SD %orth o" eK#i!ment $an "#ll $om!ete %ith the best !rod#$ts o" the best !rinting ho#ses an %here. ,D6(O3s $an be %ritten on, stam!ed and $o!ied in ho#se. A $om!lete m#si$ st#dio %ith the latest in digital te$hnolog has been $ondensed to the dimensions o" a single $hi!. This %ill lead to !ersonal !#blishing, !ersonal m#si$ re$ording, and the to the digiti<ation o" !lasti$ art. 1#t this is onl one side o" the stor . The relative advantage o" the intelle$t#al !ro!ert $or!oration does not $onsist eE$l#sivel in its te$hnologi$al !ro%ess. (ather it lies in its vast !ool o" $a!ital, its marketing $lo#t, market !ositioning, sales organi<ation, and distrib#tion net%ork. No%ada s, an one $an !rint a vis#all im!ressive book, #sing the above6mentioned $hea! eK#i!ment. 1#t in an age o" in"ormation gl#t, it is the marketing, the media $am!aign, the distrib#tion, and the sales that determine the e$onomi$ o#t$ome. This advantage, ho%ever, is also being eroded. 2irst, there is a !s $hologi$al shi"t, a rea$tion to the $ommer$iali<ation o" intelle$t and s!irit. ,reative !eo!le are re!elled b %hat the regard as an oligar$hi$ establishment o" instit#tionali<ed, lo%est $ommon denominator art and the are "ighting ba$k. Se$ondl , the Internet is a h#ge 4G:: million !eo!le5, tr#l $osmo!olitan market, %ith its o%n marketing $hannels "reel available to all. Even b de"a#lt, %ith a minim#m investment, the likelihood o" being seen b s#r!risingl large n#mbers o" $ons#mers is high.

I !#blished one book the traditional %a 6 and another on the Internet. In H: months, I have re$eived OH:: %ritten res!onses regarding m ele$troni$ book. 8ell over H::,::: !eo!le read it 4m &ink EE$hange meter registered $. G,:::,::: im!ressions sin$e November 9DDM5. It is a teEtbook 4in !s $ho!atholog 5 6 and H::,::: readers is a lot "or this kind o" !#bli$ation. I am so satis"ied that I am not s#re that I %ill ever $onsider a traditional !#blisher again. Indeed, m last book %as !#blished in the ver same %a . The demise o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert has latel be$ome ab#ndantl $lear. The old intelle$t#al !ro!ert ind#stries are "ighting tooth and nail to !reserve their mono!olies 4!atents, trademarks, $o! right5 and their $ost advantages in man#"a$t#ring and marketing. 1#t the are "a$ed %ith three ineEorable !ro$esses %hi$h are likel to render their e""orts vain: The .e&spaper 7a$kaging Print ne%s!a!ers o""er !a$kage deals o" $hea! $ontent s#bsidi<ed b advertising. In other %ords, the advertisers !a "or $ontent "ormation and generation and the reader has no $hoi$e b#t be eE!osed to $ommer$ial messages as he or she st#dies the $ontent. This model 6 ado!ted earlier b radio and television 6 r#les the internet no% and %ill r#le the %ireless internet in the "#t#re. ,ontent %ill be made available "ree o" all !e$#niar $harges. The $ons#mer %ill !a b !roviding his !ersonal data 4demogra!hi$ data, $ons#m!tion !atterns and !re"eren$es and so on5 and b being eE!osed to advertising. S#bs$ri!tion based models are bo#nd to "ail. Th#s, $ontent $reators %ill bene"it onl b sharing in the advertising $ake. The %ill "ind it in$reasingl di""i$#lt to im!lement the old models o" ro alties !aid "or a$$ess or o" o%nershi! o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert . 3isinter#ediation A lot o" ink has been s!ilt regarding this im!ortant trend. The removal o" la ers o" brokering and intermediation 6 mainl on the man#"a$t#ring and marketing levels 6 is a histori$ develo!ment 4tho#gh the $ontin#ation o" a long term trend5. ,onsider m#si$ "or instan$e. Streaming a#dio on the internet or do%nloadable 3P3 "iles %ill render the ,D obsolete. The internet also !rovides a ven#e "or the marketing o" ni$he !rod#$ts and red#$es the barriers to entr !revio#sl im!osed b the need to engage in $ostl marketing 4BbrandingB5 $am!aigns and man#"a$t#ring a$tivities. This trend is also likel to restore the balan$e bet%een artist and the $ommer$ial eE!loiters o" his !rod#$t. The ver de"inition o" BartistB %ill eE!and to in$l#de all $reative !eo!le. One %ill seek to disting#ish onesel", to BbrandB onesel" and to a#$tion o"" one;s servi$es, ideas, !rod#$ts, designs, eE!erien$e, et$.

This is a ret#rn to !re6ind#strial times %hen artisans r#led the e$onomi$ s$ene. 8ork stabilit %ill vanish and %ork mobilit %ill in$rease in a lands$a!e o" shi"ting allegian$es, head h#nting, remote $ollaboration and similar labo#r market trends. *arket ?rag#entation In a "ragmented market %ith a m riad o" m#t#all eE$l#sive market ni$hes, $ons#mer !re"eren$es and marketing and sales $hannels 6 e$onomies o" s$ale in man#"a$t#ring and distrib#tion are meaningless. Narro%$asting re!la$es broad$asting, mass $#stomi<ation re!la$es mass !rod#$tion, a net%ork o" shi"ting a""iliations re!la$es the rigid o%ned6bran$h s stem. The de$entrali<ed, intra!rene#rshi!6based $or!oration is a late res!onse to these trends. The mega6$or!oration o" the "#t#re is more likel to a$t as a $olle$tive o" start6#!s than as a homogeneo#s, #ni"orm 4and, to $ons!ira$ theorists, sinister5 '#ggerna#t it on$e %as.

The Territorial Web 0+1 Sam 2aknin


The Net %as s#!!osed to dissolve ana$hronisti$ national borders and $#lt#ral bo#ndaries. It %as eE!e$ted to vitiate distan$e 6 both !h si$al and mental. It %as hailed as the invention that %ill #ni" 3ankind and harmoni<e 4tho#gh not homogeni<e5 $ivili<ations, east and %est. Fet, this %as not to be. As dot.$oms bombed, their more veteran and more eE!erien$ed bri$k and mortar rivals took over the Net, trans"orming it in the !ro$ess into a giant $ontent deliver , marketing, s#!!l $hain management, and $#stomer relationshi! management !lat"orm. This evol#tion all b#t demolished the non6lo$al nat#re o" the earl Internet. It has also bro#ght it into the remit o" eEisting national la%s. 3oreover, governments thro#gho#t the %orld have be$ome more assertive in eEer$ising territorial '#risdi$tion over the hitherto ostensibl eEtraterritorial Net. A 2ren$h $o#rt has !rohibited FahooJ "rom making $ertain $ontent on its 8eb sites available to 2ren$h $iti<ens. An Ameri$an $o#rt advised FahooJ to ignore this de$ision. A (#ssian !rogrammer %as arrested b the 21I "or o""ering a de$r !tion so"t%are "or sale in (#ssia 4%here it is !er"e$tl legal5. .overnments "rom ,hina to Sa#di Arabia "ilter 8eb $ontent reg#larl . 2ollo%ing the Se!tember 99 atta$ks, restri$tive anti6terrorist legislation the %orld over targeted $ bers!a$e. 1#t the real territoriali<ation o" the Internet 6 the redra%ing o" its internal $onto#rs and the %ithdra%al o" its libertarian "o#ndations 6 is more !erni$io#s, all6!ervasive, K#otidian, and s#rre!titio#sl grad#al. This is not the o#t$ome o" legal revol#tions and $o#rt6driven evol#tion. It is !ie$emeal, K#iet, #nnoti$ed, o"ten inadvertent and #nintended. It is an Ba"tertho#ghtB rather than a !remeditated B!lotB. It ha!!ens e6tailer b e6tailer, one 8eb site a"ter the other, like the s!read o" a vir#s. ,onsider these t%o 6 b no means eEha#stive 6 eEam!les. Ama<on and .eo$ities 4no%, FahooJ.eo$ities5 are t%o Internet establishments, t%o giganti$ $omm#nities o" #sers that, bet%een them, re!resent a si<able $h#nk o" all the a$tivit on the Internet. It has long been im!ossible "or a non60S !#blisher to sell its %ares 4books, "or instan$e5 thro#gh Ama<on or to Ama<on dire$tl . Ama<on %orks eE$l#sivel %ith 0S !#blishers and distrib#tors. To $ollaborate %ith Ama<on 6 one o" the members o" a d#o!ol as "ar as 1G, e6 $ommer$e goes 6 a non60S !#blisher 4no matter ho% s#bstantial5 has to %ork %ith a 0S distrib#tor and th#s "orgo a large !ortion o" its reven#es 4!a able to the distrib#tor as $ommissions5. 3oreover, said !#blisher $annot even o!en a ?Sho! 4Ama<on;s version o" mom and !o! store5. One has to be a 0S resident to do so. Ama<on is $losed to the o#tside %orld, des!ite its 4"alse5 global image. It sells all over the %orld 6 b#t it onl b# s Ameri$an. This dis$riminator behavio#r is !artl !ro"it6motivated. It is logisti$all easier and $hea!er to deal onl %ith 0S b#sinesses. 1#t 1arnes and Noble %orks dire$tl %ith "oreign !#blishers and the !re$eded Ama<on in the book b#siness b de$ades.

FahooJ.eo$ities has latel instit#ted a ne% !oli$ . It limits the si<e o" do%nloads "rom the "ree home !ages o" members o" its $omm#nit . I" the do%nloaded $ontent "rom a given home !age eE$eeds 3 .b 4eEtra!olated based on ho#rl #sage5 6 the Bo""endingB member;s !age is sh#t do%n "or an ho#r. The member is then !rom!ted to !a a monthl s#bs$ri!tion "ee "or a Premi#m Servi$e in order avoid a re$#rren$e o" this #n"ort#nate event. This Bmarketing driveB is intended to $om!ensate FahooJ.eo$ities "or a !re$i!ito#s dro! in online advertising reven#es. The BPremi#mB !a$kage in$l#des BPremi#m 3ailB. 1#t onl 0S $iti<ens or residents $an s#bs$ribe to it. And, o# g#essed it right, %itho#t the Premi#m 3ail $om!onent, one $annot $om!lete the s#bs$ri!tion !ro$ess. Tho#gh not stated eE!li$itl an %here, the Premi#m servi$es are $losed to the o#tside %orld and are the eE$l#sive reserve o" Ameri$ans. One $an get aro#nd this virt#al ethni$ $leansing b !roviding "alse data %hile registering, b#t this is besides the !oint. The Internet is a re"le$tion o" the o#tside %orld. As e$onomies $ontra$t, #nem!lo ment soars, !ersonal sa"et vanishes, the so$ial "abri$ disintegrates, and $ons#m!tion sl#m!s 6 $o#ntries tend to isolate themselves !oliti$all , rea$t aggressivel , and !rote$t their national e$onomies. Prote$tionism, #nilateralism, and isolationism are s$o#rges the Internet %as s#!!osed to be imm#ne to. &ittle did %e kno%.

The In$Credible Web 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.%eb$redibilit .org+ Peo!le are $onditioned to tr#st %ritten %ords, not to mention images. BI read it in the !a!erB or BAs seen on TVB are %orn o#t b#t still e""e$tive $li$hSs. The Internet $ombines both the %ritten and the seen. It is both a teEt#al and a vis#al 4and a#dio5 medi#m. Do !eo!le tr#st Internet $ontent> Is the in$redible Internet 6 $redible> In the Bbri$k and mortarB %orld, $redibilit is asso$iated %ith brands. A brand, in e""e$t, g#arantees the K#alit and s!e$i"i$ations o" a !rod#$t 4think 3$Donald;s hamb#rgers5, its !er"orman$e 4think Palm5, level o" servi$e and $ommitment to $#stomer $are 4Ama<on5, variet , or !ri$e 48al63art5. 1rands are s#stained and enhan$ed b advertising $am!aigns. The $ontent or sales !it$h o" s!e$i"i$ ads are o"ten less im!ortant than the message $onve ed b the ver eEisten$e o" a $am!aign: BThis $om!an is ri$h eno#gh 4read: stable, reliable, tr#st%orth , here to sta 5 to s!end millions on advertisingB. The Internet has ver "e% brands 4FahooJ, Ama<on5 6 and some o" them are tarnished. Some Bold mediaB brands have entered the "ra 41arnes and Noble, The 8all Street -o#rnal, the 1ritanni$a5 6 hitherto %itho#t m#$h s#$$ess. The over%helming b#lk o" 8eb $ontent is $reated or disseminated b small time entre!rene#rs and monomania$s. So, ho% does one establish or a$K#ire $redibilit in s#$h a di""#se and anar$hi$ medi#m> Enter Stan"ord 0niversit ;s B8eb ,redibilit Pro'e$tB. The de"ine themselves th#s: BO#r goal is to #nderstand %hat leads !eo!le to believe %hat the "ind on the 8eb. 8e ho!e this kno%ledge %ill enhan$e 8eb site design and !romote "#t#re resear$h on 8eb $redibilit . As !art o" this ongoing !ro'e$t %e are:

Per"orming K#antitative resear$h on 8eb $redibilit . ,olle$ting all !#bli$ in"ormation on 8eb $redibilit . A$ting as a $learingho#se "or this in"ormation. 2a$ilitating resear$h and dis$#ssion abo#t 8eb $redibilit . 7el!ing designers $reate $redible 8eb sites.B

EEam!les o" $#rrent !ro'e$ts:

Timeliness: 7o% does having o#t6o"6date $ontent a""e$t the $redibilit o" a 8eb site> Intera$tion: 7o% does having a !ersonali<ed intera$tion %ith a 8eb site a""e$t its $redibilit > Negative ,ontent: 7o% does dis!la ing negative $ontent asso$iated %ith a branded %eb site a""e$t the $redibilit o" the brand> It is #se"#l to $on"ine o#rselves to this de"inition o" tr#st: BThe s#b'e$tive belie", !er$e!tion, or $onvi$tion that in"ormation !rovided is tr#e, "a$t#al, and ob'e$tive, and that $ommitments #ndertaken, eE!li$itl , or im!li$itl , %ill be hono#red "#ll and in a timel mannerB. S#$h !er$e!tion, belie", or $onvi$tion are based on:

Past eE!erien$e in general 4%ith s!am, %ith mer$hants, or !roviders, %ith a similar !rod#$t $ategor , %ith the same t !e o" $ontent, et$.5 and !ersonal !ro$livit to tr#st or to distr#st EE!erien$e %ith the s!e$i"i$ mer$hant or !rovider 4%hether !ersonal or gleaned "rom other !eo!le;s "eedba$k 6 revie%s, $om!laints, and o!inions5

There is little that a mer$hant $an do abo#t the "ormer. The latter is, eE!e$tedl , in"l#en$ed b :

Pro"essionalism 4as evident in 8eb site design, e6$ommer$e "a$ilities, #ser6 "riendliness, navigabilit , links to other relevant 8eb !ages, links "rom other 8eb sites, ease and s!eed o" do%nload, #!dated $ontent, !roo"reading, domain name %hi$h mat$hes the $om!an ;s name, availabilit , m#ltiling#alism, et$.5 Tr#st%orthiness 4la$k o" bias, good intentions, tr#th"#lness, thoro#ghness, ob'e$tivit , eE!ertise and a#thor $redentials, kno%ledgeable so#r$es and treatment, $itations and bibliogra!h 5, and %hat the a#thors o" the resear$h $all B(eal 8orld 2eelB 4!h si$al address, !hone+"aE n#mbers, non68eb e6mail address, !hotos o" "a$ilities and sta"", a#dio re$ording, o%nershi! b a not "or !ro"it organi<ation, 0(& ending %ith O(.5. ,ommer$ial 8eb sites are less tr#sted. ,l#ttered ads, !aid s#bs$ri!tions, e6$ommer$e enabled "orms 6 all red#$e the site;s $redibilit J This is es!e$iall tr#e i" the entire site is a one, big ad and %hen it is hard to disting#ish ads "rom $ontent. Tra$k re$ord 4ho% veteran is the mer$hant, !ast "inan$ial !er"orman$e, $redit histor , brand name re$ognition, lists o" $#stomers, et$.5 Sele$tion 4ho% man !rod#$ts are $arried, ho% o"ten is inventor re"reshed, et$.5 Advertising 4is the $om!an ;s b#siness s#""i$ientl l#$rative to s#!!ort a $am!aign>5 Servi$e 4good servi$e indi$ates a reass#ring readiness to sa$ri"i$e the bottom line to $ater to the $#stomer;s legitimate $on$erns, "eedba$k "orms, live s#!!ort, et$.5 2#ll dis$los#re o" rates, !ri$es, !riva$ !oli$ , se$#rit iss#es, et$. 2eedba$k "rom other #sers 4o!inions, revie%s, $omments, 2AIs, s#!!ort gro#!s, et$.5 Site rating and $erti"i$ation b tr#st%orth agen$ies 4like the 1etter 1#siness 1#rea# 6

111, VeriSign, T(0STe5 6 or a%ards %on 4"rom $redible and re!#table organi<ations5. &inks "rom other, %ell6kno%n and believable 8eb sites. The ,redibilit 8eb dis$overed that tr#st in e6$ommer$e is also in"l#en$ed b idios n$rati$ "a$tors. ,ertain domain names 4org5 are more tr#sted than others 4$om5. Too man ads, broken links, t !os, o#tdated or old $ontent 6 all diminish tr#st. In the absen$e o" !roven markers and behavioral g#idelines, !eo!le seem to resort to eEtra!olation 4Bi" the $an;t maintain their o%n 8eb site ...B5 and stereot !es 4e.g., N.O;s are more tr#st%orth than $or!orations5. As 8eb sites !roli"erate 4.oogle indeEes %ell over 3 billion no%5 and 8eb a#thoring be$omes a ro#tine task 6 the noise to signal ratio o" garbage to #se"#l in"ormation is bo#nd to deteriorate. Sear$h engines alread in$or!orate $r#de meas#res o" $redibilit in their rankings 4e.g., the n#mber o" links "rom eEternal 8eb sites5. 1#t, to remain #se"#l, sear$h engines 4and 8eb dire$tories5 %o#ld do %ell to rate 8eb $ontent more $om!rehensivel and thoro#ghl . The sho#ld rank 8eb sites b a#thoritativeness, reliabilit , and ob'e$tivit , "or instan$e. (esear$h sho%s that NHL o" all res!ondents resort to the Internet as a !rimar in"ormation !rovider. The in#ndation o" irrelevant material $a#sed most s#r"ers to $on"ine their s#r"ing to 9: 8eb sites 4the eK#ivalent o" Ban$horsB in sho!!ing malls5, %hi$h the deem reliable, timel , a$$#rate, ob'e$tive, a#thoritative, and $redible. The rest o" the Internet gets the le"tovers. This %orr ing trend $an be reversed onl thro#gh the emergen$e o" inde!endent and $ommer$iall 6viable rating agen$ies. 8eb sites 4at least the b#siness ones5 sho#ld be %illing to !a "or $redible rating to enhan$e their sti$kiness and attra$t moneti<able Be eballsB. In the absen$e o" s#$h third !art a$$reditation, the Internet risks both irrelevan$e and disre!#te.

Does ,ree Content $ Sell? 0+1 Sam 2aknin


The ans%er is: no one kno%s. 3an sel"6st led Bg#r#sB and B!#nditsB 6 a#thors o" vol#mino#s tomes the sell to the g#llible 6 !retend to kno%. 1#t their BeE!ertiseB is an admiEt#re o" g#ess%ork, s#!erstitions, ane$dotal Beviden$eB and hearsa . The sad tr#th is that no methodi$al, long term, and s stemati$ resear$h has been attem!ted in the nas$ent "ield o" e6 !#blishing and, more broadl , digital $ontent on the 8eb. So, no one kno%s to sa "or s#re %hether "ree $ontent sells, %hen, or ho%. There are t%o s$hools 6 a!!arentl eK#all in"ormed b the dearth o" hard data. One is the Bviral s$hoolB. Its vo$al !ro!onents $laim that the dissemination o" "ree $ontent "#els sales b $reating Bb#<<B 4%ord o" mo#th marketing driven b in"l#ential $omm#ni$ators5. The Bintelle$t#al !ro!ert B s$hool ro#ghl sa s that "ree $ontent $annibali<es !aid $ontent mainl be$a#se it $onditions !otential $ons#mers to eE!e$t "ree in"ormation. 2ree $ontent also o"ten serves as a s#bstit#te 4im!er"e$t b#t s#""i$ient5 to !aid $ontent. EE!erien$e 6 tho#gh !at$h 6 $on"#singl seems to !oints both %a s. Vie%s and !re'#di$es tend to $onverge aro#nd this $onsens#s: %hether "ree $ontent sells or not de!ends on a "e% variables. The are: 495 The nat%re o, the in,or#ation. Peo!le are generall %illing to !a "or s!e$i"i$ or $#stomi<ed in"ormation, tailored to their idios n$rati$ needs, !rovided in a timel manner, and b a#thorities in the "ield. The more general and B"eat#relessB the in"ormation, the more rel#$tant !eo!le are to di! into their !o$kets 4!robabl be$a#se there are man "ree s#bstit#tes5. 4G5 The nat%re o, the a%dien$e. The more targeted the in"ormation, the more it $aters to the needs o" a #niK#e, or s!e$i"i$ gro#!, the more o"ten it has to be #!dated 4BmaintainedB5, the less indis$riminatel a!!li$able it is, and es!e$iall i" it deals %ith mone , health, seE, or relationshi!s 6 the more val#able it is and the more !eo!le are %illing to !a "or it. The less $om!#ter savv #sers 6 #nable to "ind "ree alternatives 6 are more %illing to !a . 435 Ti#e dependent para#eters. The more the $ontent is linked to BhotB to!i$s, Bb#rningB iss#es, trends, "ads, b#<<%ords, and Bdevelo!mentsB 6 the more likel it is to sell regardless o" the availabilit o" "ree alternatives. 4C5 The C6C $%rve. Peo!le !a "or $ontent i" the "ree in"ormation available to them is either 4a5 ins#""i$ient or 4b5 over%helming. Peo!le %ill b# a book i" the a#thor;s 8eb site !rovides onl a "e% tantali<ing eE$er!ts. 1#t the are eK#all likel to b# the book i" its entire "#ll teEt $ontent is available online and over%helms them. Pa$kaged and indeEed in"ormation $arries a !remi#m over the same in"ormation in b#lk. ,ons#mer %illingness to !a "or $ontent seems to de$line i" the amo#nt o" $ontent !rovided "alls bet%een these t%o eEtremes. The "eel sated and the need to a$K#ire "#rther in"ormation vanishes. Additionall , "ree $ontent m#st reall be "ree. Peo!le resent having to !a "or "ree $ontent, even i" the $#rren$ is their !ersonal data. 4H5 ?rills and on%ses. There seems to be a %eak, albeit !ositive link bet%een %illingness to !a "or $ontent and Bmembers onl B or Bb# ers onl B "rills, "ree add6ons, bon#ses, and "ree maintenan$e. 2ree s#bs$ri!tions, dis$o#nt vo#$hers "or additional !rod#$ts, vol#me dis$o#nts,

add6on, or B!igg ba$kB !rod#$ts 6 all seem to en$o#rage sales. I#alitative "ree $ontent is o"ten !er$eived b $ons#mers to be a 1ON0S 6 hen$e its enhan$ing e""e$t on sales. 4O5 Credi ility. The $redibilit and !ositive tra$k re$ord o" both $ontent $reator and vendor are $r#$ial "a$tors. This is %here testimonials and revie%s $ome in. 1#t their e""e$t is !arti$#larl strong i" the !otential $ons#mer "inds himsel" in agreement %ith them. In other %ords, the motivating e""e$t o" a testimonial or a revie% is am!li"ied %hen the $#stomer $an a$t#all bro%se the $ontent and "orm his or her o%n o!inion. 2ree $ontent en$o#rages a latent dialog bet%een the !otential $ons#mer and a$t#al $ons#mers 4thro#gh their revie%s and testimonials5. 4N5 *oney a$k &arranties or g%arantees. These are reall "orms o" "ree $ontent. The $ons#mer is sa"e in the kno%ledge that he $an al%a s ret#rn the alread $ons#med $ontent and get his mone ba$k. In other %ords, it is the $ons#mer %ho de$ides %hether to trans"orm the $ontent "rom "ree to !aid b not eEer$ising the mone ba$k g#arantee. 4M5 Relative pri$ing. In"ormation available on the 8eb is ass#med to be inherentl in"erior and $ons#mers eE!e$t !ri$ing to re"le$t this B"a$tB. 2ree $ontent is !er$eived to be even more shodd . The $o#!ling o" "ree 4B$hea!B, Bgim$ra$kB5 $ontent %ith !aid $ontent serves to enhan$e the (E&ATIVE VA&0E o" the !aid $ontent 4and the !ri$e !eo!le are %illing to !a "or it5. It is like !airing a medi#m height !erson %ith a midget 6 the "ormer %o#ld look taller b $om!arison. 4D5 7ri$e rigidity. 2ree $ontent red#$es the !ri$e elasti$it o" !aid $ontent. Normall , the $hea!er the $ontent 6 the more it sells. 1#t the availabilit o" "ree $ontent alters this sim!le "#n$tion. Paid $ontent $annot be too $hea! or it %ill $ome to resemble the "ree alternative 4Bshodd B, Bd#bio#sB5. 1#t "ree $ontent is also a s#bstit#te 4ho%ever !artial and im!er"e$t5 to !aid $ontent. Th#s, !aid $ontent $annot be !ri$ed too high 6 or !eo!le %ill !re"er the "ree alternative. 2ree $ontent, in other %ords, limits both the do%nside and the #!side o" the !ri$e o" !aid $ontent. There are man other "a$tors %hi$h determine the intera$tion o" "ree and !aid $ontent. ,#lt#re !la s an im!ortant role as do the la% and te$hnolog . 1#t as long as the "ield is not s#b'e$t to a resear$h agenda the best %e $an do is observe, $ollate 6 and g#ess. This arti$le is, o" $o#rse, "ree $ontent...:o55

Co +right La; and ,ree 7nline Scholarshi An Intervie; ;ith Peter Suber 0+1 Sam 2aknin Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
The battle bet%een o%ners o" $ontent and its #sers eEtends to all $orners o" the !#blishing %orld. 2ollo%ing a brie" !eriod o" enth#sing abo#t Bs nergiesB, most media $om!anies, $ontent aggregators, $ontent !roviders 6 movie and re$ording st#dios, !#blishers, ne%s organi<ations 6 $ame to vie% the digiti<ation o" $ontent as a threat rather than an o!!ort#nit . In an e""ort to !rote$t their intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights, !#blishing and re$ording $or!orations have "ostered the radi$ali<ation o" $o! right la% 4mainl in the D3,A 6 the Digital 3illenni#m ,o! right A$t5. The have also retarded the "air #se o" $o! righted material and the rights and traditional !rivileges en'o ed b $ontent #sers. This %as a$hieved mainl b in$or!orating Brights managementB or Basset managementB te$hnologies into readers o" digital re$ords 4s#$h as e6books5. These te$hnologies !revented #sers "rom $o! ing the "iles the !#r$hased, "rom $onverting them to a#dio, "rom lending them to others 4as the %o#ld a !rint book5, and "rom reading them on more than one devi$e. ,onsider, "or instan$e, s$holarl !#blishing. It is in the throes o" a !rotra$ted $risis. The !ri$e o" s$holarl , !eer6revie%ed 'o#rnals has sk ro$keted in the last three de$ades, o"ten %a o#t o" the limited means o" libraries, #niversities, individ#al s$ientists and s$holars. A Bs$holarl divideB has o!ened bet%een the haves 4the negligible minorit o" a$ademi$ instit#tions %ith ri$h endo%ments and %ell6heeled $or!orations5 and the haves not 4all the others5. ParadoEi$all , d#e to rising $osts, a$$ess to a#thoritative and a#thenti$ated kno%ledge has de$lined as the n#mber o" !ro"essional 'o#rnals has !roli"erated. This is not to mention the long 4and o"ten $r#$ial5 dela s in !#blishing resear$h res#lts and the shodd %ork o" man #nder6!aid and over6%orked !eer revie%ers. The Internet %as s#!!ose to $hange all that. Originall , a $om!#ter net%ork "or the eE$hange o" 4restri$ted and o!en5 resear$h res#lts among s$ientists and a$ademi$s in !arti$i!ating instit#tions 6 it %as s#!!osed to !rovide instant !#blishing, instant a$$ess, and instant grati"i$ation. It has delivered onl !artiall . Pre!rints o" a$ademi$ !a!ers are o"ten !la$ed online b their eager a#thors and s#b'e$ted to !eer s$r#tin . 1#t this ha!ha<ard !#blishing $ottage ind#str did nothing to dethrone the !rint in$#mbents and their avari$io#s !ri$ing. Peter S#ber has both a Ph.D. in !hiloso!h and a -.D. 7e is a !ro"essor o" !hiloso!h at Earlham ,ollege, %here he also tea$hes la% and $om!#ter s$ien$e. This K#ali"ies him #niK#el to ta$kle the iss#e o" "ree online s$holarshi!, %hi$h $annot be divor$ed "rom the legal intri$a$ies o" $o! right la%. In the last 99 months, he has been %riting and !#blishing the %eekl the 2ree Online S$holarshi! 42OS5 Ne%sletter.

A!art "rom %riting the 2OS Ne%sletter, S#ber is %orking to reali<e 2OS on several "ronts. 7e is a $ons#ltant to the O!en So$iet Instit#te on 2OS iss#es. 7e is the general editor o" the 8eb;s "oremost !hiloso!h sear$h engine 7i!!ias and $o6editor o" Noesis, both available online "ree o" $harge. 7e serves on the ,ommittee on Philoso!h and ,om!#ters o" the Ameri$an Philoso!hi$al Asso$iation. 7e is on the board o" governors o" the International ,onsorti#m "or the Advan$ement o" A$ademi$ P#blishing. 8ith Ton 1eavers, 7e is %orking on so"t%are to $olle$t, indeE, and sear$h the literat#re at distrib#ted online 'o#rnal sites and teEt ar$hives. I: In B(evolt o" the PoorB, I %rote: BI" the rights to intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ere not de"ined and en"or$ed, $ommer$ial entre!rene#rs %o#ld not have taken on the risks asso$iated %ith !#blishing books, re$ording re$ords, and !re!aring m#ltimedia !rod#$ts. As a res#lt, $reative !eo!le %ill have s#""ered be$a#se the %ill have "o#nd no %a to make their %orks a$$essible to the !#bli$. 0ltimatel , it is the !#bli$ %hi$h !a s the !ri$e o" !ira$ .B Is there an !roven $onne$tion bet%een the en"or$ement 4or even the eEisten$e5 o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights 6 and the !re!onderan$e o" $reativit and+or o" media entre!rene#rshi! 4!#blishing, et$.5> A: I don;t have the relevant eE!ertise to ans%er "or m#si$, so"t%are, general literat#re, or even s$holarl books. 1#t "or s$holarl 'o#rnal arti$les 4the main "o$#s o" the 2OS movement5, there seems to be ver little or no $onne$tion bet%een $o! right and the !rod#$tivit and $reativit o" a#thors. I sa this "or t%o reasons. 2irst, s$holarl a#thors tend to trans"er $o! right in their arti$les to the 'o#rnals that !#blish them. 43ost s$holars don;t reali<e that the $o#ld !robabl negotiate a di""erent arrangement, b#t that;s another iss#e.5 2or most 'o#rnal arti$les, then, $o! right !rote$ts !#blishers, not a#thors. 1#t this hasn;t sto!!ed s$holars "rom %riting 'o#rnal arti$les. Se$ond, a#thors o" s$holarl 'o#rnal arti$les are not !aid "or them, %hether the trans"er $o! right or not. A#thors $onsent to this !ra$ti$e and %illingl s#bmit their arti$les to 'o#rnals that don;t !a "or s#bmissions. S$holarl a#thors are !aid b their instit#tions, not b readers, %hi$h "rees them "rom the market in de$iding %hat to %rite. The are re%arded b making a $ontrib#tion to kno%ledge and advan$ing their o%n $areers, not b $ash. 7en$e, the B#na#thori<ed $o! ingB !rohibited b $o! right la% doesn;t de!rive these a#thors o" mone , b#t onl readers. ,o! right la% 4at least %hen #sed in the traditional %a to restri$t a$$ess to !a ing $#stomers5 gets in the %a . 8ides!read $o! ing %ith or %itho#t !ermission %o#ld give a#thors o" 'o#rnal arti$les more readers and more im!a$t, %itho#t de!riving them o" an reven#e. 1#t $o! right la% generall !rohibits this kind o" $o! ing. Even tho#gh this limit on "ree distrib#tion is $ontrar to their interests, it $learl hasn;t deterred a#thors "rom %riting more arti$les. 7aving said that, let me add that the 2OS movement doesn;t need to abolish or even re"orm $o! right la%. I" a#thors o" s$holarl 'o#rnal arti$les retain the $o! right to their arti$les 4trans"erring onl , sa , the right o" "irst !rint !#bli$ation, and !erha!s some other rights5, then a#thors $an $onsent to %ides!read $o! ing and "inall let $o! right advan$e their interests rather than those o" !#blishers. In !arti$#lar, a#thors $o#ld $onsent to !#t their %ritings on the internet %itho#t an "inan$ial, legal, or te$hni$al barriers to a$$ess. This is %hat the 2OS movement is tr ing to a$hieve, and it $an all ha!!en %ithin the bo#ndaries o" eEisting $o! right la%. I: ,o#ld o# des$ribe the $risis in s$holarl !#blishing> A: The main !roblem is that the !ri$es o" 'o#rnals 4both !rint and online 'o#rnals5 have risen

"aster than in"lation and "aster than librar b#dgets "or three de$ades. &ibraries $o!e b $an$eling s#bs$ri!tions, or b taking "rom their book b#dgets to enlarge their serials 4'o#rnal5 b#dgets, or both. One res#lt is that even resear$hers at the %ealthiest instit#tions do not have a$$ess to all the 'o#rnals the need "or their resear$h. Or, "rom the other end o" the a#thor6 reader relationshi!, a#thors o" 'o#rnal arti$les $annot rea$h all the readers %ho %o#ld bene"it "rom the res#lts o" their resear$h. 8hen resear$h is slo%ed and obstr#$ted in this %a , so are all the bene"its o" resear$h, s#$h as ne% medi$ines. Another %a to !#t the #nderl ing e$onomi$ !roblem is that the h#ge savings that $an be a$hieved b !#blishing to the internet haven;t et done an thing to bring do%n the $osts o" s$holarl 'o#rnals. One reason is that most 'o#rnals still have !rint editions %hose $osts are #na""e$ted b the internet revol#tion. Another reason is that the online editions o" most 'o#rnals #se eE!ensive so"t%are to !ermit a$$ess to !a ing s#bs$ribers and blo$k a$$ess to ever one else. The internet is onl a revol#tionar medi#m o" nearl $ostless dissemination "or those %ho don;t manage s#bs$ri!tion lists and don;t tr to disting#ish bet%een a#thori<ed and #na#thori<ed readers. There are other dimensions to the s$holarl !#blishing $risis. One is that 'o#rnal !#blishers 4like so"t%are !#blishers5 are moving be ond $o! right la% to li$ensing $ontra$ts give them even more !rote$tion. P#blishers don;t let libraries Bb# B or Bo%nB $o!ies o" ele$troni$ 'o#rnals, b#t onl Bli$enseB them. As a res#lt, libraries aren;t ass#red that the have long6term a$$ess rights to these 'o#rnals, the have diminished rights to lend their $o!ies, and their !atrons have diminished "air6#se rights. The are getting m#$h less and !a ing m#$h more. I" there %ere no alternative, that %o#ld be one thing. 1#t there is an alternative to the near mono!ol $on$entration in the s$holarl !#blishing ind#str . There is an alternative to harsh li$ensing $ontra$ts. And above all, the internet gives #s an alternative method o" dissemination that %idens distrib#tion and lo%ers $ost at the same time. Even i" there %ere no $risis, the o!!ort#nit a""orded b the internet %o#ld be too bea#ti"#l to ignore. .iven the $risis, it;s ineE$#sable. I: 8hat is 2ree Online S$holarshi! and ho% $an it be re$on$iled %ith rights to intelle$t#al !ro!ert > ,an the $#rrent reven#e models o" !#blishers be re!la$ed %ith viable alternative reven#e models 6 and, i" es, %hi$h are the > 8hat the risks o" ab#se o" 2OS> Is 2OS an instan$e o" a larger B"ree $ontentB movement 4Na!ster, et$.5> I" so, $an 2ree Online ,ontent !rin$i!les be a!!lied to m#si$, books, and "ilm. "or instan$e> A: 2ree online s$holarshi! is s$ienti"i$ and s$holarl literat#re %hi$h is made available "ree o" $harge on the internet. The 2OS movement singles o#t this bod o" literat#re not be$a#se it is #se"#l 4be$a#se other kinds o" literat#re are #se"#l too5, b#t be$a#se it has the relevant !e$#liarit that its a#thors don;t eE!e$t to be !aid. I" a#thors %ant to make mone "rom their %orks, %e don;t $riti$i<e or !ress#re them. 1#t %hen a#thors $onsent to do %itho#t ro alties, then there;s no reason not to make their %ritings "reel available on the internet. 8hen the literat#re is as #se"#l as resear$h arti$les are, then "ree online a$$ess is a !#bli$ good %orth ever e""ort to reali<e. On$e %e #nderstand that the s$o!e o" the 2OS movement is limited to %orks that a#thors $onsent to give a%a , or to !#blish %itho#t !a ment, then %e $an #nderstand %h this movement is $om!letel $om!atible %ith intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights. 8hen a#thors %rite arti$les, the are the $o! right holders. A gro%ing n#mber o" 'o#rnals %ill #se their !eer revie% !ro$ess to vet and validate arti$les, and #ltimatel !#blish them, %itho#t demanding

that a#thors give #! $o! right 66and %e ho!e to la#n$h more 'o#rnals %ith this enlightened !oli$ . I" the a#thors o" !eer6revie%ed arti$les holds the $o! right to them, then the have the right to de$ide %hether to make a$$ess "ree or restri$ted. I" the $hoose to make it "ree and o!en, that is their right, not an in"ringement o" their right. The 2OS movement is abo#t #sing $o! right to a#thori<e "ree and o!en a$$ess, not abo#t !ira$ that $reates "ree a$$ess %itho#t the $onsent o" the $o! right holder. This movement has nothing interesting in $ommon %ith the movement $reated b Na!ster. The all6im!ortant di""eren$e is that resear$hers give a%a their 'o#rnal arti$les and m#si$ians don;t give a%a their m#si$. 8e %ork entirel %ithin the $onsent o" the $o! right holder. I: The ma'or missing element seems to be !er$eived res!e$tabilit . 1#t there are others. No agreed #!on $ontent or kno%ledge $lassi"i$ation method has emerged. Some %eb sites 4s#$h as S#ite9:95 #se the De%e de$imal s stem. Others invented and im!lemented s stems o" their making. Additionall , one $li$k !#blishing te$hnolog 4s#$h as 8ebseed;s or 1logger;s5 $ame to be identi"ied stri$tl %ith non6s$holarl material: !ersonal reminis$en$es, $orres!onden$e, arti$les, and ne%s. Above all, no "easible alternative reven#e models seem to have emerged. A: (egarding res!e$tabilit : There is a gro%ing n#mber o" "ree online T!eer6revie%edT 'o#rnals, and gro%ing n#mber o" highl res!e$ted a$ademi$s %illing to serve on their editorial boards. As meas#red b im!a$t 4$itations5 or in"ormal !restige, some online 'o#rnals s#r!ass man !rint 'o#rnals. It;s tr#e that !rint 'o#rnals still have greater im!a$t and !restige than online 'o#rnals, b#t onl i" %e average the t%o $lasses. The "a$tors that $reate res!e$tabilit are medi#m6inde!endent, and $an easil belong to online 'o#rnals. A gro%ing n#mber o" online 'o#rnals are as res!e$table as an !rint 'o#rnal. 13- 4"ormerl $alled the 1ritish 3edi$al -o#rnal5 is eminentl res!e$table. It o""ers 9::L o" its !rint $o! online "ree o" $harge. There are other eEam!les in ever "ield. 3 vie% is that the la$k o" an agreed #!on $lassi"i$ation method is not a !roblem. That;s a long $onversation. 1#t it;s not tr#e that the need "or s#$h a $lassi"i$ation method is %idel "elt. IndeEing and organi<ation are desirable, b#t there is "ree and !ri$ed so"t%are to indeE and organi<e an online $ontent in an %a that #sers %ant. This so"t%are %ill onl get better as time goes on. It;s not tr#e that no "easible alternative reven#e models have emerged. 2OS doesn;t de!end on vol#nteer labor. The general reven#e model is to !a "or o#tgoing arti$les 4dissemination5 rather than in$oming arti$les 4a$$ess5. There are man variations on the theme, de!ending on %ho !a s. 1#t it;s !er"e$tl "easible to regard the $osts o" dissemination as !art o" the $ost o" resear$h, to be !aid b the grant that "#nds the resear$h 66"or eEam!le. 4This is '#st one variation on the theme.5 1io3ed ,entral is a T"or6!ro"itT !rovider o" 2OS im!lementing one variation on this theme.

In a general introd#$tion to the 2OS movement I;m %riting "or another 'o#rnal, I;m !#tting it this %a . The e$onomi$ "easibilit o" 2OS is no more m sterio#s than the e$onomi$ "easibilit o" P#bli$ TV. Donors !a the $osts o" dissemination so that it %ill be "ree "or ever one. 2or that matter, it;s no more m sterio#s than the e$onomi$s o" $ommer$ial TV, %hi$h is identi$al eE$e!t that advertisers are among the donors. There are man s#$$ess"#l and s#stainable eEam!les in o#r e$onom in %hi$h some !eo!le !a to make a good "ree "or ever one rather than !a onl "or their o%n !rivate a$$ess or $ons#m!tion. I. ,an o# s#mmari<e "or #s the ma'or develo!ments and trends in 2OS> A: 7ere are some trends in the 2OS movement: A gro%ing n#mber o" dis$i!lines have "ree online !re!rint ar$hives. Ever dis$i!line no% has a gro%ing n#mber o" "ree online !eer6revie%ed 'o#rnals. A gro%ing n#mber o" #niversities have "ree online ar$hives "or "a$#lt resear$h !a!ers. -o#rnal !#blishers are eE!erimenting %ith %a s to o""er more o" their $ontent online, some o" it "ree o" $harge. The are also eE!erimenting %ith di""erent %a s to "#nd the $osts o" the online $ontent. 3ore 'o#rnal !#blishers are allo%ing a#thors to !#t their !#blished !a!ers online "ree o" $harge e.g. on their o%n home !ages. It is in$reasingl $ommon to see 'o#rnal editors rebel against 'o#rnal !#blishers that re"#se to lo%er s#bs$ri!tion !ri$es or %iden online a$$ess. The rebel b resigning and la#n$hing ne% 'o#rnals on the same to!i$s and #s#all gather the same s#bs$ribers and a s#!erior Bim!a$t "a$torB ver K#i$kl . 3ore s$holars and resear$hers are demanding that 'o#rnals o""er "ree online a$$ess to their $ontents. The P#bli$ &ibrar o" S$ien$e o!en letter has so "ar gathered more than GD,::: signat#res "rom 9NH $o#ntries. 3ore online re!ositories o" digital arti$les are !arti$i!ating in the O!en Ar$hives Initiative, and more s$holars and task "or$es are endorsing it. It is the emerging standard "or making se!arate ar$hives Bintero!erableB 66"or eEam!le, sear$hable as i" the %ere one. 3ore serio#s, "easible sol#tions are emerging to the !roblem o" long6term !reservation o" digital $ontent. 3ore 'o#rnals and s!e$ial initiatives are seeking %a s to !rovide develo!ing $o#ntries %ith "ree online a$$ess to s$ienti"i$ and s$holarl literat#re. 3ore so"t%are tools eEist to a#tomate the o!eration o" online 'o#rnals 4hen$e, to kee! $osts lo%5. -#st abo#t all tasks $an no% be a#tomated eE$e!t editorial '#dgment 4%hi$h sho#ldn;t be, o" $o#rse5. 3ore hiring and ten#re $ommittees are giving %eight to !eer6revie%ed !#bli$ations %itho#t regard to the medi#m o" !#bli$ation 4!rint or ele$troni$5. 3ore 'o#rnal !#blishers are seeking %a s to a$$ommodate the s$holarl demand "or online a$$ess 4tho#gh not al%a s to a$$ommodate the demand "or "ree online a$$ess5. The serials !ri$ing $risis %hi$h has long alarmed and mobili<ed librarians is starting to alarm and mobili<e #niversit administrators and "a$#lt . ,o! right la% is $hanging "rom a balan$e bet%een !#blishers and readers to%ard a severe imbalan$e "avoring !#blishers. 4See neEt K#estion belo%.5 The re$ent 1#da!est O!en A$$ess Initiative 41OAI5 is !romising "or several reasons. It brings together 2OS !ro!onents "rom man dis$i!lines and nations, 2OS initiatives "rom man "ronts, and "o#ndations %ith serio#s reso#r$es to hel! advan$e the $a#se. These "o#ndations are led b .eorge Soros; O!en So$iet Instit#te, %hi$h $onvened the meeting that gave birth to the 1OAI.

One thing I like abo#t the 1OAI is its "riendliness. It doesn;t demand that 'o#rnals or !#blishers 'oin the $a#se or "a$e san$tions. It o""ers to hel! them make the transition i" the are %illing to do so. 1#t i" the aren;t %illing, it sim!l sa s it %ill !#rs#e the $a#se %itho#t their hel!. The 1OAI doesn;t demand an $hanges "rom !#blishers, markets, or legislation, and doesn;t $riti$i<e an one "or not 'oining. It arti$#lates t%o strategies that s$holars $an !#rs#e on their o%n. One is sel"6ar$hiving, b %hi$h s$holars de!osit their !a!ers in instit#tional or dis$i!linar ar$hives. 4These ar$hives are intero!erable, or the $oo!erate %ith one another, b virt#e o" their $om!lian$e %ith the standards o" the O!en Ar$hives Initiative.5 The se$ond is the la#n$h o" a ne% generation o" 'o#rnals that are $ommitted to making their $ontents "reel a$$essible online. The long6term e$onomi$ s#stainabilit o" "ree online s$holarshi! is not a !roblem. 8e kno% this be$a#se $reating o!en online a$$ess to this literat#re $osts m#$h less than traditional "orms o" dissemination and m#$h less than the mone $#rrentl s!ent on 'o#rnal s#bs$ri!tions. The onl !roblem is the transition "rom here to there. The 1OAI is es!e$iall !romising be$a#se it #nderstands this and mobili<es the "inan$ial reso#r$es to hel! make the transition !ossible "or eEisting 'o#rnals that %o#ld like to $hange their b#siness model, ne% 'o#rnals that need to establish themselves, and #niversities that don;t et !arti$i!ate in sel"6 ar$hiving. In this sense the 1OAI is not '#st a statement o" !rin$i!les or ideals, b#t a serio#s and e""e$tive !lan to a$hieve this ver im!ortant !#bli$ good. I. ,o! right la%s are being revam!ed the %orld over 4b#t mainl in the 0SA5. 8hat %o#ld be the im!a$t o" the likes o" the D3,A on s$holarshi! and on the e$onomi$s o" !#blishing> A. The D3,A has several harm"#l $onseK#en$es "or s$holarshi!. 2irst, it !revents some s$ientists %ho ha!!en to s!e$iali<e in en$r !tion and data se$#rit "rom !#blishing their resear$h. Ed%ard 2elten o" Prin$eton has so "ar been #nable to get a $o#rt to de$lare that he has a 2irst Amendment right to !#blish his resear$h on $ertain methods o" $o! !rote$tion. Taken at "a$e val#e, the D3,A %o#ld !#nish 2elten "or !#blishing his resear$h. 0ntil $o#rts settle the K#estion %hether the relevant se$tions o" the D3,A are $onstit#tional, the "ree eE!ression rights o" s$holars like 2elten %ill be $hilled. And o" $o#rse i" the K#estion is resolved in "avor o" the D3,A, then the "ree eE!ression rights o" s$holars like 2elten %ill be re!ealed. Se$ond, it !revents some $om!#ter s$ientists "rom !#blishing their resear$h in the "orm o" so#r$e $ode, the te$hni$al lang#age o" their "ield. 8hile some $o#rts have held that so#r$e $ode is !rote$ted as a kind o" s!ee$h, other $o#rts are giving it a lo% level o" !rote$tion in order to give e""e$t to D3,A !rohibitions on $ertain kinds o" so"t%are. Third, it s#!!orts strong $o! 6!rote$tion s$hemes that de!rive readers o" their "air6#se rights. 2or the same reason, it de!rives !#r$hasers o" digital $ontent o" the right to b !ass $o! !rote$tion in order to make !ersonal ba$k6#! $o!ies or to kee! the $ontent readable %hen the move to a ne% $om!#ter. 2or the same reason, it !revents libraries "rom taking ne$essar meas#res to ass#re the long6term a$$ess and !reservation o" digital literat#re. The D3,A is even %orse "or so"t%are develo!ers and $ons#mers than it is "or s$holars. This %eek 2elten dro!!ed his a!!eal. So $#rrentl no $o#rt is even $onsidering his K#estion %hether s$holars have a 2irst Amendment right to !#blish their resear$h, or %hether the anti6$ir$#mvention $la#se o" the D3,A 4%hi$h seems to !rohibit 2elten "rom !#blishing5 is #n$onstit#tional. Note that the 2OS movement has no !roblem %ith the strong !rote$tion o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert , %hi$h is at the heart o" the D3,A. That;s not the !roblem. The !roblem is the %a the D3,A #!sets a long6standing 4and $onstit#tionall mandated5 balan$e bet%een

!#blishers and readers and gives nearl ever thing to !#blishers. 1e$a#se internet $ontent $rosses national bo#ndaries, one nation %ill o"ten %ant to en"or$e the $o! right '#dgments o" its o%n $o#rts, inter!reting its o%n la%s, in another $o#ntr . 8orld%ide develo!ments in !arallel to the D3,A, like the still evolving 7ag#e ,onvention on -#risdi$tion and 2oreign -#dgments, are giving e""e$t to these desires. The !roblem is that these e""orts, like the D3,A, !#t intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights above "ree s!ee$h rights. The same r#les that let a nation en"or$e a $o! right '#dgment be ond its o%n bo#ndaries also let it en"or$e a $ensorshi! '#dgment be ond its o%n bo#ndaries. 0ntil re$entl , the border6$rossing !otential o" the internet %as a "eat#reA no% it;s a b#g. 0ntil re$entl , it s#b'e$ted less6"ree nations to the "ree s!ee$h o" the most6"ree nations. Ne% develo!ments threaten to s#b'e$t the most6"ree nations to the $ensorshi! r#les o" the least6"ree nations. In the name o" $o! right en"or$ement, %orld%ide s!ee$h rights are sinking to the lo%est standard in #se an %here. Another develo!ment in $o! right la% that harms s$holarshi! is the eEtension o" $o! right terms, even retroa$tivel . The Sonn 1ono ,o! right EEtension A$t 49DDM5 retroa$tivel added G: ears to eEisting $o! rights. This harms s$holarshi! b greatl dela ing the transition o" $o! righted %orks into the !#bli$ domain. 1 shrinking the !#bli$ domain, it shrinks the n#mber o" modern $lassi$s that vol#nteers $an la%"#ll digiti<e and make "reel available on the internet. 2or the same reason, it tilts the balan$e o" $o! right la% even "#rther in the dire$tion o" !#blishers and against the interests o" readers and resear$hers. Those %ho have looked into it believe that the 1ono A$t %as motivated to !rote$t the Disne $o! right on 3i$ke 3o#se, %hi$h %o#ld have eE!ired in G::3. I" so, this is a grotesK#e inversion o" val#es. The 0r#g#a (o#nd Agreements A$t 49DDC5 is even %orse, and $an remove %orks "rom the !#bli$ domain and retroa$tivel grant them $o! rights. In short, %hatever harms the rights and interests o" readers harms s$holarshi! and resear$h, and re$ent trends in $o! right la% in$reasingl "avor the rights and interests o" !#blishers over those o" readers. ,o! right la% is in$reasingl hostile to "air6#se rights, the "irst sale do$trine, limited terms, and the !#bli$ domain. I. To s#mmari<e: is the Internet a boon or a bane as "ar as !#blishing and s$holarl eE$hange are $on$erned> It %o#ld seem that its eEisten$e bro#ght abo#t the (ETA(DATION o" #sers; rights 6 rather than the #ser em!o%erment ever one %as ho!ing "or. A. The Internet is an #n!re$edented boon to s$holarl !#blishing. The onl !roblem is that %e have barel beg#n to reali<e its "#ll !otential, in$l#ding its !otential to make s$holarl literat#re "reel available to ever one %ith an internet $onne$tion. 8e ma never take "#ll advantage o" the %a s it $an trans"orm s$holarl resear$h and !#bli$ation. That reK#ires an endless a!!roEimation !ro$ess, dee! imagination, and time. 1#t i" %e $o#ld '#st take advantage o" the o!!ort#nit it a""ords "or "ree online resear$h literat#re, then the internet %ill have a greater bene"i$ial im!a$t on resear$h and ed#$ation than lending libraries or the .#tenberg !ress.

The Second @utenberg Intervie; ;ith 5ichael )art 0+1 Sam 2aknin Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
B3i$hael 7art, "o#nder o" Pro'e$t .#tenberg is a visionar %ho %as K#ite ahead o" his time. In "a$t, it ma still be several ears be"ore his dream o" #niversall 6available literat#re $omes tr#e. Nevertheless, 3i$hael;s e""orts have ins!ired tho#sands o" !eo!le aro#nd the %orld %ho no% share his vision. The !rogress o" Pro'e$t .#tenberg has been slo%er than man ho!ed, b#t it has de"initel hel!ed to !#sh "or%ard the great e1ook dream %hi$h I share. 0n"ort#natel , the te$hnolog , in"rastr#$t#re, and market are lagging %a behind 3i$hael;s vision, a $ommon ha<ard o" being a !ioneer.B 6 sa s .lenn Sanders, Dire$tor o" e1ook8eb.org. 3i$hael S. 7art is a Pro"essor o" Ele$troni$ TeEt at 1enedi$tine 0niversit 4Illinois, 0.S.A.5 and a "ormer Visiting S$ientist at ,arnegie 3ellon 0niversit %as a 2ello% o" the Internet Ar$hive "or the ear G:::. 7e "o#nded Pro'e$t .#tenberg in 9DN9 and is $#rrentl its EEe$#tive ,oordinator. In more %a s than one, he is the "ather o" e6!#blishing and e6books. 7e !ioneered not onl the dissemination o" ele$troni$ teEts 6 b#t also some o" the %orking models that #nder!inned the Internet #ntil the dot.$om $rash t%o ears ago. The ethos o" the earl Internet o%es a lot to 7art. 7e $reated a mass movement o" vol#nteers, remote6$ollaborating on a !ro'e$t o" "ree a$$ess to $ontent. There is no better en$a!s#lation o" the gist o" the Net. And P. books $an be re!li$ated at no $ost 6 a !re$#rsor o" viral and b#<< marketing. Pro'e$t .#tenberg is, b no%, an integral !art o" the m th and histor o" o#r net%orked %orld. It is a %orld%ide librar $reated and maintained b a small arm o" dedi$ated vol#nteers %ho s$an, !roo"read, and #!load do<ens o" ne% e6teEts ever %eek. 3ost o" these teEts are in the !#bli$ domain. 1#t a "e% are $o! righted 6 %ith !ermission to store the %ork granted b a#thors and !#blishers or other $o! right holders. There are man imitators and $o! $ats 6 b#t onl one Pro'e$t .#tenberg, in s$o!e, !erseveran$e, dedi$ation, and thoro#ghness. As $o! right eE!ires, tho#sands o" %orks are added monthl to the !#bli$ domain and $an be "reel re!li$ated and distrib#ted. 3ost o" these books are o#t o" !rint and saved b the Pro'e$t "rom obs$#rit and #ltimate oblivion. The re$#rrent eEtension o" $o! right terms b ,ongress ham!ers this %ork b restri$ting the gro%th o" the !#bli$ domain or even b removing teEts "rom it. It bene"its ver "e% $o! right holders at the eE!ense o" #niversal a$$ess to literat#re and kno%ledge. 7art mo#rns the ra!idl d%indling !#bli$ domain: BIn the 0SA, no $o! rights %ill eE!ire "rom no% to G:9DJJJ It is even m#$h %orse in man other $o#ntries, %here the a$t#all removed G: ears "rom the !#bli$ domain. 1ooks that

had been legal to !#blish all o" a s#dden %ere not. 2riends told me that in Ital , "or eEam!le, all the great Italian o!eras that had entered the !#bli$ domain are no longer there. . . Same goes "or the 0nited /ingdom. .erman in$reased their $o! right term to more than N: ears ba$k in the 9DO:;s. It is a domino e""e$t. A#stralia is the onl $o#ntr I kno% o" that has o""i$iall stated the %ill not eEtend the $o! right term b G: ears to more than N:.B 7art is a visionar and a !ioneer. S#$h vo$ations $arr a heav !ri$e tag in re$#rrent "r#stration and $#m#lative eEha#stion. 7art ma be tired, b#t he does not so#nd bitter. 7e is still a "o#nt o" brilliant ideas, tho#ght !rovoking insights, eE#berant o!timism, and titillating !redi$tions. Three de$ades o" $onstant battle ended in !artial vi$tor 6 b#t 7art is as energeti$ as ever, straining at the neEt, seemingl im!la#sible target. BA million books to a billion !eo!le in all $orners o" the globe.B Inevitabl , he sometimes "eels $ornered. BThe B "ig#re in man o" his statements 6 the $ ni$al and avari$io#s establishment that %ill sa$ri"i$e an thing to se$#re the diminishing ret#rns o" a "e% more $o!ies sold. In the Pro'e$t;s li"e time, the !eriod o" $o! right has been eEtended "rom an average o" 3: ears to an inane DH ears. 3oreover, no noti$e o" rene%al is reK#ired in order to en'o the $o! right eEtensions. This !rote$tionism hinders the s!read o" litera$ , de!rives the masses o" m#$h needed kno%ledge, dis$riminates against the !oor, and, #ltimatel , #ndermines demo$ra$ 6 believes 7art. I. Pro'e$t B.#tenbergB is a sel"6$ons$io#s name. In %hi$h %a s is the Pro'e$t $om!arable to .#tenberg;s revol#tion> A. 8hen I $hose the name, the ma'or "a$tor in mind %as that !#blishing e61ooks %o#ld $hange the ma! o" litera$ and ed#$ation as m#$h as did the .#tenberg Press %hi$h red#$ed the !ri$e o" books to 9+C::th their !revio#s !ri$e tag. 2rom the eK#ivalent o" the $ost o" an average "amil "arm, books be$ame so ineE!ensive that o# $o#ld see a %agonload o" them in the %eekend market!la$e in small villages at !ri$es that even these !eo!le $o#ld a""ord. 3 se$ond $hoi$e %as Pro'e$t AleEandria. The ma'or di""eren$e is that the AleEandrians T$olle$tT e61ooks, %hile the .#tenbergers T!rod#$eT e61ooks. Another %a o#r Pro'e$t $om!ares to .#tenberg;s revol#tion is that $o! right la%s %ere $reated to sto! both. 8hen %e onl had a do<en e61ooks online, the !ri$e o" !#tting one on a $om!#ter %as abo#t 9+C::th the !ri$e o" a !a!erba$k. 1#t obvio#sl %ith 9:: gigab te drives $oming do%n to R9::, the !ri$e o" !#tting e61ooks on $om!#ters has "allen so lo% as to be literall Btoo $hea! to meter.B Those %ho like to meter ever thing on the $ash s$ale are in$redibl #!set abo#t Pro'e$t .#tenberg. Pro'e$t .#tenberg is the "irst eEam!le o" a B!aradigm shi"tB "rom B&imited Distrib#tionB to B0nlimited Distrib#tionB, no% to#ted as BThe In"ormation AgeB. 7o%ever, o# sho#ld be a%are that this is the Cth s#$h In"ormation Age. Ea$h s#$h !hase has been sti"led b making it illegal to #se ne% te$hnologies to $o! teEts. In 9N9:, the Stat#te o" Anne $o! right made it illegal "or an b#t members o" the an$ient Stationers; .#ild to #se a .#tenberg Press. Then, in 9D:D, the 0S do#bled the term o" all

$o! rights to eliminate Bre!rint ho#sesB %ho %ere #sing the ne% steam and ele$tri$ !o%ered !resses to $om!ete %ith the old bo !#blishing net%ork. The third In"ormation Age $ame in 9DNO %hen the 0S in$reased the $o! right term to NH ears and eliminated the reK#irement to "ile $o! right rene%als, to sti"le $hanges bro#ght on b =eroE ma$hines. In 9DDM, the 0S eEtended the $o! right term et again, to DH ears, to eliminate !#bli$ation via the Internet. I. The $on$e!t o" e6teEts or e6books ba$k in 9DN9 %as novel. 8hat made o# think o" this !arti$#lar #se "or the R9:: million in s!are $om!#ter time o# %ere given b the 0niversit o" Illinois> A. 8hat allo%ed me to think o" this !arti$#lar #se "or $om!#ters so long be"ore an one else did is the same thing that allo%s ever other inventor to $reate their inventions: being at the right !la$e, at the right time, %ith the right ba$kgro#nd. As &ermontov said in The (ed Shoes: BNot even the greatest magi$ian in the %orld $an !#ll a rabbit o#t o" a hat i" there isn;t alread a rabbit in it.B I o%e this ba$kgro#nd to m !arents, and to m brother. I gre% #! in a ho#se "#ll o" books and ele$troni$s, so the idea o" $ombining the t%o %as obvio#sl not as great a lea! as it %o#ld have been "or someone else. I re!aired m Dad;s hi6"i the "irst time %hen I %as in the se$ond grade, and %as also the kid %ho ad'#sted ever one;s TV and antennas %hen the %ere so ne% ever one %as s$ared o" them. I have al%a s had a kna$k "or ele$troni$s, and b#ilt and reb#ilt radios and other ele$troni$s all m li"e, even tho#gh I never read an ele$troni$s book or man#als. . .it %as '#st nat#ral. &et me tell o# a stor abo#t ho% the Pro'e$t started: I ha!!ened to sto! at o#r lo$al I.A gro$er store on the %a . 8e %ere '#st $oming #! on the Ameri$an 1i$entennial and the !#t "a#E !ar$hment histori$al do$#ments in %ith the gro$eries. So, as I "#mbled thro#gh m ba$k!a$k "or something to eat, I "o#nd the 0S De$laration o" Inde!enden$e and had a light b#lb moment. I tho#ght "or a %hile to see i" I $o#ld "ig#re o#t an thing I $o#ld do %ith the $om!#ter that %o#ld be more im!ortant than t !ing in the De$laration o" Inde!enden$e, something that %o#ld still be there 9:: ears later, b#t $o#ldn;t $ome #! %ith an thing, and so Pro'e$t .#tenberg %as born. Fo# have to remember that the Internet had '#st gone trans$ontinental and this %as one o" the ver "irst $om!#ters on it. Someho% I had envisioned the Net in m mind ver m#$h as it %o#ld be$ome 3: ears later. I envisioned sending the De$laration o" Inde!enden$e to ever one on the Net. . .all 9:: o" them. . .%hi$h %o#ld have $rashed the %hole thing, b#t l#$kil 2red (an$k sto!!ed me, and %e '#st !osted a noti$e in %hat %o#ld later be$ome $om!.gen I think abo#t O o#t o" the 9:: #sers at the time do%nloaded it. . . . I. 1et%een 9DN9 and 9DD3 o# !rod#$ed 9:: e6teEts. And then, in less than D ears, an additional "e% tho#sand. 8hat ha!!ened> A. Peo!le rarel #nderstand the !o%er o" do#bling something ever so o"ten.

In 9DD9 %e %ere doing one e61ook !er month. This %as totall revol#tionar at the time. Peo!le ke!t !redi$ting that %e $o#ldn;t $ontin#e, b#t %e %ere !lanning on do#bling !rod#$tion ever ear, %hi$h %e did "or most ears. 8e are no% adding G:: e6teEts a month. I. ,an o# give #s some $#rrent do%nload statisti$s> A. As "or stats, this is !rett m#$h im!ossible sin$e %e don;t dire$tl $ontrol an b#t one or t%o o" %hat I !res#me are h#ndreds o" sites aro#nd the %orld that have o#r "iles #! "or do%nload. 8hat I $an tell o# is that the one site %e have the most $ontrol o" gives a%a over a million e61ooks !er month. I. The Internet is o"ten $astigated as an English6lang#age, a""l#ent !eo!le;s to . P. in$l#des !redominantl English lang#age, 8estern %orld, teEts. Do o# intend to make it more m#lti$#lt#ral and m#ltiling#al> A. I en$o#rage all lang#ages as hard as I !ossibl $an. So "ar %e have English, &atin, 2ren$h, Italian, .erman, S!anish, ,hinese, -a!anese, S%edish, Danish, 8elsh, Port#g#ese, Old D#t$h, 1#lgarian, D#t$h+2lemish, .reek, 7ebre%. 8e have teEts in Old 2ren$h, Polish, (#ssian, (omanian, and 2arsi in !rogress. I %onder i" %e sho#ld $o#nt mathemati$s as a lang#age> I %as s#r!rised at ho% man !eo!le %ere interested %hen %e "irst #!loaded Pi to a million !la$es. . . I. 8h are stand6alone images 4e.g., "ilms, !hotogra!hs5 and so#nd eE$l#ded or rare> A. 8e have tried some, b#t haven;t re$eived m#$h "eedba$k. Still, %e %ill $ontin#e to eE!eriment %ith all "ormats. Also, these "iles are total hogs "or drives and band%idth. O#r short movie o" the l#nar landing is t%i$e as big as Shakes!eare and the 1ible $ombined in #n$om!ressed "ormat. It;s onl a $o#!le min#tes long, and lo%6resol#tion. Think ho% big a %hole movie %o#ld be, even not at hi6resol#tion. It %o#ld take #! a $o#!le ,D6 (O3s. . . . I. P. no% makes "iles available as DO,+(T2 and 7T3& 6 as %ell as !lain vanilla AS,II. Fet, !lain teEt deliver seemed to have been a basi$ tenet o" the Pro'e$t. 8hat made o# $hange o#r mind> A. 8e;re %illing to !ost in all kinds o" "ile "ormats, b#t the onl "ormat ever one $an read is Plain Vanilla AS,II, so %e al%a s tr to in$l#de that. P. has been available on ,Ds "or ears. I. The "ail#re o" the advertising6s!onsored reven#e model "or$es Internet6based $ontent generators and aggregators to $harge "or their %ares. 8ill P. $ontin#e to be "ree 6 and, i" so, ho% %ill it "inan$e itsel"> EEam!le: %ho is !a ing "or the hosting and band%idth no%> A. It;s all vol#nteer. . . . And the n#mber o" sites $ontin#es to gro%, and to rea$h more and more regions aro#nd the %orld "or easier lo$al a$$ess. A$t#all , all the hosting, band%idth, et$. are vol#ntar , too. 7o%ever, %e des!eratel need donations to do $o! right resear$h, $ataloging, to hire librarians and &ibrar and In"ormation S$ien$e !ro"essors, to s#!!ort the Pro'e$t .#tenberg s!in6o""s in other lang#ages and $o#ntries, not to mention m#ndane things s#$h as !hone and #tilit bills, $om!#ters, drives,

ba$k#!s, et$. 8e need vol#nteers eK#all des!eratel . Vol#nteering is !erha!s the onl %a "or one !erson to %ork "or a %eek or a month on a book and get it to a h#ndred million !eo!le. . . . I. The rea$tion to e6books "l#$t#ates %ildl bet%een e#!horia and gloom. A. This is onl the $ommer$ial !oint o" vie%. . . The %ant to take it over or sink it to the bottom. . .There are no other $ommer$ial !ers!e$tives. 1et%een 9H::69HH:, thanks to the .#tenberg Press, more books %ere !rinted than in all o" histor !revio#s to .#tenberg. I have ho!es like that "or e61ooks. . . . I. Some sa that e6books are doomed, having miserabl "ailed to $a!t#re the !#bli$;s imagination and devotion. Others !redi$t a "#t#re o" #biK#ito#s, AT36!rinted, e6books, re!lete %ith ol"a$tor , ta$tile, a#dio, and 36D e""e$ts. 8hat is o#r s$enario> A. The main tro#ble %ith these !redi$tions is not onl that the are made solel %ith the $ommer$ial as!e$ts in mind, b#t that the are made b an assortment o" !eo!le "rom !re6e6 1ook generations, %ho have no idea that o# $o#ld #se the same gi<mo to !la 3P3s as to read or listen to e61ooks. The o#nger generations have no do#bt abo#t e61ooks. It;s onl the dinosa#rs that have no idea %hat;s going on. 8e are still getting email stating that not one !erson is ever going to read books "rom $om!#tersJ 8ho %ill be the more %ell6read 6 those %ho $an $arr at most a do<en books %ith them, or those %ho have a PDA in their !o$ket %ith a h#ndred or more e61ooks in it> 8ho %ill look #! more K#otations in $onteEt> 8ho %ill #se the di$tionar more o"ten> 8ho %ill look #! geogra!hi$al in"ormation more o"ten> These are all things I do %ith m little antiK#e PDA and the ne% ones are alread a do<en times more !o%er"#l. I %ant to tell o# the stor o" %hen I "irst reali<ed that Pro'e$t .#tenberg %as going to %ork. It %as abo#t 9: ears be"ore %e !#blished o#r G,:::th E6teEt. 8e had onl abo#t a do<en e6 books online. At the beginning o" 9DMD there %ere onl M:,::: host $om!#ters in the entire Internet 6 tho#gh b O$tober that ear the n#mber had do#bled. I %as on the !hone one da , %ith the EEe$#tive Dire$tor o" ,ommon /no%ledge, a !ro'e$t to !#t the &ibrar o" ,ongress $atalogs into !#bli$ domain 3A(, 43a$hine A$$essible (e$ord ,atalog5 re$ords. D#ring the $onversation, there %as this h#ge noise. She dro!!ed the !hone and ran o"". She %as ba$k in a min#te, and la#ghing her head o"", she told me: 7er son had been !la ing aro#nd %ith her $om!#ter, and "o#nd this $o! o" Pro'e$t .#tenberg;s BAli$e in 8onderlandB and had started to read it. 7e mentioned this at s$hool, and a "e% o" the kids "ollo%ed him home to see it. The neEt da even more kids "ollo%ed. Event#all the n#mber o" kids gre% so great that the %ere hanging o"" this h#ge oak $hair. Event#all this oak $hair had so man kids all over it, reading BAli$e in 8onderlandB...that it literall se!arated into all its !arts and kids %ent t#mbling in all dire$tions....At that ver moment, in 9DMD, I reali<ed that E6books %ere going to s#$$eed, no matter %hat an o" a n#mber o" ad#lts tho#ght. To the neEt generation, this %ill be ho% the remember Ali$e in 8onderland, '#st as m memor o" it %as a golden ins$ribed red leather edition m "amil

#sed to read "rom together. 2o#r ears later, in 9DD3, there %ere still #nder 9:: Pro'e$t .#tenberg e61ooks. A neighbor dro!!ed b to talk to me one da and in the $o#rse o" the $onversation mentioned he had read the Pro'e$t .#tenberg Ali$e in 8onderland. I had no idea his interests even in$l#ded $om!#ters. 7e had "o#nd a "e% errors. I h#rried home to $orre$t them and to !#t the ne% edition online. At "irst I %as in ha!! sho$k '#st be$a#se I $o#ld im!rove o#r edition, b#t then it o$$#rred to me that !erha!s the more im!ortant as!e$t %as that someone I kne% had do%nloaded Ali$e all on his o%n, then read the entire book "rom B$over to $overB on his $om!#ter th#s !#tting !aid to the na sa ers %ho said no one m age %o#ld read e61ooks. There are lots o" stories like this: !ro"essors %ho tell me their st#dents %ill not read !a!er teEtbooks, TeEas !re!aring "or all teEtbooks to be e61ooks. . . . I. P. is a !rime eEam!le o" t%o !henomena $hara$teristi$ to the earl Internet: $ollaborative e""orts and vol#nteering. 8ith the $rass $ommer$iali<ation o" the Net 6 %ill !eo!le $ontin#e to vol#nteer and $ollaborate 6 or %ill $or!orate, bri$k and mortar, behemoths take over> A. 8ell, the $ommer$iali<ation o" the 8eb started in 9DDC, and that didn;t %i!e #s o#t. It took #s 3: ears to do o#r "irst H,::: e61ooks, and I;ll bet o# a !i<<a that it %ill onl take 3: months to do o#r se$ond H,:::JJJ Then %e %rite #! a s$hed#le "or 9,:::,:::JJJJJJJ I. In other %ords: P. is the rei"i$ation o" the s!irit o" the Internet. A. De"initel . . .So %as BAsk Dr. InternetB, another o" m !ersonas. . . I. Sho#ld the Internet $hange dramati$all 6 %hat %ill ha!!en to P.> 8ill o# ever $onsider going $ommer$ial, "or instan$e> I" not, ho% do o# !lan to ada!t> A. 8h sho#ld %e go $ommer$ial. . .that '#st invites a do%n"all i" the mone goes a%a . 8hi$h the %o#ld love to ha!!en 6and %o#ld !robabl en$o#rage it. It;s hard to kill o"" something that doesn;t have a !h si$al !lant or a b#dget. . .and $annot be bo#ght. 8e %ill ada!t b doing the entire !#bli$ domain, in$l#ding gra!hi$s, m#si$, movies, s$#l!t#re, !aintings, !hotogra!hs, et$. . . . I. P. makes obs$#re and ina$$essible teEts as %ell as seminal %orks 6 easil and globall available. Doesn;t this lead to an embarrassment o" ri$hes or to $on"#sion> In other %ords: all P. e6teEts are BeK#alB. It is a Bdemo$rati$B s stem. There is no BteEt ratingB, histori$al $onteEt, !eer revie%, K#alit $ontrol, $ensorshi! ... A. This is be$a#se I am not a ver boss boss. . .I en$o#rage o#r vol#nteers to $hoose their o%n "avorites, not '#st %hat BIB think the sho#ld do. 7o%ever, I am s#re %e %ill get all the %arhorses done. I. The e6teEts !osted on P. are $o! right "ree or %ith !ermission "rom their a#thors and !#blishers. 7o% do o# $o!e %ith the inordinatel eEtended $o! right !eriod in the 0SA> A. I '#st "inished #! ears o" %orking on an Ami$#s 1rie" "or the S#!reme ,o#rt in the ho!e o" overt#rning the latest $o! right eEtensions. As "or $o!ing, o# '#st do the best o# $an %ith the $ards o# are dealt. I. 8hat are the e""e$ts o" s#$h legislation on !#bli$ litera$ >

A. The 0S #sed to sa %e %o#ld send aid to the entire %orld, in the "orm o" "ood, $lothing, medi$al s#!!lies, as m#$h as %e $o#ld a""ord. 1#t no% that litera$ $an be disseminated at no eE!ense, %e re"#se to do it b !rett m#$h sti"ling the !#bli$ domain. I. P. has a mirror site in A#stralia %here $o! right la% is less stringent.

A. A$t#all , the are a totall se!arate organi<ation, #sing o#r name %ith !ermission, '#st as does the .#tenberg Pro'ekt6DE in .erman . I. Are s#$h Bba$kdoorsB the sol#tion> 8hat abo#t the D3,A 4Digital 3illenni#m ,o! right A$t5> A. I am so a6!oliti$al that o# $o#ld $all me anti6!oliti$al. I %o#ld !re"er a $o! right o" 9: ears or so. . Onl the biggest o" the best sellers might make 9:L more a"ter 9: ears, and the don;t need it. Do %e reall %ant la%s that s#!!ort onl the biggest and ri$hest> I love BThe 1ridges o" 3adison ,o#nt B, b#t I don;t think DH ears, or even NH ears, or even HO ears o" $or!orations, "amil and other heirs sho#ld be s#!!orted b it. It then be$omes the BD#$h o" 3adison ,o#nt B and %e are st#$k %ith generations o" BD#kes o" 3adison ,o#nt .B 8hat %e %ill end #! %ith #nder these $o! right la%s is a Blanded gentr o" the in"ormation ageB %ho '#st kee! inheriting ... ,o! right sho#ld eE!ire soon eno#gh that the a#thors, i" the %ant to kee! getting !aid, have to $ome ba$k to %ork again. A"ter all, there is no other 'ob in the %orld in %hi$h one !ie$e o" %ork $an kee! !a ing o"" "or DH ears. 1 the %a , do o# reali<e that Ted T#rner made millions, !robabl h#ndreds o" millions, "rom the $o! right eEtension o" '#st B.one 8ith The 8indB, not $o#nting the h#ndreds o" other movies he o%ns. . .all "rom one vote o" ,ongress. . . . . ,ongress sho#ld not be allo%ed to %rite la%s that $reate %ind"all !ro"its "or 9L o" the !o!#lation and take a%a a million books "rom all the rest. I. 8hat does P. intend to do abo#t the legislative as mmetr bet%een $ontent !rod#$ers and $reators 6 and $ontent $ons#mers> &obb ,ongress> Testi" > Protest> Organi<e !etitions> Pla$e B.one %ith the 8indB on the Internet and %ait "or a sho% trial> A. P. A#stralia alread has done .one 8ith The 8ind, as their H:th e61ook, that;s good eno#gh "or me at the moment. Eldred v. Ash$ro"t %as originall dra"ted as 7art V. (eno, b#t the la% ers, &essig Q $o, %o#ldn;t in$l#de one %ord o" mine in the $ase, so I "ired them. I. .#tenberg teEts are sometimes #sed as "reebies %ithin a $ommer$ial 43onolithi$, 8alln#t ,reek5 or semi6$ommer$ial !rod#$t 4s#$h as the P#bli$ Domain (eader5. Is this a$$e!table> 8h don;t o# $harge them a li$ense "ee>

A. 8aln#t ,reek P. ,D;s %eren;t "ree and the sent #s ni$e donations. The $ommer$ial o#t"its have to !a "or a li$ense, the non6 $ommer$ial ones #s#all don;t. Ea$h $ase is se!aratel de$ided. 8hile %e don;t do an ads on o#r sites, %e don;t insist that others don;t. I. Te$hnolog is o"ten $onsidered the anton m o" B$#lt#reB. TV, "or instan$e, is berated "or its v#lgar, lo%6bro%, !rogramming. 7oll %ood is o"ten $hastised "or its ind#lgen$e in grat#ito#s violen$e and seE. A. No one ever %ent broke #nderestimating the intelligen$e o" their a#dien$e. As long as these are B$ommer$ial a!!li$ationsB that;s %hat o# %ill get. 8hat else $o#ld o# !ossibl eE!e$t> These are all eEam!les o" B$a!italism gone a%r B. 1 the %a , I;m not anti6$a!italism, I reall am an A n (and "reak, "ig#re that o#t. . .hee heeJ I am doing Pro'e$t .#tenberg "or the most sel"ish o" reasons 6 be$a#se I %ant a %orld that has Pro'e$t .#tenberg in it. I. E6books are eK#ated %ith lo%6K#alit vanit !#blishing. Fet, P. seems to embod the $onvi$tion that te$hnolog $an do %onders "or the dissemination o" $#lt#re, litera$ , demo$ra$ , $ivil so$iet and so on. A. e61ooks do %onders "or the dissemination o" $#lt#re, litera$ , demo$ra$ , $ivil so$iet and so on. Fo# do reali<e that the De$laration o" Inde!enden$e is+%as the 2I(ST man6made item in all o" histor that ever one $an have, in as man $o!ies as the %ant. Do o# reali<e that a H gigab te se$tion o" a hard drive $an hold a million $o!ies o" that "ile, #n$om!ressed> Terab te drive s stems are alread available "or onl aro#nd RG,H::. Ten ears "rom no% HT hard disk !artitions %ill be able to hold a billion $o!ies. I. Are o# a romanti$ believer in the !o%er o" te$hnolog to bring !rogress> A. 8ell, I;m $ertainl an in$#rable romanti$, and I believe that te$hnolog $an bring !rogress, b#t I don;t kno% i" the are, or have to be, related. . . . I. And do o# see an dangers in e6books and "reel available e6teEts 4e.g., hate s!ee$h5> A. On$e o# start $ensoring, o# are !la ing %ith Pandora;s 1oE. -#st look at %hat the are doing %ith &ittle 1la$k Sambo, %ho %asn;t even bla$k, and %ith 0n$le (em#s, %ho %as> This is a%"#l. BSong o" the So#thB %as reK#ired vie%ing %hen I %as in s$hool and no% I $an;t even sho% this generation %hat %e %ere reK#ired to st#d %hen I %as a kid. . .9DMC reall did arrive. . . . I. In some %a s, o# B$om!eteB dire$tl %ith other bastions o" ed#$ation 6 libraries and #niversities. 7o% do o# get along> 8hat abo#t other re!ositories o" kno%ledge s#$h as Pro'e$t 1artleb > .overnments>

A. A$t#all , %e $oo!erate %ith them, not $om!ete %ith them. 8e make all o#r "iles available to them and en$o#rage them to make the teEts available to ever one. Some o" them vie% this as $om!etition, b#t %e don;t. Some !re"er to $ontrol distrib#tion. . .to be a gate that the $an o!en and $lose at %ill. . .8e !re"er the doors al%a s to be o!en. 7ave o# ever $onsidered %h , %ith the h#ndred millions o" dollars granted to "o#nd e6 &ibraries at the ma'or #niversities some ten ears ago, and #ndo#btedl h#ndreds o" millions more donated sin$e then, %h o# are doing an intervie% %ith someone sitting at a basement, r#nning $om!#ter hard%are and so"t%are that is 9: and G: ears old> I" an $ollege, or $om!an , m#$h less #niversit , $it , $o#nt , state or $o#ntr %as %illing to do this, o# %o#ld have never heard o" me. I. 8hat has been the !ersonal $ost> It m#st have been "r#strating and eEha#sting and elating and re%arding ... In retros!e$t: are o# ha!! %ith it> 8o#ld o# have done it again> A. I $an;t think o" an thing more re%arding to do as a $areer than Pro'e$t .#tenberg. It is something that %ill rea$h more !eo!le than an other !ro'e$t in all o" histor . It is as !o%er"#l as The 1omb, b#t ever one $an bene"it "rom it. And it doesn;t make a de$ent %ea!on. It doesn;t $ost an one an thing and it is the ver "irst, tho#gh obvio#sl !rimitive, eEam!le o" The Neo6Ind#strial (evol#tion, %hen ever one $an have ever thing 6 tho#gh the are s#re to !ass a la% against it. I said this in 9DN9, in the ver "irst %eek o" P., that b the end o" m li"etime o# %o#ld be able to $arr ever %ord in the &ibrar o" ,ongress in one hand 6 b#t the %ill !ass a la% against it. I reali<ed the %o#ld never let #s have that m#$h a$$ess to so m#$h in"ormation. I never heard that the !assed the $o! right eEtension H ears later. It %as !rett m#$h a se$ret, '#st as is the $#rrent one, #nless the S#!reme ,o#rt strikes it do%n. Onl then %ill it make the ne%s. ,ongress !assed that $o! right la% together %ith im!ea$hment !ro$eedings o" President ,linton, '#st to make s#re it never made the ne%s. As "ar as the $ost, the ha!!iness, the "r#stration 6 I am a nat#ral born %orkaholi$ and idealist, so I over$ome the te$hni$al "r#strations. It;s the so$ial "r#strations that are the hardest to deal %ith, the !eo!le %ho %ant !ermanent $o! right, even tho#gh the eEtensions are alread bringing abo#t BThe &anded .entr o" the In"ormation Age.B I. An tho#ght abo#t the "#t#re> Pre$edents set b the Sonn 1ono ,o! right &a% $o#ld %ell have an enormo#s #n!redi$ted e""e$t on $om!#ter a!!li$ations o" the "#t#re. One s#$h a!!li$ation is the B!rintingB o" solid three dimensional ob'e$ts, o"ten re"erred to as (a!id Protot !ing, or (P. These !rinters have been %ith #s sin$e the 9DM:;s and no% are in a !ri$e range o" the H megab te hard drives on the "irst $om!#ter to ho#se Pro'e$t .#tenberg in 9DN9. I" o# $o#nt the in"lation "a$tor, the obvio#sl are m#$h more a""ordable. In addition to $ost red#$tions, these 36D !rinters no% $an !rint on a variet o" materials. The list o" !rintable s#bstan$es sho#ld eE!and over the ears #ntil %e $an event#all !rint o#t a$t#al %orking items, rather than the models %e !rint o#t toda . .iven that ver ineE!ensive !rinters toda $an !rint in millions o" $olors, and that $olor

$om!#ter !rinters %ere !rett m#$h non6eEistent 3: ears ago, %e sho#ld at least $onsider the !ossibilit that !rinters 3: ears "rom no% might be able to B!rintB on an eEtremel %ide variet o" materials, and that someda %e %ill be able to B!rint o#tB a $ar and drive it a%a . This $o! right la% $overs DH ears. &et;s look ba$k to DH ears and see the B$o! rightB to %hat things %e ma %ant to !rint o#t %o#ld have '#st no% eE!ired: 9. The 8right61rothers; air!lane and bl#e!rints. G. A do<en brands o" earl a#tomobiles. 3. Ever thing Edison invented #ntil he %as nearl O:. Obvio#sl there are man more. The !oint here is that #nder $#rrent intelle$t#al !ro!ert la%, it %o#ld be di""i$#lt to !rint o#t an thing invented toda that rea$hed the market in t%o ears 6 #ntil G9::, a time %hen these items %o#ld no longer have an #se. 8hen the Star Trek (e!li$ators be$ome a realit , %ill it be illegal to a$t#all #se them> 8ill all "ood items be .eneti$all 3ani!#lated Organisms so that it %ill be im!ossible to "ind nat#ral "oods that $o#ld be $o!ied> 8hen I gre% #! in 8ashington state, there %ere !lent o" %ild bla$kberries, ras!berries, a!!le trees, !ear trees, !l#m trees, gra!es. I never even $onsidered b# ing an o" these at a store. 1#t toda there has been a serio#s e""ort to dis$o#rage "ree "ood s#!!lies, and not onl in 8ashington, b#t also in most other states. &ast night at dinner, one o" o#r vol#nteers remarked that he eE!e$ted that b the end o" his li"etime he might be eating a dinner o" re!li$ated "ood. I !ointed o#t that b that time 6 Bthe B %o#ld make it ver di""i$#lt to "ind an kind o" "ood not !rote$ted against re!li$ation b intelle$t#al !ro!ert la%s and that T7AT %as one o" the ma'or reasons "or eEtending $o! right, so that 87EN it %o#ld be !ossible "or ever one to be %ell6read Q %ell6"ed, the %ill have made it illegal to do so. The trend is that ever thing sho#ld $ost something. In some !la$es there are even ma$hines that dis!ense a breath o" "resh air. . ."or a !ri$e. Do %e reall %ant to $reate a $ivili<ation in %hi$h ever thing has a !ri$e. . .%hen there are ma$hines that $o#ld $o! an thing>

The *$0ooks *vangelist Intervie; ;ith @lenn Sanders 0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D(
Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/

@. 8h ele$troni$ !#blishing> ). I %as "irst introd#$ed to ele$troni$ !#blishing on the Internet in the late 9DM:s and be$ame intrig#ed b the !o%er o" this revol#tionar develo!ment. Then, %hen 3osai$ released the "irst 8eb bro%ser in 9DDG, the Internet "inall had a vis#al as!e$t. S#ddenl , the vast Internet %as trans"ormed "rom a diml lit %areho#se "or data storage and eE$hange, to a visible librar and galler "or in"ormation. I %as hooked. In 9DDC, %hile tea$hing at a #niversit in -a!an, I $reated %hat %as !robabl one o" the "irst 4i" not the "irst5 !a!erless reading $lasses. I ta#ght m sel" 7T3& and b#ilt GO 8eb6based reading lessons "or the B$om!arative $#lt#resB $o#rse I ta#ght there. The reading material in ea$h lesson linked to related %ebsites and in"ormation. Instr#$tions %ere in$l#ded "or the eEer$ises, %hi$h #s#all in$l#ded "inding in"ormation or doing resear$h some%here on the 8eb. St#dents emailed their res#lts to me, and I emailed "eedba$k and grades to them. St#dents %ere not reK#ired to $ome to $lass, b#t %ere reK#ired to t#rn in their B$lass %orkB res#lts to me b 2rida evening. Sin$e then, I have $reated n#mero#s 8eb sites, !#blished a n#mber o" ele$troni$ Q !rint books, and h#ndreds o" arti$les. In the late 9DD:;s I sa% the $on"l#en$e o" three "a$tors that "oretold the ele$troni$ !#blishing and e6book revol#tion. The "irst %as the imminent #biK#it o" the Internet. NeEt, %as the gro%ing need "or mobile a$$ess to in"ormation, and the availabilit o" so m#$h data in the digital domain. 2inall , I $o#ld see the da %hen te$hnolog %o#ld $at$h #! %ith m vision o" a !ortable in"ormation tablet. As o" s#mmer G::G, I am still %aiting, b#t te$hnologi$al develo!ments are ra!idl nearing the time, !robabl some%here aro#nd G::H, %hen a""ordable, !ortable, readable, %ireless reading devi$es %ill rea$h the mass markets. The $om!an %here I %ork, (olltroni$s ,or!oration, is develo!ing thin, "leEible ele$troni$s te$hnolog that %ill enable man o" these devi$es in the "#t#re. 8hile living in -a!an and %orking at 2#'its#, In$., I "o#nded e1ookNet and began to ing %ith the design o" a neEt6generation in"ormation dis!la devi$e. In 9DDM, I "o#nded e1ookNet.$om, %hi$h be$ame a reno%ned 8eb site that !rovided ne%s and $omm#nit servi$es "or the e6book and e6!#blishing ind#str "or several ears. In 9DDD, N#vo3edia 4the $om!an that !ioneered the $#rrent generation o" ele$troni$ reading devi$es %ith its B(o$ket e1ookB in 9DDM5 a$K#ired e1ookNet and hired me. N#vo3edia s#!!orted e1ookNet #ntil A!ril G::9. A "e% months later, %ith the s#!!ort o" the (olltroni$s 2o#ndation, 8ade (o#sh 4"ormer managing editor o" e1ookNet5 and I "o#nded the Ele$troni$ P#blishing (eso#r$e ,enter 4EP(,5, an ind#str 6s!onsored, non6!ro"it organi<ation, and la#n$hed e1ook8eb.org on the

Cth o" -#l G::9. I see m sel" as an e6book evangelist, seeking to in"orm and ed#$ate the %orld abo#t ele$troni$ !#blishing. 3 vision is o" a %orld %here in"ormation, entertainment, and books are readil available to !ro"essionals, resear$hers, st#dents, and readers ever %here. So, even tho#gh I %ork "#ll time "or (olltroni$s doing b#siness develo!ment, I $ontin#e m dail e""orts to hel! b#ild the e61ook ind#str thro#gh e1ook8eb.org. The 8ebsite no% leads in !roviding ne%s, in"ormation, reso#r$es, and $omm#nit servi$es to the e6media ind#stries. @. This has been a bad ear "or e6!#blishing. &eading brands vanished, ind#str leaders retreated, te$hnolog g#r#s bemoaned et another missed !rognosis 6 that e6books %ill dethrone !rint books. 8hat %ent %rong> ). Ever sin$e I "irst reali<ed the need "or !ortable in"ormation devi$es, m belie" in the "#t#re o" e6books has never been shaken. Des!ite the "a$t that e6book realit re!la$ed h !e in G:::, and G::9 bro#ght a tem!orar $ $li$al e$onomi$ do%nt#rn, I "irml believe and kno% that e6 books and e6!#blishing, or more generall !ortable in"ormation devi$es, %ill !la a !rimar role in the %a that !eo!le %rite, $reate, design, read, learn, a$$ess ne%s and in"ormation, $omm#ni$ate, intera$t, travel, en'o art and entertainment, and eE!erien$e their %orld. It is '#st taking longer to get there than man had ho!ed aro#nd the t#rn o" the $ent#r . There are still several "a$tors that need to $ome together to make e6books a realit . The hard%are is still not there. 8e need a""ordable, light, thin, readable dis!la s %ith batter li"e meas#red in da s or %eeks, not ho#rs. To be tr#l #se"#l and !ortable, the devi$es need to be %ireless and !erha!s %ith a ba$k#! $ell#lar $onne$tion "or remote lo$ales. NeEt, there needs to be m#$h more $ontent available "or distrib#tion to these devi$es. Se$#re b#t a$$essible in"rastr#$t#re and standards need to be in !la$e "or mass6market a!!eal. Then, ado!tion b libraries and ed#$ational instit#tions %ill s!read the #se o" e6books at the grassroots level. @. I#estions o" devi$e $om!atibilit and standards have !lag#ed the ind#str "rom its in$e!tion. 8ill %e end #! %ith an oligo!ol o" G63 "ormats and G63 $orres!onding readers, or do o# have a di""erent take on the ind#str ;s "#t#re> ). 8e ma be destined to have several "ormats and !lat"orms, ea$h o" %hi$h is #sed "or $ertain a!!li$ations and t !es o" $ontent. The reason is that there are basi$all "o#r ma'or !la ers, ea$h %ith their o%n !lan to dominate the e6P#blishing market. Des!ite the "a$t that, in m o!inion, Adobe;s PD2 is la$king as an e61ook "ormat, there are h#ndreds o" millions o" do$#ments in PD2 in !#blishing $om!anies, governments, $or!orations, and s$hools. These %ill not be re!la$ed instantl , even i" a #ni"ied "ormat %ere agreed #!on. Then there is 3i$roso"t, the M::6!o#nd gorilla, %ho is slo%l and silentl insin#ating their reading !lat"orm into their so"t%are and 8indo%s o!erating s stem. The intero!erabilit o" 3S (eader so"t%are %ith 3S O""i$e !rod#$ts %ill make it !ossible "or man millions o" do$#ments to be $onverted to 3S (eader "ormat. O" $o#rse, there %ill need to be a !ortable devi$e to dis!la all those e6do$#ments. Des!ite the "a$t that man Po$ket P,s have been sold, the don;t seem to be a ma'or "a$tor in e6 $ontent sales. No% the timing o" 3i$roso"t;s big !#sh "or the 3S tablet P, begins to make more sense.

The .emstar "ormat has an established base o" $#stomers and a$t#al dedi$ated devi$es, the (o$ket e1ook and (E199:: and (E19G::s. .emstar;s "ormat a$t#all has a lot o" !o!#lar $ontent going "or it, and their dis!la s are m#$h better than the average $om!#ter dis!la . There"ore the are more s#itable "or !ortable reading. And not s#r!risingl , the largest sales o" ele$troni$ $ontent are going to the Palm Pilot $om!atible devi$es. The established base o" man millions o" BPalm OSB $#stomers has been b# ing h#ndreds o" tho#sands o" e6books ea$h ear, and the e6$ontent sales are gro%ing steadil . 7o% to #ni" these "o#r goliaths> The O!en e1ook 2or#m;s standard is good "or the "ormatting o" the original do$#ment. 3i$roso"t and .emstar adhere to the Oe12 standard. 1#t ea$h $om!an has its o%n %a o" $onverting and dis!la ing the Oe12 "ormat in its devi$e or so"t%are. So %hat is the ans%er> The onl %a to re$ti" all o" these heav %eight sol#tions is to $reate a #ni"ied standard "or dis!la ing ele$troni$ $ontent that is the same a$ross all !lat"orms. Is this !ossible> That is a K#estion better ans%ered b the eE!erts at the Oe12... @. Some anal sts blame the re$ent bloodbath on a dearth o" good $ontent and %rong !ri$ing. The derisivel eK#ate e6!#blishing %ith vanit !#blishing. Do o# "ind these $riti$isms $orre$t> ). The amo#nt o" $ontent is gro%ing slo%l b#t steadil . There are t%o ma'or !roblems that $ontrib#te to the relative dearth o" titles be$oming available. One is that eEtra negotiations and agreements are ne$essar to !#blish e6books, or to !ri$e them di""erentl "rom B!6 books.B Another is that sin$e the market still isn;t there, man !#blishers do not have the reso#r$es, or haven;t b#dgeted eno#gh mone to aggressivel $onvert $ontent. And man veteran !#blishers still !rod#$e the "inal version o" a book in a "ormat that is not eas to $onvert "or ele$troni$ !#bli$ation. As "ar as vanit !#blishing goes, that is not de"ined b the medi#m. O" $o#rse ele$troni$ !#blishing makes it easier to distrib#te Bvanit 6!#blishedB %orks. And it is easier to be$ome sel"6!#blished. And there are a "e% vanit !#blishers o#t there, b#t the #s#all don;t last long. Still, most !#blishers and ele$troni$ !#blishers strive to !rod#$e to! K#alit titles. The kno% that this is the onl long6term viable b#siness model. The s$reen and edit the titles that the !#blish. The a$tivel !romote their a#thors; %orks. In this sense, a !#blisher;s name brand %ill be$ome m#$h more im!ortant to $#stomers than is !resentl the $ase. @. Traditional !rint !#blishers treat e6books 4the $ontent, not the devi$es5 as ele$troni$ "a$similes o" the !rint editions. ,an e6books o""er a di""erent reading eE!erien$e> In %hat %a are the di""erent to !rint books>

). E6books that are nothing more than ele$troni$ $o!ies o" the !rint version o""er onl !ortabilit and a$$ess as advantages. O" $o#rse e6books $an be sear$hed and annotated. The vision im!aired $an read %ith large "onts. St#dents $an look #! %ords in a b#ilt6in di$tionar . 1#t, similar to !o!#lar movie DVDs that in$l#de man eEtras, e6books sho#ld reall take advantage o" the "leEibilit and $a!a$it o" the ele$troni$ medi#m. P#blishers $o#ld in$l#de the a#thor;s notes, ro#gh sket$hes, ba$kgro#nd, a#dio or video "rom the a#thor or the s$ene o" the books. (e"eren$e %orks sho#ld be ele$troni$all #!dateable via the Internet. 1ook $l#b members might be able to send ea$h other their annotations and $omments. (eaders might send "eedba$k to the a#thor and+or !#blisher. 2ans might %rite and distrib#te alternate endings, or add $hara$ters or s$enes. @. E6!#blishing is at the neE#s o" sea $hanges in $o! right la%s. Does e6!#blishing en$o#rage !ira$ > 7ave !#blishers gone overboard in an e""ort to !reserve their intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights> Do o# "oresee ne% models o" reven#es and ro alties and a novel de"inition o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert > ). E6!#blishing does not en$o#rage !ira$ , b#t being in ele$troni$ "ormat, it $ertainl be$omes s#s$e!tible to the same kind o" !ira$ that all other kinds o" e6$ontent eE!erien$e. A n#mber o" models, or rather eE!eriments, are being tried %ith res!e$t to the level o" $ontrol o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert and the asso$iated "inan$ial model. So "ar, there has not been a $lear ans%er as to %hi$h eE!eriment ields the best res#lts. One "a$tor is that the market is still in its in"an$ and there"ore is in a state o" "l#E. The $ontin##m r#ns "rom stri$t and limited $ontrol o""ered b digital rights management s stems, to "ree e6$ontent 4ho!e"#ll 5 s#!!orted b either stim#lating sales o" !rint books, or advertisements. In the middle are !#blishers %ho !rovide limited se$#rit , or those %ho #se no se$#rit and de!end on the basi$ honest o" most !eo!le. As the market gro%s, %e %ill dis$over %hi$h models %ork best in %hi$h sit#ations "or %hi$h t !es o" $ontent. @. E6books %ere s#!!osed to bring abo#t disintermediation and "oster a dire$t dialog bet%een a#thor and readershi!. 7ave the s#$$eeded> 8hat is the "#t#re o" $ontent brokers, s#$h as !#blishers and re$ord $om!anies> ). Fes, there is an enhan$ed dialog bet%een a#thor and a#dien$e. On e1ook8eb.org, %e !rovide s!a$e "or a#thors to have a !ersonal !age. These are some o" the most !o!#lar !ages on the site. On other 8ebsites and thro#gh the !#bli$ations themselves, a#thors are $oming in $loser digital $onta$t %ith their readers thro#gh email or other "orms o" dialog. 2or lo% vol#mes o" messages, this is a good thing. 1#t to!6selling %riters $o#ld not handle email "rom tho#sands o" dedi$ated "ans. Even in an ele$troni$ %orld, it is still tr#e that as one be$omes more !o!#lar, one has to be$ome less and less a$$essible in order to $onserve one;s time.

Fes, it is also m#$h easier to be$ome sel"6!#blished ele$troni$all . 7o%ever, there is #s#all a h#ge di""eren$e bet%een sim!l being !#blished, and a$t#all rea$hing a large a#dien$e and rea!ing signi"i$ant sales o" o#r title. The 8eb $ontin#es to gro% eE!onentiall , b#t o#r time and attention s!an remain limited. These t%o o!!osing d nami$s mean that %e are "or$ed to narro% o#r attention to a relativel "e% reliable $ontent !roviders, re!resenting an ever smaller !ro!ortion o" the total $ontent available. 7o% $an an a#thor be heard above the noise> .et a !#blisher %ho %ill !romote o#r %ork. 1#t be"ore that, get an editor or !#blisher %ho %ill hel! o# !olish o#r %ork #ntil it shines brightl eno#gh to gain !o!#larit on$e it se$#res the attention o" o#r a#dien$e. The d nami$s and demands o" the "ree market, and the reasons "or having !#blishing $om!anies do not disa!!ear on the Internet. In "a$t, the ma be$ome more im!ortant as the amo#nt o" $ontent and $hoi$es $ontin#es to gro%. One im!ortant $hange that I do "oresee is that small, inde!endent ni$he !#blishers %ill make a res#rgen$e d#e to the ele$troni$ medi#m. This is de"initel a good thing "or readers. Inde!endent !#blishers %ho b#ild a re!#tation "or #niK#e, K#alit $ontent, %ill develo! a "ollo%ing o" "aith"#l $#stomers over time. @. Some marketing !#ndits believe in viral or b#<< marketing. The advo$ate giving a%a "ree $ontent to generate Bb#<<B. The believe that sales %ill "ollo%. Do o# s#bs$ribe to this vie%> ). This relates to the K#estion o" $o! right la%s and %hi$h model is best "or a !arti$#lar sit#ation. It also has to do %ith !revio#s models on the 8eb. I" the goal is to gain an a#dien$e and "ame, then giving it a%a to ho!e"#ll millions o" !eo!le is a good idea. The !o!#lar d nami$ o" the Internet is to b#ild a massive a#dien$e b giving a%a something o" val#e. Then, one slo%l begins to $harge "or some $ontent or servi$e, %hile still !roviding something "or "ree, to $ontin#e to attra$t a large "ollo%ing. The res#lts o" the late 9DD:s indi$ate a miEed s#$$ess, !robabl d#e in !art to the origins o" the Internet, %here ever thing %as "ree. The eE!e$tation %as that i" it %as on the Net, it %as "ree. The beginnings o" $ommer$ialism on the Net in the earl 9DD:;s %ere met %ith vehement resistan$e "rom the Bold timersB %ho strongl o!!osed the $ommer$iali<ation o" their beloved net%ork. O" $o#rse, a n#mber o" $om!anies s#$h as e1a , Ama<on, and Fahoo, attra$ted and ke!t a large a#dien$e. 1#t onl a "e% are tr#l !ro"itable toda . I" the goal is to make maEim#m !ro"it "rom ea$h #nit o" $ontent that is do%nloaded, then one m#st $harge mone , or sell advertisements. 0n"ort#natel , the reven#es "rom advertising on the Net have "allen dramati$all in the last "e% ears. So i" o# !#t a !ri$e tag on o#r $ontent, ho% m#$h sho#ld o# $harge> 3ost inde!endent ele$troni$ !#blishers $harge a "e% dollars "or their titles, an %here "rom R9 ea$h to abo#t RH or RN !er e6book. These relativel lo% !ri$es re"le$t the desire to attra$t a large !ool o" $#stomers. The also re"le$t the belie" $ommon among readers that sin$e it is ele$troni$ and not !rint $ontent, the !ri$e sho#ld be lo%er. The "eel that %itho#t the $ost o" !rinting and trans!orting books, the !#blisher sho#ld set a lo%er !ri$e... @. As o# see it, is the Internet merel another $ontent distrib#tion $hannel or is there more to it then this> The h !e o" s nerg and $olla!sing barriers to entr has largel eva!orated

together %ith the "ort#nes o" the likes o" AO& Time 8arner. Is the Internet a revol#tion 6 or barel an evol#tion> ). In the beginning, the Internet %as a revol#tion. Email bro#ght the !eo!le o" o#r Earth $loser together. The Net enabled tele$omm#ting and no% as m#$h as 9:L o" the %orld %orks at home via $om!#ter and Internet. The Internet makes it !ossible "or artists to !#blish their o%n books, m#si$, videos and 8ebsites. Video $on"eren$ing has enabled $onversations %itho#t limitations o" s!a$e. The Internet has made vast amo#nts o" in"ormation available to st#dents and resear$hers at the $li$k o" the mo#se. The GC+N a$$ess and ease o" ordering !rod#$ts has stim#lated online $ommer$e and sales at retail stores. 1#t it is not a $#re6all. And, no% that the Net is !art o" o#r ever da lives, it is s#b'e$t to the same $ $les o" media h !e, as %ell as so$ial, emotional, and b#siness "a$tors. Things %ill never be the same, and the $hanges have '#st beg#n. The !resent generation has never kno%n a %orld %itho#t $om!#ters. 8hen the rea$h %orking age, the %ill be m#$h more in$lined to #se the Net "or a ma'orit o" their reading and entertainment needs. Then, e6books %ill tr#l take hold and be$ome #biK#ito#s. 1et%een no% and then, %e have %ork to do, b#ilding the "o#ndation o" this remarkable ind#str .

@erman+8s Co +right Lev+


0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D( Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
Also Read1 The ,uture o& *lectronic Publishing Revolt o& the Scholars The 4idna ing o& Content

Will Content *ver be Pro&itable? The Disintermediation o& Content The Internet and the Librar+ The ,uture o& the 0ook ,ree 7nline Scholarshi $ Intervie; ;ith Peter Suber
1ased on the re$ommendation o" its Patent O""i$e and "ollo%ing "ier$e lobb ing b V. 8ort, an asso$iation o" .erman $om!osers, a#thors and !#blishers, .erman is !oised to en"or$e a three ears old la% and im!ose a $o! right lev o" R93 !l#s 9O !er$ent in val#e added taE !er ne% $om!#ter sold in the $o#ntr . The mone %ill be #sed to reimb#rse $o! right holders 6 artists, !er"ormers, re$ording $om!anies, !#blishers and movie st#dios 6 "or #na#thori<ed $o! ing tho#ght to adversel %eigh on sales. This is the nonbinding o#t$ome o" a one ear mediation e""ort b the Patent O""i$e bet%een V. 8ort, 2#'its# Siemens ,om!#ters, .erman ;s largest $om!#ter man#"a$t#rer and other makers. V. 8ort initiall so#ght a lev o" R33 !er #nit sold. 1#t 2#'its# and the .erman Asso$iation "or In"ormation Te$hnolog , Tele$omm#ni$ations and Ne% 3edia 41itkom5 6 in$l#ding 3i$roso"t, I13, Al$atel, Nokia, Siemens and 93:: other member "irms 6 intend to $hallenge even the more modest "ee in $o#rt. The $laim that it %ill add $lose to RM: million to the $ost o" !#r$hasing $om!#ters %itho#t $on"erring real bene"its on the lev ;s intended bene"i$iaries. The re!eated similar assertions in a letter the have re$entl dis!at$hed to the E#ro!ean ,ommission. The !roblems o" !eer6to6!eer "ile sharing, "ile s%a!!ing, the $ra$king and ha$king o" so"t%are, m#si$ and, latel , even e6books 6 are serio#s. 1#ndesverband Phono, .erman ;s re$ording ind#str trade asso$iation, re!orted that m#si$ sales !l#nged "or the "i"th $onse$#tive ear 6 this time, b more than b 99 !er$ent. A$$ording to "ig#res o""ered b the, admittedl biased, gro#!, HH !er$ent o" the CMO million blank ,Ds sold in .erman last ear 6 $. GON million 6 %ere #sed "or illi$it !#r!oses. 2or

ever BlegalB m#si$ ,D sold 6 there are 9.N BillegalB ones. E""orts b the ind#stries e""e$ted are #nder%a to eEtend the lev to $om!#ter !eri!herals and, %here not et im!lemented, !hoto$o! ing ma$hines. Similar $harges are a!!lied toda b man E#ro!ean $o#ntries to other t !es o" eK#i!ment: ta!e re$orders, !hoto$o!iers, video6 $assettes and s$anners, "or instan$e. 1lank magneti$ and o!ti$al media, es!e$iall re$ordable ,Ds, are 6 or %ere 6 taEed in more than C: $o#ntries, in$l#ding ,anada and the 0nited States. Nor is .erman alone in this attem!t to ameliorate the !erni$io#s e""e$ts o" !ira$ b taEing the hard%are #sed to a""e$t it. The E#ro!ean 0nion;s Dire$tive on the 7armonisation o" ,ertain As!e$ts o" ,o! right and (elated (ights in the In"ormation So$iet , !assed in G::9, is stren#o#s, tho#gh not !res$ri!tive. It demands that member states ens#re B"air $om!ensationB to $o! right holders "or $o!ies made b means o" digital eK#i!ment 6 b#t "ails to s!e$i" or !ros$ribe ho%. It has been in$or!orated into lo$al la% onl b .ree$e and Denmark hitherto. In A#stria, &iterar63e$hana, the $o! right "ees $olle$tion agen$ , negotiated %ith hard%are man#"a$t#rers and im!orters the introd#$tion o" a lev on !ersonal $om!#ters and !rinters. The S%iss are !#shing thro#gh an amendment to the $o! right la% to $olle$t a lev on P,s sold %ithin their territor . The 1elgian, 2innish, S!anish and 2ren$h a#thorities are still debating the iss#e. So do &#Eemb#rg and Nor%a . A$$ording to 8ired, the ,anadian Private ,o! ing ,olle$tive, the m#si$ ind#str trade gro#!, has !ro!osed Bne% levies to be a!!lied to an devi$e that $an store m#si$, s#$h as removable hard drives, re$ordable DVDs, ,om!a$t 2lash memor $ards and 3P3 !la ers.B Pre$edent is hardl en$o#raging. The a"orementioned ,anadian ,olle$tive has et to distrib#te to its members even one taE dollar o" the tens o" millions it ineE!li$abl hoards. In .ree$e, a G !er$ent lev on all manner o" $om!#ter eK#i!ment !rovoked a hail o" legal $hallenges, still to be sorted o#t in the $o#rts. The amo#nts $olle$ted hardl $over the government;s legal eE!enses hitherto. The 0nited /ingdom, Ireland, S%eden and Denmark are against the lev , $laiming, $orre$tl , that hard%are is #sed "or !#r!oses other than !il"ering intelle$t#al !ro!ert digitall . The Italians, Port#g#ese and D#t$h haven;t even $onsidered the o!tion.

7ard%are man#"a$t#rers are livid. In a b# ers; market, their ra<or6thin !ro"it margins on the $ommoditi<ed goods the are !eddling are bo#nd to be erased b a $o! right lev . The E#ro!ean In"ormation and ,omm#ni$ations Trade Asso$iation 4EI,TA5 im!la#sibl threatens to !ass on s#$h eEtra $osts to $ons#mers and re$ommends to sti$k to te$hnologi$al means o" !revention, $olle$tivel kno%n as Digital (ights 3anagement 4D(35 s stems, or to novel ,D $o! !rote$tion meas#res. 3oreover, the "#<< nat#re o" the s#r$harge leaves a lot to be desired. Peter S#ber, a !rominent advo$ate o" "ree online s$holarshi!, anal <ed the vario#s !ost6lev s$enarios in his 2OS blog: B8hat I $an;t tell is %hether the $o! right lev on hard%are %ill $ome %ith #niversal !ermission to $o! . I" so, that;s a big gain "or a small $ost ... I" the lev does not im!l !ermission to $o! , then %hi$h $o! ing does it $over> I" it $overs $o! ing %itho#t !rior !ermission, then #sers %ill sim!l sto! asking "or !ermission, and $onvert all $o! ing to !re6 !aid $o! ing. I" it $overs $o! ing %itho#t !re6!a ment, then that begs the K#estion: %hat does the lev !re6!a > 4It;s not $lear5 ho% the !lan %o#ld $ontin#e to disting#ish a#thori<ed "rom #na#thori<ed $o! ing.B Fet, at this stage, it is di""i$#lt to see ho% to avoid the kind o" ro#gh '#sti$e meted o#t b .erman . Even the most advan$ed D(3 s stems la$k a reliable model o" rem#nerating $o! right holders. 7en$e the $ons!i$#o#s absen$e o" D(3 in the E0;s ,o! right Dire$tive. S#ber raises some !ra$ti$al $on$erns, tho#gh he broadl s#!!orts a $o! right lev on hard%are: BTo make the s stem "air, %e %o#ld need reasonabl a$$#rate meas#rements o" the amo#nt o" $o! ing. Other%ise %e %o#ldn;t kno% %hether to b#m! #! the !ri$e o" a $om!#ter R3H or R3H: or %hether to give Elsevier 9L or 9:L. Do%nload $o#nters %o#ldn;t $at$h the !eer6to6 !eer tra""i$. So %o#ld o# !#t #! %ith !a$ket sni""ers or other eavesdro!!ing te$hnologies to take random sam!les o" the $o! tra""i$, as long as o#r identit %as not re$orded>B Even %hat $onstit#tes $o! righted %ork is not entirel $lear. The E#ro!ean ,o#rt o" -#sti$e heard arg#ments last %eek in a $ase !itting t%o Ameri$an $om!anies, I3S 7ealth and ND,7ealth, against ea$h other. I3S 7ealth vends aggregated .erman data !ertaining to the sales o" !harma$e#ti$als. ND,7ealth tried to em#late an organi<ational element o" the I3S 7ealth database. The ,o#rt is "a$ed %ith seemingl intra$table K#estions: ,an I3S 7ealth be $om!elled to li$ense its database to a !otential $om!etitor> Is the str#$t#re o" the database 6 the %a .erman is divided to 9MO: re!orting <ones 6 !rote$ted in an %a > In essen$e, $o! right is a tem!orar mono!ol on $reative %ork granted to the a#thors, !#blishers and distrib#tors o" s#$h !rod#$ts. It is intended to $om!ensate them "or their e""orts and to en$o#rage them to $ontin#e to originate in "#t#re. Fet, the disintermediation bro#ght on b digital te$hnologies threatens to link a#thor and !#bli$ dire$tl , $#tting o#t traditional $ontent brokers s#$h as re$ord $om!anies or !#blishers. This is the $r#E o" the battle ro al. The middlemen are attem!ting 6 in vain 6 to s#stain their d ing and in$reasingl !arasiti$ ind#stries and re"#sing to ada!t and re6invent themselves. Ever one else %at$hes in ama<ement and disma the $onseK#en$es o" this grand "oll : innovation is th%arted, $ons#mers !enali<ed, a$$ess to %orks o" art, literat#re and resear$h $onstrained.

The ,uture o& 7nline Re&erence


0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D( Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/ Also Read1 The ,uture o& *lectronic Publishing Revolt o& the Scholars The Idea o& Re&erence Will Content *ver be Pro&itable? The Disintermediation o& Content The Internet and the Librar+ The ,uture o& the 0ook ,ree 7nline Scholarshi $ Intervie; ;ith Peter Suber
November A! "##> These are momento#s times in the digital $ontent ind#str . 8ithin the !ast O: da s, 1arnes and Noble %ithdre% "rom the e6books b#siness, !eddling its ele$troni$ !#blishing ho#se to i0niverse and terminating the sale o" digital titles "rom its barnesandnoble.$om 8eb site. It then !ro$eeded to take !rivate its !#bli$l listed online arm. To the $onsternation o" man a#thors, Ama<on, its $hie" Internet $om!etitor, introd#$ed a Bsear$h inside the bookB "eat#re %ith an initial database o" 9G:,::: titles. It %as !re$eded b e1ooks.$om;s less $om!rehensive b#t other%ise similar sear$h engine. Pro'e$t .#tenberg 6 the !ioneering and largest de!ositor o" "ree, mostl B!lain6vanillaB 4teEt onl 5 e6books 6 added the 9:,:::6th title to its #ns#r!assed $olle$tion. In the meantime, e6 book aggregators, s#$h as bla$kmask.$om, no% !ro""er tens o" tho#sands o" "ree titles "or do%nload in #! to M "ile "ormats. Even 3i$roso"t has s!ent the last "e% months o""ering a "ree %eekl sele$tion o" 3 $ommer$ial titles ea$h, eE$l#sivel readable on its 3S6(eader a!!li$ation. 1#""eted b these %inds o" e6$ommer$e, vendors o" online re"eren$e 6 teEtbooks, di$tionaries, and en$ $lo!edias 6 are e eing the market %aril and %earil . Patri$k S!ain is ,hairman and ,EO o" Ala$rit#de, !#blisher o" e&ibrar and En$ $lo!edia.$om. e&ibrar is a digital ar$hive o" more than 93 million do$#ments $#lled "rom over G::: !#bli$ations. It in$l#des ne%s%ires, ne%s!a!ers, maga<ines, 'o#rnals, trans$ri!ts, !hotogra!hs, ma!s and books 6 ma'or %orks o" literat#re, art, and re"eren$e. Tro 8illiams "o#nded I#estia in 9DDM and has served as its President Q ,EO ever sin$e.

I#estia is a massive online librar o" over C::,::: books, 'o#rnals, and arti$les organi<ed into more than C::: resear$h to!i$s. It $aters mainl to st#dents and o""ers $ool "eat#res s#$h as online annotation, !age !rinting "or "ree, and bibliogra!h generator. Tom Panelas is the Dire$tor o" ,or!orate ,omm#ni$ations o" the En$ $lo!aedia 1ritanni$a 6 the (olls (o $e o" re"eren$e %orks. It has been available online "or a "e% ears no% 6 the 3G vol#mes, an intera$tive atlas, a st#dent;s version, a links dire$tor , and a to!i$al $om!ilation o" tho#sands o" maga<ine arti$les and m#ltimedia. The 1ritanni$a has alternated bet%een reven#e models: s#bs$ri!tions onl , then "ree a$$ess %ith advertising, and ba$k to s#bs$ri!tions. ,irst I asked these ivotal industr+ la+ers ho; the+ sa; the &uture o& aid access to online re&erence ;orks! teBtbooks! and scholarl+ material? S ain1 Online re"eren$e is being $ons#meri<ed or B8al63arted.B That %hi$h #sed to be delivered to a limited a#dien$e o" tho#sands 4librarians and large $om!anies5 is no% available to a h#ge a#dien$e in the tens, ma be h#ndreds, o" millions. This a""e$ts !ri$es, b#siness models, and the ver str#$t#re o" the ind#str . 3an generi$ re"eren$e materials 4en$ $lo!edias, di$tionaries, thesa#ri, et$.5 are available "or "ree and %ill remain so "or the inde"inite "#t#re. The serve either to market !rint and other ele$troni$ !rod#$ts or the generate advertising. .ood models do both. Some ver s!e$iali<ed titles %ith limited a#dien$es ma $ontin#e to be able to $harge. 1#t most $annot. This means that !eo!le %on;t !a or %on;t !a m#$h "or B$ontentB 6 b#t the %ill !a small amo#nts "or servi$es that hel! them "ind, organi<e and !#blish ans%ers to their K#estions es!e$iall %hen those relate to %ealth 4"inan$e and $areer5, health, and $ertain t !es o" entertainment. Panelas1 8e;ve seen in the !ast three ears a rea$tion to the meme o" the middle6 and late6 9DD:s, that all in"ormation on the Internet has to be "ree and that !eo!le %on;t !a "or it. 2or a "e% ears it held some%hat tr#e, b#t as the Internet !o!#lation be$ame more eE!erien$ed, their interests and !re"eren$es inevitabl $hanged. Peo!le %ho %ere #sing "ree in"ormation on the 8eb event#all be$ame "ed #!. 3an o" the sites the #sed disa!!eared be$a#se the had no sel"6s#staining e$onomi$ model. 3#$h o" the in"ormation online %as %orthless. It be$ame di""i$#lt to tell %hether in"ormation on the 8eb %as reliable.

As a res#lt %e;ve seen a gro%ing reali<ation among Internet #sers that not all t !es o" in"ormation are eK#al, that a#thoritative in"ormation is val#able, some%hat rare, $osts mone to $reate, and "or these reasons it;s %orth !a ing "or. 3an more !eo!le are %illing to !a "or high6K#alit in"ormation on the Internet than "o#r ears ago, es!e$iall sin$e the !ri$e o" online re"eren$e is at a nadir. 8e see online as the area that %ill gro% the "astest, as "ar as the vending o" re"eren$e goes. 3an !eo!le %ill s#bs$ribe thro#gh third6!art organi<ations s#$h as Internet servi$e !roviders %ith %hom %e have established relationshi!s. S#bs$ribers to S1, FahooJ DS& servi$e, "or eEam!le, $an $hoose a s#bs$ri!tion to 1ritanni$a.$om along %ith their servi$e. In the "#t#re, !#blishers %ill !robabl !rovide one kind o" servi$e to s#$h third6!art distrib#tors and $reate others, %ith better, !remi#m o""erings, "or $#stomers %ho !a them dire$tl , sin$e there;s more reven#e in s#$h s#bs$ri!tions. In$reasingl , in"ormation 8eb sites %ill BaggregateB $ontent 6 that is, in$or!orate so#r$es that go %ell together b#t $o#ld not be integrated be"ore the Internet. 1ritanni$a.$om, "or eEam!le, in$l#des three en$ $lo!edias, maga<ines and 'o#rnals, a g#ide to the best 8eb sites on vario#s s#b'e$ts, and other in"ormation. Th#s so#r$es that %ere !revio#sl s!read thro#gho#t the librar sta$ks, reK#iring the %earing o#t o" m#$h shoe leather to bring them together, no% $ome to rest in one !la$e, on the s$reen o" o#r $om!#ter. This trend %ill no do#bt $ontin#e. Williams1 Online re"eren$e reso#r$es, i.e., e&ibraries, %ill be$ome an indis!ensable !art o" ed#$ation over the neEt G: ears. There are a n#mber o" dis$ernible trends: "irst, ele$troni$ a$$ess %ill be the !rimar method o" a$$essing s$holarl in"ormation %ithin a de$ade or t%o. It removes the need to be near a !h si$al $o! o" the title one needs to a$$ess, it resolves m#lti!le6#ser iss#es, and greatl in$reases the abilit o" a resear$her to "ind %hat he or she is looking "or. Se$ond, online a$$ess to s$holarl in"ormation is an integral !art o" the trend to%ards online and distan$e ed#$ation. The #ndergrad#ate !o!#lation is diversi" ing and no% in$l#des st#dents enrolled in distan$e learning !rograms, r#ral st#dents %itho#t !h si$al a$$ess to an adeK#ate librar , and older, $omm#nit $ollege st#dents %ho %ork or have "amil obligations that !revent them "rom s!ending time in their $am!#s librar . Third, the Internet has engendered a !o%er"#l trend to%ard !ersonali<ation. Elibraries s#$h as I#estia enables its #sers to !ersonali<e their librar . Notes and highlights in vario#s $olors in ea$h book and arti$le $an be saved "or "#t#re re"eren$e. Do$#ments, Uvirt#al bookshelvesV and even !revio#s term !a!ers and bibliogra!hies $an be saved online and organi<ed in vario#s "olders. 2o#rth, !eo!le in$reasingl eE!e$t $om!lete mobilit . E&ibraries s#$h as I#estia enables resear$hers to a$$ess their !ersonali<ed $o!ies o" books and 'o#rnals as %ell as old term !a!ers and $#rrent %ork6in6!rogress "rom an %here.

C1 Who are Alacritude8s main com etitors? S ain1 Ala$rit#de $om!etes %ith .oogle on the lo% end and NeEis on the high end. .oogle is in the throes o" $reating a market!la$e and, onl in$identall , allo%s its #sers to "ind kno%ledge. NeEis !rovides ver s!e$iali<ed 4and eE!ensive5 in"ormation servi$es to enter!rises. Ala$rit#de;s e&ibrar hel!s o#r #sers to lo$ate !rett good ans%ers ineE!ensivel . 8e are di""erent in that %e are evolving o#r servi$e to tightl integrate tools and $ontent and to let o#r $#stomers sear$h an %here, even other servi$es, "rom a single eas 6to6#se online resear$h inter"a$e. C( Cuestia com etes ;ith the likes o& NetLibrar+ and Alacritude8s eLibrar+( What di&&erentiates it &rom its com etitors? Williams1 I#estia;s and net&ibrar ;s $olle$tions are ver di""erent. The I#estia $olle$tion %as develo!ed s!e$i"i$all "or #ndergrad#ate resear$h in the h#manities and so$ial s$ien$es. A sta"" o" a$ademi$ librarians determined %hi$h books are most im!ortant and #se"#l "or #ndergrad#ate $o#rse%ork in these "ields. Digital $o! rights %ere negotiated %ith the !#blishers or a#thor o" the titles. 3an !#blishers "eared e6books and digital $o!ies o" their titles %o#ld $annibali<e their hard $o! !rint sales. 3aking them #nderstand the bene"its o" !la$ing their titles in the I#estia online librar %as an ed#$ation !ro$ess. 7aving obtained the digital $o! rights %e digiti<ed the books sin$e most o" the $ontent %as #navailable in ele$troni$ "ormat. The res#ltant book $olle$tion $ontains the $om!lete teEt and original !agination o" more than CH,::: books "rom the 9Dth thro#gh the G9st $ent#ries. O#r goal is to b#ild a $olle$tion that in$l#des im!ortant %orks "rom all time !eriods and !rovides o#r #sers %ith a "#ll range o" reso#r$es '#st as an K#alit librar does. 8e %ant to b#ild a tr#e resear$h $olle$tion, not '#st a $om!ilation o" re$ent !#bli$ations. The entire I#estia $olle$tion has more than C::,::: titles ) in$l#ding 3O:,::: 'o#rnal, maga<ine, and ne%s!a!er arti$les. In $ontrast, the 3N,:::6title net&ibrar $olle$tion %as develo!ed b in$or!orating books that %ere alread available in ele$troni$ "ormats. As a res#lt, it la$ks man im!ortant retros!e$tive titles. Additionall , net&ibrar %as develo!ed %ith the vie% o" selling individ#al titles. ,onseK#entl , altho#gh it has titles in a broader range o" s#b'e$ts than I#estia, it %as not develo!ed as a U$olle$tion.V I#estia s!e$i"i$all eE$l#des titles in the nat#ral s$ien$es, te$hni$al and medi$al "ields. 8e have a strong "o$#s on U$olle$tion develo!mentV so that %e $an s#!!ort rigoro#s a$ademi$ resear$h in tho#sands o" so$ial s$ien$e and h#manities s!e$i"i$ to!i$ areas. A se$ond im!ortant !oint o" di""eren$e is the b#siness model. I#estia;s is dire$t to the $ons#mer. Individ#als !#r$hase s#bs$ri!tions. 8e do not sell instit#tional site li$enses to $olleges or #niversities. Net&ibrar sells to instit#tions. P#bli$, !rivate, and a$ademi$ libraries, or $onsortia thereo", b# s!e$i"i$ titles that it vends, similar to the %a the !#r$hase !rint $o!ies. Third, %ith I#estia, there is no limit on the n#mber o" sim#ltaneo#s #sers "or an given book or arti$le. No book is ever $he$ked o#t or #navailable to a s#bs$riber. 8ith Net&ibrar , the n#mber o" #sers is restri$ted to the n#mber o" ele$troni$ $o!ies o" a book !#r$hased b a librar . The advantage o" net&ibrar is that it signi"i$antl red#$es the $osts o" o%ning and maintaining books, i.e. the overhead asso$iated %ith shel"6s!a$e s#$h as lighting, the $osts o"

$he$king books in and o#t man#all , reshelving them, rebinding them, lost and mis!la$ed $o!ies, et$. &astl , the resear$h environment is ver di""erent. I#estia !rovides a set o" tools that enable a #ser to do better resear$h and organi<e their %ork 6 to highlight, 'ot do%n notes or bookmark a !age, look #! items in a di$tionar , en$ $lo!edia, and thesa#r#s, and $reate !ro!erl "ormatted $itations and bibliogra!hies in 3&A, APA, ASA, ,hi$ago, and T#rabian st les. All these $an be "iled in a #ser@s $#stomi<able !ersonal %orks!a$e, %hi$h is akin to an online "iling $abinet. 0sers $an $reate m#lti!le !ro'e$t "olders to organi<e their resear$h, UshelveV "reK#entl a$$essed books or arti$les, and re"er ba$k to their bookshel" at an time. Net&ibrar o""ers "o#r di$tionaries as a re"eren$e tool b#t does not !rovide the t !e o" $#stomi<able !ersonal resear$h environment that I#estia does. Ala$rit#de@s e&ibrar is a s#bs$ri!tion6based re"eren$e tool %ith ne%s!a!ers, maga<ines, books, and trans$ri!ts. Their $olle$tion is not a resear$h librar b#t rather a $om!ilation o" re$entl !#blished $ontent on a variet o" s#b'e$ts. e&ibrar $an be #sed as an in"ormational s#!!lement. It seems to me to be more "o$#sed at the '#nior high s$hool level or as an ineE!ensive alternative to &eEis. C1 The 0ritannica has three t+ es o& roducts $ rint! online and digital$o&&line .CD$ R75DD2D/( Do the+ augment each other $ or cannibali3e each other8s sales? Panelas1 In the !ast de$ade %e;ve seen h#ge in$reases in sales o" all ele$troni$ "ormats at the eE!ense o" !rint, %hi$h has de$lined. The !ro!ortions have stabili<ed, ho%ever, and most !eo!le are $hoosing their medi#m based on the %a the like to look "or in"ormation. Pri$es o" ele$troni$ en$ $lo!edias are lo%er than !rint, b#t the val#e !ro!osition o" !rint is di""erent, and !eo!le %ho $ontin#e to b# !rint do so be$a#se the like it. 3ean%hile the de$lining !ri$e o" re"eren$e in"ormation in general has !#t re"eren$e %orks in man more homes than be"ore. So toda rather than $annibali<ation, there;s an eE!ansion o" the overall market, %ith more !eo!le b# ing re"eren$e !rod#$ts than ever be"ore and !eo!le $hoosing the "orm the !re"er.

C1 The ;eb o&&ers a lethora o& highl+ authoritative in&ormation authored and released b+ the leading names in ever+ &ield o& human kno;ledge and endeavor( Some sa+ that the Internet! is! in e&&ect! an *nc+clo aedia $ &ar more detailed! &ar more authoritative! and &ar more com rehensive that an+ *nc+clo aedia can ever ho e to be( The ;eb is also &ull+ accessible and &ull+ searchable( What it lacks in organi3ation it com ensates in breadth and de th and recentl+ emergent subject ortals .directories such as @oogle! Eahoo' or The 7 en Director+/ have become the indices o& the Internet( The a&orementioned anti$ com etition barriers to entr+ are gone1 ;eb ublishing is chea and immediate( Technologies such as ;eb communities! chat! and e$mail enable massive collaborative e&&orts( And! most im ortant! the bulk o& the Internet is &ree( -sers a+ onl+ the communication costs( The long$heralded transition &rom &ree content to &ee$based in&ormation ma+ revive the &ortunes o& online re&erence vendors( 0ut as long as the Internet $ ;ith its "!###!###!### visible ages .and % times as man+ ages in its databases/ $ is &ree! enc+clo edias have little b+ ;a+ o& a com etitive advantage( Could +ou lease comment on these statements? S ain1 I agree. Still, O!en Dire$tories and "ree !o%er"#l sear$h engines 4%hi$h, let;s remember, make their mone b tr ing to sell o# goods and servi$es relating to the ke %ords #sed in o#r sear$h5 onl $onstit#te HL 4or less5 o" %hat amo#nts to Bresear$h.B 2irst o# have to "ind itA %e have made good !rogress here. Then o# have to organi<e itA there are "e% good tools "or this. 2inall o# have to !#blish it, likel #sing one o" 3i$roso"t;s a!!li$ations. This entire !ro$ess "rom sear$h res#lts to ans%ers delivered in !#blishable "orm remains !ain"#l and time $ons#ming. The o!!ort#nit lies in making resear$h as eas as sear$h. It seems sim!le, b#t it;s ver hard. Williams1 The real iss#e here is !revio#sl !#blished material. There is $ertainl a lot o" in"ormation on the Internet and that is a %onder"#l thing. 7o%ever, there is virt#all no !la$e an individ#al %ho is not !art o" a ma'or $ollege or #niversit $an go online and "ind the "#ll6 teEt o" books, in$l#ding $ontem!orar and re$ent ones. To sa that the in"ormation that is available online is eK#ivalent to the in"ormation stored in the &ibrar o" ,ongress is abs#rd. I@m not talking onl abo#t the range o" in"ormation b#t also abo#t the val#e o" the editorial !ro$ess. There is $learl a h#ge di""eren$e bet%een someone !osting something on a %ebsite and someone rigoro#sl resear$hing a book "or "ive or ten ears and then s#bmitting it to !eer revie% and the $are"#l attention o" editors. Virt#all none o" the "r#its o" this serio#s resear$h and editorial !ro$ess is available on the 8eb. The material on the Net s#""ers "rom a $hroni$ iss#e o" K#estionable $redibilit and is e!hemeral. The material !#blished b leading !#blishers is reliable and has lasting im!ortan$e. Panelas1 It sim!l isn;t tr#e that the Internet is an en$ $lo!edia. It;s an aggregation o" in"ormation b an one %ho %ants to !#t it #! there. An en$ $lo!edia is the !rod#$t o" a #ni"ied idea, a single editorial intelligen$e. The !eo!le %ho $reate it are skilled in their $ra"t. It seeks to $over all areas o" h#man kno%ledge and to do so in a %a that both gives ea$h area its d#e !ro!ortion and integrates it all so the vario#s !arts %ork %ell together. It re"le$ts man $hoi$es that are made $ons$io#sl and in a $onsistent %a , and sin$e it re!resents a s#mmar o" h#man kno%ledge rather than its s#m total, the $hoi$es editors make abo#t %hat to leave o#t are as im!ortant as the ones abo#t %hat to !#t in.

Tr#e, there are !eo!le %ho are hostile to this idea, and, again, %e sa% some o" this in the ;D:s enth#siasm "or the Internet and the related belie" that it %o#ld literall trans"orm ever as!e$t o" li"e overnight. A so!histi$ated %orld s#$h as o#rs, %hi$h relies on kno%ledge and in"ormation to "#n$tion, $an tolerate onl so m#$h bad in"ormation be"ore !roblems arise, and %e sa% some o" that in the earl ears o" the 8eb, %hi$h is %h more !eo!le toda see the virt#es o" an en$ $lo!edia than did a "e% ears ago. The $ollaborative !ossibilities o" the Internet are ver interesting, and %e;ll see in d#e time %hat their im!li$ations are "or !#blishing. Some !eo!le are !redi$ting that ever thing %ill be #tterl trans"ormed, b#t that #s#all doesn;t ha!!en. C1 What are eLibrar+8s &uture lans regarding online re&erence? S ain1 Ala$rit#de, thro#gh its en$ $lo!edia.$om, (esear$hville and e&ibrar servi$es is alread addressing head on the need to $reate an eas to #se and $ost e""e$tive resear$h servi$e "or individ#als. C1 What are the 0ritannica8s &uture lans regarding online re&erence? Panelas1 8e !lan to kee! im!roving %hat %e o""er, %ith ne% so#r$es o" in"ormation, more Bnon6teEt media,B better sear$h and navigation, and ease o" #se. C( What are Cuestia8s &uture lans regarding online re&erence? Williams1 8e are not "o$#sed on the traditional re"eren$e area. (e"eren$e books tend to be "ar more $ostl to a$K#ire rights to. In addition, the are "ar more di""i$#lt to get into a %eb6read "ormat. As a res#lt, %e do not "eel that the bene"its %arrant "o$#sing on this area toda . O#r strateg is sim!le. 8e %ant to b#ild a massive online librar o" $are"#ll sele$ted high6 K#alit , "#ll6teEt books. C( There are rumors about Cuestia8s .lack o&/ &inancial muscle( Its &uture is said to be in doubt( Is there truth to it? I#estia is in the best "inan$ial !osition that it has ever been in. 8e are $ash "lo% !ositive. 8e more than tri!led reven#e last ear and %e %ill nearl do so again this ear. Toda %e have s#bs$ribers in 9N: $o#ntries. In the 0S, %e have individ#al s#bs$ribers on over G,::: $ollege and #niversit $am!#ses. And those are '#st the ones %e kno% o". 3ost o" o#r #sers don@t give #s that in"ormation. O#r $#stomer satis"a$tion levels are eEtremel high as o# $an see "rom the "eedba$k on o#r site. 8e see the res#lt o" that high satis"a$tion in that on$e someone s#bs$ribes, t !i$all the sta s#bs$ribed "or K#ite a %hile. An re$ent r#mors abo#t I#estia are !robabl the e$hoes o" older stories "rom a "e% ears ago and %o#ld not be a$$#rate.

0attle o& the Titans $ *ncarta vs( the 0ritannica


0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D(
The En$arta En$ $lo!edia 6 and even more so, the En$arta (e"eren$e &ibrar Premi#m G::H 6 is an im!ressive re"eren$e librar . It $aters e""e$tivel 4and, at RN:, $hea!l 5 to the ed#$ational needs o" ever one in the "amil , "rom $hildren as o#ng as N or M ears old to ad#lts %ho seek $on$ise ans%ers to their K#eries. It is "#n6"illed, intera$tive, $olor"#l, re!lete %ith tens o" tho#sands o" images, video $li!s, and a#dio sni!!ets. The En$arta is eEtremel #ser6"riendl , %ith its sear$h bar and novel Vis#al 1ro%ser. It $omes eK#i!!ed %ith a di$tionar , thesa#r#s, $hart maker, sear$hable indeE o" K#otations, games, and an En$arta /ids inter"a$e. Installation is eas . The En$arta is a#gmented b %eekl or bi6 %eekl #!dates and the "eat#re6ri$h online 3SN En$arta Premi#m %ith its 7ome%ork 7el! o""erings. The En$ $lo!edia 1ritanni$a 4established in 9NOM5 s!orts St#dent and Elementar versions o" its venerable "lagshi! !rod#$t 6 b#t it is "ar better geared to ta$kle the in"ormation needs o" ad#lts and, even more so, !ro"essionals. Its 9::,::: arti$les are long and dee!, s#!!orted b im!ressive bibliogra!hies, and %ritten b the best s$holars in their res!e$tive "ields. The 1ritanni$a, too, $ome b#ndled %ith an atlas 4less detailed than the En$arta;s5, di$tionar , thesa#r#s, $lassi$ arti$les "rom !revio#s editions, an Intera$tive Timeline, a (esear$h Organi<er, and a /no%ledge Navigator 4a 1rain Stormer5. It is as #ser6"riendl as the En$arta. The 1ritanni$a, tho#gh, is #!dated onl G6C times a ear, a serio#s dra%ba$k, onl !artiall $om!ensated "or b 3 months o" "ree a$$ess to the its #neK#alled !o%erho#se online 8eb site. It seems that the 1ritanni$a and the En$arta $ater to di""erent market segments and that the 1ritanni$a !rovides more in6de!th $overage o" its to!i$s %hile the En$arta is a more $om!lete, P,6orientated re"eren$e eE!erien$e. The market !ositioning o" the 1ritanni$a;s Elementar and St#dent En$ $lo!edias is, there"ore, !roblemati$. En$arta has an all6!ervasive hold on and #biK#ito#s !enetration o" the $hild6to6 o#ng ad#lt markets. 1oth en$ $lo!edias o""er an embarrassment o" ri$hes. 0sers o" both "ind the %ealth and breadth o" in"ormation da#nting and data mining is "ast be$oming an art "orm. En$arta introd#$ed the Vis#al 4Virt#al5 1ro%ser and 1ritanni$a in$or!orated the 1rain Stormer to $o!e %ith this !redi$ament. 1#t "e% kno% ho% to de!lo them e""e$tivel . En$arta a$tivel en$o#rages "#n6"illed bro%sing and 1ritanni$a "#ll s#!!orts serio#s resear$h. These !re"eren$es are re"le$ted in the design o" the t%o !rod#$ts. The En$arta is a riot o" $olors, sidebars, videos, a#dio $li!s, !hotos, embedded links, literat#re, 8eb reso#r$es, and K#i<<es. It is a !rod#$t o" the age o" mass $omm#ni$ation, a deskto! eEtension o" television and the Internet. The 1ritanni$a is a sober assemblage o" "irst6rate teEts, #! to date bibliogra!hies, and minimal m#ltimedia. It is a deskto! #niversit librar : thoro#gh, %ell6resear$hed, $om!rehensive, tr#st%orth . Indeed, the En$arta and the 1ritanni$a o""er $om!eting models "or intera$ting %ith the Internet. 1oth !rovide $ontent #!dates 6 the En$arta %eekl or bi6%eekl and the 1ritanni$a G6C times a ear. 1oth o""er additional and timel $ontent and revisions on dedi$ated 8eb sites. 1#t the En$arta $onditions some o" its "#n$tions 6 notabl its resear$h tools and #!dates 6 on registration %ith its Pl#s ,l#b. The 1ritanni$a doesn;t.

The En$arta in$or!orates n#mero#s third6!art teEts and vis#als 4in$l#ding do<ens o" Dis$over ,hannel videos, h#ndreds o" ne%s!a!er arti$les, and a !lethora o" S$ienti"i$ Ameri$an "eat#res5. The En$arta;s m#ltimedia o""erings are also im!ressive %ith tho#sands o" video and a#dio $li!s, ma!s, tables, and animations. The 1ritanni$a !rovides $onsiderabl more teEt 6 tho#gh it has noti$eabl enhan$ed it non6teEt#al $ontent over the ear 4the 9DDC6N editions had nothing or ver little b#t teEt5. 1oth re"eren$e !rod#$ts %o#ld do %ell to integrate %ith ne% deskto! sear$h tools "rom .oogle, 3i$roso"t, Fahoo, and others. A seamless eE!erien$e is in the $ards. 0sers m#st and %ill be able to "erret $ontent "rom all over 6 their deskto!, their en$ $lo!edias, and the 8eb 6 #sing a single, int#itive inter"a$e. The ne% En$arta Sear$h 1ar, %hi$h %as integrated into the !rod#$t this !ast ear, enables #sers to sear$h an !art o" the En$arta a!!li$ation 4en$ $lo!edia, di$tionar , thesa#r#s, et$5 %itho#t having the a!!li$ation o!en. De"initel a ste! in the right dire$tion. 7aving #sed both !rod#$ts eEtensivel in the last "e% months, I "o#nd m sel" entertaining some minor gri!es: The En$arta o""ers 36D to#rs %hi$h gobble #! $om!#ter reso#r$es and are essentiall non6 intera$tive a limited. Is it %orth the investment and the risk to the stabilit and !er"orman$e o" the #ser;s $om!#ter> The editorial !ro$ess is not trans!arent. It is not $lear ho% both !rod#$ts $o!e %ith $ontem!orar and re$ent develo!ments, minorit 6sensitive iss#es, and $ontroversial to!i$s 4s#$h as abortion and ga rights5. The En$arta tries to $ater to the needs o" $hallenged #sers, s#$h as the vis#all 6im!aired 6 b#t is still "ar "rom doing a good 'ob o" it. The 1ritanni$a doesn;t even bother. The atlas, di$tionar , and thesa#r#s in$or!orated in both !rod#$ts are s#r!risingl o#tdated. 8h not #se a more $#rrent 6 and d nami$all #!dated 6 o""ering> 8hat abo#t di$tionaries "or s!e$ialt terms 4medi$al or $om!#ter glossaries, "or instan$e5> The En$arta;s Ne% English Di$tionar dro!!ed a glossar o" $om!#ter terms it #sed to in$l#de ba$k in G::9. All;s the !it . 1oth en$ $lo!edias $ons#me 4not to sa 5 hog $om!#ter reso#r$e "ar in eE$ess o" the o""i$ial s!e$i"i$ations. This makes them less s#itable "or installation on older P,s and on man la!to!s. Des!ite the h !e, relativel "e% #sers !ossess DVD drives 4b#t those %ho do "ind, in both !rod#$ts, the entire en$ $lo!edia available on one DVD5. 1#t that;s it. Don;t think t%i$e. (#n to the $losest retail o#tlet 4or s#r" the relevant 8eb sites5 and !#r$hase both !rod#$ts no%. ,ombined, these re"eren$e s#ites o""er the best val#e "or mone aro#nd and signi"i$antl enhan$e o# a$$ess to kno%ledge and %isdom a$$#m#lated over $ent#ries all over the %orld. Intervie; ;ith Tom Panelas .0ritannica/ 6anuar+! "##% C1 Would +ou agree that the 0ritannica and the *ncarta cater to di&&erent market segments and that the 0ritannica rovides more in$de th coverage o& its to ics ;hile the *ncarta is a more com lete! PC$orientated re&erence eB erience? I& so! ;hat is the market ositioning o& the 0ritannica8s *lementar+ and Student *nc+clo edias?

TP1 The most im!ortant thing abo#t 1ritanni$a;s 0ltimate (e"eren$e S#ite is that is has three en$ $lo!edias 66 one "or ever reading level 6 and there"ore $an be #sed !ro"itabl b the %hole "amil . So, es, the En$ $lo!aedia 1ritanni$a itsel" is the more $om!rehensive en$ $lo!edia, b#t reali<e also that the 0ltimate (e"eren$e S#ite also has 1ritanni$a St#dent En$ $lo!edia, $reated "or the same age range as En$arta, and 1ritanni$a Elementar En$ $lo!edia, "or o#nger readers. So o#r !ositioning is that 1ritanni$a serves o# "rom grade s$hool to grad#ate s$hool and be ond. C1 0oth enc+clo edias o&&er an embarrassment o& riches( -sers &ind the ;ealth and breadth o& in&ormation daunting and data mining is &ast becoming an art &orm( *ncarta introduced the 2isual .2irtual/ 0ro;ser and 0ritannica introduced the 0rainStormer to co e ;ith this redicament( Are there an+ im rovements $ or alternative solutions $ lanned in &uture editions? TP1 The G::O edition %ill in$l#de sear$h enhan$ements to 1rainStormer. The ;re #nder develo!ment right no%, so I don;t have too man details. 8e also have some #niK#e indeEing s stems that #nderlie the str#$t#re o" the 1ritanni$a database, %hi$h o#r indeEers have been at %ork on "or ears. 8e eE!e$t these to be the basis o" some !o%er"#l sear$h and bro%se a!!li$ations in the ears ahead. C1 )o; does +our roduct strike a balance bet;een bro;sing and research? Is one activit+ encouraged over the other? TP1 3ost !eo!le like to do ke %ord sear$hing, so %e tr to kee! that %orking shar!l , b#t %e have also tried to introd#$e as man other %a s to a$$ess in"ormation as !ossible, s#$h as s#b'e$t bro%se, indeE bro%se, atlas, timelines, and 1rainStormer. Peo!le have di""erent learning st les and di""erent !re"eren$es "or ho% to "ind in"ormation. 8e tr to ind#lge all o" them. C1 The *ncarta and the 0ritannica o&&er com eting models &or interacting ;ith the Internet( 0oth o&&er u dates $ the *ncarta ;eekl+ or bi$;eekl+ and the 0ritannica "$F times a +ear( 0oth rovide additional and timel+ content and revisions on dedicated Web sites( 0ut the *ncarta conditions some o& its &unctions $ notabl+ its research tools and u dates $ on registration ;ith its Plus Club( The 0ritannica doesn8t( Are +ou considering a change in +our a roach? TP1 8e;re not. C1 The *ncarta incor orates numerous third$ art+ teBts and visuals .including do3ens o& Discover+ Channel videos! hundreds o& ne;s a er articles! and a lethora o& Scienti&ic American &eatures/( The *ncarta8s multimedia o&&erings are also im ressive ;ith thousands o& video and audio cli s! ma s! tables! and animations( The 0ritannica rovides considerabl+ more teBt( Is the 0ritannica lanning to &ollo; suit or ;ill it remain mainl+ teBt based? TP1 8ell, I %o#ldn;t sa %e;re Bmainl B teEt based 6 %e have added a lot o" m#ltimedia over the ears, and %e;ve %on some a%ards "or o#r m#ltimedia 6 b#t %e %ill $ontin#e to o""er $om!rehensive in"ormation "or all ages. 8hen o# $ome do%n to it, the in"ormation that reall matters in re"eren$e %orks is %ords. 8e;ll $ontin#e to add m#ltimedia as %ell, s!a$e !ermitting, b#t $overing a to!i$ thoro#ghl and !ro!erl $omes "irst.

C1 Will the *ncartaD0ritannica integrate ;ith ne; deskto search tools &rom @oogle! 5icroso&t! and others? TP1 Fes, that;s a !riorit "or G::O. C1 In the editorial rocess! ho; do +ou co e ;ith contem orar+ and recent develo ments! minorit+$sensitive issues! and controversial to ics .such as abortion and ga+ rights/? TP1 This K#estion $alls "or a treatise o" its o%n. 8e have advisers all over the %orld $onsisting o" the to! s$holars and eE!erts in all "ields, and %ith their hel! %e tr to bring reason and eviden$e to bear on develo!ing the best a!!roEimation o" tr#th that is h#manl !ossible. Fes, it;s hard %ork, be$a#se !eo!le disagree on man things, b#t it $an be done reasonabl %ell i" o#;re determined. 8e strive to the eEtent !ossible "or $overage that are #niversal 6 that is, it takes all ma'or !ers!e$tives aro#nd the %orld into a$$o#nt and does not "avor one B$ivili<ationB over another. One thing %e insist on in all o" o#r en$ $lo!edias, regardless o" lang#age or %hat $o#ntr the are !#blished in, and that is that $overage o" a to!i$ be $onsistent ever %here. &ike o#r eighteenth6$ent#r "orebears, %e believe that there is s#$h a thing as tr#th and it is !ossible "or h#mans to kno% it. ,reating an en$ $lo!edia is one o" the %a s h#mans do that. So %e don;t have di""erent Btr#ths,B !l#ral, "or di""erent $o#ntries or markets. 8e don;t !ander to lo$al sensitivities or m ths b $overing a to!i$ one %a in one $o#ntr and a di""erent %a in another. C1 What &eatures cater to the needs o& challenged users! such as the visuall+$im aired? TP1 3ost o" the navigational "eat#res "or %hi$h most !eo!le #se the mo#se have ke board eK#ivalents. 8e !lan to do more in this area. 8e have $on$entrated in re$ent ears on making o#r s$hool and librar !rod#$ts $om!liant %ith the 0.S. Ameri$ans 8ith Disabilities A$t be$a#se the demand "or this in that area is so strong. 8e are no% t#rning to doing similar things %ith o#r $ons#mer !rod#$ts. C1 The atlas! dictionar+! and thesaurus incor orated in both roducts are outdated( Wh+ not use a more current $ and d+namicall+ u dated $ o&&ering? What about dictionaries &or s ecialt+ terms .medical or com uter glossaries! &or instance/? TP1 Sam, ,an o# give me eEam!les o" o#tdated di$tionar in"ormation> 8e haven;t seen m#$h demand "rom o#r $#stomers in s!e$iali<ed di$tionaries. C1 0oth enc+clo edias consume .not to sa+/ hog com uter resource &ar in eBcess o& the o&&icial s eci&ications( This makes them less suitable &or installation on older PCs and on man+ la to s( The 5ackintosh inter&aces are also clunk+( )o; can and ;ill these limitations be tackled? TP1 8e !lan to im!rove s!eed and !er"orman$e in G::O, es!e$iall "or 3a$, sin$e %e seem to be the onl ones these da s %ith a 3a$ version.

Also Read1 Revolt o& the Scholars The Idea o& Re&erence

The ,uture o& the 0ook The 4idna ing o& Content

The Internet and the Librar+ The ,uture o& 7nline Re&erence Will Content *ver be Pro&itable? The Disintermediation o& Content The ,uture o& *lectronic Publishing ,ree 7nline Scholarshi $ Intervie; ;ith Peter Suber

Project @utenberg8s Anabasis


0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D( Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
&ast O$tober, Pro'e$t .#tenberg 4P.5 6 the 8eb;s "irst and largest online librar o" "ree ele$troni$ books 6 released a long6a%aited DVD $ontaining $lose to 9:,::: o" its titles. Sin$e then, another 9::: teEts %ere added to its b#rgeoning ar$hives. The Pro'e$t s!a%ned n#mero#s other 8eb sites. Some o" them 6 s#$h as 1la$kmask 6 o""er "ree do%nloads and sell their o%n DVD %ith mostl Pro'e$t .#tenberg e1ooks in m#lti!le "ormats. Others !rovide "ree bro%sers and librar a!!li$ations s!e$i"i$ to P.;s $ontent. The man behind the Pro'e$t 6 and, th#s, the inventor o" the ebook in 9DN9 6 is 3i$hael 7art. Al%a s available to !rea$h the gos!el o" "ree $ontent and its bene"its, he res!onded to 0PI;s K#estions, 'oined b .reg Ne%b , ,hie" EEe$#tive o" the Pro'e$t .#tenberg &iterar Ar$hive 2o#ndation. C( In 7ctober "##>! +ou set a ne; target &or Project @utenberg o& one million &ree ebooks b+ the +ear "#=%( Are there so man+ books in the ublic domain? And ;hat then? 5ichael1 Ar$himedes said, Bgive me a lever long eno#gh, and I %ill move the %orld.B Pro'e$t .#tenberg 4g#tenberg.net5 is '#st s#$h a lever, enabling a single !erson to $reate something o" immense val#e that is made available to millions o" !eo!le. I" %e have rea$hed a mere 9.HL o" the %orld;s !o!#lation, %e have alread given a%a a trillion e1ooks. Pro'e$t .#tenberg is a grass roots o!eration, never having had real "#nding or grants. 2or 3: ears !eo!le said that %e %on;t be aro#nd neEt ear. 8hen %e started to get $lose to 9:,::: e1ooks, the "inall sto!!ed. There are lots o" !retend e1ook o!erations, b#t none o" them !rod#$e all o" their e1ooks themselves, or have 9:,::: o" their o%n e1ooks that $an be read b virt#all an teEt reader and %ord !ro$essor The neEt big ste!, a"ter %e have rea$hed a million e1ooks, %ill be to translate ea$h o" them into as man as 9:: lang#ages, th#s making them available to an even larger a#dien$e. (egarding the n#mber o" titles in the !#bli$ domain, d#ring the G:th ,ent#r , there %ere man ears in %hi$h over H:,::: books %ere !#blished and the rate has been in$reasing thro#gho#t. ,ertainl there %ere a million titles !#blished be"ore 9DG3 that %e $an get o#r hands on, not to mention non6book items s#$h as ne%s!a!ers, maga<ines, bro$h#res and advertisements, $o#rt re$ords and other government do$#ments, #n!#blished man#s$ri!ts and diaries, m#si$, "ilm, !hotogra!hs, a#dio, and other art "orms. @reg1 3 $al$#lation, based on the 0S &ibrar o" ,ongress; $o! right rene%al re$ords, is that there are abo#t 9 million books !#blished "rom 9DG3 6 9DOC that are demonstrabl in the !#bli$ domain. 8e are seeking to Bdis$overB these items. The $o! rights o" onl 9:L o" all !#blished items are ever rene%ed.

C( Libraries on CD$R75s are at least a decade old( Wh+ did Project @utenberg ;ait until no; to issue its o;n D2D? 5ichael1 1e$a#se there %as al%a s someone o#t there %illing to do it "or #s. 1e$a#se ,D b#rners and DVD b#rners "inall got so $ost e""e$tive that %e $o#ld a""ord to give a%a this kind o" media. 1e$a#se toda o# $an;t b# a $om!#ter o"" the shel" %itho#t a DVD drive. 0ntil no%, !h si$al media $o#ld not $om!ete on a $ost e""e$tive basis %ith Internet do%nloads. @reg1 8e have some vol#nteers %illing to $reate ,D and DVD images and %e no% distrib#te them. 1#t %e ho!e to "ind man other $hannels to distrib#te o#r $ontent "or "ree or "or a small "ee. C( Wh+ don8t sim le scans or ra; 7CR .o tical character recognition/ out ut <uali&+ as ebooks? What is the technological &uture o& ebooks $ is it 5achine Translation and! i& +es! ;h+? 5ichael1 1ook s$anning is o#tso#r$ed hal" %a a$ross the %orld and the res#lts are shodd and o"ten $annot be #sed as in!#t "or O,( !rograms, to $reate a teEt "ile, "or instan$e. In $ontrast, on$e a tr#e e1ook is $reated, it has more val#e than a !a!er $o! , be$a#se it $an be $o!ied ad in"init#m, sent all over the %orld, even to a billion readers, and $an be the basis "or h#ndreds o" ne% !a!er and e1ook editions, all at virt#all no $ost. 3oreover, !eo!le are not interested in s$ans. Some Pro'e$t .#tenberg sites ea$h hand o#t 9: million e1ooks !er ear 6 im!ossible %ith s$anned images or "#ll teEt e1ooks d#e to their band%idth6$ons#ming oversi<e. The Bs$annersB %ant to be the onl so#r$e "or BtheirB books, even %hen those books are in the !#bli$ domain 6 and are %illing to $laim $o! right on the !#bli$ domain %orks o" Pro'e$t .#tenberg in the !ro$ess. The den themselves tr#e a$$ess to the !#bli$. O#r 0nlimited Distrib#tion 3odel $alls "or ever one to have a librar o" 9:,::: e1ooks, stored on a single DVD that $osts onl R9. Peo!le "ind this a!!ealing. There are !erha!s 9:,::: vol#nteers to $reate o#r kind o" ebooks 6 against onl a "e% h#ndred !eo!le, all !aid, %orking to $reate libraries o" s$ans. Additionall , the h#ge s$an "iles hold '#st a single book, are not sear$hable, $annot be $o!ied, indeEed, or $ited b o"" the shel" a!!li$ations, t !os $an;t be $orre$ted, and are not tr#l !ortable d#e to their si<e.

Pro'e$t .#tenberg e1ooks $an be read in an manner the reader $hooses 6 "avorite "onts, margination, n#mber o" lines !er !age $an all be modi"ied. The reader be$omes his or her o%n !#blisher. Peo!le %ith disabilities $an #se a s!ee$h engine to read the teEts alo#d. The vis#all $hallenged $an $hange the "ont si<e. This is im!ossible to do %ith s$ans. 8ith ,D b#rners available "or #nder R9H, and DVD b#rners "or R9::, %ith blank media so $hea! 6 the $ost o" individ#al books be$omes literall Btoo $hea! to meter.B And that is the %hole !oint o" the Pro'e$t .#tenberg e1ook librar . @reg1 E1ooks are editable and s#itable "or $reating derivative %orks. The are not intended to be a de!i$tion o" a !rinted arti"a$t, b#t a dire$t means o" eE!erien$ing the a#thor;s %riting. Toda ;s best O,( still makes 4on average5 several errors !er !age o" teEt, and reK#ires h#man intervention to handle things like !age headings and "ootnotes. 8e !lan to make P.;s ebooks easil trans"ormable among di""erent digital "ormats 6 =3&, 7T3&, PD2, 1raille, a#diobooks, Te=, (T2 and others. 2eat#res 6 s#$h as "onts, or ba$kgro#nd $olors 6 %ill be sele$table. 3a$hine translation 43T5 %ill be another o" these B"ormatsB, b#t it is $#rrentl te$hnologi$all !remat#re and immat#re. In $oo!eration %ith !artner organi<ations in E#ro!e and else%here, %e ho!e to hel! to develo! better 3T so"t%are. 8e are s#!!orting a !ro'e$t in E#ro!e to a#gment 3T %ith h#man translation, m#$h as toda ;s O,( m#st be hel!ed b h#man !roo"readers to a$hieve a lo% error rate. C( )o; ;ould +ou suggest to balance the need to rotect the intellectual ro ert+ rights o& authors and the need to disseminate kno;ledge? 5ichael1 The 8orld Intelle$t#al Pro!ert Organi<ation 48IPO5, in $ahoots %ith $ommer$ial interests, leave no K#arter "or an one, and seem to %ant !ermanent $o! right. 7o% do o# a$hieve balan$e %ith someone %ho %ants it all> Originall , $o! right $ame abo#t be$a#se the Stationers; .#ild %anted to entren$h their mono!ol on the %ritten %ord a"ter it %as shattered b the .#tenberg Press. Similarl , in the 0nited States, ever $o! right eEtension has had the same !#r!ose, to destro the e""e$tiveness o" a ne% !#blishing te$hnolog . The 9D:D ,o! right A$t destro ed the re!rint ho#ses made !ossible b the ne% steam and ele$tri$ !resses. The 9DNO ,o! right A$t %as ena$ted merel to sti"le the e""e$t o" the =eroE ma$hine. The 9DDM ,o! right A$t %as a res!onse to the e""e$ts o" the Internet. 8hen it is di""i$#lt to make $o!ies, it is legal be$a#se onl the ri$h $an do it. As soon as it be$omes eas eno#gh "or the masses to have $o!ies it is made illegalJ @reg1 P#blishers and media ho#ses are ade!t at a!!ro!riating the intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights o" a#thors "or their o%n !ro"its. The are insensitive to the so$ial $ontra$t o" $o! right that sho#ld res#lt in the release o" items to the !#bli$ domain a"ter a reasonable !eriod. &i"e o" the a#thor W N: ears is not a reasonable !eriod, neither is DH or 9G: ears a"ter the $reation o" the $o! righted %ork. Onl a "ra$tion o" the items $#rrentl #nder $o! right are a$t#all available, "rom an one at an !ri$e. The onl bene"it a$$r#es to media !rod#$ers, %ho restri$t the K#antit o" available !rior materials so that their ne% material is more likel to be !#r$hased.

C( The commercial ebook industr+ is going through a bloodbath( Cracked versions o& the ne;est books are available online( Do +ou believe that ebooks! b+ nature! should be &ree $ or is there a lace &or commercial digital content? @reg1 I "avor the develo!ment o" a $ommer$ial e1ook ind#str . Pro'e$t .#tenberg sho#ld be seen as a bene"it to that ind#str , not an adversar . Similarl , I see $ommer$ial e1ooks as being able to bene"it Pro'e$t .#tenberg, sim!l b getting more !eo!le to read e1ooks. The ind#str is a vi$tim o" its o%n in$om!eten$e. The did not s#""er "rom a la$k o" !#bli$it or advertising, b#t "rom a la$k o" #sabilit , standard "ormats, and s#""i$ient $ontent. The also ado!ted a $ri!!ling $ost model that arti"i$iall kee!s the !ri$e o" a ne% hard$over at RG: or so, and a $ri!!ling ind#str model that ne$essitates enormo#s overhead to get their ever6 de$reasing $atalog o" items, !rinted on dead trees, delivered to sho!!ing malls. 2ear o" illi$it $o! ing 4m#si$ and video5 seems to dominate their thinking. At the same time, the leading organi<ations 4the A#thor;s .#ild, the 3PAA and the (IAA5 are seeking to red#$e the realm o" "air #se. 7ad these organi<ations embra$ed "air #se, and introd#$ed reasonable !rod#$ts at reasonable !ri$es, the %o#ld not have needed to %orr so m#$h abo#t !ira$ . The "ail#re o" the e1ook is the "ail#re o" the ind#stries behind it, not the "ail#re o" the idea or la$k o" a market. I think it %ill take ne% thinkers, and ne% $om!anies, to garner s#$$ess. 5ichael1 3ost o" the bloodbath I have seen %as among the $ommer$ial hard%are e1ook ind#str , !eo!le %ho %anted to $ontrol the reading habits o" their $#stomers, %ho did not %ant them to read an thing that %as not !aid "or and delivered b same $ommer$ial interests. 8hen #!grades t#rn into do%ngrades to 8IPO#t a$$ess to !#bli$ domain e1ooks that #sed to be a$$essible be"ore 6 that is a B1ad Thing.B The bea#t , the !#r!ose, o" e1ooks is to re6$reate the .#tenberg Press. 1ooks %hose re!li$ation and dissemination all over the %orld $ost nothing, that reK#ire no de"orestation, %areho#sing and shi!!ing, that do not end #! in the land"ills o" the %orld. The !#r!ose o" e1ooks is to $reate a librar an one $an $arr , %eighing #nder one o#n$e !er ten tho#sand vol#mes on standard %ritable DVDs, or one o#n$e !er GH,::: books on do#ble sided or do#ble leveled DVDs. One kilo o" these ne%er DVDs $an hold 9,:::,::: e1ooksJ And I !lan to have '#st s#$h do#ble sided DVDs to hand o#t "or the holida s t%o ears "rom no%. . . .

W4- T4C:.;L;='4S ).3 TR4.3S


0right Planet! Dee Web 0+1 Sam 2aknin
%%%.all%at$hers.$om and %%%.allreaders.$om are %eb sites in the sense that a "ile is do%nloaded to the #ser;s bro%ser %hen he or she s#r"s to these addresses. 1#t that;s %here the similarit ends. These %eb !ages are "ront6ends, gates to #nderl ing databases. The databases $ontain re$ords regarding the !lots, themes, $hara$ters and other "eat#res o", res!e$tivel , movies and books. Ever #ser6K#er generates a #niK#e %eb !age %hose $ontents are determined b the K#er !arameters.The n#mber o" sing#lar !ages th#s $a!able o" being generated is mind boggling. Sear$h engines o!erate on the same !rin$i!le 6 var the sear$h !arameters slightl and totall ne% !ages are generated. It is a d nami$, #ser6res!onsive and $himeri$al sort o" %eb. These are good eEam!les o" %hat %%%.bright!lanet.$om $all the BDee! 8ebB 4!revio#sl ina$$#ratel des$ribed as the B0nkno%n or Invisible InternetB5. The believe that the Dee! 8eb is H:: times the si<e o" the BS#r"a$e InternetB 4a !ortion o" %hi$h is s!idered b traditional sear$h engines5. This translates to $. NH:: TE(Ab tes o" data 4vers#s 9D terab tes in the %hole kno%n %eb, eE$l#ding the databases o" the sear$h engines themselves5 6 or HH: billion do$#ments organi<ed in 9::,::: dee! %eb sites. 1 $om!arison, .oogle, the most $om!rehensive sear$h engine ever, stores 9.C billion do$#ments in its immense $a$hes at %%%.google.$om. The nat#ral in$lination to dismiss these !ages o" data as mere re6arrangements o" the same in"ormation is %rong. A$t#all , this #ndergro#nd o$ean o" $overtintelligen$e is o"ten more val#able than the in"ormation "reel available or easil a$$essible on the s#r"a$e. 7en$e the abilit o" $. HL o" these databases to $harge their #sers s#bs$ri!tion and membershi! "ees. The average dee! %eb site re$eives H:L more tra""i$ than a t !i$al s#r"a$e site and is m#$h more linked to b other sites. Fet it is trans!arent to $lassi$ sear$h engines and little kno%n to the s#r"ing !#bli$. It %as onl a K#estion o" time be"ore someone $ame #! %ith a sear$h te$hnolog to ta! these de!ths 4%%%.$om!lete!lanet.$om5. &eEi1ot, in the %ords o" its inventors, is... B...the "irst and onl sear$h te$hnolog $a!able o" identi" ing, retrieving, K#ali" ing, $lassi" ing and organi<ing Bdee!B and Bs#r"a$eB $ontent "rom the 8orld 8ide 8eb. The &eEi1ot allo%s sear$hers to dive dee! and eE!lore hidden data "rom m#lti!le so#r$es sim#ltaneo#sl #sing dire$ted K#eries. 1#sinesses, resear$hers and $ons#mers no% have a$$ess to the most val#able and hard6to6"ind in"ormation on the 8eb and $an retrieve it %ith !in!oint a$$#ra$ .B

It !la$es do<ens o" K#eries, in do<ens o" threads sim#ltaneo#sl and s!iders the res#lts 4rather as a B"irst generationB sear$h engine %o#ld do5. This $o#ld !rove ver #se"#l %ith massive databases s#$h as the h#man genome, %eather !atterns, sim#lations o" n#$lear eE!losions, themati$, m#lti6"eat#red databases, intelligent agents 4e.g., sho!!ing bots5 and third generation sear$h engines. It $o#ld also have im!li$ations on the %ireless internet 4"or instan$e, in anal sing and generating lo$ation6s!e$i"i$ advertising5 and on e6$ommer$e 4%hi$h amo#nts to the d nami$ serving o" %eb do$#ments5. This transition "rom the stati$ to the d nami$, "rom the given to the generated, "rom the one6 dimensionall linked to the m#lti6dimensionall h !erlinked, "rom the deterministi$ $ontent to the $ontingent, he#risti$all 6$reated and #n$ertain $ontent 6 is the real revol#tion and the "#t#re o" the %eb. Sear$h engines have lost their e""i$a$ as gate%a s. Portals have taken over b#t most !eo!le no% #se internal links 4%ithin the same %eb site5 to get "rom one !la$e to another. This is %here the dee! %eb $omes in. Databases are abo#t internal links. 7itherto the eEisted in s!lendid isolation, #niverses $losed b#t to the most !ersistent and kno%ledgeable. This ma be abo#t to $hange. The "lood o" K#alit relevant in"ormation this %ill #nleash %ill dramati$all d%ar" an thing that !re$eded it.

The Seamless Internet 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++%%%.en"ish.$om+ The h !e over #biK#ito#s 4or !ervasive5 $om!#ting 4$om!#ters ever %here5 has masked a !otentiall more momento#s develo!ment. It is the $onvergen$e o" $om!#ting devi$es inter"a$es %ith %eb 4or other5 $ontent. Fears ago 6 a"ter 1ill .ates over$ame his mis!la$ed s$e!ti$ism 6 3i$roso"t introd#$ed their Binternet6read B a!!li$ations. Its %ord !ro$essing so"t%are 4B8ordB5, other O""i$e a!!li$ations, and the 8indo%s o!erating s stem handle both Blo$alB do$#ments 4resident on the #ser;s $om!#ter5 and %eb !ages smoothl and seamlessl . The transition bet%een the deskto! or la!to! inter"a$es and the %eb is toda e""ortlessl trans!arent. The introd#$tion o" e6book readers and 3P3 !la ers has bl#rred the ana$hronisti$ distin$tion bet%een hard%are and so"t%are. ,ommon s!ee$h re"le$ts this "a$t. 8hen %e sa Be6bookB, %e mean both the devi$e and the $ontent %e a$$ess on it. As te$hnologies s#$h as digital ink and !rintable integrated $ir$#its mat#re 6 hard%are and so"t%are %ill have $om!leted their inevitable merger. This eras#re o" bo#ndaries has led to the emergen$e o" kno%ledge management sol#tions and !ersonal and shared %orks!a$es. The &O,ATION o" a do$#ment 4one;s o%n $om!#ter, a $olleag#e;s PDA, or a %eb !age5 has be$ome irrelevant. The NAT0(E o" the do$#ment 4e6 mail message, teEt "ile, video sni!!et, so#ndbite5 is eK#all #nim!ortant. The SO0(,E o" the do$#ment 4its eEtension, %hi$h tells #s on %hi$h so"t%are it %as $reated and $an be read5 is in$reasingl meaningless. 0niversal lang#ages 4s#$h as -ava5 allo% devi$es and a!!li$ations to talk to ea$h other. 8hat matters are a$$essibilit and logi$al and #ser6"riendl %ork6"lo%s. Enter En"ish. In its o%n %ords, it !rovides: B...Personali<ed !ortal sol#tion linking !ersonal and $or!orate kno%ledge %ith relevant in"ormation "rom the Internet, ...live6in deskto! environment !roviding $o6branding and $#stomi<ation o!!ort#nities on and o""line, a #niK#e, !rivate $omm#ni$ation $hannel to #sers that $an be #sed also "or e1#siness sol#tions, .../no%ledge 3anagement sol#tion that reK#ires no #ser set6#! or $on"ig#ration.B The !rin$i!le is sim!le eno#gh 6 b#t the eE!erien$e is liberating 4tr their online "lash demo5. S#ddenl , instead o" '#ggling do<ens o" %indo%s, a single inter"a$e !rovides the tort#red #ser 4that;s I5 %ith a$$ess to all his a!!li$ations: e6mail, $onta$ts, do$#ments, the $om!an ;s intranet or net%ork, the %eb and OP,;s 4other !eo!le;s $om!#ters, other net%orks, other intranets5. There is onl a single s$reen and it is d nami$all and a#tomati$all #!dated to res!ond to the $hanging in"ormation needs o" the #ser. BThe !o%er #nderl ing En"ish Ones!a$e is its !atented DE= ;engine.; This te$hnolog $reates a master, $ross6re"eren$ed indeE o" the $ontents o" a #ser;s email, do$#ments and Internet in"ormation.

The En"ish engine then #ses this master indeE as a basis to #nderstand %hat is relevant to a #ser, and to !rovide them %ith a!!ro!riate in"ormation. In this manner En"ish Ones!a$e ;!ersonali<es; the Internet "or ea$h #ser, a#tomati$all $onne$ting relevant in"ormation and servi$es "rom the Internet %ith the #ser;s deskto! in"ormation. As an eEam!le, b $li$king on a !erson or $om!an , En"ish Ones!a$e a#tomati$all assembles a !age that brings together related emails, do$#ments, $onta$t in"ormation, a!!ointments, ne%s and relevant ne%s headlines "rom the Internet. This is a$$om!lished %itho#t the #ser %orking to "ind and organi<e this in"ormation. 1 having ever thing in one !la$e and in $onteEt, o#r #sers are more in"ormed and better !re!ared to !er"orm tasks s#$h as handling a !hone $all or !re!aring "or a b#siness meeting. This res#lts in ... bene"its in !rod#$tivit and e""i$ien$ .B It is, indeed, addi$tive. The inevitable advent o" trans!arent $om!#ting 4smart ho#ses, smart $ards, smart $lothes, smart a!!lian$es, %ireless Internet5 6 $o#!led %ith the single .0I 4.ra!hi$ 0ser Inter"a$e5 a!!roa$h $an s!ell revol#tion in o#r habits. In"ormation %ill be available to #s an %here, thro#gh an identi$al s$reen, $omm#ni$ated instantl and a$$#ratel "rom devi$e to devi$e, "rom one a!!lian$e to another and "rom one lo$ation to the neEt as %e move. The #nderl ing so"t%are and hard%are %ill be$ome as ar$ane and m sterio#s as are the AS,II and ASSE31&F lang#ages to the average $om!#ter #ser toda . It %ill be a real !artnershi! o" biologi$al and arti"i$ial intelligen$e on the move.

The 7olyglottal 'nternet -y! Sa# Vaknin


htt!:++%%%.ever mail.$om+ The Internet started o"" as a !#rel Ameri$an !henomenon and seemed to !er!et#ate the "ast6 emerging dominan$e o" the English lang#age. A negligible minorit o" %eb sites %ere in other lang#ages. So"t%are a!!li$ations %ere $ha#vinisti$all ill6!re!ared 4and still are5 to deal %ith an thing b#t English. And the vast ma'orit o" net #sers %ere residents o" the t%o North6 Ameri$an $olossi, $hie"l the 0SA. All this started to $hange ra!idl abo#t t%o ears ago. Earl this ear, the n#mber o" Ameri$an #sers o" the Net %as s#r!assed b the s%elling tide o" E#ro!ean and -a!anese ones. Non6English %eb sites are !roli"erating as %ell. The advent o" the %ireless Internet 6 more %ides!read o#tside the 0SA 6 is likel to strengthen this #nmistakable trend. 1 G::H, $ertain anal sts eE!e$t non6English s!eakers to make #! to N:L o" all neti<ens. This "ragmentation o" an hitherto #n!re$edentedl homogeneo#s market 6 !resents both o!!ort#nities and $osts. It is m#$h more eE!ensive to market in ten lang#ages than it is in one. Ever thing 6 "rom e6mail to s#!!l $hains has to be re6tooled or $#stomi<ed. It is eas to translate teEt in $ bers!a$e. Vario#s a#tomated, %eb6based, and "ree a!!li$ations 4s#$h as 1ab lon or Travlang5 $ater to the needs o" the $as#al #ser %ho doesn;t mind the K#alit o" the end6res#lt. Virt#all ever sear$h engine, !ortal and dire$tor o""ers a$$ess to these or similar servi$es. 1#t straight"or%ard translation is onl one kind o" sol#tion to the to%er o" 1abel that the Internet is bo#nd to be$ome. Enter 8orld8alla. A %hile ba$k I #sed their m#lti6ling#al e6mail a!!li$ation. It $onverted teEt I t !ed on a virt#al ke board to images 4o" $hara$ters5. 3 addressees re$eived the message in an lang#age I sele$ted. It %as more than $ool. It %as liberating. Along the same vein, 8orld8alla;s so"t%are allo%s a!!li$ation and $ontent develo!ers to %ork in OO lang#ages. In their o%n %ords: B8ord8alla allo%s devi$e man#"a$t#rers and a!!li$ation develo!ers to meet this $hallenge b develo!ing !rod#$ts that s#!!ort an lang#age. This sim!li"ies testing and $on"ig#ration management, a$$elerates time to market, lo%ers #nit $osts and allo%s $om!anies to K#i$kl and easil enter ne% markets and o""er greater levels o" !ersonali<ation and $#stomer satis"a$tion.B .lobalV# $onverts teEt to devi$e6inde!endent images. .lobalEase 8eb is a B-ava6based m#ltiling#al teEt in!#t and dis!la engineB. It in$l#des virt#al ke boards, "ront6end !ro$essors, and a $onteEt#al !ro$essor and teEt la o#t engine "or le"t to right and right to le"t lang#age "ormatting. The have versions tailored to the s!e$i"i$ations o" mobile devi$es. The se$ret is in generating and !ro$essing images 4bitma!s5, $om!ressing them and transmitting them. In a %a , 8ord8alla generates a 2A,SI3I&E message 4the kind %e re$eive on o#r "aE ma$hines5 ever time teEt is eE$hanged. It is trans!arent to both sender and re$eiver 6 and it makes a #ser6driven !ol glottal Internet a realit .

Deja @oogled 0+1 Sam 2aknin


htt!:++gro#!s.google.$om+ htt!:++gro#!s.google.$om+googlegro#!s+ar$hiveXanno#n$e.html The Internet ma have started as the "ervent brain$hild o" DA(PA, the 0S de"en$e agen$ 6 b#t it K#i$kl evolved into a net%ork o" $om!#ters at the servi$e o" a $omm#nit . A$ademi$s aro#nd the %orld #sed it to $omm#ni$ate, $om!are res#lts, $om!#te, intera$t and "lame ea$h other. The ethos o" the $omm#nit as $ontent6$reator, so#r$e o" in"ormation, "o#nt o" emotional s#stenan$e, !eer gro#!, and so$ial s#bstit#te is %ell embedded in the ver "abri$ o" the Net. 3illions o" members in "ree, advertising or s#bs$ri!tion "inan$ed, mega6sites s#$h as .eo$ities, AO&, Fahoo and Tri!od generate more bits and b tes than the rest o" the Internet $ombined. This tra""i$ emanates "rom dis$#ssion gro#!s, anno#n$ement 4mailing5 lists, ne%sgro#!s, and $ontent sites 4s#$h as S#ite9:9 and 8ebseed5. Even the o$$asional visitor $an "ind !ri$eless gems o" kno%ledge and o!inion in the mo#nd o" trash and "rivolit that these !arts o" the %eb have be$ome. The emergen$e o" sear$h engines and dire$tories %hi$h $ater onl to this 4si<eable5 market segment %as to be eE!e$ted. 1 "ar the most $om!rehensive 4and, th#s, less dis$riminating5 %as De'a. It s!idered and took in the eE!loding ne%sgro#!s 40senet5 s$ene %ith its tens o" tho#sands o" dail messages. 8hen it %as taken over b .oogle, its ar$hives $ontained more than H:: million messages, $ross6indeEed ever %hi$h %a and !ertaining to ever !ossible 4and man im!ossible5 a to!i$. .oogle is b "ar the most !o!#lar sear$h engine et, having s#r!assed the more veteran Northern &ights, 2ast, and Alta Vista. Its mind de" ing database 4more than 9.3 billion %eb !ages5, its $a$hing te$hnolog 4making it, in e""e$t, one o" the biggest libraries on earth5 and its site ranking 4b !o!#larit and links6over5 have rendered it #nbeatable. Fet, its e""orts to integrate the treas#re trove that is De'a and ada!t it to the .oogle sear$h inter"a$e have hitherto been s!e$ta$#larl #ns#$$ess"#l 4tho#gh it "inall made it t%o and a hal" months a"ter the !#r$hase5. So m#$h so, that it gave birth to a !rotest movement. 1i$kering and bad tem!ered "laming 4o"ten bordering on the deranged, the ra$ial, or the stalking5 are the more re!#lsive as!e$ts o" the 0senet gro#!s. 1#t at the heart o" the debate this time is no ordinar sadisti$ venting. The iss#e is: %ho o%ns $ontent generated b the !#bli$ at large on $om!#ters "#nded b taE dollars> ,an a $ommer$ial enter!rise o%n and mono!oli<e the "r#its o" the $olle$tive e""ort o" millions o" individ#als "rom all over the %orld> Or sho#ld s#$h intelle$t#al !ro!ert remain in the !#bli$ domain, !erha!s maintained b !#bli$ instit#tions 4s#$h as the &ibrar o" ,ongress5> Sho#ld o!en so#r$e movements gain a$$ess to De'a;s so#r$e $ode in order to la#n$h De'a II> And %ho o%ns the $o! right to all these messages 4theoreti$all , the a#thors5> .oogle, as De'a be"ore it, is o""ering $om!ilations o" this $ontent, the $o! right to %hi$h it does not and $annot o%n. The ver legal $on$e!t o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert is at the $r#E o" this virt#al $on"li$t. .oogle %as, th#s, $om!elled to o""er "ree a$$ess to the ,ONTENT o" the De'a ar$hives to alternative 4non6.oogle5 ar$hiving s stems. 1#t it remains m#m on the sear$h !rogramming $ode and the #ser inter"a$e. Alread one s#$h o!en so#r$e gro#! 4$alled Dela Ne%s5 is $oales$ing, altho#gh it is not $lear %ho %ill bear the $osts o" the giganti$ storage and !ro$essing s#$h a !ro'e$t %o#ld reK#ire. Dela %ants to have a !h si$al $o! o" the ar$hive

de!osited in tr#st %ith a dot org. This raises a host o" no less "as$inating s#b'e$ts. The De'a 0senet sear$h te$hnolog , !rogramming $ode, and s stems are ineEtri$able and almost indisting#ishable "rom the 0senet ar$hive itsel". 8itho#t these elements 6 str#$t#ral as %ell as d nami$ 6 there %ill be no ar$hive and no %a to eEtra$t meaning"#l in"ormation "rom the $haoti$ bedlam that is the 0senet environment. In this $ase, the in"ormation lies in the ordering and $lassi"i$ation o" ra% data and not in the $ontent itsel". This is %h the o!en so#r$e !ro!onents demand that .oogle share both $ontent and the tools to a$$ess it. .oogle;s hast and im!rovised #n!l#gging o" De'a in 2ebr#ar onl served to aggravate the die6hard "ans o" erst%hile De'a. The 0senet is not onl the re"#ge o" !edo!hiles and neo6Na<is. It in$l#des tho#sands o" a$ademi$all rigoro#s and resear$h in$lined dis$#ssion gro#!s %hi$h mor!h %ith intelle$t#al trends and "ashionable s#b'e$ts. 3ore than t%ent ears o" %isdom and er#dition are b#ried in servers all over the %orld. S$holars o"ten visit 0senet in their !#rs#it o" $om!lementar kno%ledge or eE!ert advi$e. The 0senet is also the do$#mentation o" 8estern intelle$t#al histor in the last three de$ades. In it inval#able. .oogle;s de$ision to abandon the internal links bet%een De'a messages means the disintegration o" the h !erlinked "abri$ o" this reso#r$e 6 #nless .oogle $omes #! %ith an alternative 4and eE!ensive5 sol#tion. .oogle is o""ering a better, "aster, more m#lti6la ered and m#lti6"a$eted a$$ess to the entire ar$hive. 1#t its br#sh %ith the more abrasive side o" the o!en so#r$e movement bro#ght to the s#r"a$e long s#!!ressed iss#es. This ma be the single most im!ortant $ontrib#tion o" this other%ise not so o!!ort#ne transa$tion.

5a s o& C+bers ace 0+1 Sam 2aknin


B, bers!a$e. A $onsens#al hall#$ination eE!erien$ed dail b billions o" legitimate o!erators, in ever nation, b $hildren being ta#ght mathemati$al $on$e!ts...A gra!hi$al re!resentation o" data abstra$ted "rom the banks o" ever $om!#ter in the h#man s stem. 0nthinkable$om!leEit . &ines o" light ranged in the non6s!a$e o" the mind, $l#sters and $onstellations o" data. &ike $it lights, re$eding...B 48illiam .ibson, BNe#roman$erB, 9DMC, !age H95 htt!:++%%%.ebookma!.net+ma!s.htm htt!:++%%%.$ bergeogra!h .org+atlas+atlas.html At "irst sight, it a!!ears to be a stati$, $l#ttered diagram %ith m#lti$olo#red, overla!!ing sK#ares. (eall , it is an eEtremel !o%er"#l%a o" !resenting the d nami$s o" the emerging e6 !#blishing ind#str . (G ,ons#lting has $onstr#$ted these e1ook Ind#str 3a!s to Bre"le$t the evolving b#siness models among !#blishers, $onversion ho#ses, digital distrib#tion $om!anies, e1ook vendors, online retailers, libraries, librar vendors, a#thors, and man others. These ma!s are 36dimensionalo""ering vie%ers both a high6level orientation to the e1ook lands$a!e and an in6de!th look at m#lti!le e1ook models and the !artnershi!s that have "ormed %ithin ea$h one.B Pass o#r mo#se over an o" the sK#ares and a virt#al "loodgate o!ens 6 a #niverse o" inter$onne$ted and h !erlinked names, a detailed atlas o" %ho does %hat to %hom. e1ook3a!.net is one eEam!le o" a relativel novel a!!roa$h to databases and %eb indeEing. The meta!hor o" $ ber6s!a$e $omes alive in s!atial, t%o and three dimensional ma!6like re!resentations o" the %orld o" kno%ledge in , bergeogra!h ;s online BAtlasB. Instead o" endless, stati$ and bi6$hromati$ lists o" links 6 , bergeogra!h $atalog#es vis#al,re$ombinant vistas %ith a st#nning !alette, internal d nami$s and an int#itivel $onve ed sense o" inter6 relatedness. 7 !erlinks are in$or!orated in the to!ogra!h and to!olog o" these almost6 ne#ral ma!s. BThese ma!s o" , bers!a$es 6 $ berma!s 6 hel! #s vis#alise and $om!rehend the ne% digital lands$a!es be ond o#r $om!#ter s$reen, in the %ires o" the global $omm#ni$ations net%orks and vast online in"ormation reso#r$es. The $ berma!s, like ma!s o" the real6%orld, hel! #s navigate the ne% in"ormation lands$a!es, as %ell being ob'e$ts o" aestheti$ interest. The have been $reated b ;$ ber6eE!lorers; o" man di""erent dis$i!lines, and "rom all $orners o" the %orld. Some o" the ma!s ... in the Atlas o" , bers!a$es ... a!!ear "amiliar, #sing the $artogra!hi$$onventions o" real6%orld ma!s, ho%ever, man o" the ma!s are m#$h more abstra$t re!resentations o" ele$troni$ s!a$es, #sing ne% metri$s and grids.B Navigating these ma!s is like navigating an inner, "amiliar, territor . The $ome in all sha!es and modes: "lo% $harts, K#asi6geogra!hi$al ma!s, 36d sim#lator6like terrains and man others. The B%eb StalkerB is an eE!erimental %eb bro%ser %hi$h is eK#i!!ed %ith ma!!ing "#n$tions. The range o" a!!li$abilit is mind boggling. A 4ver 5 !artial list:

The Internet .enome Pro'e$t 6 Bo!en6so#r$e ma! o" the ma'or $on$e!t#al $om!onents o" the Internet and ho% the relate to ea$h otherB Anatom o" a &in#E S stem 6 Aimed to B...give vie%ers a $on$ise and $om!rehensive look at the &in#E #niverse; and at the heart o" the !oster is a gravit %ell gra!hi$ sho%ing the $ore so"t%are $om!onents,s#rro#nded b eE!lanator teEtB Ne%3edia H:: 6 The "inan$ial, strategi$, and other inter6relationshi!sand intera$tions bet%een the leading H:: ne% 4%eb5 media "irms Internet Ind#str 3a! 6 O%nershi! and allian$es determine stat#s, $ontrol, and a$$ess in the Internet ind#str . A revealing organi<ational $hart. The Internet 8eather (e!ort meas#res Internet !er"orman$e, laten$ !eriods and do%ntime based on a sam!le o" C::: domains. (eal Time .eogra!hi$ Vis#ali<ation o" 888 Tra""i$ 6 a st#nning, 36d re!resentation o" %eb #sage and tra""i$ statisti$s the %orld over. 8eb1rain and 3a!.net !rovide a gra!hi$ rendition o" the O!en Dire$tor Pro'e$t. The themati$ str#$t#re o" the ODP is instantl dis$ernible. The 8eb3a! is a vis#al, m#lti6$ategor dire$tor %hi$h $ontains G,:::,::: %eb sites. The #ser $an <oom in and o#t o" s#b6$ategories and B#nlo$kB their $ontents. 3a!s hel! %rite "i$tion, tra$e a #ser;s $li$k!ath 4re!lete %ith $li$kable %eb sites5, $a!t#re 0senet and $hat intera$tions 4threads5, !lot sear$h res#lts 4tho#gh Alta Vista dis$ontin#ed its ma!!ing servi$e and FahooJ3D is no more5, bookmark %eb destinations, and navigate thro#gh $om!leE sites. Di""erent meta!hors are #sed as inter"a$e. 8eb sites are re!resented as !lots o" land, stars 4%hose brightness $orres!onds to the %eb site;s !o!#larit ranking5, amino6a$ids in DNA6like $onstellations,to!ogra!hi$al ma!s o" the o$ean de!ths, b#ildings in an #rban lands$a!e, or other ob'e$ts in a !astoral setting. Virt#al (ealit 4V(5 ma!s allo% in"ormation to be sim#ltaneo#sl bro%sed b teams o" $ollaborators, sometimes re!resented as avatars in a "#ll immersive environment. In man a!!li$ations, the #ser is eE!e$ted to "l amongst the data items in virt#al lands$a!es. 8ith the advent o" so!histi$ated .0I;s 4.ra!hi$ 0serInter"a$es5 and V(3& 4Virt#al (ealit 3ark#! &ang#age5 6 these ma!s ma %ell sho% #s the %a to a more $olo#r"#l and #ser6"riendl "#t#re.

The -niversal Intuitive Inter&ace 0+1 Sam 2aknin


The histor o" te$hnolog is the histor o" inter"a$es 6 their s#$$esses and "ail#res. The .0I 4the .ra!hi$ 0ser Inter"a$e5 6 %hi$h re!la$ed $#mbersome and #n%ield teEt6based inter"a$es 4DOS5 6 be$ame an integral !art o" the asto#nding s#$$ess o" the P,. Fet, all $om!#ter inter"a$es hitherto share the same gro%th6st#nting !roblems. The are: 4a5 Non6trans!aren$ 6 the %orkings o" the hard%are and so"t%are 4the B!l#mbingB5 sho% thro#gh 4b5 Non6#biK#it 6 the inter"a$e is $onne$ted to a s!e$i"i$ ma$hine and, th#s, is non6 trans!ortable 4$5 &a$k o" "riendliness 4i.e., the inter"a$es reK#ire s!e$i"i$ kno%ledge and s!e$i"i$ seK#en$es o" s!e$i"i$ $ommands5. Even the most B#ser6"riendl B inter"a$e is %a too $om!li$ated "or the t !i$al #ser. The average P, is h#ndreds o" times more $om!li$ated than o#r average TV. Even the V,( 6 "ar less $om!leE than the P, 6 is a $hallenge. 7o% man !eo!le #se the "#ll range o" a V,(;s o!tions> The #ltimate inter"a$e, in m vie%, sho#ld be: 4a5 Sel"6assembling 6 it sho#ld re$onstr#$t itsel", "rom time to time, "l#idl 4b5 Sel"6re$#rsive 6 it sho#ld be able to observe and anal <e its o%n behavior 4$5 &earning6$a!able 6 it sho#ld learn "rom its eE!erien$e 4d5 Sel"6modi" ing 6 it sho#ld modi" itsel" a$$ording to its a$$#m#lated eE!erien$e 4e5 7istor 6re$ording It m#st !ossess a B!i$t#re o" the %orldB 4a6la arti"i$ial intelligen$e5 6 !re"erabl in$l#ding itsel", the #ser, and their $#m#lative intera$tions. It m#st regard all other BintelligentB ma$hines in its B%orldB 4the #ser being onl one o" them5 as its B$lientsB. It m#st, there"ore, be able to $omm#ni$ate %ith them in a nat#ral lang#age. Its #niverse m#st be seamless 4e.g., the !h si$al or even s stem lo$ation o" "iles or hard%are or so"t%are or a!!lets or servers or $omm#ni$ation lines or in"ormation and so on 6 %ill be irrelevant5. It %ill !robabl be !eer6orientated 4no hierar$h 5. I $all it Bthe int#itive #niversal inter"a$eB. The ne% media te$hnologies %ere designed b engineers and !rogrammers 6 not b marketing !eo!le and #sers. The inter"a$e o" the "#t#re %ill re"le$t the needs, %ishes, limitations, and skills o" #sers. This is a revol#tionar shi"t and a nat#ral o#t$ome o" the takeover o" the

Internet b governments and bottom line orientated $or!orations. The inter"a$e o" the "#t#re %ill seek to enhan$e #sage and enri$h the #ser;s eE!erien$e 6 not to %in te$hnologi$al bea#t $ontest. It is a %el$ome transition 6 and long overd#e.

Internet Advertising $ What Went Wrong? 0+1 Sam 2aknin


The de$line in Internet advertising 6 tho#gh !aralleled b a similar trend in !rint advertising 6 had more serio#s and irreversible im!li$ations. 3ost $ontent dot.$oms %ere based on ad6 driven reven#e models. Online advertising %as s#!!osed to amorti<e start6#! and o!erational $osts and lead to !ro"itabilit even as it s#bsidi<ed "ree a$$ess to $ostl $ontent. A similar reven#e model has been s#$$ess"#ll !ro!!ing #! !rint !eriodi$als "or at least t%o $ent#ries. 1#t, as o!!osed to their online $o#nter!arts, !rint !rod#$ts have a "e% streams o" in$ome, not least among them !aid s#bs$ri!tions. 3oreover, !rint media ke!t their $osts do%n in good times and bad. Dot.$oms devo#red their investors; mone in a sel"6destr#$tive and avari$io#s ba$$hanalia. 1#t %h did online advertising $olla!se in the "irst !la$e> 8as it ine""e$tive> Advertising is a m#lti6"a$eted and !s $hologi$all $om!leE !henomenon. It im!arts in"ormation to !otential $ons#mers, #sers, s#!!liers, investors, the $omm#nit , or other stakeholders in the "irm. It motivates ea$h o" these to do his bit: $ons#mers to $ons#me, investors to invest and so on. 1#t this is not the main "#n$tion o" the advertising dollar. 3odern e$onomi$ signal theor has $ast advertising in a ne% and s#r!rising 6 tho#gh b no means $o#nterint#itive 6 light. A$$ording to this theor , the role o" advertising is to signal to the market!la$e the advertiser;s resilien$e, longevit , %ealth, $lo#t, and dominan$e. 1 s!l#rging mone o" advertising, the advertiser a$t#all in"orms #s 6 the Be eballsB 6 that it is here to sta , s#""i$ientl a""l#ent to "inan$e its ads, stable, reliable, and dominant. BI" "irm = invested a million b#$ks in advertising 6 it m#st be %orth more than a million b#$ksB 6 goes the signal. BI" it invested so m#$h mone in !romoting its !rod#$ts, it is not a "l 6b 6nightB. BI" it $an thro% mone at an ad $am!aign, it is stable and resilientB. This signal is missing in online advertising. It dro%ns in noise. The online noise to signal ratio %as #na$$e!table to advertisers 6 so the sto!!ed advertising. 8hen the noise to signal ratio to!s a $ertain level 6 ads $ease to be e""e$tive. The readers or s!e$tators be$ome in#red to the messages 6 both eE!li$it and im!li$it. The t#ne o"". The noise in online advertising stems "rom t%o so#r$es. A $riti$al element in the signal is lost i" the ad is not !aid "or. Onl !aid advertising $onve s in"ormation abo#t the !#r!orted health and !ros!e$ts o" the advertiser. Fet, the Internet is "looded %ith "ree advertising: "ree $lassi"ieds, "ree banner ads, ad eE$hanges. The !aid ads dro%n in this o$ean o" "ree ads. There is o"ten no %a o" telling a !aid ad "rom a "ree one 6 %itho#t reading the "ine !rint. 3oreover, Internet #sers are a B$a!tive a#dien$eB. It is eas to "li! ad6besieged $hannels on TV, or t#rn the ad6laden lea" o" a ne%s!a!er. It is $lose to im!ossible to avoid an ad on the Net. 1anner ads are an integral !art o" the !age. Po!6#! ads !o! #!. Embedded ads are embedded. One needs to install s!e$ial a!!li$ations to avoid the harassment.

This leads to desensiti<ation and a revolt o" the #ser. 0sers resent the intr#sion, are in$ensed b the $oer$ive ta$ti$s o" advertisers, nerve %re$ked b !rotra$ted do%nload times, and #nnerved b the $ontent o" man o" the ads. This is not an environment $ond#$ive to $lin$hing deals or $onverting to sales. There is also the iss#e o" $redibilit . The b#lk o" online advertising emanates "rom dot.$oms. Even !rior to the re$ent sto$k eE$hange meltdo%n, these %ere not $onsidered !aragons o" re$tit#de and tr#th in advertising. Peo!le learned to distr#st most o" %hat the read in Internet ads. S$or$hed b s$ams, "alse !romises, "a#lt !rod#$ts, shodd or non6eEistent $#stomer $are, broken links, or all o" the above 6 #sers learned to ignore 8eb advertising and relegate it to their mental d#st bins. 3ore abo#t $redibilit on the 8eb here: The In6,redible 8eb 8ill the medi#m ever re$over> Probabl not. As the Internet is taken over b bri$k6and6 mortar $or!orations and governments, online "are %ill $ome to resemble the o""line sort. Online ads %ill be no more than intera$tive renditions o" their o""line "a$similes. The reven#e model %ill s%it$h "rom advertising to s#bs$ri!tions and Ba#thor6!a sB. The da s o" "ree $ontent "inan$ed b advertising are over. This does not mean that the da s o" "ree $ontent are over as %ell. It onl means that ne%, im!roved, realisti$, and $l#tter6"ree reven#e models %ill have to be "o#nd. There are some interesting develo!ments in s$holarl online !#blishing as %ell as in the "ields o" online re"eren$e and sel"6!#blishing. 1#t these are earl da s and the medi#m is d nami$. Ad6driven $ontent %as a "ail#re. The neEt model ma be a roaring s#$$ess 6 or et another dismal de"eat.

The *conomics o& S am 0+1 Sam 2aknin Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
Tennessee resident /. ,. B/hanB Smith o%es the internet servi$e !rovider Earth&ink RGC million. A$$ording to the ,NN, last A#g#st he %as sla!!ed %ith a la%s#it a$$#sing him o" violating "ederal and state (a$keteering In"l#en$ed and ,orr#!t Organi<ations 4(I,O5 stat#tes, the "ederal ,om!#ter 2ra#d and Ab#se A$t o" 9DMC, the "ederal Ele$troni$ ,omm#ni$ations Priva$ A$t o" 9DMO and n#mero#s other state la%s. On -#l 9D 6 having "ailed to a!!ear in $o#rt 6 the '#dge r#led against him. 3r. Smith is a s!ammer. 1rightmail, a vendor o" e6mail "ilters and anti6s!am a!!li$ations %arned that $lose to H million s!am Batta$ksB or Bb#rstsB o$$#rred last month and that s!am has m#shroomed CH: !er$ent sin$e -#ne last ear. P, 8orld $on$#rs. 1et%een one seventh and one hal" o" all e6 mail messages are s!am 6 #nsoli$ited and intr#sive $ommer$ial ads, mostl $on$erned %ith seE, s$ams, get ri$h K#i$k s$hemes, "inan$ial servi$es and !rod#$ts, and health arti$les o" d#bio#s !rovenan$e. The messages are sent "rom s!oo"ed or "ake e6mail addresses. Some s!ammers ha$k into #nse$#red servers 6 mainl in ,hina and /orea 6 to rela their missives anon mo#sl . S!am is an ind#str . 3ass e6mailers maintain lists o" e6mail addresses, o"ten BharvestedB b s!am%are bots 6 s!e$iali<ed $om!#ter a!!li$ations 6 "rom 8eb sites. These lists are rented o#t or sold to marketers %ho #se b#lk mail servi$es. The $ome $hea! 6 $. R9:: "or 9: million addresses. 1#lk mailers !rovide servers and band%idth, $harging $. R3:: !er million messages sent. As s!am re$i!ients be$ome more in#red, ISP;s less tolerant, and both more litigio#s 6 s!ammers m#lti!l their e""orts in order to maintain the same res!onse rate. S!am %orks. It is not #niversall #n%anted 6 %hi$h makes it tri$k to o#tla%. It eli$its bet%een :.9 and 9 !er$ent in !ositive "ollo% #!s, de!ending on the message. 3an messages no% in$l#de 7T3&, -avaS$ri!t, and A$tive= $oding and th#s resemble vir#ses. -#!iter 3edia 3atriE !redi$ted last ear that the n#mber o" s!am messages ann#all re$eived b a t !i$al Internet #ser is bo#nd to do#ble to 9C:: and s!ending on legitimate e6mail marketing %ill rea$h RD.C billion b G::O 6 $om!ared to R9 billion in G::9. 2orrester (esear$h !egs the n#mber at RC.M billion neEt ear. 3ore than G.3 billion s!am messages are sent dail . e3arketer !#ts the "ig#res a lot lo%er at NO billion messages this ear. 1 G::O, dail s!am o#t!#t %ill soar to $. 9H billion missives, sa s (adi$ati .ro#!. -#!iter !ro'e$ts a more modest GOM billion ann#al messages b G::H. An average $omm#ni$ation $osts the s!ammer :.:::3G $ents. P, 8orld K#otes the E#ro!ean 0nion as !egging the band%idth $osts o" s!am %orld%ide at RM69: billion ann#all . Other damages in$l#de server $rashes, time s!ent !#rging #n%anted messages, lo%er !rod#$tivit , aggravation, and in$reased $ost o" Internet a$$ess. Inevitabl , the s!am ind#str gave rise to an anti6s!am ind#str . A$$ording to a (adi$ati .ro#! re!ort titled BAnti6vir#s, anti6s!am, and $ontent "iltering market trends G::G6G::OB, anti6s!am reven#es are !ro'e$ted to eE$eed RMM million this ear 6 and more than do#ble b

G::O. &ist blo$kers, re!ort and $om!laint generators, advo$a$ gro#!s, registers o" kno%n s!ammers, and s!am "ilters all !roli"erate. The 8all Street -o#rnal re!orted in its -#ne GH iss#e abo#t a res#rgen$e o" anti6s!am start#!s "inan$ed b eager vent#re $a!ital. ISP;s are bent on !reventing ab#se 6 re!orted b vi$tims 6 b eE!#nging the a$$o#nts o" s!ammers. 1#t the latter sim!l s%it$h ISP;s or sign on %ith "ree servi$es like 7otmail and FahooJ 1arriers to entr are getting lo%er b the da as the $osts o" hard%are, so"t%are, and $omm#ni$ations !l#mmet. The #se o" e6mail and broadband $onne$tions b the general !o!#lation is s!reading. 7#ndreds o" tho#sands o" te$hnologi$all 6savv o!erators have 'oined the market in the last t%o ears, as the dot$om b#bble b#rst. Still, Steve &in"ord o" the 0/6based S!amha#s.org insists that most s!am emanates "rom $. M: large o!erators. No%, a$$ording to -#!iter 3edia, ISP;s and !ortals are !oised to begin to $harge advertisers in a tier6based s stem, re!lete %ith !remi#m servi$es. 8riting ba$k in 9DDM, 1ill .ates des$ribed a sol#tion also es!o#sed b Esther D son, $hair o" the Ele$troni$ 2rontier 2o#ndation: BAs I "irst des$ribed in m book BThe /oad head" in 9DDH, I eE!e$t that event#all o#;ll be !aid to read #nsoli$ited e6mail. Fo#;ll tell o#r e6mail !rogram to dis$ard all #nsoli$ited messages that don;t o""er an amo#nt o" mone that o#;ll $hoose. I" o# o!en a !aid message and dis$over it;s "rom a long6lost "riend or somebod else %ho has a legitimate reason to $onta$t o#, o#;ll be able to $an$el the !a ment. Other%ise, o#;ll be !aid "or o#r time.B S#bs$ribers ma not be a!!re$iative o" the 'oint vent#res bet%een gatekee!ers and inboE $l#tterers. 3oreover, dominant ISP;s, s#$h as ATQT and PSINet have re$#rrentl been a$$#sed o" kno%ingl $ollaborating %ith s!ammers. ISP;s rel on the data tra""i$ that s!am generates "or their reven#es in an ever6harsher b#siness environment. The 2inan$ial Times and others des$ribed ho% 8orld,om re"#ses to ban the sale o" s!am%are over its net%ork, $laiming that it does not reg#late $ontent. 8hen B!inkB 4the $olor o" $anned s!am5 $ontra$ts $ame to light, the im!li$ated ISP;s blame the %hole a""air on rog#e em!lo ees. P, 8orld begs to di""er: B(onnie S$elson, a sel"6des$ribed s!ammer %ho signed s#$h a $ontra$t %ith PSInet, 4sa s5 that ba$kbone !roviders are more than ha!! to do b#siness %ith b#lk e6mailers. ;I;ve signed #! %ith the biggest H: $arriers t%o or three times,; sa s S$elson ... The &o#isiana6based s!ammer $laims to send MC million $ommer$ial e6mail messages a da over his three CH6 megabit6!er6se$ond DS3 $ir$#its. BI" o# %ere getting RC:,::: a month "or ea$h $ir$#it,B S$elson asks, B%o#ld o# %ant to sh#t me do%n>B

The line bet%een !ermission6based or Bo!t6inB e6mail marketing and s!am is getting thinner b the da . Some list resellers g#arantee the $onsens#al nat#re o" their %ares. A$$ording to the Dire$t 3arketing Asso$iation;s g#idelines, K#oted b P, 8orld, not res!onding to an #nsoli$ited e6mail amo#nts to Bo!ting6inB 6 a marketing strateg kno%n as Bo!ting o#tB. 3ost eE!erts, tho#gh, strongl #rge s!am vi$tims not to res!ond to s!ammers, lest their e6mail address is $on"irmed. 1#t s!am is $rossing te$hnologi$al bo#ndaries. -a!an has '#st legislated against %ireless S3S s!am targeted at ha!less mobile !hone #sers. 2o#r states in the 0SA as %ell as the E#ro!ean !arliament are "ollo%ing s#it. EE!ensive and slo% $onne$tions make this kind o" s!am !arti$#larl resented. Still, a$$ording to 1ritain;s 3obile ,hannel, a mobile advertising $om!an K#oted b BThe E$onomistB, S3S advertising 6 a novelt 6 attra$ts a 9:6G: !er$ent res!onse rate 6 $om!ared to dire$t mail;s 963 !er$ent. Net identi"i$ation s stems 6 like 3i$roso"t;s Pass!ort and the one !ro!osed b &ibert Allian$e 6 %ill make it even easier "or marketers to target !ros!e$ts. The rea$tion to s!am $an be des$ribed onl as mass h steria. (e!orting someone as a s!ammer 6 even %hen he is not 6 has be$ome a "avorite !astime o" venge"#l, sel"6a!!ointed, vigilante B$ ber6$o!sB. Per"e$tl legitimate, o!t6in, email marketing b#sinesses o"ten "ind themselves in one or more bla$k lists 6 their re!#tation and b#siness r#ined. In -an#ar , ,3.I6o%ned Fesmail %as a%arded a tem!orar restraining order against 3APS 6 3ail Ab#se Prevention S stem 6 "orbidding it to !la$e the re!#table e6mail marketer on its (eal6time 1la$khole list. The $ase %as settled o#t o" $o#rt. 7arris Intera$tive, a large online o!inion !olling $om!an , s#ed not onl 3APS, b#t ISP;s %ho blo$ked its email messages %hen it "o#nd itsel" in$l#ded in 3APS; 1la$khole. Their ,EO a$$#sed one o" their $om!etitors "or the allegations that led to 7arris; in$l#sion in the list. ,o#!led %ith other !erni$io#s !henomena, s#$h as vir#ses, the ver "o#ndation o" the Internet as a "#n, relativel sa"e, mode o" $omm#ni$ation and data a$K#isition is at stake. S!ammers, it emerges, have their o%n organi<ations. NOI, 6 the National Organi<ation o" Internet ,ommer$e threatened to !ost to its 8eb site the e6mail addresses o" millions o" AO& members. AO& has aggressive anti6s!amming !oli$ies. BAO& is blo$king b#lk email be$a#se it %ants the advertising reven#es "or itsel" 4b selling !o!6#! ads5B the !resident o" NOI,, Damien 3elle, $om!lained to ,NET. S!am is a $lassi$ B"ree riderB !roblem. 2or an given individ#al, the $ost o" blo$king a s!ammer "ar o#t%eighs the bene"its. It is $hea!er and easier to hit the BdeleteB ke . Individ#als, there"ore, !re"er to let others do the 'ob and en'o the o#t$ome 6 the !#bli$ good o" a s!am6"ree Internet. The $annot be le"t o#t o" the bene"its o" s#$h an a"termath 6 !#bli$ goods are, b de"inition, Bnon6eE$l#dableB. Nor is a !#bli$ good diminished b a gro%ing n#mber o" Bnon6rivalB #sers. S#$h a sit#ation resembles a market "ail#re and reK#ires government intervention thro#gh legislation and en"or$ement. The 2T, 6 the 0S 2ederal Trade ,ommission 6 has taken legal a$tion against more than 9:: s!ammers "or !romoting s$ams and "ra#d#lent goods and servi$es.

BPro'e$t 3ailboEB is an anti6s!am $ollaboration bet%een Ameri$an la% en"or$ement agen$ies and the !rivate se$tor. Non government organi<ations have entered the "ra , as have lobb ing gro#!s, s#$h as ,A0,E 6 the ,oalition Against 0nsoli$ited ,ommer$ial E6mail. 1#t ,ongress is $#rio#sl rel#$tant to ena$t stringent la%s against s!am. (easons $ited are "ree s!ee$h, limits on state !o%ers to reg#late $ommer$e, avoiding #n"air restri$tions on trade, and the interests o" small b#siness. The $o#rts eK#ivo$ate as %ell. In some $ases 6 e.g., 3isso#ri vs. Ameri$an 1last 2aE 6 0S $o#rts "o#nd Bthat the !rovision !rohibiting the sending o" #nsoli$ited advertisements is #n$onstit#tionalB. A$$ording to S!amla%s.$om, the 9:Nth ,ongress dis$#ssed these la%s b#t never ena$ted them: 0nsoli$ited ,ommer$ial Ele$troni$ 3ail A$t o" G::9 47.(. DH5, 8ireless Tele!hone S!am Prote$tion A$t 47.(. 9935, Anti6S!amming A$t o" G::9 47.(. N9M5, Anti6S!amming A$t o" G::9 47.(. 9:9N5, 8ho Is E63ailing O#r /ids A$t 47.(. 9MCO5, Prote$t ,hildren 2rom E6 3ail Sm#t A$t o" G::9 47.(. GCNG5, Neti<ens Prote$tion A$t o" G::9 47.(. 39CO5, B,AN SPA3B A$t o" G::9 4S. O3:5. Anti6s!am la%s "ared no better in the 9:Oth ,ongress. Some o" the states have !i$ked #! the sla$k. Arkansas, ,ali"ornia, ,olorado, ,onne$ti$#t, Dela%are, Idaho, Illinois, Io%a, /ansas, &o#isiana, 3ar land, 3innesota, 3isso#ri, Nevada, North ,arolina, Oklahoma, Penns lvania, (hode Island, So#th Dakota, Tennessee, 0tah, Virginia, 8ashington, 8est Virginia, and 8is$onsin. The sit#ation is no better a$ross the !ond. The E#ro!ean !arliament de$ided last ear to allo% ea$h member $o#ntr to ena$t its o%n s!am la%s, th#s avoiding a $ontinent6%ide dire$tive and dire$tl $on"ronting the $omm#ni$ations ministers o" the #nion. ParadoEi$all , it also de$ided, three months ago, to restri$t S3S s!am. ,on"#sion $learl reigns.

Don8t 0link' Intervie; ;ith 6e&& )arro; 0+1 Sam 2aknin Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
-e"" 7arro% is the a#thor and editor o" the 8eb6based m#ltimedia B7arro% Te$hnolog (e!ortB 'o#rnal and 8eb$ast, available at %%%.The7arro%.ro#!.$om. 7e also $o6a#thored the book BThe Disa!!earan$e o" Tele$omm#ni$ationsB. 2or more than seventeen ears, beginning %ith UThe (a!idl ,hanging 2a$e o" ,om!#ting,V the 8eb@s "irst and longest6 r#nning %eekl m#ltimedia te$hnolog 'o#rnal, he has shared %ith !eo!le a$ross the globe his "as$ination %ith te$hnolog and his sense o" %onder at the innovations and trends o" $ontem!orar $om!#ting and the gro%ing n#mber o" te$hnologies that drive them. -e"" 7arro% has been the senior te$hnologist "or the ,or!orate Strateg .ro#!s o" both ,om!aK and Digital EK#i!ment ,or!oration. 7e invented and im!lemented the "irst i$oni$ net%ork management !rotot !e "or DE,net net%orks. 7e no% %orks %ith b#sinesses and ind#str gro#!s to hel! them better #nderstand the strategi$ im!li$ations o" o#r $ontem!orar and "#t#re $om!#ting environments. @. Do% introd%$e people to innovation and te$hnologi$al trends 1 %t do yo% have any hands on eBperien$e as an innovator or a trendsetter+ A. I have man !atents iss#ed and on "ile in the areas o" net%ork management and #ser inter"a$e te$hnolog , I am $ommer$ial !ilot, and te$hnolog is both m vo$ation and m !assion. I bring these and other te$hnologi$al interests together to hel! !eo!le Blook be ond the $om"ortable and obvio#s,B so that the don;t be$ome road6kill b the side o" the In"ormation 7igh%a . @. ', yo% had to identi,y the ,ive te$hnologies &ith the #aBi#al e$ono#i$ i#pa$t in the neBt t&o de$ades 1 &hat &o%ld they e+ A5 The $ontin#ation and eE!ansion o" B3oore;s &a%B as it relates to o#r abilit to $reate ever6 smaller, "aster, more6$a!able semi$ond#$tors and nano6s$ale Bma$hines.B The eE!onential gro%th o" o#r $a!abilities in these areas %ill drive man o" the other high6im!a$t te$hnologies mentioned belo%. 15 BNanote$hnolog .B As %e in$reasingl learn to Bb#ild things ;#!%ardsB "rom individ#al mole$#les and atoms, rather than b Bet$hing things do%nB as %e do toda %hen b#ilding o#r semi$ond#$tors, %e;re learning ho% to $reate things on the same s$ale and in the same manner as Nat#re has done "or billions o" ears. As %e !er"e$t these te$hniK#es, entire ind#stries, s#$h as !harma$e#ti$als and even man#"a$t#ring %ill be radi$all $hanged. ,5 B1and%idth.B 2or most o" the h#ndred ears o" the age o" ele$troni$s, individ#als and b#sinesses %ere able to ;rea$h o#t and to#$h; ea$h other at a distan$e via the tele!hone, %hi$h eEtended their voi$e. This dramati$all $hanged ho% b#siness %as $ond#$ted, b#t %as limited to those areas %here voi$e $o#ld make a di""eren$e.

Similarl , no% that most b#siness o!erations and kno%ledge %ork are $ond#$ted in the digital domain via $om!#ters, and be$a#se %e no% have a global data $omm#ni$ations net%ork 4the Internet5 %hi$h does not restri$t the t !e o" data shared 4voi$e, do$#ments, real6time $ollaboration, video$on"eren$ing, video6on6demand, !rint6on6demand, and even the $reation o" !h si$al 3D !rotot !e elements at a distan$e "rom ins#bstantial ,AD "iles5, b#siness is $hanging et again. /no%ledge %orkers $an no% %ork %here the %ish to, rather than be s#b'e$t to the old restri$tions o" !h si$al !roEimit , %hi$h $an $hange the $on$e!t o" $ities and s#b#rbs. Virt#al teams $an s!ring #! and dissi!ate as needed %itho#t regard to geogra!h or time <ones. Indeed, as band%idth $ontin#es to in$rease in availabilit and !l#mmet in $ost, entire ind#stries, s#$h as the B$all $enter,B are "inding a global market!la$e that $o#ld not have eEisted be"ore. EEam!le: 0.S. "irms %hose BM:: n#mbersB are a$t#all ans%ered b Ameri$an6so#nding re!resentatives %ho are %orking in India, and 0.S. "irms %ho are o#tso#r$ing Bba$k o""i$eB o!erations to other $o#ntries %ith %ell6ed#$ated b#t lo%er6!aid %ork"or$es. Individ#als $an no% a""ord Internet data $onne$tions that '#st a "e% ears ago %ere the eE!ensive !rovin$e o" large $or!orations 4e.g., $able modem and DS& servi$e5. As these te$hnologies im!rove, and as "iber is event#all eEtended Bto the $#rb,B man ind#stries, some not et invented, %ill "ind %a s to !ro"itabl $ons#me this ne% reso#r$e. 8e al%a s "ind innovative %a s to $ons#me available reso#r$es. D5 B,ombinational S$ien$es.B 3ore than an one or t%o individ#al te$hnologies, I believe that the $ombination and res#lting s nerg o" m#lti!le te$hnologies %ill have the most dramati$ and "ar6rea$hing e""e$ts on o#r so$ieties. 2or eEam!le, $om!leting the h#man genome $o#ld not have taken !la$e at all, m#$h less ears earlier than eE!e$ted, %itho#t 3oore;s &a% o" $om!#ting. And no% the se$ond stage o" %hat %ill be a biologi$al and medi$al revol#tion, BProteomi$sB, %ill be "#rther driven b advan$es in $om!#ting. 1#t in a s nergisti$ %a , $om!#ting ma a$t#all be driven b advan$es in biolog %hi$h are making it !ossible, as s$ientists learn more abo#t DNA and other organi$ mole$#les, to #se them as the basis "or $ertain t !es o" $om!#tingJ Other eEam!les o" B$ombination s$ien$esB that s nergisti$all b#ild on one another in$l#de: 6 3aterials s$ien$e and $om!#ting. 2or instan$e: $arbon nanot#bes, in some %a s the res#lts o" o#r abilities to %ork at the mole$#lar level d#e to $om!#ting resear$h, are "ar stronger than steel and ma lead to ne% materials %ith eE$e!tional K#alities.

6 3edi$ine, biolog , and materials s$ien$e. 2or eEam!le, the #se o" transgeni$ goats to !rod#$e s!e$iali<ed Bb#ilding materialsB s#$h as large K#antities o" s!ider silk in their milk, as is being done b NeEia 1iote$hnologies. 6 B3ole$#lar 3an#"a$t#ring.B As o""shoots o" m#$h o" the above resear$h, s$ientists are learning ho% to $oer$e mole$#les to a#tomati$all "orm the str#$t#res the need, rather than b having to !ainstakingl !#sh or !rod these tin b#ilding blo$ks into the $orre$t !la$es. The bottom line is that the real !o%er o" the neEt de$ades %ill be in the $ombination and s nerg o" !revio#sl se!arate "ields. And this %ill im!a$t not onl ind#stries, b#t the ed#$ation !ro$ess as %ell, as it be$omes a!!arent that !eo!le %ith broad, B$ross6"ieldB kno%ledge %ill be the ones to re$ogni<e the ne% s nergisti$ o!!ort#nities and bene"it "rom them. 2. 6sers and the p% li$ at large are apprehensive a o%t the all1pervasiveness o, #odern appli$ations o, s$ien$e and engineering. 7eople $ite se$%rity and priva$y $on$erns &ith regards to the 'nternet, ,or eBa#ple. 3o yo% elieve a L%ddite a$klash is in the $ards+ There are some ver good reasons to be $on$erned and $a#tio#s abo#t the im!lementation o" the vario#s te$hnologies that are $hanging o#r %orld. -#st as %ith most te$hnologies in the !ast 4arro%s, g#n!o%der, d namite, the tele!hone, and more5, the $an be #sed "or both good and ill. And %ith toda ;s !ell6mell r#sh to make all o" o#r b#siness and !ersonal data Bdigital,B it;s no %onder that iss#es related to !riva$ , se$#rit and more %eigh on !eo!les; minds. As in the !ast, some !eo!le %ill $hoose to %all themselves o"" "rom these te$hnologi$al $hanges 4invasions>5. Fet, in the $onteEt o" o#r evolving so$ieties, the bene"its o" these te$hnologies, as %ith ele$tri$it and the tele!hone be"ore them, %ill o#t%eigh the dangers "or man i" not most !eo!le. That said, ho%ever, it behooves #s all to %at$h and !arti$i!ate in ho% these te$hnologies are a!!lied, and in %hat la%s and sa"eg#ards are !#t in !la$e, so that the end res#lt is, K#ite literall , something that %e $an live %ith. 2. 7revio%s predi$tions o, $onvergen$e have ,l%nked. The ,a led :o#e 4ntertain#ent Center has yet to #aterialiAe, ,or instan$e. What types o, $onvergen$e do yo% dee# pra$ti$al and &hat &ill e their i#pa$t 1 so$ial and e$ono#i$+ 3#$h o" the most im!ortant and "ar6rea$hing B$onvergen$esB %ill be at the s$ienti"i$ and ind#strial levels, altho#gh these %ill tri$kle do%n to $ons#mers and b#sinesses in a m riad %a s. BThe "abled 7ome Entertainment ,enterB has indeed not et arrived, b#t not be$a#se it;s te$hnologi$all im!ossible 6 more be$a#se $ons#mers have not been sho%n $om!elling reasons and res#lts. 7o%ever, %e have seen a vast amo#nt o" this B$onvergen$eB in di""erent %a s. ,onsider the eEtent o" entertainment no% !rovided thro#gh P,s and video game $onsoles, or the relativel ne% $lass o" PDAW$ell !hone, or the !o$ket 3P3 !la er, or the in6 $ar DVD, ... E. 3ot.$o#s have o# ed. .o& nano1te$hnology is to%ted as the asis ,or a C.e& 4$ono#yC. )re &e in ,or the %rsting o, yet another % le+

0nrealisti$ eE!e$tations are rarel met over the long term. 3an !eo!le "elt that the dot.$om era %as #nrealisti$, et the all#re o" the magi$all rising sto$k !ri$es "#eled the event#al $on"lagration. The same $o#ld ha!!en %ith nanote$hnolog , b#t !erha!s %e have learned to $ombine o#r eE$itement o" Bthe neEt big thingB %ith reasonable and rational eE!e$tations and b#siness !ra$ti$es. The Bs$ien$eB %ill $ome at its o%n !a$e 66 ho% %e "inan$e that, and !ro"it "rom it, $o#ld %ell bene"it "rom the dot.bomb lessons o" the !ast. -#st as %ith s$ien$e, there;s no !ot o" gold at the end o" the e$onomi$ rainbo%. 5. *oore5s La& and *et$al,5s La& delineate an eBponential gro&th in #e#ory, pro$essing speed, storage, and other $o#p%ter $apa$ities. Where is it all going+ What is the end point+ Why do &e need so #%$h $o#p%ting po&er on o%r desktops+ What drives &hat 1 te$hnology the $y$le1$ons%#ing appli$ations or vi$e versa+ There are al%a s Bbottlene$ks.B Taking $om!#ters as an eEam!le, at an !oint in time %e ma have been st mied b not having eno#gh !ro$essing !o%er, or memor , or disk s!a$e, or band%idth, or even ideas o" ho% to $ons#me all o" the reso#r$es that ha!!ened to eEist at a given moment. 1#t be$a#se ea$h o" these 4and man more5 te$hnologies advan$e along their individ#al $#rves, the miE o" o#r overall te$hnologi$al $a!abilities kee!s eE!anding, and this $ontin#es to o!en in$redible ne% o!!ort#nities "or those %ho are %illing to $olor o#tside the lines. 2or eEam!le, at a !arti$#lar moment in time, a $ollege st#dent %rote a !rogram and distrib#ted it over the Internet, and $hanged the e$onomi$s and b#siness model "or the entire m#si$ distrib#tion ind#str 4Na!ster5. This $o#ld not have ha!!ened %itho#t the $om!#ting !o%er, storage, and band%idth that ha!!ened to $ome together at that time. Similarl , as these basi$ $om!#ting and $omm#ni$ations $a!abilities have $ontin#ed to gro% in $a!a$it , other brilliant minds #sed the ne% $a!abilities to $reate the Div= $om!ression algorithm 4%hi$h allo%s Bgood eno#ghB movies to be stored and distrib#ted online5 and "ile6 "ormat6inde!endent !eer6to6!eer net%orks 4s#$h as /a<aa5, %hi$h are beginning to $hange the video ind#str in the same mannerJ The !oint is that in a $ir$#lar "ashion, te$hnolog drives innovation, %hile innovation also enables and drives te$hnolog , b#t it;s all s!arked and "#eled b the innovative minds o" individ#als. Te$hnolog remains o!en6ended. 2or eEam!le, as %e have a!!roa$hed $ertain BlimitsB in ho% %e b#ild semi$ond#$tors, or in ho% %e store magneti$ in"ormation, %e have A&8AFS "o#nd %a s Bthro#ghB or Baro#ndB them. And I see no indi$ation that this %ill slo% do%n.

F. The attle rages et&een $o##er$ial interests and $ha#pions o, the ethos o, ,ree $ontent and open so%r$e so,t&are. :o& do yo% envisage the ,ield ten years ,ro# no&+ The "ree $ontent o" the Internet, "inan$ed in !art b the dot.$om era o" eas mone , %as !robabl ne$essar to bootstra! the earl Internet into demonstrating its ne% !otential and val#e to !eo!le and b#sinesses. 1#t %hile it;s tem!ting to s#bs$ribe to slogans s#$h as Bin"ormation %ants to be "ree,B the longer6term realit is that i" individ#als and b#sinesses are not $om!ensated "or the in"ormation that the !resent, there %ill event#all be little in"ormation available. This is not to sa that advertising or traditional Bs#bs$ri!tions,B or even the still str#ggling s stem o" Bmi$ro!a mentsB "or ea$h tidbit, are the roads to s#$$ess. Innovation %ill also !la a dramati$ role as n#mero#s te$hniK#es are tried and re"ined. 1#t overall, !eo!le are %illing to !a "or val#e, and the neEt de$ade %ill "ind a $ontin#ing series o" eE!eriments in ho% the in"ormation market!la$e and its $ons#mers $ome together. G. )dapting to rapid te$hnologi$al $hange is disorientating. To,,ler $alled it a C,%t%re sho$kC. Can yo% $o#pare people5s rea$tions to ne& te$hnologies today 1 to their rea$tions, say, 20 years ago+ It;s all a matter o" ;rate o" $hange.; At the beginning o" the ind#strial revol#tion, the !arents in the "arms $o#ld not #nderstand the $hanges that their $hildren bro#ght home %ith them "rom the $ities, %here the !a$e o" innovation "ar eE$eeded the generations6long r#ral $hange !ro$ess. T%ent ears ago, at the time o" the birth o" the P,, most !eo!le in ind#striali<ed nations a$$ommodated dramati$all more $hange ea$h ear than earl ind#strial6age "armer %o#ld have seen in his or her li"etime. Fet both !robabl "elt abo#t the same amo#nt o" B"#t#re sho$k,B be$a#se it;s relative The Bt%ent ears agoB !erson had be$ome a$$#stomed to that ear;s res#lts o" the eE!onential gro%th o" te$hnolog , and so %as B!re!aredB "or that then6 $#rrent rate o" $hange. Similarl , toda , s$hool $hildren ha!!il take the most so!histi$ated o" $om!#ting te$hnologies in6stride, %hile man o" their !arents still "lo#nder at setting the $lo$k on the V,( 6 be$a#se the kids sim!l kno% no other rate o" $hange. It;s in the !er$e!tion. That said, given that so man te$hnologi$al $hanges are eE!onential in nat#re, it;s in$reasingl di""i$#lt "or !eo!le to be $om"ortable %ith the amo#nt o" $hange that %ill o$$#r in their o%n li"etime. Toda ;s s$hool$hildren %ill see more te$hnologi$al $hange in the neEt t%ent ears than I have seen in m li"etime to dateA it %ill be "as$inating to see ho% the 4and I5 $o!e.

0. What5s yo%r take on e1 ooks+ Why didn5t they take o,,+ 's there a #ore general lesson here+ The E6books o" the !ast "e% ears have been an im!er"e$t sol#tion looking "or a !roblem. There;s $ertainl val#e in the $on$e!t o" an E6book, a sel"6$ontained ele$troni$ Bdo$#mentB %hose $ontent $an $hange at a %him either "rom internal in"ormation or "rom the %orld at large. Travelers $o#ld $arr an entire librar %ith them and never r#n o#t o" reading material. TeEtbooks $o#ld reside in the E6book and save the ba$ks o" ba$k!a$k6to#ting st#dents. Ind#strial man#als $o#ld al%a s be on6hand 4in6handJ5 and #! to date. And more. Indeed, "or $ertain $ategories, s#$h as "or ind#strial man#als, the E6book has alread !roven val#able. 1#t %hen it $omes to the general $ase, $ons#mers "o#nd that the restri$tions o" the "irst E6books o#t%eighed their bene"its. The %ere eE!ensive. The %ere "ragile. Their batter li"e %as ver limited. The %ere not as $om"ortable to hold or to read "rom as a traditional book. There %ere several in$om!atible standards and "ormats, meaning that $ontent %as available onl "rom limited o#tlets, and onl a "ra$tion o" the $ontent that %as available in traditional books %as available in E6book "orm. Ver restri$tive. The lesson is that 4most5 !eo!le %on;t #s#all b# te$hnolog "or te$hnolog ;s sake. On the other hand, #se a te$hnolog to signi"i$antl im!rove the right elements o" a !rod#$t or servi$e, or its !ri$e, and stand ba$k. /. What are the engines o, innovation+ &hat drives people to innovate, to invent, to think o%tside the oB and to lead others to adopt their vision+ BPeo!leB are the engines o" innovation. The desire to look over the hori<on, to $onne$t the dots in ne% %a s, and to $olor o#tside the lines is %hat drives h#man !rogress in its m riad dimensions. Peo!le %ant to do things more easil , be$ome more !ro"itable, or sim!l ;do something ne%,; and these are the seeds o" innovation. Toda , the b#ilding blo$ks that !eo!le innovate %ith $an be "ar more $om!leE than those in the !ast. Fo# $an $reate a more interesting innovation o#t o" an integrated $ir$#it that $ontains CG6million transistors toda 6 a Penti#m C 6 than o# $o#ld o#t o" a "e% single dis$rete transistors 3: ears ago. Or toda ;s b#ilding blo$ks $an be "ar more basi$ 4s#$h as #sing Atomi$ 2or$e 3i$ros$o!es to !#sh individ#al atoms aro#nd into '#st the right str#$t#re.5 These di""eren$es in s$ale determine, in !art, %h toda ;s innovations seem more dramati$. 1#t at its heart, innovation is a h#man $on$e!t, and it takes good ideas and !ers#asion to $onvin$e !eo!le to ado!t the res#lting $hanges. 3a$hines don;t 4 et5 innovate. And the ma never do so, #nless the develo! that s!ark o" sel"6a%areness that 4so "ar5 #niK#el $hara$teri<es living things.

Even i" %e get to the !oint %here %e $onvin$e o#r $om!#ters to %rite their o%n !rograms, at this !oint it does not seem that the %ill go be ond the goals that %e set "or them. The ma be able to tr s#!erh#man n#mbers o" $ombinations be"ore arriving at '#st the right one to address a de"ined !roblem, b#t the %on;t go be ond the !roblem. Not the ma$hines %e kno% toda , at an rate. On the other hand, some !eo!le, s#$h as National 3edal o" Te$hnolog re$i!ient (a /#r<%eil, believe that the eE!onential in$rease in the $a!abilities o" o#r ma$hines 6 %hi$h some estimate %ill rea$h the $om!leEit o" the h#man brain %ithin a "e% de$ades 6 ma res#lt in those ma$hines be$oming sel"6a%are. Don;t 1linkJ

The Case o& the Com ressed Image 0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D( Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/ Also Read1 The Disru tive *ngine $ Innovation and the Ca italist Dream
2orgent Net%orks "rom TeEas %ants to $olle$t a ro alt ever time someone $om!resses an image #sing the -PE. algorithm. It #rges third !arties to negotiate %ith it se!arate li$ensing agreements. It bases its $laim on a 9N ear old !atent it a$K#ired in 9DDN %hen VTel, "rom %hi$h 2orgent %as s!#n6o"", !#r$hased the San6-ose based ,om!ression &abs. The !atent !ertains to a $r#$ial element in the !o!#lar $om!ression method. The -PE. $ommittee o" ISO 6 the International Standards Organi<ation 6 threatens to %ithdra% the standard altogether. This %o#ld im!a$t tho#sands o" so"t%are and hard%are !rod#$ts. This is onl the latest in a serio#s o" s!ats. 0nis s has s!ent the better !art o" the last 9H ears tr ing to en"or$e a !atent it o%ns "or a $om!ression te$hniK#e #sed in t%o other !o!#lar imaging standards, .I2 and TI22. 1T .ro#! s#ed Prodig , a #nit o" S1, ,omm#ni$ations, in a 0S "ederal $o#rt, "or in"ringement o" its !atent o" the h !erteEt link, or h !erlink 6 a #biK#ito#s and $riti$al element o" the 8eb. Dell ,om!#ter has agreed %ith the 2T, to re"rain "rom en"or$ing a gra!hi$s !atent having "ailed to dis$lose it to the standards $ommittee in its deliberations o" the V&6b#s gra!hi$s standard. B8iredB re!orted esterda that the 3#ni$h 0!!er ,o#rt de$lared Bdee! linkingB 6 !osting links to s!e$i"i$ !ages %ithin a 8eb site 6 in violation the E#ro!ean 0nion BDatabase Dire$tiveB. The dire$tive $o! rights the Bsele$tion and arrangementB o" a database 6 even i" the $ontent itsel" is not o%ned b the database $reator. It eE!li$itl !rohibits h !erlinking to the database $ontents as B#n"air eEtra$tionB. I" #!held, this %o#ld $ri!!le most sear$h engines. Similar r#lings 6 based on national la%s 6 %ere handed do%n in other $o#ntries, the latest being Denmark. Ama<on s#ed 1arnes and Noble 6 and has sin$e settled o#t o" $o#rt in 3ar$h 6 "or em#lating its !atented Bone $li$k !#r$hasingB b#siness !ro$ess. A 8eb bro%ser $ommand to !#r$hase an item generates a B$ookieB 6 a teEt "ile re!lete %ith the b# er;s essential details %hi$h is then lodged in Ama<on;s server. This allo%s the transa$tion to be $om!leted %itho#t a "#rther $on"irmation ste!.

A $lever tri$k, no do#bt. 1#t even -e"" 1e<os, Ama<on;s legendar "o#nder, eE!ressed do#bts regarding the %isdom o" the 0S Patent O""i$e in granting his $om!an the !atent. In an o!en letter to Ama<on;s $#stomers, he $alled "or a rethinking o" the %hole s stem o" !rote$tion o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert in the Internet age. In a re$entl !#blished dis$o#rse o" innovation and !ro!ert rights, titled BThe 2ree63arket Innovation 3a$hineB, 8illiam 1a#mol o" Prin$eton 0niversit $laims that onl $a!italism g#arantees gro%th thro#gh a stead "lo% o" innovation. A$$ording to !o!#lar lore, $a!italism makes s#re that innovators are re%arded "or their time and skills sin$e !ro!ert rights are enshrined in en"or$eable $ontra$ts. (ealit is di""erent, as 1a#mol himsel" notes. Innovators tend to maEimi<e their ret#rns b sharing their te$hnolog and li$ensing it to more e""i$ient and !ro"itable man#"a$t#rers. This rational division o" labor is ham!ered b the in$reasingl more stringent and eE!ansive intelle$t#al !ro!ert la%s that a""li$t man ri$h $o#ntries no%ada s. These stat#tes tend to !rote$t the interests o" middlemen 6 man#"a$t#rers, distrib#tors, marketers 6 rather than the $laims o" inventors and innovators. 3oreover, the ver nat#re o" Bintelle$t#al !ro!ert B is in "l#E. 1#siness !ro$esses and methods, !lants, geneti$ material, strains o" animals, minor $hanges to eEisting te$hnologies 6 are all !atentable. Trademarks and $o! right no% $over $ontents, brand names, and modes o" eE!ression and !resentation. Nothing is sa"e "rom these en$roa$hing '#ridi$al initiatives. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights have been trans"ormed into a m riad !erni$io#s mono!olies %hi$h threaten to sti"le innovation and $om!etition. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert 6 !atents, $ontent libraries, $o! righted material, trademarks, rights o" all kinds 6 are sometimes the sole assets 6 and the onl ho!e "or s#rvival 6 o" $ash6stra!!ed and other%ise d s"#n$tional or bankr#!t "irms. 1oth managers and $o#rt6a!!ointed re$eivers strive to moneti<e these !ro!erties and !atent6!ort"olios b either selling them or en"or$ing the rights against in"ringing third !arties. 2ighting a !atent battle in $o#rt is !rohibitivel eE!ensive and the o#t$ome #n$ertain. Potential de"endants s#$$#mb to eEtortionate demands rather than end#re the /a"kaesK#e !ro$ess. The $osts are !assed on to the $ons#mer. Son , "or instan$e alread !aid 2orgent an #ndis$losed amo#nt in 3a . A$$ording to 2orgent;s 9:6I "orm, "iled on -#ne 9N, G::G, et another, #nidenti"ied B!restigio#s internationalB $om!an , !arted %ith R9H million in A!ril. In $ommentaries %ritten in 9DDD6G::: b 7arvard la% !ro"essor, &a%ren$e &essig, "or BThe Ind#str StandardB, he observed: BThere is gro%ing ske!ti$ism among a$ademi$s abo#t %hether s#$h state6im!osed mono!olies hel! a ra!idl evolving market s#$h as the Internet. 8hat is Bnovel,B Bnonobvio#sB or B#se"#lB is hard eno#gh to kno% in a relativel stable "ield. In a trans"orming market, it;s nearl im!ossible...B The ver $on$e!t o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert is being radi$all trans"ormed b the onsla#ght o" ne% te$hnologies. The m th o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert !ost#lates that entre!rene#rs ass#me the risks asso$iated %ith !#blishing books, re$ording re$ords, and inventing onl be$a#se 6 and %here 6 the rights to intelle$t#al !ro!ert are %ell de"ined and en"or$ed. In the absen$e o" s#$h rights, $reative

!eo!le are #nlikel to make their %orks a$$essible to the !#bli$. 0ltimatel , it is the !#bli$ %hi$h !a s the !ri$e o" !ira$ and other violations o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights, goes the re"rain. This is #ntr#e. In the 0SA onl "e% a#thors a$t#all live b their !en. Even "e%er m#si$ians, not to mention a$tors, eke o#t s#bsisten$e level in$ome "rom their $ra"t. Those %ho do $an no longer be $onsidered merel $reative !eo!le. 3adonna, 3i$hael -a$kson, S$h%ar<enegger and .risham are b#sinessmen at least as m#$h as the are artists. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert is a relativel ne% notion. In the near !ast, no one $onsidered kno%ledge or the "r#its o" $reativit 4art%ork, designs5 as ;!atentable;, or as someone;s ;!ro!ert ;. The artist %as b#t a mere $hannel thro#gh %hi$h divine gra$e "lo%ed. TeEts, dis$overies, inventions, %orks o" art and m#si$, designs 6 all belonged to the $omm#nit and $o#ld be re!li$ated "reel . Tr#e, the $hosen ones, the $ond#its, %ere revered. 1#t the %ere rarel "inan$iall re%arded. 8ell into the 9Dth $ent#r , artists and innovators %ere $ommissioned 6 and salaried 6 to !rod#$e their %orks o" art and $ontrivan$es. The advent o" the Ind#strial (evol#tion 6 and the imager o" the romanti$ lone inventor toiling on his brain$hild in a basement or, later, a garage 6 gave rise to the !atent. The more massive the markets be$ame, the more so!histi$ated the sales and marketing te$hniK#es, the bigger the "inan$ial stakes 6 the larger loomed the iss#e o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert . Intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights are less abo#t the intelle$t and more abo#t !ro!ert . In ever single ear o" the last de$ade, the global t#rnover in intelle$t#al !ro!ert has o#t%eighed the total ind#strial !rod#$tion o" the %orld. These markets being global, the mono!olists o" intelle$t#al !rod#$ts "ight #n"air $om!etition globall . A !irate in Sko!'e is in dire$t rivalr %ith 1ill .ates, de!riving 3i$roso"t o" !resent and "#t#re reven#e, $hallenging its mono!olisti$ stat#s as %ell as 'eo!ardi<ing its $om!etition6deterring image. The O!en So#r$e 3ovement %eakens the $lassi$ model o" !ro!ert rights b !resenting an alternative, viable, vibrant, model %hi$h does not involve over6!ri$ing and anti6$om!etitive !redator !ra$ti$es. The $#rrent model o" !ro!ert rights en$o#rages mono!olisti$ behavior, non6$ollaborative, eE$l#sionar innovation 4as o!!osed, "or instan$e, to &in#E5, and litigio#sness. The O!en So#r$e movement eE!oses the m ths #nderl ing $#rrent !ro!ert rights !hiloso!h and is th#s s#bversive. 1#t the inane eE!ansion o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert rights ma merel be a "inal s!asm, threatened b the #biK#it o" the Internet as the are. 2ree s$holarl online !#bli$ations nibble at the heels o" their !ri$e and anti$om!etitive o""line $o#nter!arts. Ele$troni$ !#blishing !oses a threat 6 ho%ever distant 6 to !rint !#blishing. Na!ster6like !eer to !eer net%orks #ndermine the "o#ndations o" the m#si$ and "ilm ind#stries. O!en so#r$e so"t%are is en$roa$hing on the t#r" o" !ro!rietar a!!li$ations. It is ver eas and $hea! to !#blish and distrib#te $ontent on the Internet, the barriers to entr are virt#all nil. As !ro$essors gro% s!eedier, storage larger, a!!li$ations m#lti6"eat#red, broadband a$$ess all6 !ervasive, and the Internet goes %ireless 6 individ#als are in$reasingl able to em#late m#$h larger s$ale organi<ations s#$$ess"#ll . A single !erson, %orking "rom home, %ith less than RG::: %orth o" eK#i!ment 6 $an !#blish a 8eb<ine, a#thor so"t%are, %rite m#si$, shoot digital "ilms, design !rod#$ts, or $omm#ni$ate %ith millions and his %ork %ill be indisting#ishable "rom the o""erings o" the most endo%ed $or!orations and instit#tions. Obvio#sl , no individ#al $an et mat$h the $a!ital assets, the marketing $lo#t, the market

!ositioning, the global branding, the sales organi<ation, and the distrib#tion net%ork o" the likes o" Son , or 3i$roso"t. In an age o" in"ormation gl#t, it is still the marketing, the media $am!aign, the distrib#tion, and the sales that determine the e$onomi$ o#t$ome. This advantage, ho%ever, is also being eroded, albeit gla$iall . The Internet is essentiall a "ree marketing and 6 in the $ase o" digital goods 6 distrib#tion $hannel. It dire$tl rea$hes G:: million !eo!le all over the %orld. Even %ith a minim#m investment, the likelihood o" being seen b s#r!risingl large n#mbers o" $ons#mers is high. Vario#s b#siness models are emerging or reasserting themselves 6 "rom ad s!onsored $ontent to !a$kaged o!en so#r$e so"t%are. 3an $reative !eo!le 6 artists, a#thors, innovators 6 are re!elled b the $ommer$iali<ation o" their intelle$t and m#se. The seek 6 and "ind 6 alternatives to the behemoths o" man#"a$t#ring, marketing and distrib#tion that toda $ontrol the b#lk o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert . 3an o" them go "reelan$e. Indie m#si$ labels, inde!endent $inema, !rint on demand !#blishing 6 are omens o" things to $ome. This ineEorabl leads to disintermediation 6 the removal o" middlemen bet%een !rod#$er or $reator and $ons#mer. The Internet enables ni$he marketing and restores the balan$e bet%een the $reative geni#s and the $ommer$ial eE!loiters o" his !rod#$t. This is a ret#rn to !re6 ind#strial times %hen artisans r#led the e$onomi$ s$ene. 8ork mobilit in$reases in this lands$a!e o" shi"ting allegian$es, head h#nting, remote $ollaboration, $ontra$t and agen$ %ork, and similar labo#r market trends. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert is likel to be$ome as atomi<ed as labor and to revert to its tr#e o%ners 6 the ins!ired "olks. The , in t#rn, %ill negotiate li$ensing deals dire$tl %ith their end #sers and $#stomers. ,a!ital, design, engineering, and labor intensive goods 6 $om!#ter $hi!s, $r#ise missiles, and !assenger $ars 6 %ill still ne$essitate the $oordination o" a massive %ork"or$e in m#lti!le lo$ations. 1#t even here, in the old ind#strial lands$a!e, the intelle$t#al $ontrib#tion to the $olle$tive e""ort %ill likel be o#tso#r$ed to roving "reelan$ers %ho %ill maintain an o%nershi! stake in their designs or inventions. This intimate relationshi! bet%een $reative !erson and $ons#mer is the %a it has al%a s been. 8e ma et look ba$k on the G:th $ent#r and note %ith ama<ement the transient and aberrant !hase o" intermediation 6 the Son ;s, 3i$roso"t;s, and 2orgent;s o" this %orld.

In&ormation Technolog+ at a Crossroads Intervie; ;ith 6oe Santana and 6im Donovan 0+1 Sam 2aknin! Ph(D( Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/ Also Read1 Internet $ A 5edium or a 5essage? The Solo; ParadoB
In the %ake o" the br#tal b#rst o" the dot$om b#bble, the $or!orate role o" in"ormation te$hnolog and its !#rve ors has been at the heart o" a heated debate. B3anage ITB is a '#st6 !#blished g#ide "or IT managers, a#thored b -oe Santana and -im Donovan. C( )o; did +ou come to ;rite the book and ;h+ no;? This isn8t eBactl+ the he+da+ o& IT' 6oe1 I;ve been in the IT !ro"ession "or a little over G9 ears. D#ring this time I;ve seen a h#ge n#mber o" stellar IT individ#al $ontrib#tors !romoted into IT management roles %here the began a stead des$ent in !er"orman$e and $on"iden$e that bro#ght !ain to themselves, their teams, and their $om!an . 8hen I looked aro#nd "or books that addressed these IT management $hallenges, I "o#nd that none o" them dealt %ith the !ossibilit that the role might be the %rong one "or the individ#al 4e.g., not their talent5. I think that it is im!ortant to make s#re that the individ#al has the !ro!er talent, desire and %illingness to be an IT manager in a s!e$i"i$ role be"ore %e lea! to training and other develo!ment interventions. Also, man o" the books dedi$ated to IT management seem to "o$#s on B!ro'e$t6managementB skills or BTa loristi$B !rod#$tivit meas#rement a!!roa$hes. Pro'e$t management and reading metri$s are im!ortant, b#t are not the onl skills needed to be an e""e$tive manager. One o" m !ersonal motivations "or engaging in this !ro'e$t %ith -im %as to !rovide IT !ro"essionals as %ell as 7#man (eso#r$e and Per"orman$e ,ons#ltants %orking %ith IT !ro"essionals %ith a tool that %o#ld do t%o things. 2irst, enable the IT !ro"essional $onsidering a role in management to determine i" this is the right $areer move and, i" it is, to !rovide them %ith a basi$ "o#ndation o" ke IT management skills. 6im: 3 ba$kgro#nd "or the !ast G: or so ears has been in h#man develo!ment and !otential. I;ve a#thored three K#ite s#$$ess"#l sel"6hel! books, delivered $o#ntless seminars, and %orked %ith individ#als and gro#!s to hel! them identi" the blo$kages to their gro%th and $reate strategies to move to%ard their goals. 3 main $ontrib#tion to this book is in hel!ing !eo!le identi" their !ersonal goals and val#es and a!!l ing them to their $areers.

I" a !erson is %orking o#t o" alignment %ith his high driving val#es, no amo#nt o" !romotion or mone %ill satis" him or her. S#$h !eo!le are $ontin#all #nha!! , #n"#l"illed and less than stellar !er"ormers. In B3anage ITB %e have !rovided a series o" eEer$ises to assist !eo!le to identi" their o%n goals and val#es and then determine i" the are in alignment %ith the s!e$i"i$ management !osition being $onsidered. 8e;ve also !rovided the IT manager %ith $oa$hing tools and strategies that the $an #se to eli$it !eak !er"orman$e and res#lts "rom their teams. C( Wh+ is there a ga bet;een cor orate management and IT management? What ;ent ;rong! ;hat are the historical roots o& this misunderstanding? 6oe1 IT !eo!le that gre% #! %riting !rograms or kee!ing $om!#ters and net%orks r#nning have t !i$all not been eE!osed to $om!an strateg and ob'e$tives earl in their $areers. On the other hand, their B$o#sinsB in marketing, sales and o!erations 6 o"ten !romoted to be$ome $or!orate 6 %ere either dire$tl !art o" the B$ore b#siness a$tionB or at least $lose eno#gh to %itness it. A lot o" e""ort is going into $losing this ga!, b !ioneering innovators s#$h as Dr. 7o%ard (#bin, eEe$#tive vi$e !resident and board member o" 3ETA .ro#!. One model develo!ed b Dr. (#bin, the IT Investment Port"olio 3odel, $reates %hat he $alls a B#niversal translatorB bet%een the lang#age o" IT and ,or!orate 3anagement. In essen$e, Dr. (#bin tea$hes IT eEe$#tives to look at their IT dollars as !art o" an investment "#nd and to regard themselves as "#nd and !ort"olio managers %hose goal is to allo$ate investments in a manner that s#!!orts their $om!an ;s overall b#siness strateg . The model is an eE$ellent tool that enables the IT "#n$tion to link and drive te$hnolog investment de$isions to $on"orm to the $om!an ;s b#siness strateg . 8e make eEtensive #se o" this model in one $ha!ter o" the book. C( A gro;ing school o& economists stud+ the :Solo; ParadoB:( It seems that the introduction o& IT has little e&&ect o& ;ork lace roductivit+( ,rom +our eB erience! in ;hat ;a+s does IT change the ;ork lace and render it more roductive? 6oe1 Assessing the im!a$t o" IT on !rod#$tivit solel on the basis o" statisti$al models that "o$#s on the aggregate o" n#meri$al indi$ators reminds me o" a stor I on$e heard abo#t a %eatherman %ho denied the !resen$e o" a storm he sa% o#t his %indo% be$a#se his instr#ments indi$ated $lear skies %ith a light bree<e. The im!a$t o" te$hnolog in driving #! individ#al and team !rod#$tivit $an be seen in an o""i$e toda %here h#ndreds o" !eo!le share in"ormation in a !resentation delivered online, %itho#t leaving their desks. 0n"ort#natel #nless these individ#al and team !rod#$tivit im!rovements are "o$#sed on s!e$i"i$ areas that enhan$e the aggregate e$onomi$ !rod#$tivit o" the $om!an , the do not sho% #! on the statisti$al $harts. To have a greater im!a$t on these ma$roe$onomi$ statisti$s, IT investments need to be better aligned %ith $om!an b#siness goals. I" a $om!an is in a b#siness %here meas#red !rod#$tivit is highl de!endent on a %ell a#tomated !oint o" sale strateg , b#t it is investing a large !ortion o" its IT dollars in !roviding $om!#ter maintenan$e servi$es, the im!a$t o" IT dollar investments on the $om!an ;s !rod#$tivit %ill be lo%. On the other hand, i" said $om!an %ere to shi"t its investments "rom the maintenan$e !ro$ess

to im!roving the !oint6o"6sale a#tomation tools, the im!a$t on overall $om!an !rod#$tivit %o#ld be greater. 0n"ort#natel , a$$ording to st#dies b the likes o" the 3ETA .ro#!, the n#mber o" organi<ations %here IT is %ell6aligned %ith b#siness ob'e$tives 6 and th#s highl im!a$ts !rod#$tivit 6 is still relativel lo%. 6im1 One o" the things %e;ve done in B3anage ITB is to give the ne% or as!iring IT manager tools the $an #se to better #nderstand their role %ithin the $or!oration and ho% the "it into the Bbig !i$t#re.B Seeing this Bbig !i$t#reB enables managers to "o$#s6lead their teams !er"orman$e in a manner that $ontrib#tes to $or!orate !rod#$tivit . C( Should IT &unctions be outsourced $ or is an in$house de artment the best $ and cost$ e&&ective $ solution? 6oe1 The best sol#tion is a h brid a!!roa$h. /ee! onl those things that are ke to the enter!rise;s $om!etitive di""erentiation and o#tso#r$e ever thing else. 2or eEam!le, i" a $om!an ;s strateg is heavil !redi$ated on its s#$$ess as a !rovider o" a #niK#e mobile $ommer$e sol#tion, the sho#ld be looking at mobile $ommer$e develo!ment as a strategi$ di""erentiator and sho#ld internall o%n this "#n$tion. The ma #se $ons#ltants to %ork on vario#s as!e$ts as needed, b#t "or the most !art the %o#ld %ant to o%n the develo!ment o" this !ro$ess %hi$h is going to ield them a strategi$ advantage. On the other hand, basi$ $ommodit servi$es s#$h as the hel! desk, maintenan$e Q re!air, and general net%ork administration are not strategi$ di""erentiators. These "#n$tions are sim!l needed to r#n the b#siness, '#st like tele!hone re!air and !a ing ins#ran$e. 2#rthermore, these "#n$tions $an be !er"ormed more $hea!l and more K#alitativel b s#!!liers that leverage their investments a$ross millions o" transa$tions vers#s the tho#sands generated b even the largest enter!rises. I" an enter!rise is seeking $ost6savings or to "ree #! "#nds and reallo$ate them to more strategi$ !ro'e$ts that %ill !ositivel im!a$t !rod#$tivit , o#tso#r$ing all $ommodit , non6$ore servi$es is the best sol#tion. 8hile o#tso#r$ing ma s$are man IT !eo!le, the "a$t is that being an IT !erson in a $om!an that o#tso#r$es $ertain IT "#n$tions !resents a n#mber o" great $areer o!!ort#nities "or IT !eo!le. In o#r book %e a$t#all have a $ha!ter %here %e o#tline ho% IT !eo!le $an t#rn o#tso#r$ing into a !ositive. . 6im1 One o" o#r goals in the book is to hel! ne% managers be$ome more innovative in their a!!roa$h, so that instead o" standing in the %a o" strategi$ $or!orate $hanges the learn ho% to harness these and $reate %in6%in sit#ations.

C( IT ersonnel are ;idel+ erceived to be highl+ mobile! &orever head$hunted! t+ es ;ith little cor orate lo+alt+( Is this true? Should &irms invest in training such cadre? 6oe1 I don;t think $om!anies $an even attra$t good IT !eo!le i" the $ease to invest in training, so that;s not an o!tion. The iss#e is not la$k o" lo alt o" IT !ro"essionals as m#$h as la$k o" $areer o!!ort#nities o""ered b enter!rises6em!lo ers in man IT !ro"essional roles. ,om!anies %ill have to develo! o!!ort#nities "or gro%th in areas that are ke to their b#siness strateg . IT !ositions in these areas sho#ld have a gro%th !ath. ,om!anies generall do not have a $areer !ath "or non6ke areas. 2or eEam!le: #nless the $om!an is in the $om!#ter maintenan$e "ield, %here a re!air te$hni$ian $an move #! the ladder and be$ome sa a manager and "rom there a dire$tor o" re!air servi$es, a $om!#ter re!air te$hni$ian %o#ld not generall have m#$h o" a $areer !ath. IT !eo!le %ho have !ositions in $om!anies %here o!!ort#nities "or !ersonal gro%th are limited are more re$e!tive to headh#nters and+or seeking the neEt $areer o!!ort#nit else%here. 1#t the same $o#ld be said o" an highl skilled !ro"essional "a$ing an arti"i$ial $areer $eiling. The K#estion is ho% $an a $om!an make s#re that it is hiring and investing in IT !ro"essionals %ho sti$k aro#nd long eno#gh "or the $om!an to rea! some re%ards> I" a "irm o""ers no $areer gro%th o!!ort#nit "or a given !osition, then it sho#ld be o#tso#r$ed and the $om!an sho#ld avoid the heada$he and eE!ense o" hiring and investments that res#lt in bene"its that the never rea!. 6im1 8e devote an entire $ha!ter to Bgetting to kno% o#r !eo!le.B In it %e o""er several %a s in %hi$h managers $an learn best %a s to motivate their !eo!le and kee! them a$tivel involved in the $om!an ;s overall ob'e$tives. 8e o""er s#ggestions "or develo!ing sta"" members, %hi$h in t#rn, red#$e t#rnover. ,om!anies %hi$h invest in training and $oa$hing eE!erien$e higher !rod#$tivit and lo%er t#rnover than those %ho do not. C( Should IT managers also be IT eB erts $ or are general management skills su&&icient? Can +ou rovide us ;ith a ro&ile o& the :ideal: IT manager? 6oe1 I don;t think there is a single BidealB IT 3anager !ro"ile. BIdealB reall de!ends on %hat the s!e$i"i$ manager manages 4e.g., a so"t%are develo!ment team, a hel! desk, et$etera5 and the role the $om!an eE!e$ts the manager to !la . The best %a is to: T Identi" the o#t$omes eE!e$ted "rom the role T Determine %hat the !erson needs to do to rea$h those o#t$omes T Determine the talent, desire and %illingness !ro"ile o" the !erson reK#ired to !er"orm the d#ties reK#ired b the role The .all#! st#dies reveal that highl e""e$tive managers are great organi<ers o" !eo!le and reso#r$es. The remove obsta$les and th#s in$rease team !rod#$tivit and the kno% ho% to re$ogni<e, make the best #se o", and develo! their !eo!le;s talents.

IT managers need to have a miEt#re o" IT and general management skills. That does not mean that the IT manager has to be an eE!ert 4altho#gh some em!lo ers ma eE!e$t and %ant this5, b#t rather that he needs to #nderstand the Bte$hni$al $onteEtB o" the %ork !er"ormed b the team in order to !rovide them %ith the s#!!ort and dire$tion the eE!e$t. As IT $ontin#es to be$ome inter6%oven into the "abri$ o" ever b#siness, the de$isions $on$erning the allo$ation o" IT investments and the K#alit o" IT management as %ell as the abilit o" IT management to se$#re and maintain strong alignment %ith the ob'e$tives o" the enter!rise are be$oming even more $riti$al to b#siness s#$$ess. ,om!anies that "ail to "ine6 t#ne this area %ill "ind themselves in an in$reasingl di""i$#lt $om!etitive !osition relative to their better6aligned $om!etitors. 6im1 Agreed. The "#t#re belongs to those $om!anies %hi$h #nderstand that their tr#e asset is their h#man $a!ital and %hi$h invest in their em!lo ees. St#d a"ter st#d have $on"irmed that ever BsmartB dollar invested in em!lo ees res#lts in in$reased !er"orman$e, higher morale, less t#rnover and absenteeism and an overall in$rease in the gro%th o" the $om!an . 1 integrating all as!e$ts o" the b#siness, in$l#ding IT, $om!anies be$ome %ell !ositioned "or gro%th into the t%ent "irst $ent#r .

T:4 '.T4R.4T ).3 T:4 3'='T)L 3'V'34


The Internet G A 5edium or a 5essage? 0+1 Sam 2aknin
The State o, the .et )n 'nteri# Report a o%t the ?%t%re o, the 'nternet 8ho are the !arti$i!ants %ho $onstit#te the Internet>

0sers 6 $onne$ted to the net and intera$ting %ith it The $omm#ni$ations lines and the $omm#ni$ations eK#i!ment The intermediaries 4e.g. the s#!!liers o" on6line in"ormation or a$$ess !roviders5. 7ard%are man#"a$t#rers So"t%are a#thors and man#"a$t#rers 4bro%sers, site develo!ment tools, s!e$i"i$ a!!li$ations, smart agents, sear$h engines and others5. The B7it$hhikersB 4sear$h engines, smart agents, Arti"i$ial Intelligen$e 6 AI 6 tools and more5 ,ontent !rod#$ers and !roviders S#!!liers o" "inan$ial %here%ithal 4$#rrentl 6 $or!orate and instit#tional $ash grad#all being re!la$ed b advertising mone 5

The "ate o" ea$h o" these $om!onents 6 se!aratel and in solidarit 6 %ill determine the "ate o" the Internet. The "irst !hase o" the Internet;s histor %as dominated b $om!#ter %i<ards. Th#s, an attem!t at !redi$ting its "#t#re dealt mainl %ith its hard%are and so"t%are $om!onents. 3edia eE!erts, so$iologists, !s $hologists, advertising and marketing eEe$#tives %ere le"t o#t o" the $olle$tive e""ort to determine the "#t#re "a$e o" the Internet. As "ar as $ontent is $on$erned, the Internet $annot be $#rrentl de"ined as a medi#m. It does not "#n$tion as one 6 rather it is a ver disordered librar , mostl in$or!orating the %ritings o" non6disting#ished megalomania$s. It is the #ltimate Nar$issisti$ eE!erien$e. The "or$e"#l entr o" !#blishing ho#ses and $ontent aggregators is $hanging this dismal lands$a!e, tho#gh. Ever sin$e the invention o" television there hasn;t been an thing as begging to be$ome a medi#m as the Internet. Three analogies s!ring to mind %hen $ontem!lating the Internet in its $#rrent state:

A $haoti$ librar A ne#ral net%ork or the latter da eK#ivalent o" !revio#s net%orks 4telegra!h, tele!hon , rail%a s5

A ne% $ontinent

These meta!hors !rove to be ver #se"#l 4even b#siness6%ise5. The !ermit #s to de"ine the $ommer$ial o!!ort#nities embedded in the Internet. Fet, the "ail to assist #s in !redi$ting its "#t#re in its trans"ormation into a medi#m. 7o% does an invention be$ome a medi#m> 8hat ha!!ens to it %hen it does be$ome one> 8hat is the thin line se!arating the initial "#n$tioning o" the invention "rom its trans"ormation into a ne% medi#m> In other %ords: %hen $an %e tell that some te$hnologi$al advan$e gave birth to a ne% medi#m> This %ork also deals %ith the image o" the Internet on$e trans"ormed into a medi#m. The Internet has the most #n#s#al attrib#tes in the histor o" media. It has no $entral str#$t#re or organi<ation. It is hard%are and so"t%are inde!endent. It 4almost5 $annot be s#b'e$ted to legislation or to reg#lation. ,onsider the eEam!le o" do%nloading m#si$ "rom the internet 6 is it tantamo#nt to an a$t o" re$ording m#si$ 4a violation o" $o! right la%s5> This has been the $r#E o" the legal battle bet%een Diamond 3#ltimedia 4the man#"a$t#rers o" the (io 3P3 devi$e5, 3P3.$om and Na!ster and the re$ording ind#str in Ameri$a. The Internet;s data trans"er $hannels are not linear 6 the are random. 3ost o" its Bbroad$astB $annot be Bre$eivedB at all. It allo%s "or the narro%est o" narro%$asting thro#gh the #se o" e6 mail mailing lists, dis$#ssion gro#!s, message boards, !rivate radio stations, and $hats. And this is b#t a small !ortion o" an im!ressive list o" oddities. These idios n$rasies %ill also sha!e the nat#re o" the Internet as a medi#m. .ro%ing o#t o" bi<arre roots 6 it is bo#nd to ield strange "r#it as a medi#m. So %hat b#siness o!!ort#nities does the Internet re!resent> I believe that the are to be "o#nd in t%o broad $ategories:

So"t%are and hard%are related to the Internet;s "#t#re as a medi#m ,ontent $reation, management and li$en$ing The *ap o, Terra 'nterneti$a

The -sers 7o% man Internet #sers are there> 7o% man o" them have a$$ess to the 8eb 48orld 8ide 8eb 6 8885 and #se it> There are no #neK#ivo$al statisti$s. Those %ho !res#me to give the ans%ers 4in$l#ding the ISO, 6 the Internet SO,iet 5 6 rel on ver !artial and biased reso#r$es. Others '#st bl#"". Fet, ever one seems to agree that there are, at least, 9:: million a$tive !arti$i!ants in North Ameri$a 4the Nielsen and ,ommer$e6Net re!orts5. The "#t#re is, inevitabl , even more vag#e than the !resent. A#thoritative $ons#ltan$ "irms !redi$t OO million a$tive #sers in 9: ears time. I13 envisages N:: million #sers. 3,I is more modest %ith 3:: million. At the end o" 9DDD there %ere 93: million registered 4tho#gh not ne$essaril a$tive5 #sers.

The Internet $ an *litist and Chauvinistic 5edium The average #ser o" the Internet is o#ng 43:5, %ith an a$ademi$ ba$kgro#nd and high in$ome. The !er$entage o" the ed#$ated and the %ell6to6do among the #sers o" the 8eb is three times as high as their !ro!ortion in the !o!#lation. This is "ast $hanging onl be$a#se their $hildren are 'oining them 4O million alread had a$$ess to the Internet at the end o" 9DDO 6 and %ere 'oined b another GC million b the end o" the de$ade5. This ma $hange onl d#e to !residential initiatives to bridge the Bdigital divideB 4"rom Al .ore;s in the 0SA to 3ahatir 3ohammed;s in 3ala sia5, $or!orate largesse and instit#tional involvement 4e.g., O!en So$iet in Eastern E#ro!e, 3i$roso"t in the 0SA5. These e""orts %ill s!read the bene"its o" this all6!o%er"#l tool among the less !rivileged. A bit less than H:L o" all #sers are men b#t the are res!onsible "or O:L o" the a$tivit in the net 4as meas#red b tra""i$5. 8omen seem to limit themselves to ele$troni$ mail 4e6mail5 and to ele$troni$ sho!!ing o" goods and servi$es, tho#gh this is $hanging "ast. 3en !re"er in"ormation, either d#e to $areer reK#irements or be$a#se kno%ledge is !o%er. 3ost o" the #sers are o" the BeE!erien$erB variet . The are leaders o" so$ial $hange and innovative. This breed inhabits #niversities, "ashionable neighbo#rhoods and trend vo$ations. This is %h some %onder i" the Internet is not '#st another "ad, albeit an in$redibl resilient and !romising one. 3ost #sers have home a$$ess to the Internet 6 et, the still !re"er to a$$ess it "rom %ork, at their em!lo er;s eE!ense, tho#gh this !re"eren$e is slight and being eroded. 3ost #sers are, there"ore, eE!loitative in nat#re. Still, %e m#st not "orget that there are 3N million ho#seholds o" the sel"6em!lo ed and this !ossibl distorts the statisti$al !i$t#re some%hat. The Internet $ A Western Phenomenon Not A"ri$an, not Asian 4%ith the eE$e!tion o" Israel and -a!an5, not (#ssian , nor a Third 8orld !henomenon. It belongs sK#arel to the %ealth , sated %orld. It is the ind#lgen$e o" those %ho have ever thing and %hose greatest $on$ern is their $hoi$e o" nightl entertainment. 1et%een H:6O:L o" all Internet #sers live in the 0SA, H69:L in ,anada. The Internet is $at$hing on in E#ro!e 4mainl in .erman and in S$andinavia5 and, in its mobile "orm 4i6mode5 in -a!an. The Internet lost to the 2ren$h 3initel be$a#se the latter !rovides more lo$all relevant $ontent and be$a#se o" high $osts o" $omm#ni$ations and hard%are. Communications 3ost $om!#ter o%ners still !ossess a GM,M:: b!s modem. This is m#$h like driving a bi$ $le on a .erman A#tobahn. The HO,O:: b!s is grad#all re!la$ing its slo%er !rede$essor 4CML o" $om!#ters %ith modems5 6 b#t even this is hardl s#""i$ient. To begin to en'o video and a#dio 4es!e$iall the "ormer5 6 data trans"er rates need to be H: times "aster. 7al" the ho#seholds in the 0SA have at least G tele!hones and one o" them is #s#all dedi$ated to data !ro$essing 4"aEes or "aE6modems5. The ISDN $o#ld $onstit#te the mid6term sol#tion. This data trans"er net%ork is "airl s!eed and $overs N:L o" the territor o" the 0SA. It is gro%ing b 9::L ann#all and its sales to!!ed 9: billion 0SD in 9DDH+O. 0n"ort#natel , it is K#ite $lear that ISDN is not T7E ans%er. It is too slo%, too #ser6 #n"riendl , has a bad inter"a$e %ith other net%ork t !es, it reK#ires s!e$ial hard%are. There is no !oint in investing in tem!orar sol#tions %hen the right sol#tion is staring the Internet in

the "a$e, tho#gh it is not im!lemented d#e to !oliti$al $ir$#mstan$es. A $able modem is M: times s!eedier than the ISDN and N:: times "aster than a 9C,C:: b!s modem. 7o%ever, it does have !roblems in a$$ommodating a t%o6%a data trans"er. There is also need to $onne$t the "ibre o!ti$ in"rastr#$t#re %hi$h $hara$teri<es $able $om!anies to the old $o!!er $oaEial in"rastr#$t#re %hi$h $hara$teri<es tele!hon . ,able #sers engage s!e$iall $#stomi<ed &ANs 4Ethernet5 and the hard%are is eE!ensive 4tho#gh eK#i!ment !ri$es are "ore$ast to $olla!se as demand in$reases5. ,able $om!anies sim!l did not invest in develo!ing the te$hnolog . The la% 4!rior to the 9DDO ,omm#ni$ations A$t5 "orbade them to do an thing that %as not one %a trans"er o" video via $ables. No%, %ith the more liberal reg#lative environment, it is a mere K#estion o" time #ntil the te$hnolog is "o#nd. A$t#all , most $ons#mers single o#t bad $#stomer relations as their biggest !roblem %ith the $able $om!anies 6 rather than te$hnolog . EE!eriments $ond#$ted %ith $able modems led to a do#bling o" #sage time 4"rom an average o" GC to CN ho#rs !er month !er #ser5 %hi$h %as %holl attrib#table to the in$reased s!eed. This $omes $lose to a $#lt#ral revol#tion in the allo$ation o" leis#re time. N#meri$all s!eaking: N million ho#seholds in the 0SA are "itted %ith a t%o6%a data trans"er $able modems. This is a small n#mber and it is an one;s g#ess i" it $onstit#tes a $riti$al mass. Sales o" s#$h modems amo#nt to 9.3 billion 0SD ann#all . H:L o" all $able s#bs$ribers also have a P, at home. To me it seems that the merging o" the t%o te$hnologies is inevitable. Other te$hnologi$al sol#tions 6 s#$h as DS&, ADS&, and the more !romising satellite broadband 6 are being develo!ed and im!lemented, albeit slo%l and ine""i$ientl . ,overage is s!oradi$ and "r#strating %aiting !eriods are meas#red in months. )ard;are and So&t;are 3ost Internet #sers 4MGL5 %ork %ith the 8indo%s o!erating s stem. Abo#t 99L o%n a 3a$intosh 4m#$h stronger gra!hi$all and more #ser6"riendl 5. Onl NL $ontin#e to %ork on 0NI= based s stems 4%hi$h, histori$all , "athered the Internet5 6 and this n#mber is "ast de$lining. A strong entrant is the "ree so#r$e &IN0= o!erating s stem.

Virt#all all #sers s#r" thro#gh a bro%sing so"t%are. A "ast d%indling minorit 4GOL5 #se Nets$a!e;s !rod#$ts 4mainl Navigator and ,omm#ni$ator5 and the ma'orit #se 3i$roso"t;s EE!lorer 4more than O:L o" the market5. 1ro%sers are no% "ree !rod#$ts and $an be do%nloaded "rom the Internet. As late as 9DDN, it %as !redi$ted b ma'or Internet $ons#ltan$ "irms that bro%ser sales %ill to! RC billion b the ear G:::. S#$h misg#ided !redi$tions ignored the basi$ ethos o" the Internet: "ree !rod#$ts, "ree $ontent, "ree a$$ess. 1ro%sers are in "or a great trans"ormation. 3ost o" them are likel to have 36D, advan$ed a#dio, tele!hon + voi$e + video mail 4v6mail5, instant messaging, e6mail, and video $on"eren$ing $a!abilities integrated into the same bro%sing session. The %ill be$ome sel"6 $#stomi<ing, intelligent, Internet inter"a$es. The %ill memori<e the histor o" #sage and #ser !re"eren$es and ada!t themselves a$$ordingl . The %ill allo% $ontent6s!e$i"i$it : #nidenti"iable smart agents %ill s$o#r the Internet, make re$ommendations, $om!are !ri$es, order goods and servi$es and $#stomi<e $ontents in line %ith sel"6ad'#sting #ser !ro"iles. T%o im!ortant te$hnologi$al develo!ments m#st be $onsidered: PDAs 4Personal Digital Assistants5 6 the #ltimate !ersonal 4and o""i$e5 $omm#ni$ators, eas to $arr , the !rovide Internet 4a$$ess5 Ever %here, inde!endent o" s#!!liers and !roviders and o" !h si$al in"rastr#$t#re 4in an aero!lane, in the "ield, in a $inema5. The se$ond trend: %ireless data trans"er and %ireless e6mail, %hether thro#gh !agers, $ell#lar !hones, or thro#gh more so!histi$ated a!!arat#s and h brids s#$h as smart !hones. .eote$h@s !rod#$ts are an eE$ellent eEam!le: e6mail, "aEes, tele!hone $alls and a $onne$tion to the Internet and to other, !#bli$ and $or!orate, or !ro!rietar , databases 6 all !rovided b the same gadget. This is the embodiment o" the ele$troni$, !h si$all deta$hed, o""i$e. 8earable $om!#ting sho#ld be $onsidered a !art o" this B#biK#ito#s or !ervasive $om!#tingB %ave. 8e have no %a o" ga#ging 6 or intelligentl g#essing 6 the !art o" the mobile Internet in the total "#t#re Internet market b#t it is likel to o#t%eigh the B"iEedB !art. 8ireless internet meshes %ell %ith the trend o" !ervasive $om!#ting and the intelligent home and o""i$e. 7o#sehold gadgets s#$h as mi$ro%ave ovens, re"rigerators and so on %ill $onne$t to the internet via a %ireless inter"a$e to $#ll data, do%nload in"ormation, order goods and servi$es, re!ort their $ondition and !er"orm basi$ maintenan$e "#n$tions. &o$ation s!e$i"i$ servi$es 4navigation, sho!!ing re$ommendations, s!e$ial dis$o#nts, deals and sales, emergen$ servi$es5 de!end on the te$hnologi$al $on"l#en$e bet%een .PS 4satellite6based geolo$ation te$hnolog 5 and %ireless Internet. Su liers and Intermediaries

BParasiti$B intermediaries o$$#! ea$h stage in the Internet;s "ood $hain. A$$ess to the Internet is still !rovided b Bd#mb !i!esB 6 the Internet Servi$e Providers 4ISP5 ,ontent is still the !reserve o" $ontent s#!!liers and so on. Some o" these intermediaries are doomed to grad#all "ade or to s#""er a s#bstantial diminishing o" their share o" the market. Even B%alled gardensB o" $ontent 4s#$h as AO&5 are at risk. 1 %a o" $om!arison, even toda , ISPs have "o#r times as man s#bs$ribers 4%orld%ide5 as AO&. Admittedl , this adversel a""e$ts the K#alit o" the Internet 6 the in"rastr#$t#re

maintained b the !hone $om!anies is slo% and o"ten s#$$#mbs to bottlene$ks. The #neK#ivo$al intention o" the tele!hon giants to be$ome ma'or !la ers in the Internet market sho#ld also be taken into a$$o#nt. The !hone $om!anies %ill, th#s, !la a d#al role: the %ill !rovide a$$ess to their in"rastr#$t#re to their $om!etitors 4sometimes, %ithin a real or a$t#al mono!ol 5 6 and the %ill $om!ete %ith their $lients. The same $an be said abo#t the $able $om!anies. ,ontrolling the last mile to the #ser;s abode is the neEt big b#siness o" the Internet. ,om!anies s#$h as AO& are disadvantaged b these trends. It is im!erative "or AO& to obtain eK#al a$$ess to the $able $om!an ;s ba$kbone and in"rastr#$t#re i" it %ants to s#rvive. 7en$e its merger %ith Time 8arner. No %onder that man o" the ISPs '#dge this intr#sion on their t#r" b the !hone and $able $om!anies to $onstit#te #n"air $om!etition. Fet, one sho#ld not "orget that the barriers to entr are ver lo% in the ISP market. It takes a minimal investment to be$ome an ISP. G:: modems 4%hi$h $ost G:: 0SD ea$h5 are eno#gh to satis" the needs o" G::: average #sers %ho generate an in$ome o" H::,::: 0SD !er ann#m to the ISP. (o#ters are eK#all as $hea! no%ada s. This is a ni$e ret#rn on the ISP@s $a!ital, #ndo#btedl . The )itchhikers The 8eb ho#ses the eK#ivalent o" 9:: billion !ages. Sear$h Engine a!!li$ations are #sed to lo$ate s!e$i"i$ in"ormation in this im!ressive, $onstantl !roli"erating librar . The %ill be re!la$ed, in the near "#t#re, b B/no%ledge Str#$t#resB 6 giganti$ en$ $lo!aedias, %hose teEt %ill $ontain re"eren$es 4h !erlinks5 to other, relevant, sites. The "ar "#t#re %ill %itness the emergen$e o" the BIntelligent Ar$hivesB and the BPersonal Ne%s!a!ersB 4read "#rther "or detailed eE!lanations5. Some so"t%are a!!li$ations %ill s#mmari<e $ontent, others %ill indeE and a#tomati$all re"eren$e and h !erlink teEts 4virt#al bibliogra!hies5. An average #ser %ill have an on6going interest in H:: sites. S!e$ial so"t%are %ill be needed to manage address books 4BbookmarksB, B"avo#ritesB5 and $ontents 4BIntelligent AddressbooksB5. The !henomenon o" sear$h engines dedi$ated to sear$h a n#mber o" sear$h engines sim#ltaneo#sl %ill gro% 4B7 !er6 or meta6 enginesB5. 3eta6engines %ill %ork in the ba$kgro#nd and do%nload h !erlinks and advertising 4the latter is essential to se$#re the "inan$ial interest o" site develo!ers and o%ners5. Statisti$al so"t%are %hi$h tra$ks 4Bho% long %as %hat doneB5, monitors 4B%hat did the do %hile in the siteB5 and $o#nts 4Bho% man B5 visitors to sites alread eEists. Some o" these a!!li$ations have ba$k6o""i$e "a$ilities 4a$$o#nting, "ollo%6#!, $olle$tions, even tele6marketing5. The all !rovide time trails and some allo% "or a#diting.

This is b#t a small "ragment o" the ra!idl develo!ing net6s$a!e: !eo!le and enter!rises %ho make a living o"" the Internet $ra<e rather than o"" the Internet itsel". Ever one kno%s that there is more mone in le$t#ring abo#t ho% to make mone on the Internet 6 than in the Internet itsel". This maEim still holds tr#e des!ite the 3G billion 0S dollars in E6$ommer$e in 9DDM. 1#siness to ,ons#mer 41G,5 sales gro% less vigoro#sl than 1#siness to 1#siness 41G15 sales and are likel to s#""er another blo% %ith the advent o" Peer to Peer 4PGP5 $om!#ter net%orks. The latter allo% P,s to a$t as servers and th#s enable the s%a!!ing o" $om!#ter "iles asmong $onne$ted #sers 4%ith or %itho#t a $entral dire$tor 5. Content Su liers This is the #nder!rivileged se$tor o" the Internet. The all lose mone 4even e6tailers %hi$h o""er basi$, standardi<ed goods 6 books, ,Ds 6 %ith the eE$e!tion, #ntil Se!tember 99, o" sites $onne$ted to to#rism5. No one thanks them "or $ontent !rod#$ed %ith the investment o" a lot o" e""ort and a lot o" mone . A reall K#alitative, "#ll $ommer$e enabled site $osts #! to H,:::,::: 0SD, eE$l#ding site maintenan$e and $#stomer and visitor servi$es. ,ontent !roviders are $onstantl $riti$i<ed "or la$k o" $reativit or "or too m#$h $reativit . 3ore and more is asked o" them. The are eE!loited b intermediaries, hit$hhikers and other !arasites. This is all an o""6shoot o" the ethos o" the Internet as a "ree $ontent area. 3ore than 9:: million men and %omen $onstantl a$$ess the 8eb 6 b#t this n#mber stands to gro% 4the median !redi$tion: 3:: million5. Fet, %hile the 8eb is #sed b 3HL o" those %ith a$$ess to the Internet 6 e6mail is #sed b more than O:L. E6mail is b "ar the most $ommon "#n$tion 4Bkiller a!!B5 and s!e$iali<ed a!!li$ations 4E#dora, Internet 3ail, 3i$roso"t EE$hange5 6 "ree or ad s!onsored 6 kee! it a$$essible to all and #ser6"riendl . 3ost o" the #sers like to s#r" 4bro%se, visit sites5 the net %itho#t reason or goal in mind. This makes it di""i$#lt to a!!l traditional marketing te$hniK#es. 8hat is the meaning o" Btargeted a#dien$esB or Bmarket sharesB in this $onteEt> I" a s#r"er visits sites %hi$h deal %ith aberrant seE and n#$lear !h si$s in the same session 6 %hat to make o" it> The !#bli$ and legislative ba$klash against the gathering o" s#r"ers; data b Internet ad agen$ies and other %eb sites 6 has led to gro%ing ignoran$e regarding the !ro"ile o" Internet #sers, their demogra!h , habits, !re"eren$es and dislikes. Peo!le like the ver a$t o" s#r"ing. The %ant to be entertained, then the #se the Internet as a %orking tool, mostl in the servi$e o" their em!lo er, %ho, #s#all "oots the bill. 0sers love "ree do%nloads 4mainl so"t%are5. B2reeB is a ke %ord on the Internet: it #sed to belong to the 0S .overnment and to a b#n$h o" #niversities. 0sers like in"ormation, %ith em!hasis on ne%s and data abo#t ne% !rod#$ts. 1#t the do not like to sho! on the net 6 et. Onl 3ML o" all s#r"ers made a !#r$hase d#ring 9DDM. ONL o" them adore virt#al seE. H:L o" the sites most o"ten visited are !orn sites 4this is reminis$ent o" the earl da s o" the Video ,assette (e$order 6 V,(5. Peo!le dedi$ate the same amo#nt o" time to %at$hing video $assettes or television as the do to s#r"ing the net. The Internet seems to $annibali<e television.

SeE is "ollo%ed b m#si$, s!orts, health, television, $om!#ters, $inema, !oliti$s, !ets and $ooking sites. Peo!le are dra%n to intera$tive games. The Internet %ill shortl enable !eo!le to gamble, i" not ham!ered b legislation. 9: billion 0SD in gambling mone are !redi$ted to !ass thro#gh the net. This makes sense: nothing like a $om!#ter to !rovide immediate 4monetar and !s $hologi$al5 re%ards. ,ommer$e on the net is another "avo#rite. The Internet is a !er"e$t medi#m "or the sale o" so"t%are and other digital !rod#$ts 4e6books5. The !roblem o" data se$#rit is on its %a to being solved %ith the SET 4or other5 %orld standard. As earl as 9DDH, the Internet had more than 9:: virt#al sho!!ing malls visited b G.H million sho!!ers 4and !robabl do#ble this n#mber in 9DDO5. The !redi$tions "or 9DDD %ere bet%een 96H billion 0SD o" net sho!!ing 4!l#s G billion 0SD thro#gh on6line in"ormation !roviders, s#$h as ,om!#Serve and AO&5 6 !roved %oe"#ll ina$$#rate. The a$t#al n#mber in 9DDM %as N times the !redi$tion "or 9DDD. It is also %idel believed that $ir$a G:L o" the "amil b#dget %ill !ass thro#gh the Internet as e6mone and this amo#nts to 9H: billion 0SD. The Internet %ill be$ome a giant inter6bank $learing s stem and varied AT3 t !e banking and investment servi$es %ill be !rovided thro#gh it. 1asi$all , ever thing $an be done thro#gh the Internet: looking "or a 'ob, "or instan$e. Fet, the Internet %ill never re!la$e h#man intera$tion. Peo!le are likel to !re"er !ersonal banking, %indo% sho!!ing and the so$ial eE!erien$e o" the sho!!ing mall to Internet banking and e6$ommer$e, or m6$ommer$e. Some sites alread s!ort $lassi"ied ads. This is not a bad %a to de"ra eE!enses, tho#gh most $lassi"ied ads are "ree 4it is the advertising the attra$t that matters5. Another develo!ing trend is %ebsite6rating and $ritiK#e. It %ill be treated the %a toda @s !rinted editions are. It %ill have a limited in"l#en$e on the $ons#m!tion de$isions o" some #sers. 1ro%sers alread s!ort b#ttons labelled B8hat@s Ne%B and B8hat;s 7otB. 3ost Sear$h Engines re$ommend s!e$i"i$ sites. 0sers are $a#tio#s. St#dies dis$overed that no #ser, no matter ho% heav , has $onsistentl re6visited more than G:: sites, a min#s$#le n#mber. The 9: most !o!#lar %eb sites 4FahooJ, 3SN, et$.5 attra$ted more than H:L o" all Internet tra""i$. Site re$ommendation servi$es o"ten !rod#$e random 6 at times, %rong 6 sele$tions "or their #ser. There are also $on$erns regarding !riva$ iss#es. The ba$klah against Ama<on;s Breaders; $ir$lesB is an eEam!le.

8eb ,riti$s, %ho %ork toda mainl "or the !rinted !ress, %ill !#blish their %ares on the net and %ill link to intelligent so"t%are %hi$h %ill h !erlink, re$ommend and re"er. Some %eb $riti$s %ill be identi"ied %ith s!e$i"i$ a!!li$ations 6 reall , eE!ert s stems %hi$h %ill in$or!orate their kno%ledge and eE!erien$e. The 5one+ 8here %ill the $a!ital needed to "inan$e all these develo!ments $ome "rom> Again, there are t%o s$hools: One sa s that sites %ill be "inan$ed thro#gh advertising 6 and so %ill sear$h engines and other a!!li$ations a$$essed b #sers. ,ertain ASPs 4A!!li$ation Servi$e Providers %hi$h rent o#t a$$ess to a!!li$ation so"t%are %hi$h resides on their servers5 are $onsidering this model. The se$ond version is sim!ler and allo%s "or the eEisten$e o" non6$ommer$ial $ontent. It !ro!oses to $olle$t negligible s#ms 4$ents or "ra$tions o" $ents5 "rom ever #ser "or ever visit 4Bmi$ro6!a mentsB5 or a s#bs$ri!tion "ee. These a$$#m#lated $ents or s#bs$ri!tion "ees %ill enable the o%ners o" old sites to #!date and to maintain them and en$o#rage entre!rene#rs to develo! ne% ones. ,ertain $ontent aggregators 4es!e$iall o" digital teEtbooks5 have ado!ted this model 4I#estia, 2athom5. The adherents o" the "irst s$hool !ointed at the H million 0SD invested in advertising d#ring 9DDH and to the O: million or so invested d#ring 9DDO. Its o!!onents !oint eEa$tl at the same n#mbers: ridi$#lo#sl small %hen $ontrasted %ith more $onventional advertising modes. The !otential o" advertising on the net is limited to 9.H billion 0SD ann#all in 9DDM, th#ndered the !essimists 4man tho#ght that even hal" that %o#ld be ver ni$e5. The a$t#al "ig#re %as do#ble the !redi$tion b#t still %oe"#ll small and inadeK#ate to s#!!ort the Internet;s $ontent develo!ment. ,om!are these "ig#res to the sale o" Internet so"t%are 4RC billion5, Internet hard%are 4R3 billion5, Internet a$$ess !rovision 4RC.G billion5 in 9DDH. 7embre$ht and I#ist estimated that Internet related ind#stries s$oo!ed #! G3.G billion 0SD ann#all 4A re!ort released in mid69DDO5. And %hat "ollo%s advertising is hardl more eno$#raging. The $ons#mer intera$ts and the !rod#$t is delivered to him. This 6 the deliver !hase 6 is a slo% and enervating e!ilog#e to the eE$iting a""air o" ordering thro#gh the net at the s!eed o" light. Too man $ons#mers still $om!lain that the do not re$eive %hat the ordered, or that deliver is late and !rod#$ts de"e$tive. The sol#tion ma lie in the integration o" advertising and $ontent. Point$ast, "or instan$e, integrated advertising into its ne%s broad$asts, $ontin#o#sl streamed to the #ser@s s$reen, even %hen ina$tive 4the !rovided a do%nloadable a$tive s$reen saver and ti$ker in a B!#sh te$hnolog B5. Do%nloading o" digital m#si$, video and teEt 4e6books5 %ill lead to immediate grati"i$ation o" the $ons#mer and %ill in$rease the e""i$a$ o" advertising.

8hatever the $ase ma be, a #ni"orm, agreed #!on s stem o" rating as a basis "or $harging advertisers, is sorel needed. There is also the K#estion o" %hat does the advertiser !a "or> 3an advertisers 4Pro$ter and .amble, "or instan$e5 re"#se to !a a$$ording to the n#mber o" hits or im!ressions 4Pentries, visits to a site5. The agree to !a onl a$$ording to the n#mber o" the times that their advertisement %as hit 4!age vie%s5. This di""erent basis "or $al$#lation is likel to #!set all reven#e s$enarios. Ver "e% sites o" im!ortant, res!e$table ne%s!a!ers are on a s#bs$ri!tion basis. Do% -ones 48all Street -o#rnal5 and The E$onomist, to mention b#t t%o. 8ill this be$ome the !revailing trend> The 'nternet as a *etaphor Three meta!hors $ome to mind %hen $onsidering the Internet B!hiloso!hi$all B. The Internet as a Chaotic Librar+ >. The 7ro le# o, Catalog%ing The Internet is an assortment o" billions o" !ages $ontaining in"ormation. Some o" them are visible and others are generated "rom hidden databases b #sers; reK#ests 4BInvisible InternetB5. The Internet dis!la s no dis$ernible order, $lassi"i$ation, or $ategori<ation. As o!!osed to B$lassi$alB libraries, no one has invented a $atalog#ing standard 4remember De%e >5. This is so needed that it is ama<ing that it has not been invented et. Some sites indeed a!!l the De%e De$imal S atem 4S#ite9:95. Others de"a#lt to a dire$tor str#$t#re 4O!en Dire$tor , FahooJ, &ook Smart and others5. 7ad s#$h a standard eEisted 4an agreed #!on n#meri$al $atalog#ing method5 6 ea$h site %o#ld have sel"6$lassi"ied. Sites %o#ld have an interest to do so to in$rease their !enetration rates and their visibilit . This, nat#rall , %o#ld have eliminated the need "or toda ;s $l#nk , in$om!lete and 4highl 5 ine""i$ient sear$h engines. A site %hose n#mber starts %ith D:: %ill be immediatel identi"ied as dealing %ith histor and m#lti!le $lassi"i$ation %ill be en$o#raged to allo% "iner $ross6se$tions to emerge. An eEam!le o" s#$h an emerging te$hnolog o" Bsel" $lassi"i$ationB and Bsel"6!#bli$ationB 4tho#gh limited to s$holarl reso#r$es5 is the BA$ademi$ (eso#r$e ,hannelB b S$indeE. 0sers %ill not be reK#ired to remember reams o" n#mbers. 2#t#re bro%sers %ill be akin to $atalog#es, ver m#$h like the a!!li$ations #sed in modern da libraries. ,om!are this #to!ia to the $#rrent d sto! . 0sers str#ggle %ith reams o" irrelevant material to "inall rea$h a !artial and disa!!ointing destination. At the same time, there likel are %eb sites %hi$h eEa$tl mat$h the !oor #ser;s needs. Fet, %hat $#rrentl determines the $han$es o" a ha!! en$o#nter bet%een #ser and $ontent 6 are the %hims o" the s!e$i"i$ sear$h engine #sed and things like meta6tags, headlines, a "ee !aid, or the right o!ening senten$es. 2. S$reen vers%s 7age The $om!#ter s$reen, be$a#se o" !h si$al limitations 4si<e, the "a$t that it has to be s$rolled5 "ails to e""e$tivel $om!ete %ith the !rinted !age. The latter is still the most ingenio#s

medi#m et invented "or the storage and release o" teEt#al in"ormation. .ranted: a $om!#ter s$reen is better at highlighting dis$rete #nits o" in"ormation. So, this dra%s the batlle lines: str#$t#res 4!rinted !ages5 vers#s #nits 4s$reen5, the $ontin#o#s and easil reversible vers#s the dis$rete. The sol#tion is an e""i$ient %a to translate $om!#ter s$reens to !rinted matter. It is hard to believe, b#t no s#$h thing eEists. ,om!#ter s$reens are still hostile to o""6line !rinting. In other %ords: i" a #ser $o!ies in"ormation "rom the Internet to his 8ord Pro$essor 4or vi$e versa, "or that matter5 6 he ends #! %ith a "ragmented, garbage6"illed and non6aestheti$ do$#ment. Ver "e% site develo!ers tr to do something abo#t it 6 even "e%er s#$$eed. 2. The 'nternet and the C31R;* One o" the biggest mistakes o" $ontent s#!!liers is that the do not miE $ontents or have a Bstati$6d nami$ intera$tionB. The Internet $an no% easil intera$t %ith other media 4es!e$iall %ith a#dio ,Ds and %ith ,D6(O3s5 6 even as the #ser s#r"s. EEam!les abo#nd: A sho!!ing $atalog#e $an be distrib#ted on a ,D6(O3 b mail. The Internet Site %ill allo% the #ser to order a !rod#$t !revio#sl sele$ted "rom the $atalog#e, %hile o""6line. The $atalog#e $o#ld also be #!dated thro#gh the site 4as is done %ith ,D6(O3 en$ $lo!edias5. The advantages o" the ,D6(O3 are $lear: ver "ast a$$ess time 4do<ens o" times "aster than the a$$ess to a site #sing a dial #! $onne$tion5 and a data storage $a!a$it tens o" times bigger than the average %ebsite. Another eEam!le: a ,D6(O3 $an be distrib#ted, $ontaining h#ndreds o" advertisements. The $ons#mer %ill sele$t the ad that he %ants to see and %ill $onne$t to the Internet to vie% a relevant video. 7e $o#ld then also have an intera$tive $hat 4or a $on"eren$e5 %ith a sales!erson, re$eive in"ormation abo#t the $om!an , abo#t the ad, abo#t the advertising agen$ %hi$h $reated the ad 6 and so on. ,D6(O3 based en$ $lo!edias 4s#$h as the 1ritanni$a, En$arta, .rolier5 alread $ontain h !erlinks %hi$h $arr the #ser to sites sele$ted b an Editorial 1oard. 1#t ,D6(O3s are !robabl a doomed medi#m. This ind#str $hose to em!hasi<e the %rong things. Storage $a!a$it in$reased eE!onentiall and, %ithin a ear, deskto!s %ith M: .b hard disks %ill be $ommon. 3oreover, the Net%ork ,om!#ter 6 the stri!!ed do%n version o" the !ersonal $om!#ter 6 %ill !#t at the dis!osal o" the average #ser terab tes in storage $a!a$it and the !ro$essing !o%er o" a s#!er$om!#ter. 8hat se!arates $om!#ter #sers "rom this #to!ia is the $omm#ni$ation band%idth. 8ith the introd#$tion o" radio, statellite, ADS& broadband servi$es, $able modems and $om!ression methods 6 video 4on demand5, a#dio and data %ill be available s!eedil and !lenti"#ll . The ,D6(O3, on the other hand, is not mobile. It reK#ires installation and the #tili<ation o" so!histi$ated hard%are and so"t%are. This is no #ser "riendl !#sh te$hnolog . It is nerd6 oriented. As a res#lt, ,D6(O3s are not an immediate medi#m. There is a long time la!se bet%een the moment the are !#r$hased and the moment the "irst data be$ome a$$essible to

the #ser. ,om!are this to a book or a maga<ine. Data in these oldest o" media is instantl available to the #ser and allo%s "or eas and a$$#rate Bba$kB and B"or%ardB "#n$tions. Perha!s the biggest mistake o" ,D6(O3 man#"a$t#rers has been their inabilit to o""er an integrated hard%are and so"t%are !a$kage. ,D6(O3s are not $om!a$t. A 8alkman is a $om!a$t hard%are6$#m6so"t%are !a$kage. It is easil trans!ortable, it is thin, it $ontains n#mero#s, #ser6"riendl , so!histi$ated "#n$tions, it !rovides immediate a$$ess to data. So does the dis$man or the 3P36man. This $annot be said o" the ,D6(O3. 1 t ing its "#t#re to the obsolete $on$e!t o" stand6alone, eE!ensive, ine""i$ient and te$hnologi$all #nreliable !ersonal $om!#ters 6 ,D6(O3s have senten$ed themselves to oblivion 4%ith the !ossible eE$e!tion o" re"eren$e material5. E. ;n1line Re,eren$e Li raries These alread eEist. A visit to the on6line En$ $lo!aedia 1ritanni$a eEem!li"ies some o" the tremendo#s, mind boggling !ossibilities: Ea$h entr is h !erlinked to sites on the Internet %hi$h deal %ith the same s#b'e$t matter. The sites are $are"#ll s$reened 4tho#gh more detailed des$ri!tions o" ea$h site sho#ld be available 6 the $o#ld be !re!ared either b the sta"" o" the en$ $lo!aedia or b the site o%ner5. &inks are available to data in vario#s "orms, in$l#ding a#dio and video. Ever thing $an be $o!ied to the hard disk or to ,D6(O3s.

This is a ne% $on$e!tion o" a kno%ledge $entre 6 not '#st an assortment o" material. It is mod#lar, $an be added on and s#btra$ted "rom. It $an be linked to a voi$e IQA $entre. I#eries b s#bs$ribers $an be ans%ered b e6mail, b "aE, !osted on the site, hard $o!ies $an be sent b !ost. This BTrivial P#rs#itB servi$e $o#ld be ver !o!#lar 6 there is $onsiderable a!!etite "or B-#st in Time In"ormationB. The &ibrar o" ,ongress 6 together %ith a "e% other libraries 6 is in the !ro$ess o" making '#st s#$h a servi$e available to the !#bli$ 4,D(S 6 ,ollaborative Digital (e"eren$e Servi$e5. 5. The ?eed a$k ;ption 7ard to believe, b#t ver "e% sites en$o#rage their g#ests to eE!ress an o!inion abo#t the site, its $ontents and its aestheti$s. This indi$ates an ossi"ied mode o" thinking abo#t the most d nami$ mass medi#m ever $reated, the onl intera$tive mass medi#m et. Ea$h site m#st absol#tel $ontain "eedba$k and rating K#estionnaires. It has the side bene"it o" $reating a database o" the visitors to the site. 3oreover, ea$h site $an easil be$ome a Bkno%ledge $entreB. &et #s $onsider a site dedi$ated to advertising and marketing: It $an $ontain "eedba$k K#estionnaires 4%hat do o# think abo#t the site, s#ggestions "or im!rovement, mailto and leave message "a$ilities, et$.5 It $an $ontain rating K#estionnaires 4rate these ads, these TV or radio sho%s, these advertising $am!aigns5. It $an allo$ate some s!a$e to $lients to $reate their home !ages in 4these home !ages $o#ld lead to their sites, to other sites, to other se$tions o" the host site 6 and, in an $ase, %ill serve as a dis!la o" the $reative talent o" the site o%ners5. This %ill give the site o%ners a !i$t#re o" the distrib#tion o" the areas o" interest o" the visitors to the site. The site $an in$l#de statisti$al, tra$king and $o#nter so"t%are. S#$h a site $an re"er to h#ndreds o" #se"#l share%are a!!li$ations 4%hi$h deal %ith di""erent as!e$ts o" advertising and marketing, "or instan$e5. Develo!ers o" a!!li$ations %ill be able to #se the site to !romote their !rod#$ts. Other !ra$ti$al a!!li$ations $o#ld also be re"erred to "rom 6 or reside on 6 the site 4bro%sers, games, sear$h engines5. And all this $an be organi<ed in a !ortal str#$t#re 4"or instan$e, b ado!ting the o!en so"t%are o" the O!en Dire$tor Pro'e$t5. F. 'nternet 3erived C31R;*S The Internet is an enormo#s reservoir o" "reel available, !#bli$ domain, in"ormation. 8ith a minimal investment, this in"ormation $an be gathered into $oherent, theme oriented, $hea! ,D6(O3s. Ea$h s#$h ,D6(O3 $an $ontain: Addresses o" %eb sites s!e$i"i$ to the s#b'e$t matter

The "irst !ages o" ea$h o" these sites 7 !erlinks to ea$h o" the sites

A bro%ser A$$ess to all the im!ortant sear$h engines (e$ommended sear$h strings 4it is eEtremel di""i$#lt to "orm#late a s#$$ess"#l sear$h in the Internet, it takes eE!ertise. B(ead 6made sear$hesB %ill be a hit in the "#t#re, as the n#mber o" sites gro%s5 A di$tionar o" !ro"essional terms, a s!eller and a thesa#r#s A list o" general re"eren$e sites Share%are s!e$i"i$ to the "ield

G. 7% lishing The Internet is the %orld;s largest B!#blisherB, b "ar. It B!#blishesB 2AIs 42reK#ent Ans%ers and I#estions regarding almost ever te$hni$al matter in the %orld5, e6<ines 4ele$troni$ versions o" maga<ines, not a ver !ro"itable !#rs#it5, the ele$troni$ versions o" dailies 4together %ith on6line ne%s and in"ormation servi$es5, re"eren$e and other e6books, monogra!hs, arti$les and min#tes o" dis$#ssions 4BthreadsB5, among other t !es o" material. P#blishing an e6<ine has a "e% advantages: it !romotes the sales o" the !rinted edition, it hel!s to sign on s#bs$ribers and it leads to the sale o" advertising s!a$e. The ele$troni$ ar$hive "#n$tion 4see neEt se$tion5 saves the need to "ile ba$k iss#es, the s!a$e reK#ired to do so and the irritating sear$h "or data items. The "#t#re trend is a $ombined s#bs$ri!tion: ele$troni$ 4mainl "or the ar$hival val#e and the abilit to h !erlink to additional in"ormation5 and !rinted 4easier to bro%se $#rrent iss#e5. The ele$troni$ dail !resents other advantages: It allo%s "or immediate "eedba$k and "or "lo%ing, almost real6time, $omm#ni$ation bet%een %riters and readers. The ele$troni$ version, there"ore, a$K#ires a g ros$o!i$ "#n$tion: a navigation instr#ment, al%a s indi$ating deviations "rom the BrightB $o#rse. The $ontent $an be instantl #!dated and immedia$ has its !remi#m 4remember the &e%insk a""air>5. Strangel , this 4$onventional5 "ield %as the "irst to develo! a Bvirt#al realit B "a$et. There are virt#al Bmaga<ine stallsB. The look eEa$tl like the real thing and the #ser $an b# a !a!er #sing his mo#se. S!e$ialt hand held devi$es alread allo% "or do%nloading and storage o" vast K#antities o" data 4#! to C::: !rint !ages5. The #ser gains a$$ess to libraries $ontaining h#ndreds o" teEts, ada!ted to be do%nloaded, stored and read b the s!e$i"i$ devi$e. Again, a $onvergen$e o" standards is to be eE!e$ted in this "ield as %ell 4the "inal $ontenders %ill !robabl be Adobe;s PD2 against 3i$roso"t;s 3S6(eader5.

1roadl , e6books are treated either as: ,ontin#ation o" !rint books 4!6books5 b other means or as A %hole ne% !#blishing #niverse. Sin$e !6books are a more $onvenient medi#m then e6books 6 the %ill !revail in an straight"or%ard Bmedi#m re!la$ementB or Bmedi#m dis!la$ementB battle. In other %ords, i" !#blishers %ill !ersist in the sim!le and straight"or%ard $onversion o" !6 books to e6books 6 then e6books are doomed. The are sim!l in"erior to the !ri$e, $om"ort, ta$tile delights, bro%seabilit and s$anabilit o" !6books. 1#t e6books 6 being digital 6 o!en #! a vista o" hitherto negle$ted !ossibilities. These %ill onl be enhan$ed and enri$hed b the introd#$tion o" e6!a!er and e6ink. Among them:

7 !erlinks %ithin the e6book and %itho#t it 6 to %eb $ontent, re"eren$e %orks, et$. Embedded instant sho!!ing and ordering links Divergent, #ser6intera$tive, de$ision driven !lotlines Intera$tion %ith other e6books 4#sing a %ireless standard5 6 $ollaborative a#thoring Intera$tion %ith other e6books 6 gaming and $omm#nit a$tivities A#tomati$all or !eriodi$all #!dated $ontent 3#ltimedia Database, 2avo#rites and 7istor 3aintenan$e 4reading habits, sho!!ing habits, intera$tion %ith other readers, !lot related de$isions and m#$h more5 A#tomati$ and embedded a#dio $onversion and translation $a!abilities 2#ll %ireless !i$onet%orking and s$atternet%orking $a!abilities

The te$hnolog is still not "#ll there. 8ars rage in both the %ireless and the ebook realms. Plat"orms $om!ete. Standards $lash. .#r#s debate. 1#t $onvergen$e is inevitable and %ith it the e6book o" the "#t#re. 0. The )r$hive ?%n$tion The Internet is also the %orld;s biggest $emeter : tens o" tho#sands o" deadbeat sites, still a$$essible 6 the B.host SitesB o" this ele$troni$ "rontier. This, in a %a , is $olle$tive memor . One o" the Internet;s main "#n$tions %ill be to !reserve and trans"er kno%ledge thro#gh time. It is $alled Bmemor B in biolog 6 and Bar$hiveB in librar s$ien$e. The histor o" the Internet is being do$#mented b sear$h engines 4.oogle5 and s!e$iali<ed servi$es 4AleEa5 alike.

The 'nternet as a Colle$tive -rain Dra%ing a $om!arison "rom the develo!ment o" a h#man bab 6 the h#man ra$e has '#st $ommen$ed to develo! its ne#ral s stem. The Internet "#l"ils all the "#n$tions o" the Nervo#s S stem in the bod and is, both "#n$tionall and str#$t#rall , !rett similar. It is de$entrali<ed, red#ndant 4ea$h !art $an serve as "#n$tional ba$k#! in $ase o" mal"#n$tion5. It hosts in"ormation %hi$h is a$$essible in a "e% %a s, it $ontains a memor "#n$tion, it is m#ltimodal 4m#ltimedia 6 teEt#al, vis#al, a#dio and animation5. I believe that the $om!arison is not s#!er"i$ial and that st#d ing the "#n$tions o" the brain 4"rom in"an$ to ad#lthood5 6 amo#nts to !er#sing the "#t#re o" the Net itsel". >. The Colle$tive Co#p%ter To $arr the meta!hor o" Ba $olle$tive brainB "#rther, %e %o#ld eE!e$t the !ro$essing o" in"ormation to take !la$e in the Internet, rather than inside the end6#ser@s hard%are 4the same %a that in"ormation is !ro$essed in the brain, not in the e es5. Deskto!s %ill re$eive the res#lts and $omm#ni$ate %ith the Net to re$eive additional $lari"i$ations and instr#$tions and to $onve in"ormation gathered "rom their environment 4mostl , "rom the #ser5. This is !art "o the !hiloso!h o" the -AVA !rogramming lang#age. It deals %ith a!!lets 6 small bits o" so"t%are 6 and links di""erent $om!#ter !lat"orms b means o" so"t%are. P#t di""erentl : 2#t#re servers %ill $ontain not onl in"ormation 4as the do toda 5 6 b#t also so"t%are a!!li$ations. The #ser o" an a!!li$ation %ill not be "or$ed to b# it. 7e %ill not be driven into hard%are6related eE!endit#res to a$$ommodate the ever gro%ing si<e o" a!!li$ations. 7e %ill not "ind himsel" %asting his s$ar$e memor and $om!#ting reso#r$es on !assive storage. Instead, he %ill #se a bro%ser to $all a $entral $om!#ter. This $om!#ter %ill $ontain the needed so"t%are, broken to its elements 4Pa!!lets, small a!!li$ations5. An time the #ser %ishes to #se one o" the "#n$tions o" the a!!li$ation, he %ill si!hon it o"" the $entral $om!#ter. 8hen "inished 6 he %ill Bret#rnB it. Pro$essing s!eeds and res!onse times %ill be s#$h that the #ser %ill not "eel at all that it is not %ith his o%n so"t%are that he is %orking 4the K#estion o" o%nershi! %ill be ver bl#rred in s#$h a %orld5. This te$hnolog is available and it !rovoked a heated debated abo#t the "#t#re sha!e o" the $om!#ting ind#str as a %hole 4deskto!s 6 reall !o%er !a$ks 6 or net%ork $om!#ters, a little more than d#mb terminals5. A!!li$ations are alread o""ered to $or!orate #sers b ASPs 4A!!li$ation Servi$e Providers5.

In the last "e% ears, s$ientists !#t the $ombined !o%er o" the $om!#ters linked to the internet at an given moment to !er"orm asto#nding "eats o" distrib#ted !arallel !ro$essing. 3illions o" P,s $onne$ted to the net $o6!ro$ess signals "rom o#ter s!a$e, meteorologi$al data and solve $om!leE eK#ations. This is a !rime eEam!le o" a $olle$tive brain in a$tion. 2. The 'ntranet 1 a Logi$al 4Btension o, the Colle$tive Co#p%ter &ANs 4&o$al Area Net%orks5 are no longer a rarit in $or!orate o""i$es. 8ANs 4%ide Area Net%orks5 are #sed to $onne$t geogra!hi$all dis!ersed organs o" the same legal entit 4bran$hes o" a bank, da#ghter $om!anies, a sales "or$e5. 3an &ANs are %ireless. The intranet + eEtranet and %ireless &ANs %ill be the %inners. The %ill grad#all eliminate both "iEed line &ANs and 8ANs. The Internet o""ers eK#al, !lat"orm6inde!endent, lo$ation6 inde!endent and time o" da 6 inde!endent a$$ess to all the members o" an organi<ation.So!histi$ated "ire%all se$#rit a!!li$ation !rote$ts the !riva$ and $on"identialit o" the intranet "rom all b#t the most determined and savv ha$kers. The Intranet is an inter6organi<ational $omm#ni$ation net%ork, $onstr#$ted on the !lat"orm o" the Internet and %hi$h en'o s all its advantages. The eEtranet is o!en to $lients and s#!!liers as %ell. The $om!an ;s server $an be a$$essed b an one a#thori<ed, "rom an %here, at an time 4%ith lo$al 6 rather than international 6 $omm#ni$ation $osts5. The #ser $an leave messages 4internal e6mail or v6mail5, a$$ess in"ormation 6 !ro!rietar or !#bli$ 6 "rom it and to !arti$i!ate in Bvirt#al team%orkB 4see neEt $ha!ter5. 1 the ear G::G, a standard intranet inter"a$e %ill emerge. This %ill be "a$ilitated b the o!ening #! o" the T,P+IP $omm#ni$ation ar$hite$t#re and its availabilit to P,s. A billion 0SD %ill go '#st to "inan$e intranet servers 6 or, at least, this is the median "ore$ast. The develo!ment o" meas#res to sa"eg#ard server ro#ted inter6organi<ational $omm#ni$ation 4"ire%alls5 is the sol#tion to one o" t%o obsta$les to the instit#tion o" the Intranet. The se$ond !roblem is the limited band%idth %hi$h does not !ermit the e""i$ient trans"er o" a#dio 4not to mention video5. It is di""i$#lt to $ond#$t video $on"eren$ing thro#gh the Internet. Even the voi$es o" dis$#ssants %ho #se internet !hones $ome o#t 4slightl 5 distorted. All this did not !revent DHL o" the 2ort#ne 9::: "rom installing intranet. MGL o" the rest intend to install one b the end o" this ear. 3edi#m to big si<e Ameri$an "irms have H:69:: intranet terminals !er ever internet one. At the end o" 9DDN, there %ere 9: %eb servers !er ever other t !e o" server in organi<ations. The sale o" intranet related so"t%are %as !ro'e$ted to m#lti!l b 9O 4to M billion 0SD5 b the ear 9DDD. One o" the greatest advantages o" the intranet is the abilit to trans"er do$#ments bet%een the vario#s !arts o" an organi<ation. ,onsider Visa: it !#shed G million do$#ments !er da internall in 9DDO. An organi<ation eK#i!!ed %ith an intranet $an 4%hile !rote$ted b "ire%alls5 give its $lients or s#!!liers a$$ess to non6$lassi"ied $orres!onden$e. This notion has its $harm. ,onsider a

ne%s!a!er: it $an give a$$ess to all the materials %hi$h %ere dis$arded b the editors. Some ne%s are "it to !rint 6 et are dis$arded be$a#se o" s!a$e limitations. Still, someone is bo#nd to be interested. It $osts the ne%s!a!er $lose to nothing 4the material is, normall , alread $om!#ter6resident5 6 and it might even generate added $ir$#lation and in$ome. It $an be even $on$eived as an B#ndergro#nd, non6$ommer$ial, alternativeB ne%s!a!er "or a %holl di""erent readershi!. The above is b#t one eEam!le o" the !ossible #se o" the intranet to $omm#ni$ate %ith the organi<ation@s $ons#mer base. 2. *ail and Chat The Internet 4its e6mail !ossibilities5 is eroding traditional mail. The market share o" the !ost o""i$e in $onve ing messages b reg#lar mail has d%indled "rom NNL to OGL 49DDH5. E6mail has eE!anded to $a!t#re 3OL 4#! "rom 9DL5. D:L o" $#stomers %ith on6line a$$ess #se e6mail "rom time to time and O:L %ork %ith it reg#larl . 3ore than G billion messages traverse the internet dail . E6mail a!!li$ations are available as "ree%are and are in$l#ded in all bro%sers. Th#s, the Internet has $om!letel assimilated %hat #sed to be a se!arate servi$e, to the eEtent that man !eo!le make the mistake o" thinking that e6mail is a "eat#re o" the Internet. 3i$roso"t $ontin#es to in$or!orate !revio#sl inde!endent a!!li$ations in its bro%sers 6 a behavio#r %hi$h led to the 9DDD anti6tr#st la%s#it against it. The internet %ill do to !hone $alls %hat it has done to mail. Alread there are a!!li$ations 4Intel@s, Vo$alte$@s, NetGPhone5 %hi$h enable the #ser to $ond#$t a !hone $onversation thro#gh his $om!#ter. The voi$e K#alit has im!roved. The dis$#ssants $an $#t into ea$h others %ords, arg#e and listen to tonal n#an$es. Toda , the !arties 4t%o or more5 engaging in the $onversation m#st !ossess the same so"t%are and the same 4$om!#ter5 hard%are. In the ver near "#t#re, $om!#ter6to6reg#lar !hone a!!li$ations %ill eliminate this reK#irement. And, again, sim#ltaneo#s m#lti6modalit : the #ser $an talk over the !hone, see his !art , send e6 mail, re$eive messages and trans"er do$#ments 6 %itho#t obstr#$ting the "lo% o" the $onversation. The $ost o" trans"erring voi$e %ill be$ome so negligible that "ree voi$e tra""i$ is $on$eivable in 36H ears. Data tra""i$ %ill overtake voi$e tra""i$ b a %ide margin. This beats reg#lar !hones.

The neEt !hase %ill !robabl involve virt#al realit . Ea$h o" the !arties %ill be re!resented b an BavatarB, a 36D "ig#rine generated b the a!!li$ation 4or the #ser;s likeness ma!!ed into the so"t%are and s#!erim!osed on the the avatar5. These "ig#rines %ill be m#lti6dimensional: the %ill !ossess their o%n $omm#ni$ation !atterns, s!e$ial habits, histor , !re"eren$es 6 in short: their o%n B!ersonalit B. Th#s, the %ill be able to maintain an Bidentit B and a $onsistent !attern o" $omm#ni$ation %hi$h the %ill develo! over time. S#$h a "ig#re $o#ld host a site, a$$e!t, %el$ome and g#ide visitors, all the time bearing their !re"eren$es in its ele$troni$ BmindB. It $o#ld narrate the ne%s, like BAnanovaB does. Visiting sites in the "#t#re is bo#nd to be a m#$h more !leasant a""air. E. 41$ash In 9DDO, the "o#r $or!orate giants 4Visa, 3aster,ard, Nets$a!e and 3i$roso"t5 agreed on a standard "or e""e$ting se$#re !a ments thro#gh the Internet: SET. Internet $ommer$e is s#!!osed to m#shroom b a "a$tor o" H: to GH billion 0SD. Site o%ners %ill be able to $olle$t rent "rom !assing visitors 6 or "ees "or servi$es !rovided %ithin the site. Ama<on instit#ted an hono#r s stem to $olle$t donations "rom visitors. Dedi$ated visitors %ill not be deterred b s#$h tri"les. 5. The Virt%al ;rganiAation The Internet allo%s sim#ltaneo#s $omm#ni$ation bet%een an almost #nlimited n#mber o" #sers. This is $o#!led %ith the e""i$ient trans"er o" m#ltimedia 4video in$l#ded5 "iles. This o!ens #! a vista o" mind boggling o!!ort#nities %hi$h are the real $ore o" the Internet revol#tion: the virt#al $ollaborative 4B2ollo% the S#nB5 modes. EEam!les: A gro#! o" m#si$ians %ill be able to $om!ose m#si$ or !la it 6 %hile s!atiall and tem!orall se!aratedA Advertising agen$ies %ill be able to $o6!rod#$e ad $am!aigns in a real time intera$tive modeA ,inema and TV "ilms %ill be !rod#$ed "rom dis!arate geogra!hi$al s!ots thro#gh the team%ork o" !eo!le %ho never meet, eE$e!t thro#gh the net. These eEam!les ill#strate the $on$e!t o" the Bvirt#al $omm#nit B. &o$ations in s!a$e and time %ill no longer hinder a $ollaboration in a team: be it s$ienti"i$, artisti$, $#lt#ral, or "or the !rovision o" servi$es 4a virt#al la% "irm or a$$o#nting o""i$e, a virt#al $ons#ltan$ net%ork5. T%o on going develo!ments are the virt#al mall and the virt#al $atalog#e. There are %ell over 3:: a$tive virt#al malls in the Internet. The %ere "reK#ented b 3G.H million sho!!ers, %ho sho!!ed in them "or goods and servi$es in 9DDM. The intranet $an also be tho#ght o" as a Bvirt#al organi<ationB, or a Bvirt#al b#sinessB. The virt#al mall is a $om!#ter Bs!a$eB 4!ages5 in the internet, %herein Bsho!sB are lo$ated. These sho!s o""er their %ares #sing vis#al, a#dio and teEt#al means. The visitor !asses a gate into the store and looks thro#gh its o""ering, #ntil he rea$hes a b# ing de$ision. Then he

engages in a "eedba$k !ro$ess: he !a s 4%ith a $redit $ard5, b# s the !rod#$t and %aits "or it to arrive b mail. The man#"a$t#rers o" digital !rod#$ts 4intelle$t#al !ro!ert s#$h as e6books or so"t%are5 have beg#n selling their mer$handise on6line, as "ile do%nloads. Fet, slo% $omm#ni$ations and limited band%idth 6 $onstrain the gro%th !otential o" this mode o" sale. On$e solved 6 intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ill be sold dire$tl "rom the net, on6line. 0ntil s#$h time, the intervention o" the Post O""i$e is still reK#ired. So, then virt#al mall is nothing b#t a glori"ied $om!#teri<ed mail $atalog#e or 1# ing ,hannel, the onl di""eren$e being the eE$e!tionall varied inventor . 8ebsites %hi$h started as Bs!e$ialt storesB are "ast trans"orming themselves into m#lti6 !#r!ose virt#al malls. Ama<on.$om, "or instan$e, has bo#ght into a virt#al !harma$ and into other virt#al b#sinesses. It is no% selling m#si$, video, ele$troni$s and man other !rod#$ts. It started as a bookstore. This $ontrasts %ith a m#$h more $reative idea: the virt#al $atalog#e. It is a "orm o" narro%$asting 4as o!!osed to broad$asting5: a s#rgi$all a$$#rate targeting o" !otential $ons#mer a#dien$es. Ea$h gro#! o" !ro"iled $ons#mers 4no matter ho% small5 is "itted %ith their o%n 6 digitall generated 6 $atalog#e. This is #!dated dail : the variet o" %ares on o""er 4ad'#sted to re"le$t inventor levels, $ons#mer !re"eren$es and goods in transit5 6 and !ri$es 4sales, dis$o#nts, !a$kage deals5 $hange in real time. The #ser %ill enter the site and there delineate his $ons#m!tion !ro"ile and his !re"eren$es. A $#stomi<ed $atalog#e %ill be immediatel generated "or him. 2rom then on, the histor o" his !#r$hases, !re"eren$es and res!onses to "eedba$k K#estionnaires %ill be a$$#m#lated and added to a database. Ea$h $atalog#e generated "or him %ill $ome re!lete %ith order "orms. On$e the #ser $on$l#ded his !#r$hases, his !ro"ile %ill be #!dated. There is no te$hnologi$al obsta$les to im!lementing this vision toda 6 onl administrative and legal ones. 1ig retail stores are not #! to !ro$essing the "lood o" data eE!e$ted to arrive. The also remain highl s$e!ti$al regarding the "easibilit o" the ne% medi#m. And !riva$ iss#es !revent data mining or the e""e$tive $olle$tion and #sage o" !ersonal data. The virt#al $atalog#e is a !rivate $ase o" a ne% internet o""6shoot: the Bsmart 4sho!!ing5 agentsB. These are AI a!!li$ations %ith Blong memoriesB. The dra% detailed !ro"iles o" $ons#mers and #sers and then s#ggest !#r$hases and re"er to the a!!ro!riate sites, $atalog#es, or virt#al malls. The also !rovide !ri$e $om!arisons and the ne% generation 4Net1ot5 $annot be blo$ked or "ooled b #sing di""ering !rod#$t $ategories. In the "#t#re, these agents %ill re"er also to real li"e retail $hains and iss#e a ma! o" the bran$h or store $losest to an address s!e$i"ied b the #ser 4the de"a#lt being his residen$e5. This te$hnolog $an be seen in a$tion in a "e% m#si$ sites on the %eb and is likel to be dominant %ith %ireless internet a!!lian$es. The o%ner o" an internet enabled 4third generation5 mobile !hone is likel to be the target o" geogra!hi$all 6s!e$i"i$ marketing $am!aigns, ads and s!e$ial o""ers !ertaining to his $#rrent lo$ation 4as re!orted b his .PS 6 satellite .eogra!hi$ Positioning S stem5. F. 'nternet .e&s

Internet ne%s are advantaged. The $an be "reK#entl and d nami$all #!dated 4#nlike stati$ !rint ne%s5 and be al%a s a$$essible 4similar to !rint ne%s5, immediate and "resh. The "#t#re %ill %itness a "orm o" intera$tive ne%s. A s!e$ial B$ornerB in the site %ill be o!en to #!dates !osted b the !#bli$ 4the eK#ivalent o" !ress releases5. This %ill !rovide readers %ith a glim!se into the making o" the ne%s, the ra% material ne%s are made o". The same te$hnolog %ill be a!!lied to intera$tive TVs. ,ontent %ill be do%nloaded "rom the internet and be dis!la ed as an overla on the TV s$reen or in a sK#are in a s!e$ial lo$ation. The $ontents do%nloaded %ill be dire$tl $onne$ted to the TV !rogramming. Th#s, the biogra!h and tra$k re$ord o" a "ootball !la er %ill be dis!la ed d#ring a "ootball mat$h and the histor o" a $o#ntr %hen it gets ne%s $overage. Terra 'nterneti$a 1 'nternet, an 6nkno&n Continent This is an #n$onventional %a to look at the Internet. &a men and eE!erts alike talk abo#t BsitesB and Badvertising s!a$eB. Fet, the Internet %as never $om!ared to a ne% $ontinent %hose s#r"a$e is in"inite. The Internet %ill have its o%n real estate develo!ers and $onstr#$tion $om!anies. The real li"e eK#ivalents derive their !ro"its "rom the s$ar$it o" the reso#r$e that the eE!loit 6 the Internet $o#nter!arts %ill derive their !ro"its "rom the tenants 4the $ontent5. T%o eEam!les: A "e% $om!anies bo#ght BInternet S!a$eB 4!ages, domain names, !ortals5, develo!ed it and make $ommer$ial #se o" it b :

renting it o#t $onstr#$ting in"rastr#$t#re and selling it !roviding an intelligent gate%a , entr !oint to the rest o" the internet or selling advertising s!a$e %hi$h s#bsidi<es the tenants 4FahooJ6.eo$ities, Tri!od and others5. , bersK#atting 4!#r$hasing s!e$i"i$ domain names identi$al to brand names in the BrealB %orld5 and then selling the domain name to an interested !art

Internet S!a$e $an be easil !#r$hased or $reated. The investment is lo% and getting lo%er %ith the introd#$tion o" $om!etition in the "ield o" domain registration servi$es and the in$rease in the n#mber o" to! domains. Then, in"rastr#$t#re $an be ere$ted 6 "or a sho!!ing mall, "or "ree home !ages, "or a !ortal, or "or another !#r!ose. It is !re$isel this in"rastr#$t#re that the develo!er $an later sell, lease, "ran$hise, or rent o#t. At the beginning, onl members o" the "ringes and the avant6garde 4inventors, risk ass#ming entre!rene#rs, gamblers5 invest in a ne% invention. The invention o" a ne% $omm#ni$ations te$hnolog is mostl a$$om!anied b devastating silen$e. No one kno%s to sa %hat are the o!timal #ses o" the invention 4in other %ords, %hat is its "#t#re5. 3an 6 mostl members o" the s$ienti"i$ and b#siness elites 6 arg#e that there is no real need "or the invention and that it s#bstit#tes a ne% and #ntried %a "or old and tried

modes o" doing the same thing 4so %h ass#me the risk>5 These $riti$isms are #s#all "o#nded: To start %ith, there is, indeed, no need "or the ne% medi#m. A ne% medi#m invents itsel" 6 and the need "or it. It also generates its o%n market to satis" this ne%l "o#nd need. T%o !rime eEam!les are the !ersonal $om!#ter and the $om!a$t dis$. 8hen the P, %as invented, its #ses %ere $om!letel #n$lear. Its !er"orman$e %as la$king, its abilities limited, it %as horribl #ser #n"riendl . It s#""ered "rom "a#lt design, absent #ser $om"ort and ease o" #se and reK#ired $onsiderable !ro"essional kno%ledge to o!erate. The %orst !art %as that this kno%ledge %as #niK#e to the ne% invention 4not !ortable5. It red#$ed labo#r mobilit and limited one;s !ro"essional hori<ons. There %ere man gri!es among those assigned to tame the ne% beast. The P, %as tho#ght o", at the beginning, as a so!histi$ated gaming ma$hine, an ele$troni$ bab 6sitter. As the !resen$e o" a ke board %as dete$ted and as the !ro"essional hori<on $leared it %as tho#ght o" in terms o" a glori"ied t !e%riter or s!readsheet. It %as #sed mainl as a %ord !ro$essor 4and its eEisten$e '#sti"ied solel on these gro#nds5. The s!readsheet %as the "irst real a!!li$ation and it demonstrated the advantages inherent to this ne% ma$hine 4mainl "leEibilit and s!eed5. Still, it %as more 4s!eed5 o" the same. A K#i$ker r#ler or !en and !a!er. 8hat %as the di""eren$e bet%een this and a hand held $al$#lator 4some o" them alread had $om!#ting, memor and !rogramming "eat#res5> The P, %as re$ogni<ed as a medi#m onl 3: ears a"ter it %as invented %ith the introd#$tion o" m#ltimedia so"t%are. All this time, the $om!#ter $ontin#ed to s!in o"" markets and se$ondar markets, needs and !ro"essional s!e$ialities. The talk as al%a s %as $entred on ho% to im!rove on eEisting markets and sol#tions. The Internet is the $om!#ter@s "irst im!ortant breakthro#gh. 7itherto the $om!#ter %as onl K#antitativel di""erent 6 the m#ltimedia and the Internet have made it K#alitativel s#!erior, a$t#all , s#i generis, #niK#e. This, !re$isel , is the ghost ha#nting the Internet: It has been invented, is maintained and is o!erated b $om!#ter !ro"essionals. 2or de$ades these !eo!le have been $onditioned to think in Ol m!i$ terms: more, stronger, higher. Not: ne%, #n!re$edented, non6eEistent. To im!rove 6 not to invent. The st#mbled a$ross the Internet 6 it invented itsel" des!ite its o%n $reators. ,om!#ter !ro"essionals 4hard%are and so"t%are eE!erts alike5 6 are linear thinkers. The Internet is non linear and mod#lar. It is still the age o" ha$kers. There is still a lot to be done in im!roving te$hnologi$al !ro%ess and !o%ers. 1#t their $ontrol o" the $ontents is %aning and the are being grad#all re!la$ed b $omm#ni$ators, $reative !eo!le, advertising eEe$#tives, !s $hologists and the totall #n!redi$table masses %ho "lo$k to "la#nt their home !ages. These all are att#ned to the #ser, his mental needs and his in"ormation and entertainment !re"eren$es.

The $om!a$t dis$ is a di""erent tale. It %as intentionall invented to im!rove #!on an eEisting te$hnolog 4basi$all , Edison@s .ramo!hone5. 3arket6%ise, this %as a ma'or gamble: the im!rovement %as, at "irst, debatable 4man said that the so#nd K#alit o" the "irst generation o" $om!a$t dis$s %as in"erior to that o" its $ontem!oraneo#s re$ord !la ers5. ,ons#mers had to be $onvin$ed to $hange both so"t%are and hard%are and to dish o#t tho#sands o" dollars '#st to listen to %hat the man#"a$t#rers $laimed %as better K#alit 1a$h. A better arg#ment %as the longer li"e o" the so"t%are 4tho#gh $ontrasted %ith the limited li"e eE!e$tan$ o" the $ons#mer, some o" the "irst sales !it$hes so#nded absol#tel morbid5. The $om!#ter s#""ered "rom #n$lear !ositioning. The $om!a$t dis$ %as ver $lear as to its main "#n$tions 6 b#t had a ro#gh time $onvin$ing the $ons#mers. Ever medi#m is "irst $ontrolled b the te$hni$al !eo!le. .#tenberg %as a !rinter 6 not a !#blisher. Fet, he is the %orld;s most "amo#s !#blisher. The te$hni$al $adre is 'oined b d#bio#s or small6s$ale entre!rene#rs and, together, the establish vent#res %ith no $lear vision, market6oriented thinking, or orderl !lan o" a$tion. The legislator is also d#mb"o#nded and does not gras! %hat is ha!!ening 6 th#s, there is no legislation to reg#late the #se o" the medi#m. 8itness the initial $on"#sion $on$erning $o! righted so"t%are and the $o! rights o" (O3 embedded so"t%are. Ab#se or #nder6#tili<ation o" reso#r$es gro%. (e$all the sale o" radio "reK#en$ies to the "irst $ell#lar !hone o!erators in the 8est 6 a sit#ation %hi$h re!eats itsel" in Eastern and ,entral E#ro!e no%ada s. 1#t then more $om!leE transa$tions 6 eEa$tl as in real estate in Breal li"eB 6 begin to emerge. This distin$tion is im!ortant. 8hile in real li"e it is !ossible to sell an #ndevelo!ed !lot o" land 6 no one %ill b# B!agesB. The s#!!l o" these is #nlimited 6 their s$ar$it 4and, there"ore, their virt#al !ri$e5 is <ero. The se$ond eEam!le involves the #tili<ation o" a site 6 rather than its mere availabilit . A develo!er $o#ld o!en a site %herein "irst time a#thors %ill be able to !#blish their "irst man#s$ri!t 6 "or a "ee. Evidentl , s#$h a "ee %ill be a "ra$tion o" %hat it %o#ld take to !#blish a Breal li"eB book. The a#thor $o#ld $olle$t mone "or an do%nloading o" his book 6 and s!lit it %ith the site develo!er. The !otential b# ers %ill be !rovided %ith a$$ess to the $ontents and to a $ha!ter o" the books. This is $#rrentl being done b a "e% "ledgling "irms b#t a "#ll s$ale !#blishing ind#str has not et develo!ed. The Li,e o, a *edi%# The internet is sim!l the latest in a series o" net%orks %hi$h revol#tioni<ed o#r lives. A $ent#r be"ore the internet, the telegra!h, the rail%a s, the radio and the tele!hone have been similarl heralded as BglobalB and trans"orming. Ever medi#m o" $omm#ni$ations goes thro#gh the same evol#tionar $ $le: )nar$hy The Public Phase At this stage, the medi#m and the reso#r$es atta$hed to it are ver $hea!, a$$essible, #nder no reg#lator $onstraints. The !#bli$ se$tor ste!s in: higher ed#$ation instit#tions, religio#s instit#tions, government, not "or !ro"it organi<ations, non governmental organi<ations 4N.Os5, trade #nions, et$. 1edevilled b limited "inan$ial reso#r$es, the regard the ne%

medi#m as a $ost e""e$tive %a o" disseminating their messages. The Internet %as not eEem!t "rom this !hase %hi$h ended onl a "e% ears ago. It started %ith a $om!lete $om!#ter anar$h mani"ested in ad ho$ net%orks, lo$al net%orks, net%orks o" organi<ations 4mainl #niversities and organs o" the government s#$h as DA(PA, a !art o" the de"en$e establishment, in the 0SA5. Non $ommer$ial entities '#m!ed on the band%agon and started se%ing these net%orks together 4an a$tivit "#ll s#bsidi<ed b government "#nds5. The res#lt %as a globe en$om!assing net%ork o" a$ademi$ instit#tions. The Ameri$an Pentagon established the net%ork o" all net%orks, the A(PANET. Other government de!artments 'oined the "ra , headed b the National S$ien$e 2o#ndation 4NS25 %hi$h %ithdre% onl latel "rom the Internet. The Internet 4%ith a di""erent name5 be$ame semi6!#bli$ !ro!ert 6 %ith a$$ess granted to the $hosen "e%. (adio took !re$isel this $o#rse. (adio transmissions started in the 0SA in 9DG:. Those %ere anar$hi$ broad$asts %ith no dis$ernible reg#larit . Non $ommer$ial organi<ations and not "or !ro"it organi<ations began their o%n broad$asts and even $reated radio broad$asting in"rastr#$t#re 4albeit o" the $hea! and lo$al kind5 dedi$ated to their a#dien$es. Trade #nions, $ertain ed#$ational instit#tions and religio#s gro#!s $ommen$ed B!#bli$ radioB broad$asts.

The Commercial Phase 8hen the #sers 4e.g., listeners in the $ase o" the radio, or o%ners o" P,s and modems in the eEam!le o" the Internet5 rea$h a $riti$al mass 6 the b#siness se$tor is alerted. In the name o" $a!italist ideolog 4another religion, reall 5 it demands B!rivati<ationB o" the medi#m. This har!s on ver sensitive strings in ever 8estern so#l: the e""i$ient allo$ation o" reso#r$es %hi$h is the res#lt o" $om!etition, $orr#!tion and ine""i$ien$ nat#rall asso$iated %ith the !#bli$ se$tor 4BOther Peo!le@s 3one B 6 OP35, the #lterior motives o" members o" the r#ling !oliti$al e$helons 4the in"amo#s Ameri$an Paranoia5, a la$k o" variet and o" $atering to the tastes and interests o" $ertain a#dien$es, the eK#ation !rivate enter!rise P demo$ra$ and more. The end res#lt is the same: the !rivate se$tor takes over the medi#m "rom Bbelo%B 4makes o""ers to the o%ners or o!erators o" the medi#m 6 that the $annot !ossibl re"#se5 6 or "rom BaboveB 4s#$$ess"#l lobb ing in the $orridors o" !o%er leads to the a!!ro!riate legislation and the medi#m is B!rivati<edB5. Ever !rivati<ation 6 es!e$iall that o" a medi#m 6 !rovokes !#bli$ o!!osition. There are 4#s#all "o#nded5 s#s!i$ions that the interests o" the !#bli$ %ere $om!romised and sa$ri"i$ed on the altar o" $ommer$iali<ation and rating. 2ears o" mono!oli<ation and $arteli<ation o" the medi#m are evoked 6 and '#sti"ied, in d#e time. Other%ise, there is "ear o" the $on$entration o" $ontrol o" the medi#m in a "e% hands. All these things do ha!!en 6 b#t the !a$e is so slo% that the initial "ears are "orgotten and !#bli$ attention reverts to "resher iss#es. A ne% ,omm#ni$ations A$t %as legislated in the 0SA in 9D3C. It %as meant to trans"orm radio "reK#en$ies into a national reso#r$e to be sold to the !rivate se$tor %hi$h %ill #se it to transmit radio signals to re$eivers. In other %ords: the radio %as !assed on to !rivate and $ommer$ial hands. P#bli$ radio %as doomed to be marginali<ed. The Ameri$an administration %ithdre% "rom its last ma'or involvement in the Internet in A!ril 9DDH, %hen the NS2 $eased to "inan$e some o" the net%orks and, th#s, !rivati<ed its hitherto heav involvement in the net. A ne% ,omm#ni$ations A$t %as legislated in 9DDO. It !ermitted Borgani<ed anar$h B. It allo%ed media o!erators to invade ea$h other@s territories. Phone $om!anies %ill be allo%ed to transmit video and $able $om!anies %ill be allo%ed to transmit tele!hon , "or instan$e. This is all !hased over a long !eriod o" time 6 still, it is a revol#tion %hose magnit#de is di""i$#lt to ga#ge and %hose $onseK#en$es de" imagination. It $arries an eK#all momento#s !ri$e tag 6 o""i$ial $ensorshi!. BVol#ntar $ensorshi!B, to be s#re, some%hat toothless standardi<ation and en"or$ement a#thorities, to be s#re 6 still, a $ensorshi! %ith its o%n instit#tions to boot. The !rivate se$tor rea$ted b threatening litigation 6 b#t, beneath the s#r"a$e it is $aving in to !ress#re and tem!tation, $onstr#$ting its o%n $ensorshi! $odes both in the $able and in the internet media.

Institutionali3ation This !hase is the neEt in the Internet;s histor , tho#gh, it seems, #nbekno%nst to it. It is $hara$teri<ed b enhan$ed a$tivities o" legislation. &egislators, on all levels, dis$over the medi#m and l#r$h at it !assionatel . (eso#r$es %hi$h %ere $onsidered B"reeB, s#ddenl are trans"ormed to Bnational treas#res not to be dis!ensed %ith $hea!l , $as#all and %ith "rivolit B. It is $on$eivable that $ertain !arts o" the Internet %ill be Bnationali<edB 4"or instan$e, in the "orm o" a li$ensing reK#irement5 and tendered to the !rivate se$tor. &egislation %ill be ena$ted %hi$h %ill deal %ith !ermitted and disallo%ed $ontent 4obs$enit > in$itement> ra$ial or gender bias>5 No medi#m in the 0SA 4not to mention the %ide %orld5 has es$he%ed s#$h legislation. There are s#re to be demands to allo$ate time 4or s!a$e, or so"t%are, or $ontent, or hard%are5 to BminoritiesB, to B!#bli$ a""airsB, to B$omm#nit b#sinessB. This is a taE that the b#siness se$tor %ill have to !a to "end o"" the eager legislator and his n#isan$e val#e. All this is bo#nd to lead to a mono!oli<ation o" hosts and servers. The im!ortant broad$ast $hannels %ill diminish in n#mber and be s#b'e$ted to severe $ontent restri$tions. Sites %hi$h %ill not s#$$#mb to these reK#irements 6 %ill be deleted or ne#trali<ed. ,ontent g#idelines 4e#!hemism "or $ensorshi!5 eEist, even as %e %rite, in all ma'or $ontent !roviders 4,om!#Serve, AO&, .eo$ities, Tri!od, Prodig 5. The 0loodbath This is the !hase o" $onsolidation. The n#mber o" !la ers is severel red#$ed. The n#mber o" bro%ser t !es %ill be limited to G63 4Nets$a!e, 3i$roso"t and %hi$h else>5. Net%orks %ill merge to "orm !rivatel o%ned mega6net%orks. Servers %ill merge to "orm h !er6servers r#n on s#!er$om!#ters in Bserver "armsB. The n#mber o" ISPs %ill be $onsiderabl $#t. H: $om!anies r#led the greater !art o" the media markets in the 0SA in 9DM3. The n#mber in 9DDH %as 9M. At the end o" the $ent#r the %ill n#mber O. This is the stage %hen $om!anies 6 "ighting "or "inan$ial s#rvival 6 strive to a$K#ire as man #sers+listeners+vie%ers as !ossible. The !rogramming is shallo%ed to the lo%est 4and %idest5 $ommon denominator. Shallo% !rogramming dominates as long as the bloodbath !ro$eeds.

,rom Rags to Riches To#gh $om!etition !rod#$es "o#r !ro$esses: >. ) *ajor 3rop in :ard&are 7ri$es This ha!!ens in ever medi#m b#t it do#bl a!!lies to a $om!#ter6de!endent medi#m, s#$h as the Internet. ,om!#ter te$hnolog seems to abide b B3oore@s &a%B %hi$h sa s that the n#mber o" transistors %hi$h $an be !#t on a $hi! do#bles itsel" ever 9M months. As a res#lt o" this miniat#ri<ation, $om!#ting !o%er K#adr#!les ever 9M months and an eE!onential series ens#es. Organi$6biologi$al6DNA $om!#ters, K#ant#m $om!#ters, $haos $om!#ters 6 !rom!ted b vast !ro"its and s!a%ned b inventive geni#s %ill ens#re the longevit and $ontin#ed a!!li$abilit o" 3oore;s &a%. The Internet is also s#b'e$t to B3et$al"@s &a%B. It sa s that %hen %e $onne$t N $om!#ters to a net%ork 6 %e get an in$rease o" N to the se$ond !o%er in its $om!#ting + !ro$essing !o%er. And these N $om!#ters are more !o%er"#l ever ear, a$$ording to 3oore@s &a%. The gro%th o" $om!#ting !o%ers in net%orks is a m#lti!le o" the e""e$ts o" the t%o la%s. 3ore and more $om!#ters %ith ever in$reasing $om!#ting !o%er get $onne$ted and $reate an eE!onential 9O times gro%th in the net%ork@s $om!#ting !o%er ever 9M months. 2. ?ree )vaila ility o, So,t&are and Conne$tion This is !revalent in the Net %here even !otentiall $ommer$ial so"t%are $an be do%nloaded "or "ree. In man $o#ntries television vie%ers still !a "or television broad$asts 6 b#t in the 0SA and man other $o#ntries in the 8est, the basi$ !a$kage o" television $hannels $omes "ree o" $harge. As #sers + $ons#mers "orm a habit o" #sing 4or $ons#ming5 the so"t%are 6 it is $ommer$iali<ed and begins to $arr a !ri$e tag. This is %hat ha!!ened %ith the advent o" $able television: $ontents are sold "or s#bs$ri!tion and #sage 4Pa Per Vie% 6 PPV5 "ees. .rad#all , this is %hat %ill ha!!en to most o" the sites and so"t%are on the Net. Those %hi$h s#rvive %ill begin to $olle$t #sage "ees, a$$ess "ees, s#bs$ri!tion "ees, do%nloading "ees and other, a!!ro!riatel named, "ees. These "ees are bo#nd to be lo% 6 b#t it is the !rin$i!le that $o#nts. Even a "e% $ents !er transa$tion %ill a$$#m#late to he"t s#ms %ith the tra""i$ %hi$h %ill $hara$teri<e the Net 4or, at least its more !o!#lar lo$ales5. Adverising reven#es %ill allo% ISPs to o""er "ree $omm#ni$ation and storage vol#me. .rad#all , $onne$t time $harges im!osed b the !hone $om!anies %ill be eroded b to#gh $om!etition "rom the likes o" the $able $om!anies. A$$essing the internet might %ell be "ree o" all $harges in 9: ears time. 2. 'n$reased 6ser ?riendliness As long as the $om!#ter is less #ser "riendl and less reliable 4!redi$table5 than television 6 less o" a bla$k boE 6 its !otential 4and its "#t#re5 is limited. Television attra$ts 3.H billion #sers dail . The Internet %ill attra$t 6 #nder the most eE#berant s$enario 6 less than one tenth o" this

n#mber o" !eo!le. The onl reasons "or this dis!arit are 4the la$k o"5 #ser "riendliness and reliabilit . Even bro%sers, among the most #ser "riendl a!!li$ations ever 6 are not s#""i$ientl so. The #ser still needs to kno% ho% to #se a ke board and m#st !ossess some basi$ a$K#aintan$e %ith the o!erating s stem. The more mat#re the medi#m, the more "riendl it be$omes. 2inall , it %ill be o!erated #sing s!ee$h or $ommon lang#age. There %ill be room le"t "or #ser Bh#n$hesB and b#ilt in "leEible res!onses. E. So$ial TaBes Sooner or later, the b#siness se$tor has to molli" the .od o" !#bli$ o!inion b o""erings o" !oliti$al and so$ial nat#re. The Internet is an a""l#ent, ed#$ated, #!!ie medi#m. It ne$essitates a $ontrol o" the English lang#age, live interest in in"ormation and its vario#s #ses 4s$ienti"i$, $ommer$ial, other5, a lot o" reso#r$es 4"ree time, mone to invest in hard%are, so"t%are and $onne$t time5. It em!o%ers 6 and th#s dee!ens the divide bet%een the haves and have6nots, the kno%ing and the ignorant, the $om!#ter illiterate. In short: the Internet is an elitist medi#m. P#bli$l , this is an #nhealth !ost#re. BInterneto!hobiaB is alread dis$ernible. Peo!le 4and !oliti$ians5 talk abo#t ho% #nsa"e the Internet is and abo#t its !ossible #ses "or ra$ial, seEist and !ornogra!hi$ !#r!oses. The %ider !#bli$ is in a state o" a%e. So, site b#ilders and o%ners %ill do %ell to begin to im!rove their image: !rovide "ree a$$ess to s$hools and $omm#nit $entres, bankroll internet litera$ $lasses, "reel distrib#te $ontents and so"t%are to ed#$ational instit#tions, $ollaborate %ith resear$hers and so$ial s$ientists and engineers. In short: en$o#rage the vie% that the Internet is a medi#m $atering to the needs o" the $omm#nit and the #nder!rivileged, a mostl altr#ist endeavo#r. This also ha!!ens to make good b#siness sense b ed#$ating a "#t#re generation o" #sers. 7e %ho visited a site %hen a st#dent, "ree o" $harge 6 %ill !a to do so %hen made an eEe$#tive. S#$h a #ser %ill also !ass on the in"ormation %ithin and %itho#t his organi<ation. This is $alled media eE!os#re. The "#t#re %ill, no do#bt, %itness !#bli$ Internet terminals, s#bsidi<ed ISP a$$o#nts, "ree Internet $lasses and an alternative Bnon6$ommer$ial, !#bli$B a!!roa$h to the Net.

The 'nternet! *edi%# or Chaos+ There has never been a medi#m like the Internet. The %a it has "ormed, the %a it %as 4not5 managed, its hard%are6so"t%are6$omm#ni$ations s!e$i"i$ations 6 are all #niK#e. No @overnment The Internet has no $entral 4or even de$entrali<ed5 str#$t#re. In realit , it hardl has a str#$t#re at all. It is a $olle$tion o" 9O million $om!#ters 4end 9DDO5 $onne$ted thro#gh tho#sands o" net%orks. There are organi<ations %hi$h !#r!ort to set Internet standards 4like the a"orementioned ISO,, or the domain setting I,ANN5 6 b#t the are all vol#ntar organi<ations, %ith no binding legal, en"or$ement, or ad'#di$ation !o%ers. The res#lt is o"ten ma hem. 3an erroneo#sl $all the Internet the "irst demo$rati$ medi#m. Fet, it hardl K#ali"ies as a medi#m and b no stret$h o" terminolog is it demo$rati$. Demo$ra$ has instit#tions, hierar$hies, order. The Internet has none o" these things. There are some vag#e #nderstandings as to %hat is and is not allo%ed. This is a B$ode o" hono#rB 4more reminis$ent o" the Si$ilian 3ob than o" the 1ritish Parliament, let@s sa 5. Violations are !#nished b eE$omm#ni$ation 4o" the violating site or !erson5. The Internet has $#lt#re 6 b#t no ed#$ation. 2reedom o" S!ee$h is entren$hed. 3embers o" this virt#al $omm#nit rea$t adversel to ideas o" $ensorshi!, even %hen a!!lied to hard $ore !orno. In 9DDD, ha$kers ha$ked ma'or government sites "ollo%ing an 21I initiative against ha$king6related $rimes. .overnment initiatives 4in the 0SA, in 2ran$e, the la%s#it against the .eneral 3anager o" AO& in .erman 5 are a$#tel $riti$i<ed. In the meantime, the s!irit o" the Internet !revails: the small man@s medi#m. 8hat seems to be emerging, tho#gh, is sel" $ensorshi! b $ontent !roviders 4s#$h as AO& and ,om!#Serve5. Inde endence The Internet is not de!endent #!on a given hard%are or so"t%are. Tr#e, it is a$$essible onl thro#gh $om!#ters and there are dominant bro%sers. 1#t the Internet a$$ommodates an digital 4bit trans"er5 !lat"orm. Internet %ill be in$or!orated in the "#t#re into !ortable $om!#ters, !almto!s, PDAs, mobile !hones, $able television, tele!hones 4%ith voi$e inter"a$e5, home a!!lian$es and even %rist %at$hes. It %ill be a$$essible to all, regardless o" hard%are and so"t%are. The sit#ation is, obvio#sl , di""erent %ith other media. There is standard hard%are 4the television set, the radio re$eiver, the digital !rint eK#i!ment5. Data trans"er modes are standardi<ed as %ell. The onl variable is the $ontents 6 and even this is standardi<ed in an age o" Ameri$an $#lt#ral im!erialism. Toda , one $an see the same television !rograms all over the globe, regardless o" $#lt#ral or geogra!hi$al di""eren$es. 7ere is a reasonable !rognosis "or the Internet: It %ill Bbroad$astB 4it is, o" $o#rse, a P0&& medi#m, not a P0S7 medi#m 6 see neEt $ha!ter5 to man kinds o" hard%are. Its "#n$tions %ill be $ontrolled b G6H ver $ommon so"t%are

a!!li$ations. 1#t it %ill di""er "rom television in that $ontents %ill $ontin#e to be de$entrali<ed: ever !oint on the Net is a !otential !rod#$er o" $ontent at lo% $ost. This is the eK#ivalent o" !rod#$ing a talk sho% #sing a single home video $amera. And the $ontents %ill remain varied. Nat#rall , marketing $ontent 4sites5 %ill remain an eE!ensive art. Sites %ill also be ri$her or !oorer, in a$$ordan$e %ith the investment made in them. Non Linearit+ and ,unctional 5odularit+ The Internet is the "irst medi#m in h#man histor that is non6linear and totall mod#lar. A television !rogram is broad$ast "rom a transmitter, thro#gh the air%aves to a re$eiver 4Pthe television set5. The vie%er sits o!!osite this re$eiver and !assivel %at$hes. This is an entirel linear !ro$ess. The Internet is di""erent: 8hen $omm#ni$ating thro#gh the Internet, there is no %a to !redi$t ho% the in"ormation %ill rea$h its destination. The ro#ting o" in"ormation thro#gh the net%ork is $om!letel random, ver m#$h like the !rin$i!le governing the tele!hon s stem 4b#t on a global s$ale5. The latter is not a !oint6to6!oint linear net%ork. (ather, it is a net%ork o" net%orks. O#r voi$e is transmitted ba$k and "orth inside a giganti$ ma<e o" $o!!er %ires and o!ti$ "ibres. It see!s thro#gh an available %ire 6 #ntil it rea$hes its destination. It is the same %ith the Internet. In"ormation is divided to !a$kets. An address is atta$hed to ea$h !a$ket and 6 #sing the T,P+IP data trans"er !roto$ol 6 is dis!at$hed to roam this %orld%ide lab rinth. 1#t the !ath "rom one neighbo#rhood o" &ondon to another ma traverse -a!an. The reall ingenio#s thing abo#t the Internet is that ea$h $om!#ter 4ea$h re$eiver or end #ser5 indeed b#rdens the s stem b im!osing on it its in"ormation needs 4as is the $ase %ith other media5 6 b#t it also assists in the task o" !#shing in"ormation !a$kets on to their destinations. It seems that this $ontrib#tion to the s stem o#t%eighs the b#rdens im!osed #!on it. The net%ork has a gro%th !otential %hi$h is al%a s bigger than the n#mber o" its #sers. It is as tho#gh television sets assisted in !assing the signals re$eived b them to other television sets. Ever $om!#ter %hi$h is a member o" the net%ork is both a message 4$ontent5 and a medi#m 4a$tive in"ormation $hannel5, both a transmitter and a re$eiver. I" 3:L o" all $om!#ters on the Net %ere to $rash 6 there %ill be no o!erational im!a$t 4there is enormo#s b#ilt in red#ndan$ 5. Obvio#sl , some $ontents %ill no longer be available 4in"ormation $hannels %ill be a""e$ted5. The intera$tivit o" this medi#m is a g#arantee against the mono!oli<ation o" $ontents. An one %ith a tho#sand dollars $an la#n$h his+her o%n 4reasonabl so!histi$ated5 site, a$$essible to all other Internet #sers. S!a$e is available thro#gh home !age !roviders. The name o" the game is no longer the !rod#$tion 6 it is the $reative $ontent 4design5, the $ontent itsel" and, above all, the marketing o" the site. The Internet is an in"inite and #nlimited reso#r$e. This goes against the grain o" the most basi$ e$onomi$ $on$e!t 4o" s$ar$it 5. Ea$h $om!#ter that 'oins the Internet strengthens it eE!onentiall 6 and tens o" tho#sands 'oin dail . The Internet in"rastr#$t#re 4ma be %ith the eE$e!tion o" $omm#ni$ation ba$kbones5 $an a$$ommodate an ann#al gro%th o" 9::L to the ear G:G:. It is the #ser %ho de$ides %hether to in$rease the Internet;s in"rastr#$t#re b

$onne$ting his $om!#ter to it. 1 $om!arison: it is as tho#gh it %ere !ossible to !rod#$e and to broad$ast radio !rogrammes "rom ever radio re$eiver. Ea$h $om!#ter is a $ombination o" st#dio and transmitter 4on the Internet5. In realit , there is no other intera$tive medi#m eE$e!t the Internet. ,able TV does not allo% t%o6%a data trans"er 4"rom #ser to $able o!erator5. I" the #ser %ants to b# a !rod#$t 6 he has to !hone. Intera$tive television is an ab'e$t "ail#re 4the Son and T,I eE!eriments %ere terminated5. This all is not%ithstanding the $ombining o" the Internet %ith satellite $a!abilities 4VSAT5 or %ith the revenant digital television. The television s$reen is in"erior %hen $om!ared to the $om!#ter s$reen. Onl the Internet is there as a tr#e t%o6%a !ossibilit . The te$hnologi$al !roblems that besieged it are slo%l dissi!ating. The Internet allo%s "or one6dimensional and bi 6 dimensional intera$tivit . One6dimensional intera$tivit : "ill in and dis!at$h a "orm, send and re$eive messages 4thro#gh e6mail or v6mail5. T%o6dimensional intera$tivit : to talk to someone %hile both !arties %ork on an a!!li$ation, to see o#r $onversant, to talk to him and to trans"er do$#ments to him "or his !er#sal as the $onversation $ontin#es a!a$e. This is no longer s$ien$e "i$tion. In less than "ive ears this %ill be as $ommon as the tele!hone 6 and it %ill have a !ro"o#nd e""e$t on the traditional servi$es !rovided b the !hone $om!anies. Internet !hones, Internet video!hones 6 the %ill be serio#s $om!etitors and the !hone $om!anies are likel to rea$t on$e the begin to "eel the heat. This %ill ha!!en %hen the Internet %ill a$K#ire bla$k boE "eat#res. Phone $om!anies, so"t%are giants and $able TV o!erators are likel to end #! o%ning big $h#nks o" the l#$rative "#t#re market o" the Net. The Solitar+ 5edium The Internet is NOT a !o!#lar medi#m. It is the medi#m o" a""l#ent eEe$#tives %ho "#ll master the English lang#age, as !art o" a %ider general ed#$ation. Alternativel , it is the medi#m o" a$ademia 4st#dents, le$t#rers5, or o" $hildren o" the "ormer, %ell6to6do gro#!. In an $ase, it is not the medi#m o" the B%ide !#bli$B. It is also a highl individ#alisti$ medi#m. The Internet %as an initiative o" the DOD 4De!artment o" De"en$e in the 0SA5. It %as later BreK#isitionedB b the National s$ien$e 2#nd 4NS25 in the 0SA. This $ontin#o#s involvement o" the administration $ame to an end in 9DDH %hen the medi#m %as B!rivati<edB. This B!rivati<ationB %as a re$ognition o" the $ivilian roots o" the Internet. It %as 6 and is still being 6 "ormed b millions o" in"ormation6intoEi$ated #sers. The "ormed net%orks to eE$hange bits and !ie$es o" m#t#al interest. Th#s, as o!!osed to all other media, the Internet %as not invented, nor %as its market. The inventors o" the tele!hone, the telegra!h, the radio, the television and the $om!a$t dis$ 6 all invented !revio#sl non6eEistent markets "or their !rod#$ts. It took time, e""ort and mone to $onvin$e $ons#mers that the needed these BgadgetsB. 1 $ontrast, the Internet %as invented b its o%n $ons#mers and so %as the market "or it. Onl %hen the latter %as "#ll "orged did !rod#$ers and b#sinessmen 'oin in. 3i$roso"t began to hesitantl test the internet %aters onl in 9DDHJ

7n Line 5emories The Internet is the onl medi#m %ith online memor , ver m#$h like the h#man brain. The memories o" these t%o 6 the Net and the 1rain 6 are immediatel a$$essible. In both, it is stored in sites and in both, it does not gro% old or is eliminated. It is !ossible to "ind sites %hi$h $ommemorate events the same %a that the h#man mind registers them. This is Net 3emor . The histor o" a site $an be revie%ed. The &ibrar o" ,ongress stores the $onse$#tive develo!ment !hases o" sites. The Internet is an ama<ing $ombination o" data !ro$essing so"t%are, data, a re$ord o" all the a$tivities %hi$h took !la$e in $onne$tion %ith the data and the memor o" these re$ords. Onl the h#man brain is re$alled b these $a!a$ities: one lang#age serves all these "#n$tions, the lang#age o" the ne#rones. There is a m#$h $learer distin$tion even in $om!#ters 4not to mention more $onventional media, s#$h as television5. Ra; *nglish $ the Language o& Ra; 5aterials The "ollo%ing 6 a!!arentl trivial 6 observation is $riti$al: All the other media !rovide #s %ith !ro$essed, $ensored, B$leanB $ontent. The Internet is a medi#m o" ra% materials, !artl %ell organi<ed 4the ro#gh eK#ivalent o" a ne%s!a!er5 6 and !artl still in ra% "orm, esterda @s s#!!er. This is a res#lt o" the immediate and absol#te a$$ess a""orded ea$h #ser: a$$ess to !rogramming and site !#blishing tools 6 as %ell as a$$ess to $om!#ter s!a$e on servers. This leads to var ing degrees o" K#alit o" $ontents and $ontent !roviders and this, in t#rn, !revents mono!oli<ation and $arteli<ation o" the in"ormation s#!!l $hannels.

The #sers o" the Internet are still #nde$ided: do the !re"er dra"ts or ne%s!a!ers. The "reK#ent %ell designed sites. There are even design $om!etitions and a%ards. 1#t the dis!la a !re"eren$e "or sites that are $onstantl #!dated 4i.e. $loser in their nat#re to a ra% material 6 rather than to a "inished !rod#$t5. The !re"er sites "rom %hi$h the $an do%nload material to K#ietl !ro$ess at home, alone, on their P,s, at their leis#re. Even the $on$e!t o" Bintera$tivit B !oints at a !re"eren$e "or ra% materials %ith %hi$h one $an intera$t. 2or %hat is intera$tivit i" not the a$tive involvement o" the #ser in the $reation o" $ontent> The Internet #sers love to be involved, to "eel the !o%er in their "ingerti!s, the are all addi$ted to one "orm o" !o%er or another. Similarl , a $ar $om!letel a#tomati$all driven and navigated is not likel to sell %ell. Part o" the eE!erien$e o" driving 6 the sensation o" !o%er 4B!o%er stirringB5 6 is $riti$al to the !#r$hase de$ision. It is not in vain that the meta!hor "or #sing the Internet is Bs#r"ingB 4and not, let@s sa , bro%sing5. The !roblem is that the Internet is still !redominantl an English lang#age medi#m 4tho#gh it is "ast $hanging5. It dis$riminates against those %hose mother tong#e is di""erent. All so"t%are a!!li$ations %ork best in English. Other%ise the have to be ada!ted and "itted %ith s!e$ial "onts 47ebre%, Arabi$, -a!anese, (#ssian and ,hinese 6 ea$h !resent a di""erent set o" !roblems to over$ome5. This sit#ation might $hange %ith the attainment o" a $riti$al mass o" #sers 4some sa , G million !er non6Anglo!hone $o#ntr 5. Com rehensive .2irtual/ Realit+ This is the "irst 4tho#gh, !robabl , not the last5 medi#m %hi$h allo%s the #ser to $ond#$t his %hole li"e %ithin its bo#ndaries. Television !resents a $lear division: there is a !assive vie%er. 7is task is to absorb in"ormation and s#b'e$t it to minimal !ro$essing. The Internet embodies a $om!lete and $om!rehensive 4virt#al5 realit , a "#ll "ledged alternative to real li"e. The ill#sion is still in its in"an$ 6 and et alread !o%er"#l. The #ser $an talk to others, see them, listen to m#si$, see video, !#r$hase goods and servi$es, !la games 4alone or %ith others s$attered aro#nd the globe5, $onverse %ith $olleag#es, or %ith #sers %ith the same hobbies and areas o" interest, to !la m#si$ together 4se!arated b time and s!a$e5. And all this is ver !rimitive. In ten ears time, the Internet %ill o""er its #sers the o!tion o" video $on"eren$ing 4!ossibl , three dimensional, hologra!hi$5. The !arti$i!ants@ "ig#res %ill be !ro'e$ted on big s$reens. Do$#ments %ill be eE$hanged, !ersonal notes, s!readsheets, se$ret $o#ntero""ers. Virt#al (ealit games %ill be$ome realit in less time. S!e$ial end6#ser eK#i!ment %ill make the !la er believe that he, a$t#all , is !art o" the game 4%hile still in his room5. The !la er %ill be able to sele$t an image borro%ed "rom a database and it %ill re!resent him, seen b all the other !la ers. Ever one %ill, th#s, end #! invading ever one else@s !rivate s!a$e 6 %itho#t

en$roa$hing on his !riva$ J The Internet %ill be the medi#m o" $hoi$e "or !hone and video!hone $omm#ni$ation 4in$l#ding $on"eren$ing5. 3an m#ndane a$tivities %ill be done thro#gh Internet: banking, sho!!ing "or standard items, et$. The above are eEam!les to the Internet;s !o%er and abilit to re!la$e o#r realit in d#e time. A %orld o#t there %ill $ontin#e to eEist 6 b#t, more and more %e %ill intera$t %ith it thro#gh the en$hanted inter"a$e o" the Net. ) -rave .e& .et The "#t#re o" a medi#m in the making is di""i$#lt to !redi$t. S#""i$e it to mention the ridi$#lo#s !rognoses %hi$h a$$om!anied the P, 4it is nothing b#t a gaming gadget, it is a re!la$ement "or the ele$tri$ t !e%riter, %ill be #sed onl b b#siness5. The tele!hone also had its share o" l#di$ro#s statements: no one 6 $laimed the BeE!ertsB %o#ld like to avoid e e $onta$t %hile talking. Or television: onl the Na<i regime seemed to have "#ll gras!ed its !otential 4in the 1erlin 9D3O Ol m!i$s5. And 1ill .ates tho#ght that the internet has a ver limited "#t#re as late as 9DDHJJJ Still, this medi#m has a "e% $hara$teristi$s %hi$h di""erentiate it "rom all its !rede$essors. 8ere these traits to be $ontin#o#sl and $reativel eE!loited 6 a "e% statements $an be made abo#t the "#t#re o" the Net %ith relative ass#ran$e. Time and S ace Inde endence This is the "irst medi#m in histor %hi$h does not reK#ire the sim#ltaneo#s !resen$e o" !eo!le in s!a$e6time in order to "a$ilitate the trans"er o" in"ormation. Television reK#ires the eEisten$e o" st#dio te$hni$ians, narrators and others in the transmitting side 6 and the availabilit o" a vie%er in the re$eiving side. The !hone is de!endent on the eEisten$e o" t%o or more !arties sim#ltaneo#sl . 8ith time, tools to bridge the time ga! bet%een transmitter and re$eiver %ere develo!ed. The ans%ering ma$hine and the video $assette re$order both a$$#m#late in"ormation sent b a transmitter 6 and release it to a re$eiver in a di""erent s!a$e and time. 1#t the are dis$rete, their storage vol#me is limited and the do not allo% "or intera$tion %ith the transmitter. The Internet does not have these handi$a!s. It "a$ilitates the "ormation o" Bvirt#al organi<ations + instit#tions + b#sinesses+ $omm#nitiesB. These are gro#!s o" #sers that $omm#ni$ate in di""erent !oints in s!a$e and time, #nited b a $ommon goal or interest. A "e% eEam!les: The 2irtual Advertising Agenc+ A b#dget eEe$#tive "rom the 0SA %ill manage the a$$o#nt o" a hi6te$h "irm based in S dne . 7e %ill %ork %ith te$hni$al eE!erts "rom Israel and %ith a 2ren$h gra!hi$s o""i$e. The %ill all "ile their %ork 4thro#gh the intranet5 in the Net, to be st#died b the other members o" this virt#al gro#!. These %ill enter the right site a"ter $learing a "ire%all se$#rit so"t%are. The

%ill all be engaged in "leEi%ork 4"leEible %orking times5 and %ork "rom their homes or o""i$es, as the !lease. Obvio#sl , the %ill all abide b a general s$hed#le. The %ill eE$hange a#dio "iles 4the 'ingle, "or instan$e5, gra!hi$s, video, $olo#r !hotogra!hs and teEt. The %ill $omment on ea$h other@s %ork and make s#ggestions #sing e6mail. The $lient %ill %itness the %hole $reative !ro$ess and %ill be able to $ontrib#te to it. There is no te$hnologi$al obsta$le !reventing the !arti$i!ation o" the $lient@s $lients, as %ell. 2irtual RockHnHRoll It is di""i$#lt to imagine that Bvirt#al !er"orman$es %ill re!la$e real li"e ones. The mass ro$k $on$ert has its o%n inimitable so#nds, !alette and smells. 1#t a virt#al !rod#$tion o" a re$ord is on the $ards and it is tens o" !er$ents $hea!er than a normal !rod#$tion. Again, the !arti$i!ants %ill intera$t thro#gh the Intranet. The %ill s%a! notes, !la their o%n instr#ments, make $omments b e6mail, !la together #sing an a!!ro!riate so"t%are. I" one o" them is grabbed b ins!iration in the middle o" 4his5 night, he %ill be able to !reserve and !ass on his ideas thro#gh the Net. The $reative !ro$ess %ill be aided b novel a!!li$ations %hi$h enable the sim#ltaneo#s trans"er o" so#nd over the Net. The !ro$esses %hi$h are alread digiti<ed 4the miE, "or one5 %ill !ose no !roblem to a digiti<ed medi#m. Other a!!li$ations %ill let the #sers listen to the "inal versions and even ask the !#bli$ "or his !revie% o!inion. Th#s, even $reative !ro$esses %hi$h are !er$eived as demanding h#man !resen$e 6 %ill no longer do so %ith the advent o" the Net. Perha!s it is easier to #nderstand a 2irtual La; ,irm or 2irtual Accountants 7&&ice. In the eEtreme, s#$h a "irm %ill not have !h si$al o""i$es, at all. The onl address %ill be an e6 mail address. Do<ens o" la% ers "rom all over the %orld %ith h#ndreds o" s!e$ialities %ill be !artners in s#$h an o""i$e. S#$h an o""i$e %ill be tr#l m#ltinational and m#ltidis$i!linar . It %ill be "ast and e""e$tive be$a#se its members %ill ele$troni$all s%a! in"ormation 4!re$edents, de$rees, la%s, o!inions, resear$h and !lain ideas or !ro"essional eE!erien$e5.

It %ill be able to servi$e $lients in ever $orner o" the globe. It %ill involve the trans"er o" a#dio "iles 4NetPhones5, teEt, gra!hi$s and video 4$r#$ial in $ertain t !es o" litigation5. Toda , s#$h in"ormation is sent b !ost and messenger servi$es. 8henever di""erent t !es o" in"ormation are to be anal sed 6 a !h si$al meeting is a m#st. Other%ise, ea$h t !e o" in"ormation has to be trans"erred se!aratel , #sing #niK#e eK#i!ment "or ea$h one. Sim#ltaneit and intera$tivit 6 this %ill be the name o" the game in the Internet. The !ro"essional term is B,oo!etitionB 4$oo!eration bet%een !otential $om!etitors, #sing the Internet5. Other !ossibilities: a virt#al !rod#$tion o" a movie, a virt#al resear$h and develo!ment team, a virt#al sales "or$e. The harbingers o" the virt#al #niversit , the virt#al $lassroom and the virt#al 4or distan$e5 medi$al $entre are here. The Internet $ 5other o& all 5edia The Internet is the te$hnologi$al sol#tion to the m thologi$al Bhome entertainment $entreB debate. It is almost #niversall agreed that, in the "#t#re, a t !i$al home %ill have one a!!arat#s %hi$h %ill give it a$$ess to all t !es o" in"ormation. Even the most daring did not talk abo#t sim#ltaneo#s a$$ess to all the t !es o" in"ormation or abo#t "#ll intera$tivit . The Internet %ill o""er eEa$tl this: a$$ess to ever $on$eivable t !e o" in"ormation sim#ltaneo#sl , the abilit to !ro$ess them at the same time and "#ll intera$tivit . The "#t#re image o" this home $entre is "airl $lear 6 it is the timing that is not. It is all de!endent on the availabilit o" a %ide 4in"ormation5 band 6 thro#gh %hi$h it %ill be !ossible to trans"er big amo#nts o" data at high s!eeds, #sing the same $omm#ni$ations line. 2ast modems %ere $o#!led %ith o!ti$ "ibres and %ith "a#lt !lanning and vision o" "#t#re needs. The $able television ind#str , "or instan$e, is totall te$hnologi$all #n!re!ared "or the age o" intera$tivit . This is onl !artl the res#lt o" #n%ise, restri$tive, legislation %hi$h !rohibits data vendors "rom ste!!ing on ea$h others@ toes. Phone $om!anies %ere not !ermitted to !rovide Internet servi$es or to trans"er video thro#gh their %ires 6 and $able $om!anies %ere not allo%ed to transmit !hone $alls. It is a K#estion o" time #ntil these "ossili<ed remains are removed b the almight hand o" the market. 8hen this ha!!ens, the home $entre is likel to look like this: A $entral $om!#ter atta$hed to a big s$reen divided to %indo%s. Television is broad$ast on one %indo%. A so"t%are a!!li$ation is r#nning on another. This $o#ld be an a!!li$ation $onne$ted to the television !rogram 4deriving data "rom it, re$ording it, $ollating it %ith !ertinent data it !i$ks o#t o" databases5. It $o#ld be an inde!endent a!!li$ation 4a $om!#ter game5. 0!dates "rom the Ne% Fork Sto$k eE$hange "lash at the $orner o" the s$reen and an i$on blinks to signal the o$$#rren$e o" a signi"i$ant e$onomi$ event. A $li$k o" the mo#se 4>5 and the ne%s "lash is $onverted to a voi$e message. Another $li$k and o#r broker is on the InternetPhone 4!ossibl seen in a third %indo% on the s$reen5. Fo# talk, o# send him a "aE $ontaining instr#$tions and o# $om!are notes. The "aE %as !rinted on a %ord !ro$essing a!!li$ation %hi$h o!ened #! in et another %indo%.

3an believe that $omm#ni$ation %ith the "#t#re generation o" $om!#ters %ill be voi$e $omm#ni$ation. This is di""i$#lt to believe. It is %eird to talk to a ma$hine 4es!e$iall in the !resen$e o" other h#mans5. 8e are serio#sl inhibited this %a . 3oreover, voi$e %ill interr#!t other !eo!le@s %ork or !leas#re. It is also $lose to im!ossible to develo! an e""i$ient voi$e re$ognition so"t%are. Not to mention misha!s s#$h as a$$idental a$tivation. The ,riendl+ Internet The Internet %ill not es$a!e the !ro$esses eE!erien$ed b all other media. It %ill be$ome eas to o!erate, #ser6"riendl , in !ro"essional !arlan$e. It reK#ires too m#$h s!e$iali<ed in"ormation. It is not a$$essible to those %ho la$k basi$ hard%are and 48indo%s5 so"t%are $on$e!ts. Alas, most o" the !o!#lation "alls into the latter $ategor . Onl 3: million B8indo%sB o!erating s stems %ere sold %orld%ide at the end o" 9DDO. Even i" this $onstit#tes G:L o" all the $o!ies 4the rest being !irated versions5 6 it still re!resents less than 3L o" the !o!#lation o" the %orld. And this, needless to sa , is the %orld;s most !o!#lar so"t%are 4"ollo%ing the DOS o!erating s stem5. The Internet m#st rel on something $om!letel di""erent. It m#st have so!histi$ated, trans!arent6to6the6#ser sear$h engines to g#ide to the $averno#s $haoti$ libraries %hi$h %ill t !i" it. The sear$h engines m#st in$l#de $om!leE de$ision making algorithms. The m#st #nderstand $ommon lang#ages and res!ond in m#ndane s!ee$h. The %ill be e""i$ient and in$redibl "ast be$a#se the %ill "orm their o%n sear$h strateg 4s#!!lanting the #ser@s "a#lt #se o" s ntaE5. These engines, re!lete %ith smart agents %ill re"er the #ser to additional data, to $#lt#ral !rod#$ts %hi$h re"le$t the #ser@s histor o" !re"eren$es 4or !rono#n$ed !re"eren$es eE!ressed in ans%ers to "eedba$k K#estionnaires5. All the de$isions and a$tivities o" the #ser %ill be stored in the memor o" his sear$h engine and assist it in designing its de$ision making trees. The engine %ill be$ome an ele$troni$ "riend, advise the #ser, even on !ro"essional matters.

Cease$,ire The $essation o" hostilities bet%een the Internet and some o""6the6shel" so"t%are a!!li$ations heralds the $ommen$ement o" the integration bet%een the deskto! $om!#ter and the Net. This is a small ste! "or the #ser 6 and a big one "or h#manit . The animosit %hi$h !revailed #ntil re$entl bet%een the 0NI= s stems and the 7T3& lang#age and bet%een most o" the standard a!!li$ations 4headed b the 8ord Pro$essors5 6 has o""i$iall ended %ith the introd#$tion o" O""i$e DN %hi$h in$or!orates "#ll 7T3& $a!abilities. 8ith the O""i$e G::: !rod#$ts, the distin$tions bet%een a %eb $om!#ting environment and a P, $om!#ting one 6 have all b#t vanished. 1ro%sers $an re!la$e o!erating s stems, %ord !ro$essors $an bro%se, do%nload and #!load 6 the P, has "inall been entirel absorbed b its o""s!ring, the internet. The Portable Do$#ment 2ormat 4PD25 enables the #ser to %ork the Internet o""6line. In other %ords: teEt "iles %ill be loaded to %ord !ro$essors and edited o""6line. The same a!!lies to other t !es o" "iles 4a#dio, video5. Do%nloading time %ill be s!eeded #! 4toda , it takes so long to do%nload an a#dio or video "ile that, man times, it is im!ra$ti$able5. This is not a trivial matter. The abilit to s%it$h bet%een on6line and o""6line states and to $ontin#e the %ork, #ninterr#!ted 6 this abilit means the integration o" the P, in the Internet. There are t%o $om!eting vie%s $on$erning the "#t#re o" $om!#ter hard%are and both o" them a$kno%ledge the im!ortan$e o" the Internet. 1ill .ates 6 3i$roso"t@s legendar boss 6 sa s that the P, %ill $ontin#e to advan$e and strengthen its !ro$essing and $om!#ting !o%ers. The Internet %ill be '#st another tool available thro#gh tele$omm#ni$ations, rather than thro#gh the o%nershi! o" hard $o!ies o" so"t%are and data. The Internet is !er$eived to be a tremendo#s eEternal database, available "or !ro$essing b tomorro%@s deskto!s. This vie% is latel being grad#all reversed in vie% o" the in$redible vitalit and !o%ers o" the Internet. .ates is $onverging on the %orldvie% held b S#n 3i$ros stems. The "#t#re deskto! %ill be a terminal, albeit !o%er"#l and %ith $onsiderable !ro$essing, $om!#ting and $omm#ni$ations $a!abilities. The name o" the game %ill be the Internet itsel". The terminal %ill a$$ess Internet databases 4$ontaining ra% or !ro$essed data5 and satis" its in"ormation needs. This terminal 6 eK#i!!ed %ith lang#ages the likes o" -ava 6 %ill get into libraries o" so"t%are a!!li$ations. It %ill make #se o" $om!onents o" di""erent a!!li$ations as the needs arise. 8hen "inished #sing the $om!onent, the terminal %ill Bret#rnB it to the virt#al Bshel"B #ntil the neEt time it is needed. This %ill minimi<e memor reso#r$es in the deskto!. The tr#th, as al%a s, is !robabl some%here in the middle. Tomorro%@s $om!#ter %ill be a home entertainment $entre. No $ons#mer %ill a$$e!t total de!enden$e on tele$omm#ni$ations and on the Net. The %ill all ask "or !ro$essing and $om!#ting !o%ers at their "ingerti!s, a6la 1ill .ates.

1#t tomorro%@s $om!#ter %ill also "#n$tion as a terminal, %hen needed: %hen data retrieving or even %hen #sing NON standard so"t%are a!!li$ations. 8h !#r$hase rarel #sed, eE!ensive a!!li$ations 6 %hen the are available, "or a "ra$tion o" the $ost, on the Net> In other %ords: no $ons#mer %ill s#b'#gate his "reK#ent %ord !ro$essing needs to the %hims o" the lo$al !hone $om!an , or to those o" the site o!erator. That is %h ever deskto! is still likel to be in$l#de a hard 4or o!ti$al56disk6resident %ord !ro$essing so"t%are. 1#t ver "e% %ill b ,AD6,A3, animation, gra!hi$s, or !#blishing so"t%are %hi$h the are likel to #se in"reK#entl . Instead, the %ill a$$ess these a!!li$ations, %hi$h %ill be resident in the Net, #se those !arts that are needed. This is #sage tailored to the $lient@s needs. This is also the integration o" a deskto! 4not o" a terminal5 %ith the Net. Decentrali3ed Lack o& Planning The $o#rse ado!ted b $ontent $reators 4!rod#$ers5 in the last "e% ears !roves the maEim that it is eas to re!eat mistakes and di""i$#lt to derive lessons "rom them. ,ontent !rod#$ers are $onstantl b# ing $hannels to trans"er their $ontents. This is a mistake. A $are"#l st#d o" the histor o" s#$$ess"#l media 4e.g., television5 !oints to a $lear !attern: ,ontent !rod#$ers do not grant li"e6long eE$l#sivit to an single $hannel. Es!e$iall not b b# ing into it. The !re"er to $ontra$t "or a limited time %ith $ontent !roviders 4their broad$ast $hannels5. The %ork %ith all o" them, sometimes sim#ltaneo#sl . In the "#t#re, the same $ontent %ill be sold on di""erent sites or net%orks, at di""erent times. Sometimes it %ill be "o#nd %ith a !rovider %hi$h is a $ombination o" $able TV $om!an and !hone $om!an 6 at other times, it %ill be "o#nd %ith a !rovider %ith eE!ertise in $om!#ter net%orks. 3#$h $ontent %ill be $reated lo$all and distrib#ted globall 6 and vi$e versa. The re!a$kaging o" branded $ontents %ill be the name o" the game in both the media "irms and the "irms %hi$h $ontrol $ontents distrib#tion 4Pthe $hannels5. No eE$l#sivit !a$t %ill s#rvive. Net%orks s#$h as ,om!#Serve are doomed and have been doomed sin$e 9DD3. The a!!roa$h o" de$entrali<ed a$$ess, thro#gh n#mero#s $hannels, to the same in"ormation 6 %ill !revail. The Trans arent Language The Internet %ill be$ome the neEt battle"ield bet%een have $o#ntries and have6not $o#ntries. It %ill be a $#lt#ral %ar <one 4English against 2ren$h, -a!anese, ,hinese, (#ssian and S!anish5. It %ill be !oliti$all $harged: those %ishing to restri$t the "reedom o" s!ee$h 4a#thoritarian and di$tatorial regimes, governments, $onservative !oliti$ians5 against !ro6 s!ee$hers. It %ill be$ome a ne% arena o" %ar"are and an integral !art o" a$t#al %ars. Di""erent !eer gro#!s, ed#$ational and in$ome so$ial6e$onomi$ strata, ethni$, seE#al !re"eren$e gro#!s 6 %ill all "ight in the eternal "ields o" the Internet. Fet, t%o develo!ments are likel to !a$i" the s$ene: A#tomati$ translation a!!li$ations 4like A$$ent and the Alta Vista translation engines5 %ill make ever bit o" in"ormation a$$essible to all. The ling#al 4and, b eEtension ethni$ or national5 so#r$e o" the in"ormation %ill be disg#ised. A "eeling o" a global village %ill !ermeate the medi#m. 1eing ignorant o" the English lang#age %ill no longer hinder one@s a$$ess to the Net. EK#al o!!ort#nities. The se$ond trend %ill be the ne% $lassi"i$ation methods o" $ontents on the Net together %ith

the availabilit o" $hi!s intended to "ilter o""ensive in"ormation. Obs$ene material %ill not be available to tender so#ls. anti6Semiti$ sites %ill be blo$ked to -e%s and $omm#nists %ill be s!ared Evil Em!ire s!ee$hes. 2iltering %ill be #s#all done #sing eEtensive and ada!table lists o" ke %ords or ke !hrases. This %ill lead to the "ormation o" $#lt#ral Internet .hettos 6 b#t it %ill also $onsiderabl red#$e tensions and largel derail !o!#list legislative e""orts aimed at $#rbing or $ensoring "ree s!ee$h. Public Internet $ Private Internet The da is not "ar %hen ever #ser %ill be able to de"ine his areas o" interest, order o" !riorities, !re"eren$es and tastes. S!e$ial a!!li$ations %ill s$o#r the Net "or him and retrieve the material be"itting his reK#irements. This material %ill be organi<ed in an manner !res$ribed. A !rivate ne%s!a!er $omes to mind. It %ill have a $ir$#lation o" one $o! 6 the #ser@s. It %ill borro% its $ontents "rom a "e% h#ndreds o" databases and ele$troni$ versions o" ne%s!a!ers on the Net. Its headlines %ill re"le$t the main areas o" interest o" its sole s#bs$riber. The !rivate !a!er %ill $ontain h !erlinks to other sites in the Internet: to re"eren$e material, to additional in"ormation on the same s#b'e$t. It %ill $ontain teEt, b#t also gra!hi$s, a#dio, video and !hotogra!hs. It %ill be intera$tive and editable %ith the !#sh o" a b#tton. Another idea: the intelligent ar$hive. The #ser %ill a$$#m#late in"ormation, derived "rom a variet o" so#r$es in an ar$hive maintained "or him on the Net. It %ill not be a $lassi$al BdeadB ar$hive. It %ill be a$tive. A s!e$ial a!!li$ation %ill sear$h the Net dail and #!date the ar$hive. It %ill $ontain h !erlinks to sites, to additional in"ormation on the Net and to alternative so#r$es o" in"ormation. It %ill have a B7istor B "#n$tion %hi$h %ill tea$h the ar$hive abo#t the !re"eren$es and !riorities o" the #ser. The so"t%are %ill re$ommend ne% sites to him and s#b'e$ts similar to his histor . It %ill alert him to movies, TV sho%s and ne% m#si$al releases 6 all %ithin his $#lt#ral s!here. I" $onvin$ed to !#r$hase 6 the so"t%are %ill order the %ares "rom the Net. It %ill then let him listen to the m#si$, see the movie, or read the teEt.

The internet %ill be$ome a !la$e o" #n$easing stim#li, o" internal order and organi<ation and o" "riendliness in the sense o" !ersonall re%arding a$K#aintan$e. S#$h an ar$hive %ill be a veritable "riend. It %ill alert the #ser to interesting ne%s, leave messages and "ood "or tho#ght in his e6mail 4or v6mail5. It %ill send the #ser a "aE i" not res!onded to %ithin a reasonable time. It %ill iss#e re!orts ever morning. This, nat#rall , is onl a !rivate $ase o" the ar$hival !otential o" the Net. A net%ork $onne$ting more than 9O.3 million $om!#ters 4end 9DDO5 is also the biggest $olle$tive memor e""ort in histor a"ter the &ibrar o" AleEandria. The Internet !ossesses the $ombined !o%er o" all its $onstit#ents. Sear$h engines are, there"ore, bo#nd to be re!la$ed b intelligent ar$hives %hi$h %ill "orm #niversal ar$hives, %hi$h %ill store all the !aths to the res#lts o" sear$hes !l#s millions o" re$ommended sear$hes. ,om!are this to a ne%s!a!er: it is m#$h easier to store ba$k iss#es o" a !a!er in the Internet than !h si$all . Obvio#sl , it is m#$h easier to sear$h and the amorti<ation o" s#$h a $o! is ann#lled. S#$h an ar$hive %ill let the #ser sear$h b %ord, b ke !hrase, b $ontents, sear$h the bibliogra!h and ho! to other !arts o" the ar$hive or to other territories in the Internet #sing h !erlinks. 5one+! Again 8e have alread mentioned SET, the sa"et standard. This %ill "a$ilitate $redit $ard transa$tions over the Net. These are sa"e transa$tions even toda 6 b#t there an ingrained interest to sa other%ise. Ne%s!a!ers are a"raid that advertising b#dgets %ill migrate to the 8eb. Television harbo#rs the same "ears. 3ore $ommer$e on the Net 6 means more advertising dollars diverted "rom established media. Too man "eel #nha!! %hen $on"ronted %ith this inevitabilit . The s!read lies %hi$h "eed o"" the ignoran$e abo#t ho% sa"e !a ing %ith $redit $ards on the Net is. Sa"et standards %ill terminate this !ro!aganda and trans"orm the Internet into a $ommer$ial medi#m. 0sers %ill be able to b# and sell goods and servi$es on the Net and get them b !ost. ,ertain things %ill be dire$tl do%nloaded 4so"t%are, e6books5. 3an banking transa$tions and EDI o!erations %ill be $ond#$ted thro#gh bank6$lients intranets. All sto$k and $ommodit eE$hanges %ill be a$$essible and the role o" brokers %ill be minimi<ed. 2oreign eE$hange %ill be easil tradable and trans"erable. Initial P#bli$ O""erings o" shares, da trading o" sto$ks and other a$tivities traditionall $onne$ted %ith !h si$al 4B!itB5 $a!ital markets %ill be$ome a !redominant "eat#re o" the internet. The da is not "ar that the likes o" 3erill & n$h %ill be o""ering "#ll servi$es 4in$l#ding advisor servi$es5 thro#gh the internet. The "irst ste!s to%ards ele$troni$ trading o" shares 4%ith dis$o#nted "ees5 have alread been taken in mid 9DDD. 7ome banking, !rivate ne%s!a!ers, s#bs$ri!tions to $#lt#ral events, to#rism !a$kages and airline ti$kets 6 are all $andidates "or Net6Trading. The Internet is here to sta .

,ommer$iall , it %o#ld be an eEtreme strategi$ error to ignore it. A lot o" mone %ill "lo% thro#gh it. A lot more !eo!le %ill be $onne$ted to it. A lot o" in"ormation %ill be stored on it. It is %orth being there. Published b+ :PC World: in Tel$Aviv on A ril =AAI( Partiall+ Revised1 JD##(

endiB $ *thics and the Internet

The BInternetB is a ver misleading term. It;s like sa ing B!rintB. Pro"essional arti$les are B!rintB 6 and so are the slea<iest !orno bro$h#res. So, "irst, I think it %o#ld be #se"#l to make a distin$tion bet%een t%o broad $ategories: ,ontent6related or ,ontent6driven and Intera$tion6driven 3ost $ontent driven sites maintain reasonable ethi$al standards, ro#ghl $om!arable to the BrealB or Bnon6virt#alB media. This is be$a#se man o" these sites %ere established b b#sinesses %ith a BrealB dimension to start %ith 48alt Disne , The E$onomist, et$.5. These sites 4at least the instit#tional ones5 maintain standards o" !riva$ , vera$it , $ross6$he$king o" in"ormation, et$. Personal home !ages %o#ld be a s#b6$ategor o" $ontent6driven sites. These $annot be serio#sl $onsidered BmediaB. The are re!resentatives o" the ne% !henomenon o" eEtreme narro%$asting. The do not adhere to an ethi$al standards, %ith the eE$e!tion o" those #!held b their o%ners;. The intera$tion orientated sites and a$tivities $an, in t#rn, be divided to E6$ommer$e sites 4s#$h as Ama<on5 %hi$h adhere to $ommer$ial la% and to $ommer$ial ethi$s and to intera$tive sites. The latter 6 dis$#ssion lists, mailing lists and so on 6 are a hotbed o" #nethi$al, verball aggressive, hostile behavio#r. A s!e$ial vo$ab#lar develo!ed to dis$#ss these !henomena 4B"lamingB, Bmail bombingB et$.5. To s#mmari<e: 8here the aim is to !rovide $ons#mers %ith another ven#e "or the dissemination o" in"ormation or to sell !rod#$ts or servi$es to them the standards o" ethi$s maintained re"le$t those #!held o#tside the realm o" the internet. Additionall , $odi"ied morals, the $ommer$ial la% is adhered to. 8here the aim is intera$tion or the dissemination o" the !ersonal o!inions and vie%s o" site6 o%ners 6 ethi$al standards are in the !ro$ess o" be$oming. A ro#gh set o" g#idelines $oales$ed into the BnetiK#etteB. It is a set o" r#les o" !ea$e"#l $o6eEisten$e intended to !revent "lame %ars and the er#!tion o" inter!ersonal verbal ab#se. Sin$e it la$ks e""e$tive means o" en"or$ement 6 it is ver o"ten violated and $onstit#tes an eE!ression o" good%ill, rather than an obliging $ode.

The Internet in the Countries in Transition 0+1 Sam 2aknin

Tho#gh the $o#ntries in transition are "ar "rom being an homogeneo#s lot, there are a "e% denominators $ommon to their Internet eE!erien$e hitherto: 9. 'nternet 'nvasion The !enetration o" the Internet in the $o#ntries in transition varies "rom $o#ntr to $o#ntr 6 b#t is still ver lo% even b E#ro!ean standards, not to mention b Ameri$an ones. This had to do %ith the la$k o" in"rastr#$t#re, the !rohibitive $ost o" servi$es, an eEtortionist !ri$ing str#$t#re, $om!#ter illitera$ and l#ddism 4$om!#ter !hobia5. So$ieties in the $o#ntries in transition are inert 4and most o" them, $onservative or traditionalist5 6 "ollo%ing ears o" $entral mis6!lanning. The Internet 4and $om!#ters5 are !er$eived b man as threatening 6 mainl be$a#se the are !art o" a te$hnologi$al #!heaval %hi$h makes !eo!le red#ndant. G. The R%#o%r *ill All manner o" instant messaging 6 mainl the earlier versions o" I(, 6 !la ed an im!ortant role in enhan$ing so$ial $ohesion and eE$hanging #n$ensored in"ormation. As in other !arts o" the %orld 6 the Internet %as "irst #sed to $omm#ni$ate: I(,, 3I(, e6mail and e6mail "ora %ere 6 and to a large eEtent, are 6 all the rage. The I(, %as 4and is5 #sed mainl to eE$hange !oliti$al vie%s and ne%s and to engage in inter6!ersonal intera$tions. The media in $o#ntries in transition is notorio#sl #nreliable. De$ades o" o""i$ial indo$trination and !ro!aganda le"t !eo!le reading bet%een 4real or imaginar 5 lines. (#mo#rs and gossi! al%a s s#bstit#ted "or ne%s and the Internet %as %ell s#ited to be$ome a !rime $hannel o" dissemination o" $ons!ira$ theories, mali$io#s libel, hearsa and e e%itness a$$o#nts. Instant messaging servi$es also led to an in$rease in the n#mber 4tho#gh not ne$essaril in the K#alit 5 o" intera$tions bet%een the #sers 6 "rom dating to the !rovision o" servi$es, the Internet %as enth#siasti$all ado!ted b a generation o" alienated o#th, isolated "rom the %orld b o""i$ial do$trine and "rom ea$h other b !aranoia "ostered b the !oliti$al regime. The Internet eE!osed its #sers to the %est, to other models o" eEisten$e %here tr#st and $ollaboration !la a ma'or role. It in$rease the K#antit o" intera$tion bet%een them. It "ostered a sense o" identit and $omm#nit . The Internet is not #biK#ito#s in the $o#ntries in transition and, there"ore, its im!a$t is ver limited. It had no dis$ernible e""e$t on ho% governments %ork in this region. Even in the 0SA it is '#st starting to e""e$t !oliti$al !ro$esses and be integrated in them.

The Internet en$o#raged entre!rene#rshi! and as!irations o" so$ial mobilit . Ver m#$h like mobile tele!hon 6 %hi$h allo%ed the $o#ntries in transition to ski! massive investments in o#tdated te$hnologies 6 the Internet %as !er$eived to be a short$#t to !ros!erit . Its de$entrali<ed $hannels o" distrib#tion, global !enetration, Brags to ri$hesB ethos and di<< ing rate o" innovation 6 attra$ted the o#ng and $reative. 3an de$ided to be$ome so"t%are develo!ers and establish lo$al version o" BSili$on Valle B or the "lo#rishing so"t%are ind#str in India. Anti vir#s so"t%are %as develo!ed in (#ssia, %eb design servi$es in "ormer F#goslavia, e6media in the ,<e$h (e!#bli$ and so on. 1#t this is the reserve o" a min#s$#le !art o" so$iet . E6$ommer$e, "or instan$e, is a long %a o"" 4tho#gh m6$ommer$e might be sooner in $o#ntries like the ,<e$h (e!#bli$ or the 1alti$5. E6$ommer$e is the nat#ral $#lmination o" a !ro$ess. Fo# need to have a ri$h $om!#ter in"rastr#$t#re, a "#n$tioning tele$omm#ni$ations net%ork, $hea! a$$ess to the Internet, $om!#ter litera$ , inabilit to !ost!one grati"i$ation, a !hiloso!h o" $ons#merism and, "inall , a modi$#m o" tr#st bet%een the !la ers in the e$onom . The $o#ntries in transition la$k all o" the above. 3ost o" them are not even a%are that the Internet eEists and %hat it $an do "or them. Penetration rates, n#mber o" $om!#ters !er ho#sehold, n#mber o" !hone lines !er ho#sehold, the reliabilit o" the tele$omm#ni$ations in"rastr#$t#re and the n#mber o" Internet #sers at home 4and at %ork56 are all dismall lo%. On the other hand, the $ost o" a$$essing the net is still !rohibitivel high. It %o#ld be a %ild eEaggeration to $all the b#dding Internet enter!rises in the $o#ntries in transition 6 Bind#striesB. There are isolated $ases o" s#$$ess, that;s all. The s!rang in res!onse to lo$al demand, eE!anded internationall on rare o$$asions and, on the %hole remained !rett $on"ined to their lo$ale. There %as no agreement bet%een $o#ntries and entre!rene#rs %ho %ill develo! %hat. It %as !#rel ha!ha<ard. 3. The =reat 4H%aliAer Ver earl on, the deni<ens o" the $o#ntries in transition have $a#ght on to the Bgreat eK#ali<erB e""e$ts o" the Net. The #sed it to vent their "r#strations and aggression, to $ond#$t $ ber6%ar"are, to #nleash an eE!losion o" vis#al $reativit and to engage in de$onstr#$tive dis$o#rse. 1 great eK#ali<er 6 I meant eK#ali<er %ith the ri$h, develo!ed $o#ntries. See the arti$le I K#oted above. The $iti<ens o" the $o#ntries in transition are "r#strated b their inabilit to $at$h #! %ith the a""l#en$e and !ros!erit o" the 8est. The "eel in"erior, negle$ted, looked do%n #!on, di$tated to and, in general, !#t do%n. The Internet is !er$eived as something %hi$h $an restore the balan$e. Onl , o" $o#rse, it $annot. It is still a ri$h !eo!le;s medi#m. President ,linton !oints o#t the Digital Divide %ithin Ameri$a 6 s#$h a divide eEists to a m#$h larger eEtent and %ith more venomo#s e""e$ts bet%een the develo!ed and develo!ing %orld. the Internet has done nothing to bridge this ga! 6 on the $ontrar : It enhan$ed the !rod#$tivit and e$onomi$ gro%th 4this is kno%n as BThe Ne% E$onom B5 o" ri$h $o#ntries 4mainl the States5 and le"t the have6nots in the d#st.

C. 'ntelle$t%al 7roperty The $on$e!t o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert 6 "oreign to the global Internet $#lt#re to start %ith 6 be$ame an emblem o" 8estern hegemon and mono!olisti$ !ra$ti$es. Violating $o! right, so"t%are !ira$ and ha$king be$ame both stat#s s mbols and a !oliti$al de$laration o" sorts. 1#t the ra!id dissemination o" !rograms and in"ormation 4"or instan$e, illi$it $o!ies o" re"eren$e %orks5 served to level the !la ing "ield. Pira$ o" material is K#ite !revalent in the $o#ntries in transition. The $o#ntries in transition are the se$ond $a!ital o" !ira$ 4a"ter Asia5. So"t%are, "ilms, even books 6 are $o!ied and distrib#ted K#ite "reel and o!enl . There are street vendors %ho deal in the $o#nter"eit !rod#$ts 6 b#t most o" it is sold thro#gh stores and OE3s. I think that intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ill go the %a the !harma$e#ti$al ind#str did: Instead o" "ighting %indmills 6 o%ners and distrib#tors o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert %ill 'oin the trend. The are likel to team #! %ith s!onsors %hi$h %ill s#bsidi<e the !ri$e o" intelle$t#al !ro!ert in order to make it a""ordable to the deni<ens o" !oor $o#ntries. S#$h s!onsors $o#ld be either m#lti6lateral instit#tions 4s#$h as the 8orld 1ank5 6 or $harities and donors.

Lea &rogging Transition Technolog+ and Develo ment in Post$Communist *uro e Also ublished b+ -nited Press International .-PI/
In man $o#ntries in transition $ell#lar !hones are more #biK#ito#s than the "iEed6line kind. Teledensit is vanishingl lo% thro#gho#t s%athes o" ,entral and Eastern E#ro!e 4,EE5. 1roadband and e6$ommer$e are distant r#mors 4ISDN is available in theor b#t not so in !ra$ti$e 6 DS& and ADS& are not available at all5. (are !hone lines 6 es!e$iall in #rban $enters 6 are still being m#lti!leEed and shared b C6M s#bs$ribers, greatl red#$ing both K#alit and #sabilit . Terrestrial television $om!etes "ero$io#sl %ith satellite TV, tho#gh $able !enetration is lo%. Internet a$$ess is !rohibitivel eE!ensive and intermittent. 3an te$hnologies rel on net%ork e""e$ts 4i.e., a $riti$al mass o" #sers5. ,EE is "ar "rom rea$hing this el#sive !oint. 8hen $omm#nism im!loded in 9DMD, !#ndits %ere K#i$k to s!ot the silver lining. The $o#ntries in transition, the said, $o#ld no% lea!"rog %hole stages o" develo!ment b ado!ting novel te$hnologies and thro#gh them the eE!ensive 8estern resear$h the embod . The East $an learn "rom the 8est;s mistakes and, b avoiding them, a$hieve a $om!etitive edge. In his seminal book, B&ea!"rogging Develo!ment 6 The Politi$al E$onom o" Tele$omm#ni$ations (estr#$t#ringB, -.P. Singh, eEamined the a$$eleration o" develo!ment thro#gh the ado!tion o" read 6made, o"" the shel", te$hnologies. 7is melan$hol $on$l#sion %as that develo!ment !re"eren$es are the o#t$omes o" an intri$ate inter6!la bet%een se$toral !ress#re gro#!s and $oalitions o" interest gro#!s 6 and not the res#lt o" !rogress eE ma$hina. 7e disting#ished three t !es o" states 6 $atal ti$, near6$atal ti$, and d s"#n$tional. Tho#gh he deals eE$l#sivel %ith Asia and &atin Ameri$a, his t !olog is a!!li$able to !ost6,omm#nist E#ro!e. I( An 7vervie; The ,entral and East E#ro!ean market %ill do#ble itsel" 4to R9N billion5 b G::3, sa s ID,. P ramid (esear$h !redi$ts a RO: billion $omm#ni$ations market b G::H. BIn"ormation So$iet B, I,T 4In"ormation and ,omm#ni$ation Te$hnologies5, Blea!"roggingB, and Bbetter online than in lineB are b#<<%ords and slogans o"t6#sed thro#gho#t the region. A horde o" N.O;s 6 lo$al and international 6 $ollaborate %ith domesti$ government and lo$al a#thorities, %ith "oreign governments, m#ltinationals, and international organi<ations to make the dream o" a digital E#ro!e $ome tr#e. (#ssia !ledged to attra$t R33 billion in investments in its tele$omm#ni$ations in"rastr#$t#re and servi$es b the ear G:9: 4the BEle$troni$ (#ssiaB initiative5. The 0S ,ommer$ial Servi$e, in the Ameri$an Embass in 3os$o%, !redi$ts an ann#al gro%th rate o" the (#ssian I,T se$tor o" 9H6G: !er$ent thro#gh G::3. ,on"eren$es abo#nd 4an im!ortant one regarding m#ni$i!al $ollaboration in $onstr#$ting an in"ormation high%a is to be held in the ,<e$h (e!#bli$ on 3ar$h GO6GN5. Even devastated Armenia s#$$eeded to eE!ort RG: million %orth o" IT goods in G::9 4its IT se$tor has gro%n b 3:L last ear5. It hosts bran$hes o" Sili$on Valle ho#sehold names s#$h as ,reden$e, 7P&, and Virage &ogi$. 3ore than C::: !ro"essionals are em!lo ed in G::

$om!anies. O" O: so"t%are develo!ment o#t"its 6 GO %ere "o#nded %ith Ameri$an $a!ital. &EDA, a !rominent lo$al IT "irm, "inan$es IT !rograms at the Armenian State Engineering 0niversit . All E0 $andidates strive to get in$or!orated in eEisting E#ro!ean net%orks 4s#$h as E&ANET, Tele$ities, IDA, and E(ISA5 and ne%, $andidate6onl , initiatives 4s#$h as eE#ro!eW5. The E0 has a!!lied its B#niversal 4i.e., also a""ordable5 servi$eB r#le to Internet a$$ess. E0 members ado!ted a variet o" meas#res to in$rease Internet a%areness and #sage. Port#gal, "or instan$e, granted individ#als %ith taE in$entives $o#!led %ith "ree e6mail a$$o#nts and 8eb hosting servi$es to en$o#rage them to !#r$hase P,;s. The D#t$h established !#bli$ $om!#ter litera$ $enters "or the disen"ran$hised 4e.g., the #nem!lo ed5 and !rovided them %ith dis$o#nted and s#bsidi<ed hard%are and $onne$tion time. In one o" its more grandiose moments, the heads o" governments o" the E0 $o#ntries have de$ided in &isbon 4G:::5 that Bea$h $iti<en sho#ld have a$$ess to the Internet and the %hole E#ro!ean 0nion sho#ld be$ome $om!#ter6literateB, in the %ords o" the ,<e$h $on"eren$e organi<ers. This is an ambitio#s #ndertaking not onl be$a#se E#ro!e in general is behind the 0SA %here Internet matters 4%ith the eE$e!tion o" %ireless Internet5 are $on$erned 6 b#t be$a#se the $o#ntries %hi$h #sed to be behind the Iron ,#rtain, no% l#r$h in the Digital Divide. A$$ording to Vasile 1alta$ "rom the In"ormation Te$hnolog and ,omm#ni$ations Asso$iation o" (omania 4BThe 1alkan and Eastern E#ro!e 6 Digital Divide or Digital O!!ort#nit B5, (omania has invested RGH !er $a!ita in I,T in 9DDD 4$om!ared to .ree$e;s RHON and the E0;s average o" R9G9H5. There %ere onl G.H Internet #sers !er 9::: inhabitants in (omania and 1#lgaria 6 $om!ared to HO.C in 8est%ard6looking Slovenia. Ne% te$hnologies are #sed mostl b the elites in ,EE 4as !ointed o#t b ?asso#rski and Vartanova in BTrans"ormation in the ,onteEt o" TransitionB5 6 and !erha!s advertentl so. Still, 1alta$ "ingers the managerial $lass as the main obsta$le to lea!"rogging 4i.e., the ra!id dissemination and assimilation o" advan$ed te$hnologies5. The !a li! servi$e to moderni<ation b#t "eel threatened and re!elled b it. On the !ositive side, 1alta$ notes the ann#al ield o" K#ali"ied !ro"essionals 4%ho mostl "ind %ork in the 8est5 and the emergen$e o" tele%ork and e6$ommer$e. The te$hnologi$al va$##m makes the ,EE $o#ntries re$e!tive to state o" the art te$hnologies. .S3 !enetration in (omania s#r!assed the level o" "iEed line $overage in 9DMD. The n#mber o" $able TV s#bs$ribers in the region is !ro'e$ted to do#ble 4to G: million5 b G::H. 1#t the tr#e !i$t#re is o"ten obs$#red b ane$dotal eviden$e, %ish"#l thinking, !hobias 4e.g., the 8est E#ro!ean "ear o" mass migration "rom East E#ro!e5, la$k o" reliable statisti$s, and absen$e o" K#ali"ied anal sts and investment bankers. 2a$tors like hostile terrain and $limate, $ross6s#bsidies, la$k o" real $om!etition, $orr#!tion, red ta!e, morib#nd "inan$ial s stems, ar$hai$ legal ones, dearth o" $redit $ard holders, #rban6r#ral ga!s, and English lang#age illitera$ 6 rarel a!!ear in neat, $olor"#l, !resentations. P ramid (esear$h is bearish on broadband. BInternet a$$ess is and %ill remain "or the "oreseeable "#t#re a !redominantl narro%band, dial6#! a""air, even in the most advan$ed $o#ntries 4in ,entral E#ro!e5B. This des!ite !lans b regional o!erators to o""er DS&, 28A 42iEed 8ireless A$$ess5, $able TV and leased6line broadband a$$ess 4alread o""ered in the ,<e$h (e!#bli$ b $able net%orks5 and des!ite a reg#lator %el$ome in all three ,E $andidates 47#ngar , Poland, and the ,<e$h (e!#bli$5.

&#$kil , mobile tele!hon 6 the other !illar o" the lea!"rogging theor 6 is getting in$reasingl $on$entrated in the hands o" "e%er o!erators 4tho#gh at least 3 !er ever ma'or market5. P ramid !ro'e$ts that b G::O, DC !er$ent o" (#ssia;s $ell#lar !hone market %ill be in the hands o" the "ive leading !roviders 4$om!ared to MH !er$ent at the end o" G::95. 3obile !enetration %ill in$rease 4to $. 9: !er$ent5 and !re!aid $#stomers %ill a$$o#nt "or the vast ma'orit o" #sers. (even#es "rom $ell#lar net%orks eE$eed reven#es "rom "iEed line net%orks in $ertain markets. S3S is booming. Se$ond and third mobile o!erator li$enses are tendered b all $ash stra!!ed governments in the region 4tho#gh a Polish attem!t to sell an 03TS li$ense ended in a "ias$o5. Poland introd#$ed a %ireless lo$al loo! servi$e. 3a$edonia '#st handed a se$ond mobile o!erator li$ense to the .reek OTE. B1 the end o" G::H, the total n#mber o" mobile s#bs$ribers in ,EE %ill eE$eed H: million 4$om!ared to 3: million b end6G::95 and mobile Internet a$$o#nts %ill $onstit#te a!!roEimatel G9 !er$ent o" total mobile a$$o#ntsB, !ro'e$ts P ramid. The ,<e$h (e!#bli$ %ill have NM mobile #sers !er 9:: !o!#lation 6 and 7#ngar OO. In a se$ond tier o" $o#ntries 6 the likes o" 1#lgaria, (omania, 0kraine, and (#ssia 6 a mobile !hone %ill remain a l#E#r and a stat#s s mbol. 7itherto domesti$ o!erators 6 "rom the .reek OTE to the (#ssian 3TS 6 are be$oming regional. 3#ltinationals, s#$h as the 1ritish Voda"one and the 2ren$h Orange 6 have entered the regional "ra . Some ,EE markets are as sat#rated 4and $#stomers as savv and demanding5 as man advan$ed 8estern E#ro!ean ones. A host o" val#e added servi$es 4VAS5 is thr#st #!on the 6 sometimes rel#$tant 6 #sers, leading nat#rall to 8AP 4re$entl introd#$ed thro#gho#t m#$h o" ,EE5, G.H., and 3. 4%i6"i or %ireless Internet5 servi$es. 3oreover, P ramid sees an intrig#ing o!!ort#nit in VoIP 4Voi$e over IP5 tele!hon . It sa s: BAs the in$#mbents in the ,EE markets $ontin#e to dominate long6distan$e $ir$#it6s%it$hed tele!hon , VoIP o""ers a #niK#e o!!ort#nit "or ne% o!erators to gain a "oothold in this traditional mono!olisti$ stronghold.B Internet Tele!hon Servi$e Providers 4ITSP;s5 have s!r#ng #! all over the region 4an Israeli "irm is no% !lanning to o""er VoIP servi$es in 3a$edonia, /osovo, and Albania5. Even in$#mbents have been o""ering VoIP 6 as earl as 9DDM in the ,<e$h (e!#bli$. In his ke note address to The E$onomist ,EE Tele$omm#ni$ations ,on"eren$e, in De$ember G::9, O"er .nee< , President and ,EO o" i1asis 4a global ITSP5, $ited ind#str anal sts !ro'e$ting VoIP average ann#al gro%th rates in ,EE o" M: !er$ent thro#gh G::O.

This, $o#!led %ith a gro%ing n#mber o" Internet #sers and a$$ess !roviders 4s!#rred on b tele$oms liberali<ation and gro%ing in$omes5, ma revol#tioni<e the lands$a!e in the neEt H6 9: ears. P ramid eE!e$ts ann#al Internet ado!tion gro%th rates o" C: !er$ent thro#gh G::H 4that;s 3:,::: ne% #sers a da J5. Internet related reven#es %ill rea$h R9: billion b G::H 4"ive times toda ;s R9.M billion 6 b#t onl one seventh the Internet market in 8estern E#ro!e5. Internet !enetration in ,entral E#ro!e %ill rea$h 9H !er$ent in G::H 4"rom C !er$ent toda and 3 !er$ent in (#ssia5 6 and C: !er$ent in 8estern E#ro!e 4$om!ared to 9M !er$ent toda 5. 3obile Internet a$$o#nts %ill $onstit#te one third o" the total in ,EE 6 $. G: million #sers. 7arald .r#ber o" the E#ro!ean Investment 1ank is even more o!timisti$, sa ing 4B,om!etition and Innovation: The Di""#sion o" Tele$omm#ni$ations in ,EEB, 3ar$h G:::5: BAbo#t G: !er$ent o" the !o!#lation %ill ado!t mobile tele$omm#ni$ationsB. II( The ,uture &ea!"rogging is not a linear "#n$tion o" the #biK#it o" hard%are and so"t%are. Tho#gh not a homogeneo#s lot, some lessons $ommon to all $o#ntries in transition are alread evident. Te$hnolog is a so$ial !henomenon %ith so$ial im!li$ations. It "osters entre!rene#rshi! and so$ial mobilit . 1 allo%ing the $o#ntries in transition to ski! massive investments in o#tdated te$hnologies 6 the $ell#lar !hone, the Internet, $able TV, and the satellite $ame to be !er$eived as short$#ts to !ros!erit , the generators o" the d#al ethoses o" Brags to ri$hesB, and B$reative destr#$tionB 4di<< ing, $onstant, and disr#!tive innovation5. The are the "#t#re, a o#th"#l !romise, and a lands$a!e o" o!!ort#nities. So"t%are develo!ers in ,EE $o#ntries tried to establish lo$al versions o" BSili$on Valle B, or the "lo#rishing so"t%are ind#str in India. (#ssian entre!rene#rs develo!ed anti vir#s so"t%are, F#goslavs o""ered %eb design servi$es, ele$troni$ media "lo#rished in the ,<e$h (e!#bli$ and so on. 1#t, as hard realit set in, most o" these talents le"t "or 8estern E#ro!e, the 0SA, ,anada, and A#stralia 6 %here te$hnolog "irms snat$hed them eagerl . ,entral and Eastern E#ro!e is a ma'or net eE!orter o" engineers, !rogrammers, s stems anal sts, 8eb designers, and $on$e!ts anal sts. Internet !enetration in these $o#ntries 6 even in the most %ired 6 is still ver lo% b E#ro!ean standards, let alone Ameri$an ones. The tra#ma o" $omm#nism le"t them %ith de$re!it and rare"ied in"rastr#$t#re, a !rohibitive, eEtortionist, and ske%ed $ost str#$t#re, $om!#ter illitera$ , ine""i$ient $om!etition, ins#""i$ient investment $a!ital, and entren$hed l#ddism 4e.g., $om!#ter !hobia5. 2oreign o!erators o"ten eEa$erbate the sit#ation. ArmenTel, the .reek o%ned mono!ol in Armenia, kee!s Internet a$$ess $osts !rohibitivel high, ignoring $o#rt a$tions b the government and lo#d $om!laints b disgr#ntled $#stomers. The ,enter "or Demo$ra$ and Te$hnolog 4in its re!ort B1ridging the Digital Divide: Internet A$$ess in ,entral and Eastern E#ro!eB5 sa s that, as $ontrasted %ith India 4or 3ala sia5, the $o#ntries o" the ,EE did not invest in $om!#teri<ing their s$hools, !#bli$ libraries, and higher ed#$ation instit#tions, or in s#bsidi<ing !rivate $om!#ter6training $olleges. 3ore $r#$iall and less reversibl , de$ades o" $entral 4mis65!lanning rendered the so$ieties o" ,entral and Eastern E#ro!e inert and de!endent, a!art "rom their traditional $onservatism. 3an 6 es!e$iall older mid6 and high6level managers and engineers 6 "eel threatened b te$hnolog . Te$hnolog makes !eo!le red#ndant.

To a "e% o!en minded 4i.e., "oreign o%ned5 "irms, $om!#ter net%orking stands "or de$entrali<ed $hannels o" distrib#tion and marketing as %ell as !otential global !enetration. 1#t even there, onl a min#s$#le n#mber o" b#sinesses took advantage o" e6$ommer$e 4tho#gh the $o#ntries o" ,entral E#ro!e and the 1alti$ ma be the global !ioneers o" m6 $ommer$e d#e to their %ireless net%orks5. E6$ommer$e is lea!"rogging;s litm#s test be$a#se it re!resents the $#lmination and $on"l#en$e o" hard%are, so"t%are, and !ro$ess engineering. To have e6$ommer$e, a $o#ntr needs ri$h $om!#ter in"rastr#$t#re, a "#n$tioning tele$omm#ni$ations net%ork, and $hea! a$$ess to the Internet. Its $iti<ens need to be reasonabl $om!#ter literate, !ossess both a $ons#merist mentalit 4e.g., inabilit to !ost!one grati"i$ation5, and a modi$#m o" tr#st bet%een the !la ers in the e$onom 6 and hold $redit $ards. Alas, the $o#ntries in transition la$k all o" the above to var ing degrees. The E$onomist Intelligen$e 0nit ranked (#ssia CGnd 4o#t o" O: $o#ntries5 in its ear G::: Be6readiness s#rve B. Other ,EE $o#ntries "ared little better. Penetration and $overage rates 4the n#mber o" $om!#ters and !hone lines !er ho#sehold5, net%ork reliabilit , and the absol#te n#mber o" Internet #sers 6 are all dismall lo%. A$$ess "ees are !rohibitivel high. 1#dding Internet enter!rises in the $o#ntries in transition are ha!! eE$e!tions that !rove the de!ressing r#le. The #s#all res!ond to errati$ lo$al demand. 2e% have eE!anded internationall . Even "e%er engage in resear$h and develo!ment. Te$hnolog %as s#!!osed to be the great eK#ali<er 4%ith the ri$h, develo!ed $o#ntries5. It did not deliver on this !romise. 0nable to $at$h #! %ith 8estern a""l#en$e and !ros!erit , the deni<ens o" ,EE are "r#strated. The "eel in"erior, negle$ted, looked do%n #!on, di$tated to, and, in general, !#t do%n. Ne%, ever6$hea!er, te$hnologies, tho#ght the lo$als, %o#ld s#rel restore the right"#l balan$e bet%een im!overished East and "ilth ri$h 8est. 1#t the Internet 6 and even te$hnologies s#$h as $ell#lar tele!hon 6 belong to those %ho $an e""e$tivel de!lo them 4i.e., $ons#mers in develo!ed, in"rastr#$t#re6ri$h, $o#ntries5. The ne%s get %orse. The Internet is grad#all !ermeated b $ommer$ial interests and going %ireless. This $onvergen$e o" $ontent and b#siness interests 6 means less a$$ess to the #nder!rivileged. The digital divide is gro%ing b the da . Ne% te$hnologies have done little to bridge this ga! 6 on the $ontrar : the enhan$ed the !rod#$tivit and e$onomi$ gro%th 4this is kno%n as BThe Ne% E$onom B5 o" ri$h $o#ntries 4mainl the 0nited States5 and le"t the have6nots in the d#st.

The $o#ntries in transition also la$k the !ro!er legislative and la% en"or$ement in"rastr#$t#re 4ba$ked b the right $#lt#ral ba$kgro#nd5. Pro!ert rights, $ontra$ts, intelle$t#al !ro!ert 6 are all ne%, o"ten indigestible, $on$e!ts, emblems o" 8estern hegemon and mono!olisti$ !ra$ti$es. 8ides!read $o! right violation, so"t%are !ira$ , and ha$king are both stat#s s mbols and !oliti$al de$larations o" sorts. Admittedl , the dissemination o" illi$it intelle$t#al !rod#$ts ma have served to level the !la ing "ield. 1#t no% it is hindering entre!rene#rshi! and holding ba$k develo!ment. A"ter Asia, the $o#ntries in transition are the se$ond largest $entre o" !ira$ . So"t%are, "ilms, even books 6 are $o!ied and distrib#ted K#ite "reel and o!enl . There are street vendors %ho deal in the $o#nter"eit !rod#$ts 6 b#t most o" it is sold thro#gh stores and OE3s. This des!ite massive e""orts 4e.g., in (#ssia, 1#lgaria, 0kraine, and, latel , in 3a$edonia5 b so"t%are develo!ers, li$ensed "ilm libraries, and distrib#tors 6 to "ight these !henomena. Intelle$t#al !ro!ert ma go the %a the !harma$e#ti$al ind#str has. ,ontent o%ners and distrib#tors ma team #! %ith s!onsors 4m#ltilateral instit#tions, !rivate $harities and donors5. The latter %ill s#bsidi<e intelle$t#al !ro!ert and, th#s, make it a""ordable to the deni<ens o" !oor $o#ntries. This is alread ha!!ening in s$holarl !#blishing. This is ver !romising. 1#t it "ar "rom lea!"rogging develo!ment. In hindsight, lea!"rogging ma have been nothing b#t another o" those intelle$t#al "ads %hose time has gone be"ore it ever $ame.

The Sel&ish Net G The Semantic Web 0+1 Sam 2aknin


A de$ade a"ter the invention o" the 8orld 8ide 8eb, Tim 1erners6&ee is !romoting the BSemanti$ 8ebB. The Internet hitherto is a re!ositor o" digital $ontent. It has a r#dimentar inventor s stem and ver $r#de data lo$ation servi$es. As a sad res#lt, most o" the $ontent is invisible and ina$$essible. 3oreover, the Internet mani!#lates strings o" s mbols, not logi$al or semanti$ !ro!ositions. In other %ords, the Net $om!ares val#es b#t does not kno% the meaning o" the val#es it th#s mani!#lates. It is #nable to inter!ret strings, to in"er ne% "a$ts, to ded#$e, ind#$e, derive, or other%ise $om!rehend %hat it is doing. In short, it does not #nderstand lang#age. (#n an ambig#o#s term b an sear$h engine and these short$omings be$ome !ain"#ll evident. This la$k o" #nderstanding o" the semanti$ "o#ndations o" its ra% material 4data, in"ormation5 !revent a!!li$ations and databases "rom sharing reso#r$es and "eeding ea$h other. The Internet is dis$rete, not $ontin#o#s. It resembles an ar$hi!elago, %ith #sers ho!!ing "rom island to island in a "ranti$ sear$h "or relevan$ . Even visionaries like 1erners6&ee do not $ontem!late an Bintelligent 8ebB. The are sim!l !ro!osing to let #sers, $ontent $reators, and %eb develo!ers assign des$ri!tive meta6tags 4Bname o" hotelB5 to "ields, or to strings o" s mbols 4B7iltonB5. These meta6tags 4arranged in semanti$ and relational BontologiesB 6 lists o" metatags, their meanings and ho% the relate to ea$h other5 %ill be read b vario#s a!!li$ations and allo% them to !ro$ess the asso$iated strings o" s mbols $orre$tl 4!la$e the %ord B7iltonB in o#r address book #nder BhotelsB5. This %ill make in"ormation retrieval more e""i$ient and reliable and the in"ormation retrieved is bo#nd to be more relevant and amenable to higher level !ro$essing 4statisti$s, the develo!ment o" he#risti$ r#les, et$.5. The shi"t is "rom 7T3& 4%hose tags are $on$erned %ith vis#al a!!earan$es and $ontent indeEing5 to lang#ages s#$h as the DA(PA Agent 3ark#! &ang#age, OI& 4Ontolog In"eren$e &a er or Ontolog Inter$hange &ang#age5, or even =3& 4%hose tags are $on$erned %ith $ontent taEonom , do$#ment str#$t#re, and semanti$s5. This %o#ld bring the Internet $loser to the $lassi$ librar $ard $atalog#e. Even in its $#rrent, !re6semanti$, h !erlink6de!endent, !hase, the Internet brings to mind (i$hard Da%kins; seminal %ork BThe Sel"ish .eneB 4O0P, 9DNO5. This %o#ld be do#bl tr#e "or the Semanti$ 8eb. Da%kins s#ggested to generali<e the !rin$i!le o" nat#ral sele$tion to a la% o" the s#rvival o" the stable. BA stable thing is a $olle$tion o" atoms %hi$h is !ermanent eno#gh or $ommon eno#gh to deserve a nameB. 7e then !ro$eeded to des$ribe the emergen$e o" B(e!li$atorsB 6 mole$#les %hi$h $reated $o!ies o" themselves. The (e!li$ators that s#rvived in the $om!etition "or s$ar$e ra% materials %ere $hara$teri<ed b high longevit , "e$#ndit , and $o! ing6"idelit . (e!li$ators 4no% kno%n as BgenesB5 $onstr#$ted Bs#rvival ma$hinesB 4organisms5 to shield them "rom the vagaries o" an ever6harsher environment. This is ver reminis$ent o" the Internet. The Bstable thingsB are 7T3& $oded %eb !ages. The are re!li$ators 6 the $reate $o!ies o" themselves ever time their B%eb addressB 40(&5 is $li$ked. The 7T3& $oding o" a %eb !age $an be tho#ght o" as Bgeneti$ materialB. It $ontains all the in"ormation needed to re!rod#$e the !age. And, eEa$tl as in nat#re, the higher the longevit , "e$#ndit 4meas#red in links to the %eb !age "rom other %eb sites5, and $o! ing6"idelit o" the 7T3& $ode 6 the higher its $han$es to s#rvive 4as a %eb !age5. (e!li$ator mole$#les 4DNA5 and re!li$ator 7T3& have one thing in $ommon 6 the are both !a$kaged in"ormation. In the a!!ro!riate $onteEt 4the right bio$hemi$al Bso#!B in the $ase o"

DNA, the right so"t%are a!!li$ation in the $ase o" 7T3& $ode5 6 this in"ormation generates a Bs#rvival ma$hineB 4organism, or a %eb !age5. The Semanti$ 8eb %ill onl in$rease the longevit , "e$#ndit , and $o! ing6"idelit or the #nderl ing $ode 4in this $ase, OI& or =3& instead o" 7T3&5. 1 "a$ilitating man more intera$tions %ith man other %eb !ages and databases 6 the #nderl ing Bre!li$atorB $ode %ill ens#re the Bs#rvivalB o" BitsB %eb !age 4Pits s#rvival ma$hine5. In this analog , the %eb !age;s BDNAB 4its OI& or =3& $ode5 $ontains Bsingle genesB 4semanti$ meta6tags5. The %hole !ro$ess o" li"e is the #n"olding o" a kind o" Semanti$ 8eb. In a !ro!heti$ !aragra!h, Da%kins des$ribed the Internet: BThe "irst thing to gras! abo#t a modern re!li$ator is that it is highl gregario#s. A s#rvival ma$hine is a vehi$le $ontaining not '#st one gene b#t man tho#sands. The man#"a$t#re o" a bod is a $oo!erative vent#re o" s#$h intri$a$ that it is almost im!ossible to disentangle the $ontrib#tion o" one gene "rom that o" another. A given gene %ill have man di""erent e""e$ts on K#ite di""erent !arts o" the bod . A given !art o" the bod %ill be in"l#en$ed b man genes and the e""e$t o" an one gene de!ends on intera$tion %ith man others...In terms o" the analog , an given !age o" the !lans makes re"eren$e to man di""erent !arts o" the b#ildingA and ea$h !age makes sense onl in terms o" $ross6re"eren$e to n#mero#s other !agesB 8hat Da%kins negle$ted in his im!ortant %ork is the $on$e!t o" the Net%ork. Peo!le $ongregate in $ities, mate, and re!rod#$e, th#s !roviding genes %ith ne% Bs#rvival ma$hinesB. 1#t Da%kins himsel" s#ggested that the ne% (e!li$ator is the BmemeB 6 an idea, belie", te$hniK#e, te$hnolog , %ork o" art, or bit o" in"ormation. 3emes #se h#man brains as Bs#rvival ma$hinesB and the ho! "rom brain to brain and a$ross time and s!a$e 4B$omm#ni$ationsB5 in the !ro$ess o" $#lt#ral 4as distin$t "rom biologi$al5 evol#tion. The Internet is a latter da meme6ho!!ing !la gro#nd. 1#t, more im!ortantl , it is a Net%ork. .enes move "rom one $ontainer to another thro#gh a linear, serial, tedio#s !ro$ess %hi$h involves !rolonged !eriods o" one on one gene sh#""ling 4BseEB5 and gestation. 3emes #se net%orks. Their !ro!agation is, there"ore, !arallel, "ast, and all6!ervasive. The Internet is a mani"estation o" the gro%ing !redominan$e o" memes over genes. And the Semanti$ 8eb ma be to the Internet %hat Arti"i$ial Intelligen$e is to $lassi$ $om!#ting. 8e ma be on the threshold o" a sel"6a%are 8eb.

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S:*64L 8S)*9 V)<.'. C%rri$%l%# Vitae Click on blue teBt to access relevant ;eb sites G thank +ou(

1orn in 9DO9 in Iir at6Fam, Israel. Served in the Israeli De"en$e 2or$e 49DND69DMG5 in training and ed#$ation #nits.

4d%$ation
.rad#ated a "e% semesters in the Te$hnion ) Israel Instit#te o" Te$hnolog , 7ai"a. Ph.D. in Philoso!h 4ma'or: Philoso!h o" Ph si$s5 ) Pa$i"i$ 8estern 0niversit , ,ali"ornia, 0SA. 3 do$toral thesis and other books are available thro#gh the &ibrar o" ,ongress. .rad#ate o" n#mero#s $o#rses in 2inan$e Theor and International Trading. ,erti"ied E6,ommer$e ,on$e!ts Anal st b 1rainben$h. ,erti"ied in Ps $hologi$al ,o#nselling Te$hniK#es b 1rainben$h. ,erti"ied 2inan$ial Anal st b 1rainben$h. 2#ll !ro"i$ien$ in 7ebre% and in English.

-%siness 4Bperien$e
=AK# to =AK> 2o#nder and $o6o%ner o" a $hain o" $om!#terised in"ormation kiosks in Tel6Aviv, Israel. =AK" to =AK% Senior !ositions %ith the Nessim D. .aon .ro#! o" ,om!anies in .eneva, Paris and Ne%6 Fork 4NO.A and AP(O2I3 SA5: ) ,hie" Anal st o" Edible ,ommodities in the .ro#!;s 7eadK#arters in S%it<erland ) 3anager o" the (esear$h and Anal sis Division ) 3anager o" the Data Pro$essing Division ) Pro'e$t 3anager o" the Nigerian ,om!#terised ,ens#s ) Vi$e President in $harge o" (ND and Advan$ed Te$hnologies ) Vi$e President in $harge o" Sovereign Debt 2inan$ing =AK% to =AKI (e!resented ,anadian Vent#re ,a!ital 2#nds in Israel.

=AKI to =AKJ .eneral 3anager o" IPE &td. in &ondon. The "irm "inan$ed international m#lti6lateral $o#ntertrade and leasing transa$tions. =AKK to =AA# ,o6"o#nder and Dire$tor o" B3ikbats6Tes#ahB, a !ort"olio management "irm based in Tel6 Aviv. A$tivities in$l#ded large6s$ale !ort"olio management, #nder%riting, "oreE trading and general "inan$ial advisor servi$es. =AA# to Present 2reelan$e $ons#ltant to man o" Israel;s 1l#e6,hi! "irms, mainl on iss#es related to the $a!ital markets in Israel, ,anada, the 0/ and the 0SA. ,ons#ltant to "oreign (ND vent#res and to .overnments on ma$ro6e$onomi$ matters. President o" the Israel $ha!ter o" the Pro"essors 8orld Pea$e A$adem 4P8PA5 and 4brie"l 5 Israel re!resentative o" the B8ashington TimesB. =AA> to =AAF ,o6o%ner and Dire$tor o" man b#siness enter!rises: ) The Omega and Energ Air6,onditioning ,on$ern ) AVP 2inan$ial ,ons#ltants ) 7andiman &egal Servi$es Total ann#al t#rnover o" the gro#!: 9: million 0SD. ,o6o%ner, Dire$tor and 2inan$e 3anager o" ,OSTI &td. ) Israel;s largest $om!#terised in"ormation vendor and develo!er. (aised "#nds thro#gh a series o" !rivate !la$ements lo$all in the 0SA, ,anada and &ondon. =AA> to =AAI P#blisher and Editor o" a ,a!ital 3arkets Ne%sletter distrib#ted b s#bs$ri!tion onl to do<ens o" s#bs$ribers $o#ntr %ide. In a legal !re$edent in 9DDH ) st#died in b#siness s$hools and la% "a$#lties a$ross Israel ) %as tried "or his role in an attem!ted takeover o" Israel;s Agri$#lt#re 1ank. 8as interned in the State S$hool o" Prison 8ardens. 3anaged the ,entral S$hool &ibrar , %rote, !#blished and le$t#red on vario#s o$$asions. 3anaged the Internet and International Ne%s De!artment o" an Israeli mass media gro#!, B7a6Tikshoret and NamerB. Assistant in the &a% 2a$#lt in Tel6Aviv 0niversit 4to Pro". S... Shoham5. =AAI to =AAA 2inan$ial $ons#ltant to leading b#sinesses in 3a$edonia, (#ssia and the ,<e$h (e!#bli$. ,ollaborated %ith the Agen$ o" Trans"ormation o" 1#siness %ith So$ial ,a!ital.

E$onomi$ $ommentator in BNova 3akedoni'aB, BDnevnikB, B3akedoni'a DenesB, BI<vestiaB, BArg#menti i 2aktiB, BThe 3iddle East TimesB, BThe Ne% Presen$eB, B,entral E#ro!e (evie%B, and other !eriodi$als, and in the e$onomi$ !rograms on vario#s $hannels o" 3a$edonian Television. ,hie" &e$t#rer in $o#rses organised b the Agen$ o" Trans"ormation, b the 3a$edonian Sto$k EE$hange, and b the 3inistr o" Trade. =AAA to "##" E$onomi$ Advisor to the .overnment o" the (e!#bli$ o" 3a$edonia and to the 3inistr o" 2inan$e. "##= to "##> Senior 1#siness ,orres!ondent "or 0nited Press International 40PI5.

We and Io%rnalisti$ )$tivities


A#thor o" eEtensive 8eb sites in: ) Ps $holog 4B3alignant Sel" &oveB5 6 An O!en Dire$tor ,ool Site, ) Philoso!h 4BPhiloso!hi$al 3#singsB5, ) E$onomi$s and .eo!oliti$s 4B8orld in ,on"li$t and TransitionB5. O%ner o" the Nar$issisti$ Ab#se Anno#n$ement and St#d &ist and the Nar$issism (evisited mailing list 4more than CD:: members5. O%ner o" the E$onomies in ,on"li$t and Transition St#d &ist and the &ink and 2a$toid St#d &ist. Editor o" mental health disorders and ,entral and Eastern E#ro!e $ategories in vario#s 8eb dire$tories 4O!en Dire$tor , Sear$h E#ro!e, 3entalhel!.net5. Editor o" the Nar$issisti$ Personalit Disorder, the Verbal and Emotional Ab#se, and the S!o#sal 4Domesti$5 Ab#se and Violen$e to!i$s on S#ite 9:9 and 1ellaonline. ,ol#mnist and $ommentator in BThe Ne% Presen$eB, 0nited Press International 40PI5, Internet,ontent, e1ook8eb, Po!3atters, and B,entral E#ro!e (evie%B.

7% li$ations and )&ards


B3anaging Investment Port"olios in States o" 0n$ertaint B, &imon P#blishers, Tel6Aviv, 9DMM BThe .ambling Ind#str B, &imon P#blishers, Tel6Aviv, 9DD: B(eK#esting 3 &oved One ) Short StoriesB, Fedioth Aharonot, Tel6Aviv, 9DDN BThe S#""ering o" 1eing /a"kaB 4ele$troni$ book o" 7ebre% and English Short 2i$tion5, Prag#e and Sko!'e, 9DDM6G::C BThe 3a$edonian E$onom at a ,rossroads ) On the 8a to a 7ealthier E$onom B 4dialog#es %ith Nikola .r#evski5, Sko!'e, 9DDM BThe EE!orters; Po$ketbookB, 3inistr o" Trade, (e!#bli$ o" 3a$edonia, Sko!'e, 9DDD

B3alignant Sel" &ove ) Nar$issism (evisitedB, Nar$iss#s P#bli$ations, Prag#e and Sko!'e, 9DDD, G::9, G::3, G::C The Nar$issism Series 4e6books regarding relationshi!s %ith ab#sive nar$issists5, Sko!'e, 9DDD6G::C BA"ter the (ain ) 7o% the 8est &ost the EastB, Nar$iss#s P#bli$ations in asso$iation %ith ,entral E#ro!e (evie%+,EEN3I, Prag#e and Sko!'e, G::: 8inner o" n#mero#s a%ards, among them Israel;s ,o#n$il o" ,#lt#re and Art Pri<e "or 3aiden Prose 49DDN5, The (otar ,l#b A%ard "or So$ial St#dies 49DNO5, and the 1ilateral (elations St#dies A%ard o" the Ameri$an Embass in Israel 49DNM5. 7#ndreds o" !ro"essional arti$les in all "ields o" "inan$es and the e$onom , and n#mero#s arti$les dealing %ith geo!oliti$al and !oliti$al e$onomi$ iss#es !#blished in both !rint and 8eb !eriodi$als in man $o#ntries. 3an a!!earan$es in the ele$troni$ media on s#b'e$ts in !hiloso!h and the s$ien$es, and $on$erning e$onomi$ matters.

Write to 5e1 *$mail1 almaLunet(com(mk or narcissisticabuse$o;nerL+ahoogrou s(com 5alignant Sel& Love $ Narcissism Revisited ,re<uentl+ Asked Cuestions regarding Narcissism Abusive Relationshi s CMA *Bcer ts &rom the Archives o& the Narcissism List The Diar+ o& a Narcissist Philoso hical 5usings A World in Con&lict and Transition *conomies in Transition Internet1 A 5edium or a 5essage? TrendSiters $ Digital Content and Web Technologies Poetr+ o& )ealing and Abuse1 5+ Poems *nglish ,iction at @orgelink $ Click )*R*' ,R** $ Read Ne; Short ,iction Narcissistic Personalit+ Disorder on Suite=#= *motional and 2erbal Abuse on Suite=#= )ealth+Place Narcissism and Relationshi s Archives o& the Narcissistic Abuse List Archives o& the *conomies in Con&lict and Transition List

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