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What A Barrel Of Crude Oil Makes? Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different hydrocarbon compounds that vary in appearance and composition from one oil field to another. Crude oils range in consistency from water to tar-like solids, and in color from clear to black. An "average" crude oil contains about 8 ! carbon, " ! hydrogen, "!-#! sulfur, and less than "! each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals, and salts. Crude oils are generally classified as paraffinic, naphthenic, or aromatic, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. $ixed-base crudes have varying amounts of each type of hydrocarbon. %efinery crude base stocks usually consist of mixtures of two or more different crude oils. %elatively simple crude oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic&'est (exas crude, ,)rent*, naphthenic &+ouisiana crude, ,igerian +ight*, aromatic &$aya Crude*, or mixed&Assam crude*. -ne assay method &.nited /tates )ureau of $ines* is based on distillation, and another method &.-0 "1" factor* is based on gravity and boiling points. $ore comprehensive crude assays determine the value of the crude &i.e., its yield and 2uality of useful products* and processing parameters. Crude oils are usually grouped according to yield structure. Crude oils are also defined in terms of A03 &American 0etroleum 3nstitute* gravity. (he higher the A03 gravity, the lighter the crude. 4or example, light crude oils have high A03 gravities and low specific gravities. Crude oils with low carbon, high hydrogen, and high A03 gravity are usually rich in paraffin5s and tend to yield greater proportions of gasoline and light petroleum products6 those with high carbon, low hydrogen, and low A03 gravities are usually rich in aromatics. (he price of a crude oil is usually based on its A03 gravity, with high gravity oils commanding higher prices. Crude oils that contain appreciable 2uantities of hydrogen sulfide or other reactive sulfur compounds are called "sour." (hose with less sulfur are called "sweet." /ome exceptions to this rule are 'est (exas crudes, which are always considered "sour" regardless of their 78/ content, and Arabian high-sulfur crudes, which are not considered "sour" because their sulfur compounds are not highly reactive. (-0

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Tell me about Hydrocarbon Groups? (he main constituents of petroleum can be grouped into four categories9 0araffin9 A series of saturated straight chain or branched hydrocarbons, the lowest members of which are methane, ethane and propane. -lefins9 :ouble-bonded hydrocarbons that are not normally present in crude oil but are formed during refinery processing and vehicle combustion of fuel. -lefins help improve the octane rating, but their use may lead to gum formation or deposits in

engine intake systems. Aromatic9 .nsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons are known as aromatics. Aromatics occur naturally in crude oil and can also be produced in some refining processes. Aromatics common in petrol include ben;ene, toluene and xylene. Controlling the level of aromatics directly limits evaporative losses and exhaust emissions. ,aphthenes9 ,aphthenes are a class of compounds that are saturated hydrocarbons typified by cyclic hydrocarbon molecular structure. (he general formula for cyclic hydrocarbons is Cn78n. (-0 :: Why Weatherin Test is performed? <=! of +0> sample under consideration should evaporate at a temperature of ?8oc. 3f the evaporation temperature exceeds ?8oc then there is a probability that heavier hydrocarbons are present in +0> and if the evaporation temperature is less then ?8oc then there is a probability that lighter fractions are more. /ignificance9 (his test is intended to find out the presence of heavier hydrocarbons in +0>, which may not readily evaporate. (his test is done specially for +0>. (-0 :: What is Copper corrosion test? (his test serves as measure of corrosivity of fuel with copper, brass, or bron;e parts of a fuel system. (he copper strip is polished smoothly and immersed in the sample and put into a bomb. (his is placed into a water bath which is maintained at the specified temperature for the specified time. (he strip is removed from the sample, washed with iso-octane or normal heptane, and examined for evidence of etching or discoloration. (he colour of the strip is compared with A/($ copper strip standards colour code. /ignificance9 Copper corrosion limits provides assurance that difficulties will not be experienced in deterioration of the copper and copper alloy fittings and connections that are commonly used in many types of utili;ation, storage and transportation e2uipments. (his test is re2uired mainly for +0>, ,aphtha, /1-, 7/:, A(4 and $/.

(-0 :: What is !lash "oint? (he flash point of a fuel is the temperature to which the fuel must be heated to produce a vapour@air mixture above the li2uid fuel that is ignitable when exposed to an open flame under specified test conditions. 4lash point is important primarily from a fuel-handling standpoint. (oo low a flash point will cause fuel to be a fire ha;ard, subAect to flashing, and possible continued ignition and explosion. 3n addition, a low-flash point may indicate contamination by more volatile and explosive fuels, such as gasoline. A very important reason to maintain the flash point as high as possible is due to the electrostatic ha;ards in pumping distillate fuels. 4lash point &)3/* re2uirements for some petroleum products are9 /.1.-.- #= C ..+./.7./.:.- #= C 7./.:.- #= C 4.-.- BB C A.(.4.- #< C (-0 :: What is !ire "oint? 4ire point is the lowest temperature, corrected to one atmosphere pressure &"C".# k0a*, at which the application of a test flame to the oil sample surface causes the vapour of the oil to ignite and burn for at least five seconds. 4or ordinary commercial lubricating oils, the fire point usually runs about #CoC above the flash point .(he test is carried out in open cup rather then in a close one. A/($ : <8 method offers the advantage of open flash point and fire point determination. +ow fire point petroleum products are potential fire ha;ards. (-0 :: What is #moke point? /moke is an indication of clean burning 2uality of kerosene. 3llumination depends upon the flame dimension although it is not related to flame height. $any paraffins may be gifted with better flame height but illumination may be poor. /moke point is defined as the maximum height of flame in millimeters at which the given oil will burn without giving smoke. :ifferent flame heights are obtained due to the presence of different components such as paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics. Aromatic contributes smoke, hence removal of aromatics increases the smoke point. ,aphthenes with side chain one inevitably retained to give good illumination. 3n 3ndia, marketable kerosene should possess a smoke point of "8mm. (-0

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Why do you do !lame Hei ht test? (his test is prescribed by Central Dxcise for distinguishing kerosene from :iesels for the purpose of charging duties. (he test is similar to that of /moke 0oint except in preconditioning the sample and wick and also in the final reading. (he flame height is read at the end of the "=th minute after the lamp is lighted. (-0

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What is the si nificance of Aniline "oint? Aniline point is defined as the minimum temperature at which e2ual volumes of anhydrous aniline and oil mix together. Aniline being an aromatic compound freely mixes with aromatic so a low aniline point indicates low diesel index &because of high percentage of aromatics*. /ignificance9 7igh aniline point indicates that the fuel is highly paraffinic and hence has a high :iesel index and very good ignition 2uality. 3n case of aromatics the aniline point is low and the ignition 2uality is poor. (his test is useful for calculating :iesel 3ndex. (-0

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"lease tell me about $iesel inde%? :iesel index is a measure of ignition 2uality of fuel. :iesel engine works on the principle of compression ignition. :uring compression adiabatically the air temperature reaches around BCC c, when the fuel is finely atomised form is fed in, it instantaneously explodes. /elf ignition temperature is low for paraffins while it is high for aromatics. (hus a fuel rich in aromatics burns later causing ignition delay and it gives rise to what is known as diesel knock. 4or this reason all diesel fuels are processed to have a diesel index in the range of = to ==. :iesel 3ndex E &Aniline 0oint in o4 F oA03*@ "CC /ignificance9 7igh aniline point indicates that the fuel is highly paraffinic and hence a high :iesel 3ndex and a very good ignition 2uality. 3n case of aromatics the aniline point is low and the ignition 2uality is poor. (-0

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What is Cetane &umber ? (his is a measure of the tendency of diesel fuels to knock in a diesel engine. (his is determined by C4% &Cooperative 4uels %esearch* engine having a single cylinder. (he sample fuel is compared with that reference blend of known Cetane ,umber. (he reference fuels used are ,ormal Cetane &"CC cetane number* and 7epta $ethyl ,onane &"= cetane number*. Cetane number is a whole number which is indicative of the ignition 2uality of fuel. 7igh Cetane ,umber fuels give good

ignition and reduced roughness. (he Cetane ,umber can also be calculated by the following formula. Cetane ,umber EC.G8H :iesel 3ndex ?"C /ignificance9 Cetane number is the index of ignition 2uality of a fuel. 7igh cetane number fuel will enhance easy starting of compression ignition engines and lessen engine roughness. (his test is re2uired mainly for 7/:. (-0 :: Ho' do you measure (eid )apour "ressure? Iapour pressure is an important physical property of volatile li2uids. 3t is the pressure that a vapour exerts on its surroundings. 3ts units are kilopascals, corrected to one atmosphere &"C".# k0a*. 4or volatile petroleum products, vapour pressure is used as an indirect measure of evaporation rate. 7igh vapor pressures and a low distillation temperature for "C! evaporated both help cold starting. .nder hotoperating conditions, high vapor pressure also contributes to vapor lock and increases vapor formation in fuel tanks. 3n cold weather, a gasoline that is not volatile enough may cause hard starting and poor warm-up. 3n the winter months, for example, your vehicleJs engine is extremely cold before startup, and the gasoline must have a high enough volatility to be able to vapori;e easily in a cold engine.Iapour pressure can be measured by a variety of methods including %eid, dynamic, static, vapour pressure balance, and gas saturation. (he most commonly used method for crude oils has been the %eid vapour pressure , as determined by A/($ :#8# &American /ociety for (esting of $aterials* method &%eid $ethod*. (his test method determines vapour pressure at #G.8 JC &"CC J4* of petroleum products and crude oils with initial boiling point above C JC &#8 J4*. 3t is measured by saturating a known volume of oil in an air chamber of known volume and measuring the e2uilibrium pressure, which is then corrected to one atmosphere &"C".# k0a*. (-0 :: What is Octane &umber? -ctane number is defined as percentage volume of 3so-octane &8,8, -trimethyl pentane* in a mixture of 3so-octane and n-heptane that gives the same knocking charactristic as the fuel under consideration. 1nocking in due to untimely burning of fuel in a spark ignition engine, which results in loss of power and sometimes it is powerful enough to cause damage to engine parts. 'ith the advent of petrol engines of high compression ratios the tendency of knocking has also increased. )eing a blend, gasoline responds in different ways, even in the same engine,

depending on the components present. 3so-paraffins and aromatics have high octane number while n-paraffin5s have very low value, unsaturates do have high octane values but not preferred due to gum contribution. -ctane number is influenced by different factors like speed of engine, ambient weather conditions, altitude, combustion chamber deposits and coolant temperature. 1nocking rating is tested by C4% engine for different purposes. $otor method gives the octane rating of high way driving &high speed*, while research method gives for city driving &low speed* conditions and aviation method is for aviation gasoline.(he rating can be done by either %esearch $ethod or $otor $ethod. 3f the fuel meets the minimum re2uirements in respect of -ctane number it ensures trouble free operation. Apart from being a nuisance, the knocking in an engine may result in loss of energy and at times may cause severe damage to the engine. (-0 :: What is Antiknockin inde%? (he A13 of a motor fuel is the average of the %esearch -ctane ,umber &%-,* and $otor -ctane ,umber &$-,* or &%?$*@8 and it remains the most important 2uality criteria for motorists. (hc %esearch -ctane ,umber &%-,* simulates fuel performance under low severity engine operation. (he $otor -ctane ,umber &$-,* simulates more severe operation that might be incurred at high speed or high load. 3n practice the octane of a gasoline is reported as the average of %-, and $-, or %?$@8. /ignificance9 (oday it is accepted that no one octane rating covers all use. (he combination of vehicle and engine can result in specific re2uirements for octane that depend on the fuel. 3f the octane is distributed differently throughout the boiling range of a fuel, then engines can knock on one brand of 8G i.e &%-,?$-,*@8, but not on another brand. (his "octane distribution" is especially important when sudden changes in load occur, such as high load, full throttle, and acceleration. -ptimum performance and fuel economy is achieved when the A13 is ade2uate for the engine in which it is combusted. (here is no advantage in using gasoline with a higher A13 than the engine re2uires to operate knock-free. 3n 3ndia Current )3/ specification of A13 is 8 &unleaded regular* and 88 &unleaded premium*. (-0 :: What determines my car*s octane re+uirements? Kour carJs octane re2uirements are mainly determined by its basic design. 3n addition, variations in engines due to manufacturing tolerances can cause cars of the same model to re2uire a different octane of several numbers. Also, as a new car is driven, its octane re2uirement can increase because of the buildup of combustion chamber deposits. (his continues until a stable level is reached, typically after about "=,CCC miles. (he stabili;ed octane re2uirement may be #-B numbers higher than when the car was new

-ther factors also influence your carJs knocking characteristics9 (emperature9 >enerally, the hotter the ambient air and engine coolant, the greater the octane re2uirement. Altitude9 (he higher the altitude above sea level, the lower the octane re2uirement. $odern computer-controlled engines adAust spark timing and air-fuel ratio to compensate for changes in barometric pressure, and thus the effect of altitude on octane re2uirement is smaller in these vehicles. 7umidity9 (he drier the air, the greater the octane re2uirement. (he recommendations that vehicle manufacturers give are for normal- to low-humidity levels. spark timing9 (he octane re2uirement increases as the spark timing is advanced. )oth the basic setting of the spark timing and the operation of the automatic spark advance mechanisms are important in controlling knock $ethod of driving9 %apid acceleration and heavy loading, such as pulling a trailer or climbing a hill, may result in a greater octane re2uirement. /top-and-go driving and excessive idling can increase octane re2uirements by causing the buildup of combustion chamber deposits. (-0 :: What is MTB,? $()D, or $ethyl (ertiary )utyl Dther, is an ether compound in the same boiling range as gasoline. Dthers have an oxygen atom in each molecule and a characteristic smell. $()D is made by combining isobutylene &from various refining and chemical processes* and methanol &usually made from natural gas*. $()D has been used as a gasoline-blending component since "<G<. -riginally, it was used to help raise the octane of gasoline. ,ow, it is also used to raise the oxygen content of gasoline. (he oxygen atom in $()D helps provide extra oxygen for complete combustion. 3deally, an oxygenate reduces the amount of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in the exhaust. Chemical formula for $()D is C7#-C &C7#*#. (-0 :: Tell me about O%y enates? 4inished motor gasoline, having oxygen content of 8.G percent or higher by weight is known as -xygenated >asoline. L-xygenated gasoline" is a mixture of conventional gasoline and one or more combustible li2uids which contain oxygen &"oxygenates"*. At present, the most common oxygenates are ethanol and $()D &$ethyl (ertiary )utyl Dther*. -xygenated gasoline reduces fuel economy an average of 8!-#! because oxygenates contain less energy than non-oxygenated gasoline. -xygenated gasoline helps engines run leaner, which helps engines, particularly older engines, produce less carbon monoxide. 4uel Dthanol9 )lends of up to "C percent by volume anhydrous ethanol. $()D &$ethyl (ertiary )utyl Dther*9 )lends of up to "=.C percent by volume $()D which must meet the A/($ : 8" specifications.

-ther -xygenates9 Dthyl tertiary butyl ether &D()D*, tertiary amyl methyl ether &(A$D*, $ethanol.and other oxygenates improve gasoline octane ratings and reduce carbon monoxide emissions. (-0 :: What is )iscosity? Iiscosity is a measure of a fluidJs resistance to flow6 the lower the viscosity of a fluid, the more easily it flows. +ike density, viscosity is affected by temperature. As temperature decreases, viscosity increases. (he /3 unit of dynamic viscosity is the millipascal-second &m0a.s*. L(hinM li2uids, like water or gasoline, have low viscosities6 LthickM li2uids, like +ubricating oils have higher viscosities. Iiscosity is an important characteristic of diesel. 4uels outside the re2uired range may cause power loss or improper atomi;ation of the fuel in a diesel engine. +ubrications assist in removing the frictional forces between two moving bodies. Absolute viscosity divided by fluid density e2uals kinematic viscosity. Absolute viscosity and kinematic viscosity are expressed in fundamental units. Commercial viscosity such as /aybolt viscosity is expressed in arbitrary units of time, usually seconds. (-0 :: What Atmospheric Crude Oil $istillation? (he refining process of separating crude oil components at atmospheric pressure by heating to temperatures of about BCC o4 to G=C o4 &depending on the nature of the crude oil and desired products* and subse2uent condensing of the fractions by cooling. (-0 :: What is -acuum distillation? A secondary refining process in which straight-run residue is distilled in a vacuum in order to separate more light hydrocarbons than through atmospheric distillation. (he output of the process is vacuum gas oil, which can be used as feedstock for cracking units, and vacuum bottoms or residue, which are usually used as boiler fuel. (-0 :: What is Catalytic Crackin ? (he refining process of breaking down the larger, heavier, and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. Catalytic cracking is accomplished by the use of a catalytic agent and is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil. Catalytic cracking processes fresh feeds and recycled feeds.

(-0 :: What Catalytic Hydrocrackin ? A refining process that uses hydrogen and catalysts with relatively low temperatures and high pressures for converting middle boiling or residual material to high-octane gasoline, reformer charge stock, Aet fuel, and@or high grade fuel oil. (he process uses one or more catalysts, depending upon product output, and can handle high sulphur feedstocks without prior desulphuri;ation. (-0 :: What is Catalytic Hydrotreatin ? A refining process for treating petroleum fractions from atmospheric or vacuum distillation units &e.g. naphtha, middle distillates, reformer feeds, residual fuel oil, and heavy gas oil* and other petroleum &e.g., cat cracked naphtha, coker naphtha, gas oil, etc.* in the presence of catalysts and substantial 2uantities of hydrogen. 7ydrotreating includes desulphuri;ation, removal of substances &e.g., nitrogen compounds* that deactivate catalysts, conversion of olefins to paraffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline, and other processes to upgrade the 2uality of the fractions. (-0 :: What is Catalytic (eformin ? A refining process using controlled heat and pressure with catalysts to rearrange certain hydrocarbon molecules, thereby converting paraffinic and naphthenic type hydrocarbons &e.g., low-octane gasoline boiling range fractions* into petrochemical feedstocks and higher octane stocks suitable for blending into finished products. (-0 :: What is .so #ie-e "rocess? Another way of increasing octane number of gasoline is by removing altogether low octane hydrocarbon molecules specially straight run n-paraffin from the product &gasoline* by physical absorption process with the help of a specific catalyst which has the ability to trape n-paraffin molecules. (-0 :: What is $elayed Cokin ? A process by which heavier crude oil fractions can be thermally decomposed under conditions of elevated temperatures and pressure to produce a mixture of lighter oils and petroleum coke. (he light oils can be processed further in other refinery units to meet product specifications. (he coke can be used either as a fuel or in other applications such as the manufacturing of steel or aluminium. (-0

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What is A". ra-ity? A measure of the weight of hydrocarbons according to a scale established by the American 0etroleum 3nstitute. Crude oils with higher values are lighter and tend to produce larger volumes of high-value lighter products in atmospheric distillation, which makes them relatively more valuable. Crude oil grades that are lower on the A03 scale tend conversely to be less highly valued because they produce smaller yields of lighter products. A03 gravity E &" ".=@/pecific >ravity at BC4* - "#".= (-0

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What is Cloud "oint? Cloud point and pour point are measures of winter temperature behavior properties of distillate fuels. Cloud point is the temperature where paraffin first forms in fuel.3n practice, cloud point helps to determine the temperature at which paraffin crystals will begin to block fuel filters and lines and cause starting and stalling problems for diesel engines. (-0

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What is "our "oint ? (he pour point of an oil is the lowest temperature at which the oil will Aust flow, under standard test conditions. (he failure to flow at the pour point is usually attributed to the separation of waxes from the oil, but can also be due to the effect of viscosity in the case of very viscous oils. (his test is re2uired for 7/: and 4-. 0our point re2uirement is B deg C for ,ormal diesel and -"8 deg C for winter grade diesel. (-0

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What is $istillation standard? (he "distillation" standard is one of several tests used to address gasolineJs vapori;ation characteristics. >asoline is metered in li2uid form, through the fuel inAectors &or carburetor*, and mixed with air and atomi;ed before entering the cylinders. (herefore, it is very important that a fuelJs tendency to evaporate is controlled to certain standards. A fuelJs ability to vapori;e or change from li2uid to vapor is referred to as its volatility. 3n gasoline, the distillation characteristics, along with vapor pressure, define and control starting, warm-up, acceleration, vapor lock, crankcase oil dilution, and, in part, fuel economy and carburetion icing. (he tendency of a fuel to vapori;e is also characteri;ed by determining a series of temperatures at which various percentages of the fuel have evaporated &boiling temperatures*, as described in A/($ :8B, (est $ethod for :istillation of 0etroleum 0roducts. (he temperatures at which "C!, =C!, and <C! evaporation occurs are often used to characteri;e the volatility

of gasoline. (he "C! evaporated temperature is directly affected by the seasonal blending of the gasoline. (his temperature must be low enough to provide easy cold starting, but high enough to minimi;e the vapor lock and hot weather driveability problems. $ost cool weather driveability problems occur from the use of summer season gasoline in the winter months. (his is especially true in premium grades, which normally have a high "C! evaporated temperature. (he =C! evaporated temperature must be low enough to provide good warm-up and cool weather driveability without being so low as to contribute to hot driveability and vapor locking problems. (his portion of the gasoline greatly affects fuel economy on short trips. (he <C! and end-point evaporation temperatures must be low enough to minimi;e crankcase and combustion chamber deposits, as well as spark plug fouling and the dilution of engine oil. 3f the end-point temperature exceeds the A/($ maximum re2uirement, it is usually because of the presence of a distillate fuel. (his contamination can be directly attributable to the delivery of diesel prior to the delivery of the gasoline. (his problem is avoided if care is taken in handling the product. (-0 :: What is Cold filter plu in /C0!0"0"01?

(he highest temperature at which the fuel, when cooled under the test conditions, either will not flow through the filter or re2uires more than BC sec. for "Cml to pass through. 4or :iesel fuel in 3ndia specification is ?B :eg C in winter and ?"8 :eg C in summer. (-0 :: What is !luid catalytic crackin ? 4CC uses a catalyst in the form of a very fine powder which flows like a li2uid when agitated by steam, air or vapour. 4eedstock entering the process immediately meets a stream of very hot catalyst and vaporises. (he resulting vapours keep the catalyst fluidised as it passes into the reactor, where the cracking takes place and where it is fluidised by the hydrocarbon vapour. (he catalyst next passes to a steam stripping section where most of the volatile hydrocarbons are removed. 3t then passes to a regenerator vessel where it is fluidised by a mixture of air and the products of combustion which are produced as the coke on the catalyst is burnt off. (he catalyst then flows back to the reactor. (he catalyst thus undergoes a continuous circulation between the reactor, stripper and regenerator sections. (he catalyst is usually a mixture of aluminium oxide and silica. $ost recently, the introduction of synthetic ;eolite catalysts has allowed much shorter reaction times and improved yields and octane numbers of the cracked gasolines.

(-0 :: What is .somerisation? 3somerisation refers to chemical rearrangement of straight-chain hydrocarbons &paraffins*, so that they contain branches attached to the main chain &isoparaffins*. (his is done for two reasons9 they create extra isobutane feed for alkylationthey improve the octane of straight run pentanes and hexanes and hence make them into better petrol blending components. 3somerisation is achieved by mixing normal butane with a little hydrogen and chloride and allowed to react in the presence of a catalyst to form isobutane, plus a small amount of normal butane and some lighter gases. 0roducts are separated in a fractionator. (he lighter gases are used as refinery fuel and the butane recycled as feed. 0entanes and hexanes are the lighter components of petrol. 3somerisation can be used to improve petrol 2uality by converting these hydrocarbons to higher octane isomers. (he process is the same as for butane isomerisation. :: What is )isbreakin ? Iisbreaking, a mild form of thermal cracking, significantly lowers the viscosity of heavy crude-oil residue without affecting the boiling point range. %esidual from the atmospheric distillation tower is heated &8CCN-<=CN 4* at atmospheric pressure and mildly cracked in a heater. 3t is then 2uenched with cool gas oil to control overcracking, and flashed in a distillation tower. Iisbreaking is used to reduce the pour point of waxy residues and reduce the viscosity of residues used for blending with lighter fuel oils. $iddle distillates may also be produced, depending on product demand. (he thermally cracked residue tar, which accumulates in the bottom of the fractionation tower, is vacuum flashed in a stripper and the distillate recycled. :: What is Hydrofinishin "rocess? A catalytic treating process carried out in the presence of hydrogen to improve the properties of low viscosity-index naphthenic and medium viscosity-index naphthenic oils. 3t is also applied to paraffin waxes and microcrystalline waxes for the removal of undesirable components. (his process consumes hydrogen and is used in lieu of acid treating. (-0 (-0