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The Conundrums of Psychology

1st EDITION

Sam Vaknin, Ph.D.

Editing and Design:

Lidija Rangelovska

Lidija Rangelovska A Narcissus Publications Imprint, Skopje 2004 Not or Sale! Non"commercial edition#

2002-4 C !"#ight $idi%a &ange' (ska. )'' #ights #ese#(ed. This * k, # an" !a#t the#e +, ma" n t *e ,sed # #e!# d,-ed in an" manne# .ith ,t .#itten !e#missi n +# m: $idi%a &ange' (ska / .#ite t : !a'ma0,net.- m.mk # t (aknin0'ink.- m.mk

Visit Sam Vaknin's United Press International (UPI) Article Archive / C'i-k 1E&E2 Philosophical M sings and !ssa"s htt!:33sam(ak.t#i! d.- m3-,'t,#e.htm' Malignant Sel# Love $ %arcissism Revisited htt!:33sam(ak.t#i! d.- m3

C#eated *":

$IDI4) &)N5E$OVS6) &EP78$IC O9 :)CEDONI)

&'%(!%(S
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. On Disease The :"th + :enta' I''ness The :eta!h #s + :ind / The 8#ain The :eta!h #s + :ind - Ps"-h the#a!" In De+ense + Ps"-h ana'"sis :eta!h #s + :ind / The Dia' g + D#eams 7se and )*,se + Di++e#entia' Diagn ses )'th,sse# / The Thi#d Te;t and C m!eting Inte#!e''ati ns The ),th #

On Dis-ease By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

<e a#e a'' te#mina''" i''. It is a matte# + time *e+ #e .e a'' die. )ging and death #emain a'm st as m"ste#i ,s as e(e#. <e +ee' a.ed and ,n- m+ #ta*'e .hen .e - ntem!'ate these t.in a++'i-ti ns. Indeed, the (e#" . #d den ting i''ness - ntains its .n *est de+initi n: dis-ease. ) menta' - m! nent + 'a-k + .e'' *eing m,st e;ist S784ECTIVE$=. The !e#s n m,st 9EE$ *ad, m,st e;!e#ien-e dis- m+it,#e + # his - nditi n t >,a'i+" as a disease. T this e;tent, .e a#e %,sti+ied in -'assi+"ing a'' diseases as ?s!i#it,a'? # ?menta'?. Is the#e an" the# .a" + disting,ishing hea'th +# m si-kness - a .a" that d es NOT de!end n the #e! #t that the !atient !# (ides #ega#ding his s,*%e-ti(e e;!e#ien-e@ S me diseases a#e mani+est and the#s a#e 'atent # immanent. 5eneti- diseases -an e;ist - ,nmani+ested - + # gene#ati ns. This #aises the !hi' s !hi-a' !# *'em # .hethe# a ! tentia' disease IS a disease@ )#e )IDS and 1aem !hi'ia -a##ie#s - si-k@ Sh ,'d the" *e t#eated, ethi-a''" s!eaking@ The" e;!e#ien-e n dis-ease, the" #e! #t n s"m!t ms, n signs a#e e(ident. On .hat m #a' g# ,nds -an .e - mmit them t t#eatment@ On the g# ,nds + the ?g#eate# *ene+it? is the - mm n #es! nse. Ca##ie#s th#eaten the#s and m,st *e is 'ated # the#.ise ne,te#ed. The th#eat inhe#ent in them m,st *e e#adi-ated. This is a dange# ,s m #a' !#e-edent. )'' kinds + !e !'e th#eaten ,# .e''-*eing: ,nsett'ing ide ' gists, the menta''" handi-a!!ed, man" ! 'iti-ians. <h" sh ,'d .e

sing'e ,t ,# !h"si-a' .e''-*eing as . #th" + a !#i(i'eged m #a' stat,s@ <h" is ,# menta' .e'' *eing, + # instan-e, + 'ess im! #t@ : #e (e#, the distin-ti n *et.een the !s"-hi- and the !h"si-a' is h t'" dis!,ted, !hi' s !hi-a''". The !s"-h !h"si-a' !# *'em is as int#a-ta*'e t da" as it e(e# .as Ai+ n t m #e s B. It is *e" nd d ,*t that the !h"si-a' a++e-ts the menta' and the the# .a" a# ,nd. This is .hat dis-i!'ines 'ike !s"-hiat#" a#e a'' a* ,t. The a*i'it" t - nt# ' ?a,t n m ,s? * di'" +,n-ti ns As,-h as hea#t*eatB and menta' #ea-ti ns t !ath gens + the *#ain a#e !# + + the a#ti+i-ia'ness + this distin-ti n. It is a #es,'t + the #ed,-ti nist (ie. + nat,#e as di(isi*'e and s,mma*'e. The s,m + the !a#ts, a'as, is n t a'.a"s the .h 'e and the#e is n s,-h thing as an in+inite set + the #,'es + nat,#e, n'" an as"m!t ti- a!!# ;imati n + it. The distin-ti n *et.een the !atient and the ,tside . #'d is s,!e#+', ,s and .# ng. The !atient )ND his en(i# nment a#e ONE and the same. Disease is a !e#t,#*ati n in the !e#ati n and management + the - m!'e; e- s"stem kn .n as !atient-. #'d. 1,mans a*s #* thei# en(i# nment and +eed it in e>,a' meas,#es. This n-g ing inte#a-ti n IS the !atient. <e -ann t e;ist .ith ,t the intake + .ate#, ai#, (is,a' stim,'i and + d. O,# en(i# nment is de+ined *" ,# a-ti ns and ,t!,t, !h"si-a' and menta'. Th,s, ne m,st >,esti n the -'assi-a' di++e#entiati n *et.een ?inte#na'? and ?e;te#na'?. S me i''nesses a#e - nside#ed ?end geni-? ACgene#ated +# m the insideB. Nat,#a', ?inte#na'?, -a,ses - a hea#t de+e-t, a *i -hemi-a' im*a'an-e, a geneti- m,tati n, a meta* 'i- !# -ess g ne a.#" - -a,se disease. )ging and de+ #mities a's *e' ng in this -ateg #".

In - nt#ast, !# *'ems + n,#t,#an-e and en(i# nment ea#'" -hi'dh d a*,se, + # instan-e, # ma'n,t#iti n - a#e ?e;te#na'? and s a#e the ?-'assi-a'? !ath gens Age#ms and (i#,sesB and a--idents. 8,t this, again, is a - ,nte#-!# d,-ti(e a!!# a-h. E; geni- and End geni- !ath genesis is inse!a#a*'e. :enta' states in-#ease # de-#ease the s,s-e!ti*i'it" t e;te#na''" ind,-ed disease. Ta'k the#a!" # a*,se Ae;te#na' e(entsB a'te# the *i -hemi-a' *a'an-e + the *#ain. The inside - nstant'" inte#a-ts .ith the ,tside and is s inte#t.ined .ith it that a'' distin-ti ns *et.een them a#e a#ti+i-ia' and mis'eading. The *est e;am!'e is, + - ,#se, medi-ati n: it is an e;te#na' agent, it in+',en-es inte#na' !# -esses and it has a (e#" st# ng menta' - ##e'ate ACits e++i-a-" is in+',en-ed *" menta' +a-t #s as in the !'a-e* e++e-tB. The (e#" nat,#e + d"s+,n-ti n and si-kness is high'" -,'t,#e-de!endent. S -ieta' !a#amete#s di-tate #ight and .# ng in hea'th Aes!e-ia''" menta' hea'thB. It is a'' a matte# + statisti-s. Ce#tain diseases a#e a--e!ted in -e#tain !a#ts + the . #'d as a +a-t + 'i+e # e(en a sign + distin-ti n Ae.g., the !a#an id s-hiD !h#eni- as -h sen *" the g dsB. I+ the#e is n dis-ease the#e is n disease. That the !h"si-a' # menta' state + a !e#s n C)N *e di++e#ent d es n t im!'" that it :7ST *e di++e#ent # e(en that it is desi#a*'e that it sh ,'d *e di++e#ent. In an (e#-! !,'ated . #'d, ste#i'it" might *e the desi#a*'e thing - # e(en the --asi na' e!idemi-. The#e is n s,-h thing as )8SO$7TE d"s+,n-ti n. The * d" and the mind )$<)=S +,n-ti n. The" ada!t themse'(es t thei# en(i# nment and i+ the 'atte# -hanges - the" -hange. Pe#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e the *est ! ssi*'e #es! nses t a*,se. Can-e# ma" *e the *est ! ssi*'e #es! nse t -a#-in gens. )ging and death a#e de+inite'" the *est

! ssi*'e #es! nse t (e#-! !,'ati n. Pe#ha!s the ! int + (ie. + the sing'e !atient is in- mmens,#ate .ith the ! int + (ie. + his s!e-ies - *,t this sh ,'d n t se#(e t *s-,#e the iss,es and de#ai' #ati na' de*ate. )s a #es,'t, it is ' gi-a' t int# d,-e the n ti n + ?! siti(e a*e##ati n?. Ce#tain h"!e#- # h"! - +,n-ti ning -an "ie'd ! siti(e #es,'ts and !# (e t *e ada!ti(e. The di++e#en-e *et.een ! siti(e and negati(e a*e##ati ns -an ne(e# *e ? *%e-ti(e?. Nat,#e is m #a''"-ne,t#a' and em* dies n ?(a',es? # ?!#e+e#en-es?. It sim!'" e;ists. <E, h,mans, int# d,-e ,# (a',e s"stems, !#e%,di-es and !#i #ities int ,# a-ti(ities, s-ien-e in-',ded. It is *ette# t *e hea'th", .e sa", *e-a,se .e +ee' *ette# .hen .e a#e hea'th". Ci#-,'a#it" aside - this is the n'" -#ite#i n that .e -an #eas na*'" em!' ". I+ the !atient +ee's g d - it is n t a disease, e(en i+ .e a'' think it is. I+ the !atient +ee's *ad, eg -d"st ni-, ,na*'e t +,n-ti n - it is a disease, e(en .hen .e a'' think it isnEt. Need'ess t sa" that I am #e+e##ing t that m"thi-a' -#eat,#e, the +,''" in+ #med !atient. I+ s me ne is si-k and kn .s n *ette# Ahas ne(e# *een hea'th"B - then his de-isi n sh ,'d *e #es!e-ted n'" a+te# he is gi(en the -han-e t e;!e#ien-e hea'th. )'' the attem!ts t int# d,-e ? *%e-ti(e? "a#dsti-ks + hea'th a#e !'ag,ed and !hi' s !hi-a''" - ntaminated *" the inse#ti n + (a',es, !#e+e#en-es and !#i #ities int the + #m,'a - # *" s,*%e-ting the + #m,'a t them a't gethe#. One s,-h attem!t is t de+ine hea'th as ?an in-#ease in #de# # e++i-ien-" + !# -esses? as - nt#asted .ith i''ness .hi-h is ?a de-#ease in #de# ACin-#ease + ent# !"B and in the e++i-ien-" + !# -esses?. <hi'e *eing +a-t,a''" dis!,ta*'e, this d"ad a's s,++e#s +# m a se#ies + im!'i-it (a',e-%,dgements. 9 # instan-e, .h" sh ,'d .e !#e+e# 'i+e (e# death@ O#de# t ent# !"@ E++i-ien-" t ine++i-ien-"@

1ea'th and si-kness a#e di++e#ent states + a++ai#s. <hethe# ne is !#e+e#a*'e t the the# is a matte# + the s!e-i+i-,'t,#e and s -iet" in .hi-h the >,esti n is ! sed. 1ea'th Aand its 'a-kB is dete#mined *" em!' "ing th#ee ?+i'te#s? as it .e#e: 1. Is the * d" a++e-ted@ 2. Is the !e#s n a++e-ted@ Adis-ease, the *#idge *et.een ?!h"si-a'? and ?menta' i''nessesB F. Is s -iet" a++e-ted@ In the -ase + menta' hea'th the thi#d >,esti n is +ten + #m,'ated as ?is it n #ma'? ACis it statisti-a''" the n #m + this !a#ti-,'a# s -iet" in this !a#ti-,'a# timeB@ <e m,st #e-h,maniDe disease. 8" im! sing ,! n iss,es + hea'th the !#etensi ns + the a--,#ate s-ien-es, .e *%e-ti+ied the !atient and the hea'e# a'ike and ,tte#'" neg'e-ted that .hi-h -ann t *e >,anti+ied # meas,#ed the h,man mind, the h,man s!i#it.
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The

yth of

ental !llness

By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

"#ou can kno$ the name of a bird in all the languages of the $orld% but $hen you&re finished% you&ll kno$ absolutely nothing $hate'er about the bird( So let&s look at the bird and see $hat it&s doing ) that&s $hat counts. ! learned 'ery early the difference bet$een kno$ing the name of something and kno$ing something." &i-ha#d 9e"nman, Ph"si-ist and 1GHI N *e' P#iDe 'a,#eate A1G1J-1GJJB "#ou ha'e all ! dare say heard of the animal s*irits and ho$ they are transfused from father to son etcetera etcetera ) $ell you may take my $ord that nine *arts in ten of a man&s sense or his nonsense% his successes and miscarriages in this $orld de*end on their motions and acti'ities% and the different tracks and trains you *ut them into% so that $hen they are once set a-going% $hether right or $rong% a$ay they go cluttering like hey-go-mad." $a.#en-e Ste#ne A1K1F-1KIJB, ?The $i+e and O!ini ns + T#ist#am Shand", 5ent'eman? A1KIGB I) 'vervie* S me ne is - nside#ed menta''" ?i''? i+:

1. 1is - nd,-t #igid'" and - nsistent'" de(iates +# m the t"!i-a', a(e#age *eha(i ,# + a'' the# !e !'e in his -,'t,#e and s -iet" that +it his !# +i'e A.hethe# this - n(enti na' *eha(i ,# is m #a' # #ati na' is immate#ia'B, # 2. 1is %,dgment and g#as! + *%e-ti(e, !h"si-a' #ea'it" is im!ai#ed, and F. 1is - nd,-t is n t a matte# + -h i-e *,t is innate and i##esisti*'e, and 4. 1is *eha(i # -a,ses him # the#s dis- m+ #t, and is I. D"s+,n-ti na', se'+-de+eating, and se'+-dest#,-ti(e e(en *" his .n "a#dsti-ks. Des-#i!ti(e -#ite#ia aside, .hat is the essence + menta' dis #de#s@ )#e the" me#e'" !h"si ' gi-a' dis #de#s + the *#ain, #, m #e !#e-ise'" + its -hemist#"@ I+ s , -an the" *e -,#ed *" #est #ing the *a'an-e + s,*stan-es and se-#eti ns in that m"ste#i ,s #gan@ )nd, n-e e>,i'i*#i,m is #einstated / is the i''ness ?g ne? # is it sti'' ',#king the#e, ?,nde# .#a!s?, .aiting t e#,!t@ )#e !s"-hiat#i- !# *'ems inhe#ited, # ted in +a,'t" genes Ath ,gh am!'i+ied *" en(i# nmenta' +a-t #sB / # *# ,ght n *" a*,si(e # .# ng n,#t,#an-e@ These >,esti ns a#e the d main + the ?medi-a'? s-h menta' hea'th. ' +

Othe#s -'ing t the s!i#it,a' (ie. + the h,man !s"-he. The" *e'ie(e that menta' ai'ments am ,nt t the meta!h"si-a' dis- m! s,#e + an ,nkn .n medi,m / the s ,'. Thei#s is a h 'isti- a!!# a-h, taking in the !atient in his # he# enti#et", as .e'' as his mi'ie,. The mem*e#s + the +,n-ti na' s-h ' #ega#d menta' hea'th dis #de#s as !e#t,#*ati ns in the !# !e#, statisti-a''"

?n #ma'?, *eha(i ,#s and mani+estati ns + ?hea'th"? indi(id,a's, # as d"s+,n-ti ns. The ?si-k? indi(id,a' / i'' at ease .ith himse'+ Aeg -d"st ni-B # making the#s ,nha!!" Ade(iantB / is ?mended? .hen #ende#ed +,n-ti na' again *" the !#e(ai'ing standa#ds + his s -ia' and -,'t,#a' +#ame + #e+e#en-e. In a .a", the th#ee s-h 's a#e akin t the t#i + *'ind men .h #ende# dis!a#ate des-#i!ti ns + the (e#" same e'e!hant. Sti'', the" sha#e n t n'" thei# s,*%e-t matte# / *,t, t a - ,nte# int,iti(e'" 'a#ge deg#ee, a +a,'t" meth d ' g". )s the #en .ned anti-!s"-hiat#ist, Th mas SDasD, + the State 7ni(e#sit" + Ne. = #k, n tes in his a#ti-'e "The +ying Truths of Psychiatry", menta' hea'th s-h 'a#s, #ega#d'ess + a-ademi- !#edi'e-ti n, in+e# the eti ' g" + menta' dis #de#s +# m the s,--ess # +ai',#e + t#eatment m da'ities. This + #m + ?#e(e#se enginee#ing? + s-ienti+i- m de's is n t ,nkn .n in the# +ie'ds + s-ien-e, n # is it ,na--e!ta*'e i+ the e;!e#iments meet the -#ite#ia + the s-ienti+i- meth d. The the #" m,st *e a''-in-',si(e Aanamneti-B, - nsistent, +a'si+ia*'e, ' gi-a''" - m!ati*'e, m n (a'ent, and !a#sim ni ,s. Ps"-h ' gi-a' ?the #ies? / e(en the ?medi-a'? nes Athe # 'e + se# t nin and d !amine in m d dis #de#s, + # instan-eB / a#e ,s,a''" n ne + these things. The ,t- me is a *e.i'de#ing a##a" + e(e#-shi+ting menta' hea'th ?diagn ses? e;!#ess'" -ent#ed a# ,nd <este#n -i(i'isati n and its standa#ds Ae;am!'e: the ethi-a' *%e-ti n t s,i-ideB. Ne,# sis, a hist #i-a''" +,ndamenta' ?- nditi n? (anished a+te# 1GJ0. 1 m se;,a'it", a-- #ding t the )me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i-

)ss -iati n, .as a !ath ' g" !#i # t 1GKF. Se(en "ea#s 'ate#, na#-issism .as de-'a#ed a ?!e#s na'it" dis #de#?, a'm st se(en de-ades a+te# it .as +i#st des-#i*ed *" 9#e,d. !!. Personality Disorders Indeed, !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e an e;-e''ent e;am!'e + the ka'eid s- !i- 'ands-a!e + ? *%e-ti(e? !s"-hiat#". The -'assi+i-ati n + );is II !e#s na'it" dis #de#s / dee!'" ing#ained, ma'ada!ti(e, 'i+e' ng *eha(i # !atte#ns / in the Diagn sti- and Statisti-a' :an,a', + ,#th editi n, te;t #e(isi n L)me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i- )ss -iati n. DS:-IV-T&, <ashingt n, 2000M / # the DS:-IV-T& + # sh #t / has - me ,nde# s,stained and se#i ,s -#iti-ism +# m its in-e!ti n in 1GI2, in the +i#st editi n + the DS:. The DS: IV-T& ad !ts a -ateg #i-a' a!!# a-h, ! st,'ating that !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ",ualitati'ely distinct clinical syndromes" A!. HJGB. This is .ide'" d ,*ted. E(en the distin-ti n made *et.een ?n #ma'? and ?dis #de#ed? !e#s na'ities is in-#easing'" *eing #e%e-ted. The ?diagn sti- th#esh 'ds? *et.een n #ma' and a*n #ma' a#e eithe# a*sent # .eak'" s,!! #ted. The ! '"theti- + #m + the DS:Es Diagn sti- C#ite#ia / n'" a s,*set + the -#ite#ia is ade>,ate g# ,nds + # a diagn sis / gene#ates ,na--e!ta*'e diagn stihete# geneit". In the# . #ds, !e !'e diagn sed .ith the same !e#s na'it" dis #de# ma" sha#e n'" ne -#ite#i n # n ne. The DS: +ai's t -'a#i+" the e;a-t #e'ati nshi! *et.een );is II and );is I dis #de#s and the .a" -h# ni-hi'dh d and de(e' !menta' !# *'ems inte#a-t .ith !e#s na'it" dis #de#s.

The di++e#entia' diagn ses a#e (ag,e and the !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ins,++i-ient'" dema#-ated. The #es,'t is e;-essi(e - -m #*idit" Am,'ti!'e );is II diagn sesB. The DS: - ntains 'itt'e dis-,ssi n + .hat disting,ishes n #ma' -ha#a-te# A!e#s na'it"B, !e#s na'it" t#aits, # !e#s na'it" st"'e A:i'' nB / +# m !e#s na'it" dis #de#s. ) dea#th + d -,mented -'ini-a' e;!e#ien-e #ega#ding * th the dis #de#s themse'(es and the ,ti'it" + (a#i ,s t#eatment m da'ities. N,me# ,s !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ?n t the#.ise s!e-i+ied? / a -at-ha'', *asket ?-ateg #"?. C,'t,#a' *ias is e(ident in -e#tain dis #de#s As,-h as the )ntis -ia' and the S-hiD t"!a'B. The eme#gen-e + dimensi na' a'te#nati(es t the -ateg #i-a' a!!# a-h is a-kn .'edged in the DS:-IV-T& itse'+: -.n alternati'e to the categorical a**roach is the dimensional *ers*ecti'e that Personality Disorders re*resent malada*ti'e 'ariants of *ersonality traits that merge im*erce*tibly into normality and into one another/ A!.HJGB The + '' .ing iss,es / ' ng neg'e-ted in the DS: / a#e 'ike'" t *e ta-k'ed in +,t,#e editi ns as .e'' as in -,##ent #esea#-h. 8,t thei# missi n +# m ++i-ia' dis- ,#se hithe#t is * th sta#t'ing and te''ing:

The ' ngit,dina' - ,#se + the dis #de#AsB and thei# tem! #a' sta*i'it" +# m ea#'" -hi'dh d n.a#dsN

The geneti- and *i ' gi-a' ,nde#!innings + !e#s na'it" dis #de#AsBN The de(e' !ment + !e#s na'it" !s"-h !ath ' g" d,#ing -hi'dh d and its eme#gen-e in ad 'es-en-eN The inte#a-ti ns *et.een !h"si-a' hea'th and disease and !e#s na'it" dis #de#sN The e++e-ti(eness + (a#i ,s t#eatments / ta'k the#a!ies as .e'' as !s"-h !ha#ma- ' g". ental 1ealth

!!!. The Biochemistry and 0enetics of

Ce#tain menta' hea'th a++'i-ti ns a#e eithe# - ##e'ated .ith a statisti-a''" a*n #ma' *i -hemi-a' a-ti(it" in the *#ain / # a#e ame'i #ated .ith medi-ati n. =et the t. facts a#e n t ine',di*'" +a-ets + the same ,nde#'"ing !hen men n. In the# . #ds, that a gi(en medi-ine #ed,-es # a* 'ishes -e#tain s"m!t ms d es n t ne-essa#i'" mean the" .e#e caused *" the !# -esses # s,*stan-es a++e-ted *" the d#,g administe#ed. Ca,sati n is n'" ne + man" ! ssi*'e - nne-ti ns and -hains + e(ents. T designate a !atte#n + *eha(i ,# as a menta' hea'th dis #de# is a (a',e %,dgment, # at *est a statisti-a' *se#(ati n. S,-h designati n is e++e-ted #ega#d'ess + the +a-ts + *#ain s-ien-e. : #e (e#, - ##e'ati n is n t -a,sati n. De(iant *#ain # * d" *i -hemist#" A n-e -a''ed ?! '',ted anima' s!i#its?B d e;ist / *,t a#e the" t#,'" the # ts + menta' !e#(e#si n@ N # is it -'ea# .hi-h t#igge#s .hat: d the a*e##ant ne,# -hemist#" # *i -hemist#" -a,se menta' i''ness / # the the# .a" a# ,nd@ That !s"-h a-ti(e medi-ati n a'te#s *eha(i ,# and m d is indis!,ta*'e. S d i''i-it and 'ega' d#,gs, -e#tain + ds, and a'' inte#!e#s na' inte#a-ti ns. That the -hanges

*# ,ght a* ,t *" !#es-#i!ti n a#e desi#a*'e / is de*ata*'e and in( '(es ta,t ' gi-a' thinking. I+ a -e#tain !atte#n + *eha(i ,# is des-#i*ed as As -ia''"B ?d"s+,n-ti na'? # A!s"-h ' gi-a''"B ?si-k? / -'ea#'", e(e#" -hange . ,'d *e .e'- med as ?hea'ing? and e(e#" agent + t#ans+ #mati n . ,'d *e -a''ed a ?-,#e?. The same a!!'ies t the a''eged he#edit" + menta' i''ness. Sing'e genes # gene - m!'e;es a#e +#e>,ent'" ?ass -iated? .ith menta' hea'th diagn ses, !e#s na'it" t#aits, # *eha(i ,# !atte#ns. 8,t t 'itt'e is kn .n t esta*'ish i##e+,ta*'e se>,en-es + -a,ses-and-e++e-ts. E(en 'ess is !# (en a* ,t the inte#a-ti n + nat,#e and n,#t,#e, gen t"!e and !hen t"!e, the !'asti-it" + the *#ain and the !s"-h ' gi-a' im!a-t + t#a,ma, a*,se, ,!*#inging, # 'e m de's, !ee#s, and the# en(i# nmenta' e'ements. N # is the distin-ti n *et.een !s"-h t# !i- s,*stan-es and ta'k the#a!" that -'ea#--,t. < #ds and the inte#a-ti n .ith the the#a!ist a's a++e-t the *#ain, its !# -esses and -hemist#" - a'*eit m #e s' .'" and, !e#ha!s, m #e !# + ,nd'" and i##e(e#si*'". :edi-ines / as Da(id 6aise# #eminds ,s in ".gainst Biologic Psychiatry" APs"-hiat#iTimes, V ',me OIII, Iss,e 12, De-em*e# 1GGHB / t#eat s"m!t ms, n t the ,nde#'"ing !# -esses that "ie'd them. !V. The Variance of ental Disease

I+ menta' i''nesses a#e * di'" and em!i#i-a', the" sh ,'d *e in(a#iant * th tem! #a''" and s!atia''", a-# ss -,'t,#es and s -ieties. This, t s me deg#ee, is, indeed, the -ase. Ps"-h ' gi-a' diseases a#e n t - nte;t de!endent / *,t the !ath ' giDing + -e#tain *eha(i ,#s is. S,i-ide, s,*stan-e a*,se, na#-issism, eating dis #de#s, antis -ia' .a"s, s-hiD t"!a' s"m!t ms, de!#essi n, e(en !s"-h sis a#e

- nside#ed si-k *" s me -,'t,#es / and ,tte#'" n #mati(e # ad(antage ,s in the#s. This .as t *e e;!e-ted. The h,man mind and its d"s+,n-ti ns a#e a'ike a# ,nd the . #'d. 8,t (a',es di++e# +# m time t time and +# m ne !'a-e t an the#. 1en-e, disag#eements a* ,t the !# !#iet" and desi#a*i'it" + h,man a-ti ns and ina-ti n a#e * ,nd t a#ise in a s"m!t m-*ased diagn sti- s"stem. )s ' ng as the *seudo-medical de+initi ns + menta' hea'th dis #de#s - ntin,e t #e'" e;-',si(e'" n signs and s"m!t ms / i.e., m st'" n *se#(ed # #e! #ted *eha(i ,#s / the" #emain (,'ne#a*'e t s,-h dis- #d and de( id + m,-h-s ,ght ,ni(e#sa'it" and #ig #. V. ental Disorders and the Social Order

The menta''" si-k #e-ei(e the same t#eatment as -a##ie#s + )IDS # S)&S # the E* 'a (i#,s # sma''! ;. The" a#e s metimes >,a#antined against thei# .i'' and - e#-ed int in( ',nta#" t#eatment *" medi-ati n, !s"-h s,#ge#", # e'e-t# - n(,'si(e the#a!". This is d ne in the name + the g#eate# g d, 'a#ge'" as a !#e(enti(e ! 'i-". C ns!i#a-" the #ies n t.ithstanding, it is im! ssi*'e t ign #e the en #m ,s inte#ests (ested in !s"-hiat#" and !s"-h !ha#ma- ' g". The m,'ti*i''i n d ''a# ind,st#ies in( '(ing d#,g - m!anies, h s!ita's, managed hea'th-a#e, !#i(ate -'ini-s, a-ademi- de!a#tments, and 'a. en+ #-ement agen-ies #e'", + # thei# - ntin,ed and e;! nentia' g# .th, n the !# !agati n + the - n-e!t + ?menta' i''ness? and its - # ''a#ies: t#eatment and #esea#-h. V!. ental .ilment as a 2seful eta*hor

)*st#a-t - n-e!ts + #m the - #e + a'' *#an-hes + h,man kn .'edge. N ne has e(e# seen a >,a#k, # ,ntang'ed a -hemi-a' * nd, # s,#+ed an e'e-t# magneti- .a(e, # (isited the ,n- ns-i ,s. These a#e ,se+,' meta!h #s, the #eti-a' entities .ith e;!'anat #" # des-#i!ti(e ! .e#. ?:enta' hea'th dis #de#s? a#e n di++e#ent. The" a#e sh #thand + # -a!t,#ing the ,nsett'ing >,iddit" + ?the Othe#?. 7se+,' as ta; n mies, the" a#e a's t 's + s -ia' - e#-i n and - n+ #mit", as :i-he' 9 ,-a,'t and $ ,is )'th,sse# *se#(ed. &e'egating * th the dange# ,s and the idi s"n-#ati- t the - ''e-ti(e +#inges is a (ita' te-hni>,e + s -ia' enginee#ing. The aim is !# g#ess th# ,gh s -ia' - hesi n and the #eg,'ati n + inn (ati n and -#eati(e dest#,-ti n. Ps"-hiat#", the#e+ #e, is #ei+ies s -iet"Es !#e+e#en-e + e( ',ti n t #e( ',ti n, #, . #se sti'', t ma"hem. )s is +ten the -ase .ith h,man endea( ,#, it is a n *'e -a,se, ,ns-#,!,' ,s'" and d gmati-a''" !,#s,ed. V!!. The !nsanity Defense "!t is an ill thing to knock against a deaf-mute% an imbecile% or a minor. 1e that $ounds them is cul*able% but if they $ound him they are not cul*able." 3 ishna% Babylonian Talmud4 I+ menta' i''ness is -,'t,#e-de!endent and m st'" se#(es as an #ganiDing s -ia' !#in-i!'e - .hat sh ,'d .e make + the insanit" de+ense AN5&I- N t 5,i't" *" &eas n + Insanit"B@ ) !e#s n is he'd n t #es! nsi*'e + # his -#imina' a-ti ns i+ s3he -ann t te'' #ight +# m .# ng A?'a-ks s,*stantia' -a!a-it" eithe# t a!!#e-iate the -#imina'it"

A.# ng+,'nessB + his - nd,-t? - diminished -a!a-it"B, did n t intend t a-t the .a" he did Aa*sent ?mens #ea?B and3 # - ,'d n t - nt# ' his *eha(i # A?i##esisti*'e im!,'se?B. These handi-a!s a#e +ten ass -iated .ith ?menta' disease # de+e-t? # ?menta' #eta#dati n?. :enta' hea'th !# +essi na's !#e+e# t ta'k a* ,t an im!ai#ment + a ?!e#s nEs !e#-e!ti n # ,nde#standing + #ea'it"?. The" h 'd a ?g,i't" *,t menta''" i''? (e#di-t t *e - nt#adi-ti n in te#ms. )'' ?menta''"-i''? !e !'e !e#ate .ithin a A,s,a''" - he#entB . #'d(ie., .ith - nsistent inte#na' ' gi-, and #,'es + #ight and .# ng Aethi-sB. =et, these #a#e'" - n+ #m t the .a" m st !e !'e !e#-ei(e the . #'d. The menta''"-i'', the#e+ #e, -ann t *e g,i't" *e-a,se s3he has a ten, ,s g#as! n #ea'it". =et, e;!e#ien-e tea-hes ,s that a -#imina' ma"*e menta''" i'' e(en as s3he maintains a !e#+e-t #ea'it" test and th,s is he'd -#imina''" #es! nsi*'e A4e++#e" Dahme# - mes t mindB. The ?!e#-e!ti n and ,nde#standing + #ea'it"?, in the# . #ds, -an and d es - -e;ist e(en .ith the se(e#est + #ms + menta' i''ness. This makes it e(en m #e di++i-,'t t - m!#ehend .hat is meant *" ?menta' disease?. I+ s me menta''" i'' maintain a g#as! n #ea'it", kn . #ight +# m .# ng, -an anti-i!ate the ,t- mes + thei# a-ti ns, a#e n t s,*%e-t t i##esisti*'e im!,'ses Athe ++i-ia' ! siti n + the )me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i)ss -iati nB - in .hat .a" d the" di++e# +# m ,s, ?n #ma'? + 'ks@ This is .h" the insanit" de+ense +ten sits i'' .ith menta' hea'th !ath ' gies deemed s -ia''" ?a--e!ta*'e? and ?n #ma'? - s,-h as #e'igi n # ' (e. C nside# the + '' .ing -ase:

) m the# *ashes the sk,''s + he# th#ee s ns. T. + them die. She -'aims t ha(e a-ted n inst#,-ti ns she had #e-ei(ed +# m 5 d. She is + ,nd n t g,i't" *" #eas n + insanit". The %,#" dete#mined that she ?did n t kn . #ight +# m .# ng d,#ing the ki''ings.? 8,t .h" e;a-t'" .as she %,dged insane@ 1er belief in the e5istence of 0od - a being $ith inordinate and inhuman attributes - may be irrational. 8,t it d es n t - nstit,te insanit" in the st#i-test sense *e-a,se it - n+ #ms t s -ia' and -,'t,#a' -#eeds and - des + - nd,-t in he# mi'ie,. 8i''i ns + !e !'e +aith+,''" s,*s-#i*e t the same ideas, adhe#e t the same t#ans-endenta' #,'es, *se#(e the same m"sti-a' #it,a's, and -'aim t g th# ,gh the same e;!e#ien-es. This sha#ed !s"-h sis is s .ides!#ead that it -an n ' nge# *e deemed !ath ' gi-a', statisti-a''" s!eaking. She claimed that 0od has s*oken to her. )s d n,me# ,s the# !e !'e. 8eha(i # that is - nside#ed !s"-h ti- A!a#an id-s-hiD !h#eni-B in the# - nte;ts is 'a,ded and admi#ed in #e'igi ,s -i#-'es. 1ea#ing ( i-es and seeing (isi ns - a,dit #" and (is,a' de',si ns - a#e - nside#ed #ank mani+estati ns + #ighte ,sness and san-tit". Pe#ha!s it .as the - ntent + he# ha'',-inati ns that !# (ed he# insane@ She claimed that 0od had instructed her to kill her boys. Surely% 0od $ould not ordain such e'il6

)'as, the O'd and Ne. Testaments * th - ntain e;am!'es + 5 dEs a!!etite + # h,man sa-#i+i-e. )*#aham .as #de#ed *" 5 d t sa-#i+i-e Isaa-, his *e' (ed s n Ath ,gh this sa(age - mmand .as #es-inded at the 'ast m mentB. 4es,s, the s n + 5 d himse'+, .as -#,-i+ied t at ne + # the sins + h,manit". ) di(ine in%,n-ti n t s'a" neEs ++s!#ing . ,'d sit .e'' .ith the 1 '" S-#i!t,#es and the )! -#"!ha as .e'' as .ith mi''ennia- 'd 4,de -Ch#istian t#aditi ns + ma#t"#d m and sa-#i+i-e. 1er actions $ere $rong and incommensurate $ith both human and di'ine 3or natural4 la$s. =es, *,t the" .e#e !e#+e-t'" in a-- #d .ith a 'ite#a' inte#!#etati n + -e#tain di(ine'"-ins!i#ed te;ts, mi''ennia' s-#i!t,#es, a! -a'"!ti- th ,ght s"stems, and +,ndamenta'ist #e'igi ,s ide ' gies As,-h as the nes es! ,sing the imminen-e + ?#,!t,#e?B. 7n'ess ne de-'a#es these d -t#ines and .#itings insane, he# a-ti ns a#e n t. .e a#e + #-ed t the - n-',si n that the m,#de# ,s m the# is !e#+e-t'" sane. 1e# +#ame + #e+e#en-e is di++e#ent t ,#s. 1en-e, he# de+initi ns + #ight and .# ng a#e idi s"n-#ati-. T he#, ki''ing he# *a*ies .as the #ight thing t d and in - n+ #mit" .ith (a',ed tea-hings and he# .n e!i!han". 1e# g#as! + #ea'it" - the immediate and 'ate# - nse>,en-es + he# a-ti ns - .as ne(e# im!ai#ed. It . ,'d seem that sanit" and insanit" a#e #e'ati(e te#ms, de!endent n +#ames + -,'t,#a' and s -ia' #e+e#en-e, and statisti-a''" de+ined. The#e isnEt - and, in !#in-i!'e, -an ne(e# eme#ge - an ? *%e-ti(e?, medi-a', s-ienti+i- test t dete#mine menta' hea'th # disease ,ne>,i( -a''".

V!!!. .da*tation and !nsanity - 3corres*ondence $ith Paul Shirley% S74 ?N #ma'? !e !'e ada!t t thei# en(i# nment - * th h,man and nat,#a'. ?)*n #ma'? nes t#" t ada!t thei# en(i# nment - * th h,man and nat,#a' - t thei# idi s"n-#ati- needs3!# +i'e. I+ the" s,--eed, thei# en(i# nment, * th h,man As -iet"B and nat,#a' is !ath ' giDed.
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The Brain eta*hors of the ind 3Part !4

By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

The *#ain Aand, *" im!'i-ati n, the mindB ha(e *een - m!a#ed t the 'atest te-hn ' gi-a' inn (ati n in e(e#" gene#ati n. The - m!,te# meta!h # is n . in ( g,e. C m!,te# ha#d.a#e meta!h #s .e#e #e!'a-ed *" s +t.a#e meta!h #s and, 'ate'", *" Ane,# na'B net. #k meta!h #s. :eta!h #s a#e n t - n+ined t the !hi' s !h" + ne,# ' g". )#-hite-ts and mathemati-ians, + # instan-e, ha(e 'ate'" - me ,! .ith the st#,-t,#a' - n-e!t + ?tenseg#it"? t e;!'ain the !hen men n + 'i+e. The tenden-" + h,mans t see !atte#ns and st#,-t,#es e(e#".he#e Ae(en .he#e the#e a#e n neB is .e'' d -,mented and !# *a*'" has its s,#(i(a' (a',e. )n the# t#end is t dis- ,nt these meta!h #s as e## ne ,s, i##e'e(ant, de-e!ti(e, and mis'eading. 7nde#standing the mind is a #e-,#si(e *,siness, #i+e .ith se'+-#e+e#en-e. The entities # !# -esses t .hi-h the *#ain is - m!a#ed a#e a's ?*#ain--hi'd#en?, the #es,'ts + ?*#ain-st #ming?, - n-ei(ed *" ?minds?. <hat is a - m!,te#, a s +t.a#e a!!'i-ati n, a - mm,ni-ati ns net. #k i+ n t a Amate#ia'B #e!#esentati n + -e#e*#a' e(ents@ ) ne-essa#" and s,++i-ient - nne-ti n s,#e'" e;ists *et.een man-made things, tangi*'e and intangi*'e, and h,man minds. E(en a gas !,m! has a ?mind-- ##e'ate?. It

is a's - n-ei(a*'e that #e!#esentati ns + the ?n nh,man? !a#ts + the 7ni(e#se e;ist in ,# minds, .hethe# a-!#i #i An t de#i(ing +# m e;!e#ien-eB # a-! ste#i #i Ade!endent ,! n e;!e#ien-eB. This ?- ##e'ati n?, ?em,'ati n?, ?sim,'ati n?, ?#e!#esentati n? Ain sh #t : -' se - nne-ti nB *et.een the ?e;-#eti ns?, ? ,t!,t?, ?s!in- ++s?, ?!# d,-ts? + the h,man mind and the h,man mind itse'+ - is a ke" t ,nde#standing it. This -'aim is an instan-e + a m,-h *# ade# -ateg #" + -'aims: that .e -an 'ea#n a* ,t the a#tist *" his a#t, a* ,t a -#eat # *" his -#eati n, and gene#a''": a* ,t the #igin *" an" + the de#i(ati(es, inhe#it #s, s,--ess #s, !# d,-ts and simi'es the#e +. This gene#a' - ntenti n is es!e-ia''" st# ng .hen the #igin and the !# d,-t sha#e the same nat,#e. I+ the #igin is h,man A+athe#B and the !# d,-t is h,man A-hi'dB - the#e is an en #m ,s am ,nt + data that -an *e de#i(ed +# m the !# d,-t and sa+e'" a!!'ied t the #igin. The -' se# the #igin t the !# d,-t - the m #e .e -an 'ea#n a* ,t the #igin +# m the !# d,-t. <e ha(e said that kn .ing the !# d,-t - .e -an ,s,a''" kn . the #igin. The #eas n is that kn .'edge a* ,t !# d,-t ?- ''a!ses? the set + !# *a*i'ities and in-#eases ,# kn .'edge a* ,t the #igin. =et, the - n(e#se is n t a'.a"s t#,e. The same #igin -an gi(e #ise t man" t"!es + enti#e'" ,n#e'ated !# d,-ts. The#e a#e t man" +#ee (a#ia*'es he#e. The #igin e;ists as a ?.a(e +,n-ti n?: a se#ies + ! tentia'ities .ith atta-hed !# *a*i'ities, the ! tentia's *eing the ' gi-a''" and !h"si-a''" ! ssi*'e !# d,-ts. <hat -an .e 'ea#n a* ,t the #igin *" a -#,de !e#,sa' t the !# d,-t@ : st'" *se#(a*'e st#,-t,#a' and +,n-ti na'

t#aits and att#i*,tes. <e -ann t 'ea#n a thing a* ,t the ?t#,e nat,#e? + the #igin. <e -an n t kn . the ?t#,e nat,#e? + an"thing. This is the #ea'm + meta!h"si-s, n t + !h"si-s. Take P,ant,m :e-hani-s. It !# (ides an ast nishing'" a--,#ate des-#i!ti n + mi-# -!# -esses and + the 7ni(e#se .ith ,t sa"ing m,-h a* ,t thei# ?essen-e?. : de#n !h"si-s st#i(es t !# (ide - ##e-t !#edi-ti ns #athe# than t e;! ,nd ,! n this # that . #'d(ie.. It des-#i*es - it d es n t e;!'ain. <he#e inte#!#etati ns a#e ++e#ed Ae.g., the C !enhagen inte#!#etati n + P,ant,m :e-hani-sB the" in(a#ia*'" #,n int !hi' s !hi-a' snags. : de#n s-ien-e ,ses meta!h #s Ae.g., !a#ti-'es and .a(esB. :eta!h #s ha(e !# (en t *e ,se+,' s-ienti+it 's in the ?thinking s-ientistEs? kit. )s these meta!h #s de(e' !, the" t#a-e the de(e' !menta' !hases + the #igin. C nside# the s +t.a#e-mind meta!h #. The - m!,te# is a ?thinking ma-hine? Ah .e(e# 'imited, sim,'ated, #e-,#si(e and me-hani-a'B. Simi'a#'", the *#ain is a ?thinking ma-hine? Aadmitted'" m,-h m #e agi'e, (e#sati'e, n n-'inea#, ma"*e e(en >,a'itati(e'" di++e#entB. <hate(e# the dis!a#it" *et.een the t. , the" m,st *e #e'ated t ne an the#. This #e'ati n is *" (i#t,e + t. +a-ts: A1B 8 th the *#ain and the - m!,te# a#e ?thinking ma-hines? and A2B the 'atte# is the !# d,-t + the + #me#. Th,s, the - m!,te# meta!h # is an ,n,s,a''" tena*'e and ! tent ne. It is 'ike'" t *e +,#the# enhan-ed sh ,'d #gani- # >,ant,m - m!,te#s t#ans!i#e.

)t the da.n + - m!,ting, s +t.a#e a!!'i-ati ns .e#e a,th #ed se#ia''", in ma-hine 'ang,age and .ith st#i-t se!a#ati n + data A-a''ed: ?st#,-t,#es?B and inst#,-ti n - de A-a''ed: ?+,n-ti ns? # ?!# -ed,#es?B. The ma-hine 'ang,age #e+'e-ted the !h"si-a' .i#ing + the ha#d.a#e. This is akin t the de(e' !ment + the em*#" ni- *#ain AmindB. In the ea#'" 'i+e + the h,man em*#" , inst#,-ti ns ADN)B a#e a's ins,'ated +# m data Ai.e., +# m amin a-ids and the# 'i+e s,*stan-esB. In ea#'" - m!,ting, data*ases .e#e hand'ed n a ?'isting? *asis A?+'at +i'e?B, .e#e se#ia', and had n int#insi#e'ati nshi! t ne an the#. Ea#'" data*ases - nstit,ted a s #t + s,*st#ate, #ead" t *e a-ted ,! n. On'" .hen ?inte#mi;ed? in the - m!,te# Aas a s +t.a#e a!!'i-ati n .as #,nB .e#e +,n-ti ns a*'e t !e#ate n st#,-t,#es. This !hase .as + '' .ed *" the ?#e'ati na'? #ganiDati n + data Aa !#imiti(e e;am!'e + .hi-h is the s!#eadsheetB. Data items .e#e #e'ated t ea-h the# th# ,gh mathemati-a' + #m,'as. This is the e>,i(a'ent + the in-#easing - m!'e;it" + the .i#ing + the *#ain as !#egnan-" !# g#esses. The 'atest e( ',ti na#" !hase in !# g#amming is OOPS AO*%e-t O#iented P# g#amming S"stemsB. O*%e-ts a#e m d,'es .hi-h en- m!ass both data and inst#,-ti ns in se'+ - ntained ,nits. The ,se# - mm,ni-ates .ith the functions !e#+ #med *" these *%e-ts - *,t n t .ith thei# structure and internal *rocesses. P# g#amming *%e-ts, in the# . #ds, a#e ?*'a-k * ;es? Aan enginee#ing te#mB. The !# g#amme# is ,na*'e t te'' ho$ the *%e-t d es .hat it d es, # h . d es an e;te#na', ,se+,' +,n-ti n a#ise +# m inte#na', hidden +,n-ti ns #

st#,-t,#es. O*%e-ts a#e e!i!hen mena', eme#gent, !hase t#ansient. In sh #t: m,-h -' se# t #ea'it" as des-#i*ed *" m de#n !h"si-s. Th ,gh these *'a-k * ;es - mm,ni-ate - it is n t the - mm,ni-ati n, its s!eed, # e++i-a-" .hi-h dete#mine the (e#a'' e++i-ien-" + the s"stem. It is the hie#a#-hi-a' and at the same time +,DD" #ganiDati n + the *%e-ts .hi-h d es the t#i-k. O*%e-ts a#e #ganiDed in -'asses .hi-h de+ine thei# Aa-t,a'iDed and ! tentia'B !# !e#ties. The *%e-tEs *eha(i ,# A.hat it d es and .hat it #ea-ts t B is de+ined *" its mem*e#shi! + a -'ass + *%e-ts. : #e (e#, *%e-ts -an *e #ganiDed in ne. As,*B -'asses .hi'e inhe#iting a'' the de+initi ns and -ha#a-te#isti-s + the #igina' -'ass in additi n t ne. !# !e#ties. In a .a", these ne.'" eme#gent -'asses a#e the !# d,-ts .hi'e the -'asses the" a#e de#i(ed +# m a#e the #igin. This !# -ess s -' se'" #esem*'es nat,#a' - and es!e-ia''" *i ' gi-a' !hen mena that it 'ends additi na' + #-e t the s +t.a#e meta!h #. Th,s, -'asses -an *e ,sed as *,i'ding *' -ks. Thei# !e#m,tati ns de+ine the set + a'' s ',*'e !# *'ems. It -an *e !# (en that T,#ing :a-hines a#e a !#i(ate instan-e + a gene#a', m,-h st# nge#, -'ass the #" Aa-'a P#in-i!ia :athemati-aB. The integ#ati n + ha#d.a#e A- m!,te#, *#ainB and s +t.a#e A- m!,te# a!!'i-ati ns, mindB is d ne th# ,gh ?+#ame. #k a!!'i-ati ns? .hi-h mat-h the t. e'ements st#,-t,#a''" and +,n-ti na''". The e>,i(a'ent in the *#ain is s metimes -a''ed *" !hi' s !he#s and !s"-h ' gists ?a-!#i #i -ateg #ies?, # ?the - ''e-ti(e ,n- ns-i ,s?. C m!,te#s and thei# !# g#amming e( '(e. &e'ati na' data*ases -ann t *e integ#ated .ith *%e-t #iented nes,

+ # instan-e. T #,n 4a(a a!!'ets, a ?(i#t,a' ma-hine? needs t *e em*edded in the !e#ating s"stem. These !hases -' se'" #esem*'e the de(e' !ment + the *#ainmind - ,!'et. <hen is a meta!h # a g d meta!h #@ <hen it tea-hes ,s s mething ne. a* ,t the #igin. It m,st ! ssess s me st#,-t,#a' and +,n-ti na' #esem*'an-e. 8,t this >,antitati(e and *se#(ati na' +a-et is n t en ,gh. The#e is a's a >,a'itati(e ne: the meta!h # m,st *e inst#,-ti(e, #e(ea'ing, insight+,', aestheti-, and !a#sim ni ,s - in sh #t, it m,st - nstit,te a the #" and !# d,-e +a'si+ia*'e !#edi-ti ns. ) meta!h # is a's s,*%e-t t ' gi-a' and aestheti- #,'es and t the #ig #s + the s-ienti+i- meth d. I+ the s +t.a#e meta!h # is - ##e-t, the *#ain m,st - ntain the + '' .ing +eat,#es: 1. Pa#it" -he-ks th# ,gh *a-k !# !agati n + signa's. The *#ainEs e'e-t# -hemi-a' signa's m,st m (e *a-k At the #iginB and + #.a#d, sim,'tane ,s'", in #de# t esta*'ish a +eed*a-k !a#it" ' !. 2. The ne,# n -ann t *e a *ina#" At. stateB ma-hine Aa >,ant,m - m!,te# is m,'ti-stateB. It m,st ha(e man" 'e(e's + e;-itati n Ai.e., man" m des + #e!#esentati n + in+ #mati nB. The th#esh 'd A?a'' # n thing? +i#ingB h"! thesis m,st *e .# ng. F. &ed,ndan-" m,st *e *,i't int a'' the as!e-ts and dimensi ns + the *#ain and its a-ti(ities. &ed,ndant ha#d.a#e -di++e#ent -ente#s t !e#+ #m simi'a# tasks. &ed,ndant - mm,ni-ati ns -hanne's .ith the same in+ #mati n sim,'tane ,s'" t#ans+e##ed a-# ss them. &ed,ndant #et#ie(a' +

data and #ed,ndant ,sage + *tained data Ath# ,gh . #king, ?,!!e#? mem #"B. 4. The *asi- - n-e!t + the . #kings + the *#ain m,st *e the - m!a#is n + ?#e!#esentati na' e'ements? t ?m de's + the . #'d?. Th,s, a - he#ent !i-t,#e is *tained .hi-h "ie'ds !#edi-ti ns and a'' .s t mani!,'ate the en(i# nment e++e-ti(e'". :an" + the +,n-ti ns ta-k'ed *" the *#ain m,st *e #e-,#si(e. <e -an e;!e-t t +ind that .e -an #ed,-e a'' the a-ti(ities + the *#ain t - m!,tati na', me-hani-a''" s '(a*'e, #e-,#si(e +,n-ti ns. The *#ain -an *e #ega#ded as a T,#ing :a-hine and the d#eams + )#ti+i-ia' Inte''igen-e a#e 'ike'" - me t#,e. H. The *#ain m,st *e a 'ea#ning, se'+ #ganiDing, entit". The *#ainEs (e#" ha#d.a#e m,st disassem*'e, #eassem*'e, #e #ganiDe, #est#,-t,#e, #e# ,te, #e- nne-t, dis- nne-t, and, in gene#a', a'te# itse'+ in #es! nse t data. In m st man-made ma-hines, the data is e;te#na' t the !# -essing ,nit. It ente#s and e;its the ma-hine th# ,gh designated ! #ts *,t d es n t a++e-t the ma-hineEs st#,-t,#e # +,n-ti ning. N t s the *#ain. It #e- n+ig,#es itse'+ .ith e(e#" *it + data. One -an sa" that a ne. *#ain is -#eated e(e#" time a sing'e *it + in+ #mati n is !# -essed.
5.

On'" i+ these si; -,m,'ati(e #e>,i#ements a#e met - -an .e sa" that the s +t.a#e meta!h # is ,se+,'.
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eta*hors of the

ind 3Part !!4

Psychology and Psychothera*y By: Dr. Sam Vaknin


St #"te''ing has *een .ith ,s sin-e the da"s + -am!+i#e and *esieging .i'd anima's. It se#(ed a n,m*e# + im! #tant +,n-ti ns: ame'i #ati n + +ea#s, - mm,ni-ati n + (ita' in+ #mati n A#ega#ding s,#(i(a' ta-ti-s and the -ha#a-te#isti-s + anima's, + # instan-eB, the satis+a-ti n + a sense + #de# A%,sti-eB, the de(e' !ment + the a*i'it" t h"! thesiDe, !#edi-t and int# d,-e the #ies and s n. <e a#e a'' end .ed .ith a sense + . nde#. The . #'d a# ,nd ,s in ine;!'i-a*'e, *a++'ing in its di(e#sit" and m"#iad + #ms. <e e;!e#ien-e an ,#ge t #ganiDe it, t ?e;!'ain the . nde# a.a"?, t #de# it in #de# t kn . .hat t e;!e-t ne;t A!#edi-tB. These a#e the essentia's + s,#(i(a'. 8,t .hi'e .e ha(e *een s,--ess+,' at im! sing ,# mindEs st#,-t,#es n the ,tside . #'d / .e ha(e *een m,-h 'ess s,--ess+,' .hen .e t#ied t - !e .ith ,# inte#na' ,ni(e#se. The #e'ati nshi! *et.een the st#,-t,#e and +,n-ti ning + ,# Ae!heme#a'B mind, the st#,-t,#e and m des + !e#ati n + ,# A!h"si-a'B *#ain and the st#,-t,#e and - nd,-t + the ,tside . #'d ha(e *een the matte# + heated de*ate + # mi''ennia. 8# ad'" s!eaking, the#e .e#e Aand sti'' a#eB t. .a"s + t#eating it: The#e .e#e th se .h , + # a'' !#a-ti-a' !,#! ses, identi+ied the #igin A*#ainB .ith its !# d,-t AmindB. S me + them ! st,'ated the e;isten-e + a 'atti-e +

!#e- n-ei(ed, * #n -ateg #i-a' kn .'edge a* ,t the ,ni(e#se / the (esse's int .hi-h .e ! ,# ,# e;!e#ien-e and .hi-h m ,'d it. Othe#s ha(e #ega#ded the mind as a *'a-k * ;. <hi'e it .as ! ssi*'e in !#in-i!'e t kn . its in!,t and ,t!,t, it .as im! ssi*'e, again in !#in-i!'e, t ,nde#stand its inte#na' +,n-ti ning and management + in+ #mati n. Pa(' ( - ined the . #d ?- nditi ning?, <ats n ad !ted it and in(ented ?*eha(i ,#ism?, Skinne# -ame ,! .ith ?#ein+ #-ement?. The s-h ' + e!i!hen men ' gists Aeme#gent !hen menaB #ega#ded the mind as the *" !# d,-t + the *#ainEs ?ha#d.a#e? and ?.i#ing? - m!'e;it". 8,t a'' ign #ed the !s"-h !h"si-a' >,esti n: .hat IS the mind and 1O< is it 'inked t the *#ain@ The the# -am! .as m #e ?s-ienti+i-? and ?! siti(ist?. It s!e-,'ated that the mind A.hethe# a !h"si-a' entit", an e!i!hen men n, a n n-!h"si-a' !#in-i!'e + #ganiDati n, # the #es,'t + int# s!e-ti nB / had a st#,-t,#e and a 'imited set + +,n-ti ns. The" a#g,ed that a ?,se#Es man,a'? - ,'d *e - m! sed, #e!'ete .ith enginee#ing and maintenan-e inst#,-ti ns. The m st !# minent + these ?!s"-h d"namists? .as, + - ,#se, 9#e,d. Th ,gh his dis-i!'es A)d'e#, 1 #ne", the *%e-t-#e'ati ns ' tB di(e#ged .i'd'" +# m his initia' the #ies / the" a'' sha#ed his *e'ie+ in the need t ?s-ienti+"? and *%e-ti+" !s"-h ' g". 9#e,d / a medi-a' d -t # *" !# +essi n ANe,# ' gistB and 8'e,'e# *e+ #e him / -ame .ith a the #" #ega#ding the st#,-t,#e + the mind and its me-hani-s: As,!!#essedB ene#gies and A#ea-ti(eB + #-es. 9' . -ha#ts .e#e !# (ided t gethe# .ith a meth d + ana'"sis, a mathemati-a' !h"si-s + the mind. 8,t this .as a mi#age. )n essentia' !a#t .as missing: the a*i'it" t test the h"! theses, .hi-h de#i(ed +# m these ?the #ies?. The" .e#e a'' (e#" - n(in-ing, th ,gh, and,

s,#!#ising'", had g#eat e;!'anat #" ! .e#. 8,t - n n(e#i+ia*'e and n n-+a'si+ia*'e as the" .e#e / the" - ,'d n t *e deemed t ! ssess the #edeeming +eat,#es + a s-ienti+i- the #". De-iding *et.een the t. -am!s .as and is a -#,-ia' matte#. C nside# the -'ash - h .e(e# #e!#essed - *et.een !s"-hiat#" and !s"-h ' g". The + #me# #ega#ds ?menta' dis #de#s? as e,!hemisms - it a-kn .'edges n'" the #ea'it" + *#ain d"s+,n-ti ns As,-h as *i -hemi-a' # e'e-t#i- im*a'an-esB and + he#edita#" +a-t #s. The 'atte# A!s"-h ' g"B im!'i-it'" ass,mes that s mething e;ists Athe ?mind?, the ?!s"-he?B .hi-h -ann t *e #ed,-ed t ha#d.a#e # t .i#ing diag#ams. Ta'k the#a!" is aimed at that s mething and s,!! sed'" inte#a-ts .ith it. 8,t !e#ha!s the distin-ti n is a#ti+i-ia'. Pe#ha!s the mind is sim!'" the .a" .e e;!e#ien-e ,# *#ains. End .ed .ith the gi+t A # -,#seB + int# s!e-ti n, .e e;!e#ien-e a d,a'it", a s!'it, - nstant'" *eing * th *se#(e# and *se#(ed. : #e (e#, ta'k the#a!" in( '(es T)$6IN5 .hi-h is the t#ans+e# + ene#g" +# m ne *#ain t an the# th# ,gh the ai#. This is di#e-ted, s!e-i+i-a''" + #med ene#g", intended t t#igge# -e#tain -i#-,its in the #e-i!ient *#ain. It sh ,'d - me as n s,#!#ise i+ it .e#e t *e dis- (e#ed that ta'k the#a!" has -'ea# !h"si ' gi-a' e++e-ts ,! n the *#ain + the !atient A*' d ( ',me, e'e-t#i-a' a-ti(it", dis-ha#ge and a*s #!ti n + h #m nes, et-.B. )'' this . ,'d *e d ,*'" t#,e i+ the mind .as, indeed, n'" an eme#gent !hen men n + the - m!'e; *#ain - t. sides + the same - in. Ps"-h ' gi-a' the #ies + the mind a#e meta!h #s + the mind. The" a#e +a*'es and m"ths, na##ati(es, st #ies, h"! theses, - n%,n-t,#es. The" !'a" Ae;-eeding'"B

im! #tant # 'es in the !s"-h the#a!e,ti- setting / *,t n t in the 'a* #at #". Thei# + #m is a#tisti-, n t #ig # ,s, n t testa*'e, 'ess st#,-t,#ed than the #ies in the nat,#a' s-ien-es. The 'ang,age ,sed is ! '"(a'ent, #i-h, e++,si(e, and +,DD" / in sh #t, meta!h #i-a'. The" a#e s,++,sed .ith (a',e %,dgements, !#e+e#en-es, +ea#s, ! st +a-t and ad h - - nst#,-ti ns. N ne + this has meth d ' gi-a', s"stemati-, ana'"ti- and !#edi-ti(e me#its. Sti'', the the #ies in !s"-h ' g" a#e ! .e#+,' inst#,ments, admi#a*'e - nst#,-ts + the mind. )s s,-h, the" a#e * ,nd t satis+" s me needs. Thei# (e#" e;isten-e !# (es it. The attainment + !ea-e + mind is a need, .hi-h .as neg'e-ted *" :as' . in his +am ,s #enditi n. Pe !'e .i'' sa-#i+i-e mate#ia' .ea'th and .e'+a#e, .i'' + #g tem!tati ns, .i'' ign #e !! #t,nities, and .i'' !,t thei# 'i(es in dange# / %,st t #ea-h this *'iss + .h 'eness and - m!'eteness. The#e is, in the# . #ds, a !#e+e#en-e + inne# e>,i'i*#i,m (e# h me stasis. It is the +,'+i'ment + this (e##iding need that !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies set ,t t -ate# t . In this, the" a#e n di++e#ent than the# - ''e-ti(e na##ati(es Am"ths, + # instan-eB. In s me #es!e-ts, th ,gh, the#e a#e st#iking di++e#en-es: Ps"-h ' g" is des!e#ate'" t#"ing t 'ink ,! t #ea'it" and t s-ienti+i- dis-i!'ine *" em!' "ing *se#(ati n and meas,#ement and *" #ganiDing the #es,'ts and !#esenting them ,sing the 'ang,age + mathemati-s. This d es n t at ne + # its !#im #dia' sin: that its s,*%e-t matte# is ethe#ea' and ina--essi*'e. Sti'', it 'ends an ai# + -#edi*i'it" and #ig # ,sness t it. The se- nd di++e#en-e is that .hi'e hist #i-a' na##ati(es a#e ?*'anket? na##ati(es / !s"-h ' g" is ?tai' #ed?,

?-,st miDed?. ) ,ni>,e na##ati(e is in(ented + # e(e#" 'istene# A!atient, -'ientB and he is in- #! #ated in it as the main he# A # anti-he# B. This +'e;i*'e ?!# d,-ti n 'ine? seems t *e the #es,'t + an age + in-#easing indi(id,a'ism. T#,e, the ?'ang,age ,nits? A'a#ge -h,nks + den tates and - nn tatesB a#e ne and the same + # e(e#" ?,se#?. In !s"-h ana'"sis, the the#a!ist is 'ike'" t a'.a"s em!' " the t#i!a#tite st#,-t,#e AId, Eg , S,!e#eg B. 8,t these a#e 'ang,age e'ements and need n t *e - n+,sed .ith the !' ts. Ea-h -'ient, ea-h !e#s n, and his .n, ,ni>,e, i##e!'i-a*'e, !' t. T >,a'i+" as a ?!s"-h ' gi-a'? !' t, it m,st *e:
a.

.ll-inclusi'e 3anamnetic4 / It m,st en- m!ass, integ#ate and in- #! #ate a'' the +a-ts kn .n a* ,t the !# tag nist. Coherent / It m,st *e -h# n ' gi-a', st#,-t,#ed and -a,sa'. Consistent / Se'+-- nsistent Aits s,*!' ts -ann t - nt#adi-t ne an the# # g against the g#ain + the main !' tB and - nsistent .ith the *se#(ed !hen mena A* th th se #e'ated t the !# tag nist and th se !e#taining t the #est + the ,ni(e#seB. +ogically com*atible / It m,st n t (i 'ate the 'a.s + ' gi- * th inte#na''" Athe !' t m,st a*ide *" s me inte#na''" im! sed ' gi-B and e;te#na''" Athe )#ist te'ian ' gi- .hi-h is a!!'i-a*'e t the *se#(a*'e . #'dB. !nsightful 3diagnostic4 / It m,st ins!i#e in the -'ient a sense + a.e and ast nishment .hi-h is the #es,'t + seeing s mething +ami'ia# in a ne.

b.

c.

d.

e.

'ight # the #es,'t + seeing a !atte#n eme#ging ,t + a *ig * d" + data. The insights m,st *e the ' gi-a' - n-',si n + the ' gi-, the 'ang,age and + the de(e' !ment + the !' t.
f.

.esthetic / The !' t m,st *e * th !'a,si*'e and ?#ight?, *ea,ti+,', n t -,m*e#s me, n t a.k.a#d, n t dis- ntin, ,s, sm th and s n. Parsimonious / The !' t m,st em!' " the minim,m n,m*e#s + ass,m!ti ns and entities in #de# t satis+" a'' the a* (e - nditi ns. 85*lanatory / The !' t m,st e;!'ain the *eha(i ,# + the# -ha#a-te#s in the !' t, the he# Es de-isi ns and *eha(i ,#, .h" e(ents de(e' !ed the .a" that the" did. Predicti'e 3*rognostic4 / The !' t m,st ! ssess the a*i'it" t !#edi-t +,t,#e e(ents, the +,t,#e *eha(i ,# + the he# and + the# meaning+,' +ig,#es and the inne# em ti na' and - gniti(e d"nami-s. Thera*eutic / <ith the ! .e# t ind,-e -hange A.hethe# it is + # the *ette#, is a matte# + - ntem! #a#" (a',e %,dgements and +ashi nsB. !m*osing / The !' t m,st *e #ega#ded *" the -'ient as the !#e+e#a*'e #ganiDing !#in-i!'e + his 'i+eEs e(ents and the t #-h t g,ide him in the da#kness t - me. 8lastic / The !' t m,st ! ssess the int#insia*i'ities t se'+ #ganiDe, #e #ganiDe, gi(e # m t eme#ging #de#, a-- mm date ne. data

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

- m+ #ta*'", a( id #igidit" in its m des + #ea-ti n t atta-ks +# m .ithin and +# m .ith ,t. In a'' these #es!e-ts, a !s"-h ' gi-a' !' t is a the #" in disg,ise. S-ienti+i- the #ies sh ,'d satis+" m st + the same - nditi ns. 8,t the e>,ati n is +'a.ed. The im! #tant e'ements + testa*i'it", (e#i+ia*i'it", #e+,ta*i'it", +a'si+ia*i'it", and #e!eata*i'it" / a#e a'' missing. N e;!e#iment - ,'d *e designed t test the statements .ithin the !' t, t esta*'ish thei# t#,th-(a',e and, th,s, t - n(e#t them t the #ems. The#e a#e + ,# #eas ns t a-- ,nt + # this sh #t- ming:
1.

8thical / E;!e#iments . ,'d ha(e t *e - nd,-ted, in( '(ing the he# and the# h,mans. T a-hie(e the ne-essa#" #es,'t, the s,*%e-ts .i'' ha(e t *e ign #ant + the #eas ns + # the e;!e#iments and thei# aims. S metimes e(en the (e#" !e#+ #man-e + an e;!e#iment .i'' ha(e t #emain a se-#et Ad ,*'e *'ind e;!e#imentsB. S me e;!e#iments ma" in( '(e ,n!'easant e;!e#ien-es. This is ethi-a''" ,na--e!ta*'e. The Psychological 2ncertainty Princi*le / The -,##ent ! siti n + a h,man s,*%e-t -an *e +,''" kn .n. 8,t * th t#eatment and e;!e#imentati n in+',en-e the s,*%e-t and ( id this kn .'edge. The (e#" !# -esses + meas,#ement and *se#(ati n in+',en-e the s,*%e-t and -hange him. 2ni,ueness / Ps"-h ' gi-a' e;!e#iments a#e, the#e+ #e, * ,nd t *e ,ni>,e, ,n#e!eata*'e, -ann t *e #e!'i-ated e'se.he#e and at the# times e(en i+ the" dea' .ith the S):E s,*%e-ts. The s,*%e-ts a#e ne(e# the same d,e t the

2.

3.

!s"-h ' gi-a' ,n-e#taint" !#in-i!'e. &e!eating the e;!e#iments .ith the# s,*%e-ts ad(e#se'" a++e-ts the s-ienti+i- (a',e + the #es,'ts.
4.

The undergeneration of testable hy*otheses / Ps"-h ' g" d es n t gene#ate a s,++i-ient n,m*e# + h"! theses, .hi-h -an *e s,*%e-ted t s-ienti+itesting. This has t d .ith the +a*,' ,s ACst #"te''ingB nat,#e + !s"-h ' g". In a .a", !s"-h ' g" has a++init" .ith s me !#i(ate 'ang,ages. It is a + #m + a#t and, as s,-h, is se'+s,++i-ient. I+ st#,-t,#a', inte#na' - nst#aints and #e>,i#ements a#e met / a statement is deemed t#,e e(en i+ it d es n t satis+" e;te#na' s-ienti+i#e>,i#ements.

S , .hat a#e !' ts g d + #@ The" a#e the inst#,ments ,sed in the !# -ed,#es, .hi-h ind,-e !ea-e + mind Ae(en ha!!inessB in the -'ient. This is d ne .ith the he'! + a +e. em*edded me-hanisms:
a.

The Organi9ing Princi*le / Ps"-h ' gi-a' !' ts ++e# the -'ient an #ganiDing !#in-i!'e, a sense + #de# and ens,ing %,sti-e, + an ine; #a*'e d#i(e t .a#d .e'' de+ined Ath ,gh, !e#ha!s, hiddenB g a's, the ,*i>,it" + meaning, *eing !a#t + a .h 'e. It st#i(es t ans.e# the ?.h"Qs? and ?h .Qs?. It is dia' gi-. The -'ient asks: ?.h" am I Ahe#e + '' .s a s"nd# meB?. Then, the !' t is s!,n: ?" , a#e 'ike this n t *e-a,se the . #'d is .himsi-a''" -#,e' *,t *e-a,se " ,# !a#ents mist#eated " , .hen " , .e#e (e#" " ,ng, # *e-a,se a !e#s n im! #tant t " , died, # .as taken a.a" +# m " , .hen " , .e#e sti'' im!#essi na*'e, # *e-a,se " , .e#e se;,a''" a*,sed and s n?. The -'ient is -a'med *" the

(e#" +a-t that the#e is an e;!'anati n t that .hi-h ,nti' n . m nst# ,s'" ta,nted and ha,nted him, that he is n t the !'a"thing + (i-i ,s 5 ds, that the#e is .h t *'ame A+ -,ssing di++,sed ange# is a (e#" im! #tant #es,'tB and, that, the#e+ #e, his *e'ie+ in #de#, %,sti-e and thei# administ#ati n *" s me s,!#eme, t#ans-endenta' !#in-i!'e is #est #ed. This sense + ?'a. and #de#? is +,#the# enhan-ed .hen the !' t "ie'ds !#edi-ti ns .hi-h - me t#,e Aeithe# *e-a,se the" a#e se'+-+,'+i''ing # *e-a,se s me #ea' ?'a.? has *een dis- (e#edB.
b.

The !ntegrati'e Princi*le / The -'ient is ++e#ed, th# ,gh the !' t, a--ess t the inne#m st, hithe#t ina--essi*'e, #e-esses + his mind. 1e +ee's that he is *eing #einteg#ated, that ?things +a'' int !'a-e?. In !s"-h d"nami- te#ms, the ene#g" is #e'eased t d !# d,-ti(e and ! siti(e . #k, #athe# than t ind,-e dist #ted and dest#,-ti(e + #-es. The Purgatory Princi*le / In m st -ases, the -'ient +ee's sin+,', de*ased, inh,man, de-#e!it, - ##,!ting, g,i't", !,nisha*'e, hate+,', a'ienated, st#ange, m -ked and s n. The !' t ++e#s him a*s ',ti n. $ike the high'" s"m* 'i- +ig,#e + the Sa(i ,# *e+ #e him / the -'ientEs s,++e#ings e;!,#gate, -'eanse, a*s '(e, and at ne + # his sins and handi-a!s. ) +ee'ing + ha#d . n a-hie(ement a-- m!anies a s,--ess+,' !' t. The -'ient sheds 'a"e#s + +,n-ti na', ada!ti(e -' thing. This is in #dinate'" !ain+,'. The -'ient +ee's dange# ,s'" naked, !#e-a#i ,s'" e;! sed. 1e then assimi'ates the !' t ++e#ed t him, th,s en% "ing the *ene+its emanating +# m the !#e(i ,s t. !#in-i!'es and n'" then d es he de(e' ! ne. me-hanisms + - !ing. The#a!" is a menta' -#,-i+i;i n and

c.

#es,##e-ti n and at nement + # the sins. It is high'" #e'igi ,s .ith the !' t in the # 'e + the s-#i!t,#es +# m .hi-h s 'a-e and - ns 'ati n -an *e a'.a"s g'eaned.
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!n Defense of Psychoanalysis
By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

!. !ntroduction N s -ia' the #" has *een m #e in+',entia' and, 'ate#, m #e #e(i'ed than !s"-h ana'"sis. It *,#st ,! n the s-ene + m de#n th ,ght, a +#esh *#eath + #e( ',ti na#" and da#ing imaginati n, a 1e#-,'ean +eat + m de'- nst#,-ti n, and a -ha''enge t esta*'ished m #a's and manne#s. It is n . .ide'" - nside#ed n thing *ette# than a - n+a*,'ati n, a *ase'ess na##ati(e, a sna!sh t + 9#e,dEs t #mented !s"-he and th.a#ted 1Gth -ent,#" :itte'e,# !a midd'e -'ass !#e%,di-es. : st + the -#iti-ism is h,#'ed *" menta' hea'th !# +essi na's and !#a-titi ne#s .ith 'a#ge a;es t g#ind. 9e., i+ an", the #ies in !s"-h ' g" a#e s,!! #ted *" m de#n *#ain #esea#-h. )'' the#a!ies and t#eatment m da'ities - in-',ding medi-ating neEs !atients - a#e sti'' + #ms + a#t and magi- #athe# than s-ienti+i- !#a-ti-es. The (e#" e;isten-e + menta' i''ness is in d ,*t - 'et a' ne .hat - nstit,tes ?hea'ing?. Ps"-h ana'"sis is in *ad - m!an" a'' a# ,nd. S me -#iti-ism is ++e#ed *" !#a-ti-ing s-ientists - main'" e;!e#imenta'ists - in the 'i+e and e;a-t A!h"si-a'B s-ien-es. S,-h diat#i*es +#e>,ent'" ++e# a sad g'im!se int the -#iti-sE .n ign #an-e. The" ha(e 'itt'e idea .hat makes a the #" s-ienti+i- and the" - n+,se mate#ia'ism .ith #ed,-ti nism # inst#,menta'ism and - ##e'ati n .ith -a,sati n.

9e. !h"si-ists, ne,# s-ientists, *i ' gists, and -hemists seem t ha(e !' .ed th# ,gh the #i-h 'ite#at,#e n the !s"-h !h"si-a' !# *'em. )s a #es,'t + this *'i(i ,sness, the" tend t !# ++e# !#imiti(e a#g,ments ' ng #ende#ed *s 'ete *" -ent,#ies + !hi' s !hi-a' de*ates. S-ien-e +#e>,ent'" dea's matte#- +-+a-t'" .ith the #eti-a' entities and - n-e!ts - >,a#ks and *'a-k h 'es s!#ing t mind - that ha(e ne(e# *een *se#(ed, meas,#ed, # >,anti+ied. These sh ,'d n t *e - n+,sed .ith - n-#ete entities. The" ha(e di++e#ent # 'es in the the #". =et, .hen the" m -k 9#e,dEs t#i'ate#a' m de' + the !s"-he Athe id, eg , and s,!e#eg B, his -#iti-s d %,st that - the" #e'ate t his the #eti-a' - nst#,-ts as th ,gh the" .e#e #ea', meas,#a*'e, ?things?. The medi-a'iDati n + menta' hea'th hasnEt he'!ed eithe#. Ce#tain menta' hea'th a++'i-ti ns a#e eithe# - ##e'ated .ith a statisti-a''" a*n #ma' *i -hemi-a' a-ti(it" in the *#ain / # a#e ame'i #ated .ith medi-ati n. =et the t. facts a#e n t ine',di*'" +a-ets + the same ,nde#'"ing !hen men n. In the# . #ds, that a gi(en medi-ine #ed,-es # a* 'ishes -e#tain s"m!t ms d es n t ne-essa#i'" mean the" .e#e caused *" the !# -esses # s,*stan-es a++e-ted *" the d#,g administe#ed. Ca,sati n is n'" ne + man" ! ssi*'e - nne-ti ns and -hains + e(ents. T designate a !atte#n + *eha(i # as a menta' hea'th dis #de# is a (a',e %,dgment, # at *est a statisti-a' *se#(ati n. S,-h designati n is e++e-ted #ega#d'ess + the +a-ts + *#ain s-ien-e. : #e (e#, - ##e'ati n is n t -a,sati n. De(iant *#ain # * d" *i -hemist#" A n-e -a''ed ?! '',ted anima' s!i#its?B d e;ist / *,t a#e the" t#,'" the # ts + menta' !e#(e#si n@ N # is it -'ea# .hi-h t#igge#s .hat: d the a*e##ant ne,# -hemist#" #

*i -hemist#" -a,se menta' i''ness / # the the# .a" a# ,nd@ That !s"-h a-ti(e medi-ati n a'te#s *eha(i # and m d is indis!,ta*'e. S d i''i-it and 'ega' d#,gs, -e#tain + ds, and a'' inte#!e#s na' inte#a-ti ns. That the -hanges *# ,ght a* ,t *" !#es-#i!ti n a#e desi#a*'e / is de*ata*'e and in( '(es ta,t ' gi-a' thinking. I+ a -e#tain !atte#n + *eha(i # is des-#i*ed as As -ia''"B ?d"s+,n-ti na'? # A!s"-h ' gi-a''"B ?si-k? / -'ea#'", e(e#" -hange . ,'d *e .e'- med as ?hea'ing? and e(e#" agent + t#ans+ #mati n . ,'d *e -a''ed a ?-,#e?. The same a!!'ies t the a''eged he#edit" + menta' i''ness. Sing'e genes # gene - m!'e;es a#e +#e>,ent'" ?ass -iated? .ith menta' hea'th diagn ses, !e#s na'it" t#aits, # *eha(i # !atte#ns. 8,t t 'itt'e is kn .n t esta*'ish i##e+,ta*'e se>,en-es + -a,ses-and-e++e-ts. E(en 'ess is !# (en a* ,t the inte#a-ti n + nat,#e and n,#t,#e, gen t"!e and !hen t"!e, the !'asti-it" + the *#ain and the !s"-h ' gi-a' im!a-t + t#a,ma, a*,se, ,!*#inging, # 'e m de's, !ee#s, and the# en(i# nmenta' e'ements. N # is the distin-ti n *et.een !s"-h t# !i- s,*stan-es and ta'k the#a!" that -'ea#--,t. < #ds and the inte#a-ti n .ith the the#a!ist a's a++e-t the *#ain, its !# -esses and -hemist#" - a'*eit m #e s' .'" and, !e#ha!s, m #e !# + ,nd'" and i##e(e#si*'". :edi-ines / as Da(id 6aise# #eminds ,s in ".gainst Biologic Psychiatry" APs"-hiat#iTimes, V ',me OIII, Iss,e 12, De-em*e# 1GGHB / t#eat s"m!t ms, n t the ,nde#'"ing !# -esses that "ie'd them. S , .hat is menta' i''ness, the s,*%e-t matte# + Ps"-h ana'"sis@

S me ne is - nside#ed menta''" ?i''? i+: 1. 1is - nd,-t #igid'" and - nsistent'" de(iates +# m the t"!i-a', a(e#age *eha(i # + a'' the# !e !'e in his -,'t,#e and s -iet" that +it his !# +i'e A.hethe# this - n(enti na' *eha(i # is m #a' # #ati na' is immate#ia'B, # 2. 1is %,dgment and g#as! + *%e-ti(e, !h"si-a' #ea'it" is im!ai#ed, and F. 1is - nd,-t is n t a matte# + -h i-e *,t is innate and i##esisti*'e, and 4. 1is *eha(i # -a,ses him # the#s dis- m+ #t, and is I. D"s+,n-ti na', se'+-de+eating, and se'+-dest#,-ti(e e(en *" his .n "a#dsti-ks. Des-#i!ti(e -#ite#ia aside, .hat is the essence + menta' dis #de#s@ )#e the" me#e'" !h"si ' gi-a' dis #de#s + the *#ain, #, m #e !#e-ise'" + its -hemist#"@ I+ s , -an the" *e -,#ed *" #est #ing the *a'an-e + s,*stan-es and se-#eti ns in that m"ste#i ,s #gan@ )nd, n-e e>,i'i*#i,m is #einstated / is the i''ness ?g ne? # is it sti'' ',#king the#e, ?,nde# .#a!s?, .aiting t e#,!t@ )#e !s"-hiat#i- !# *'ems inhe#ited, # ted in +a,'t" genes Ath ,gh am!'i+ied *" en(i# nmenta' +a-t #sB / # *# ,ght n *" a*,si(e # .# ng n,#t,#an-e@ These >,esti ns a#e the d main + the ?medi-a'? s-h menta' hea'th. ' +

Othe#s -'ing t the s!i#it,a' (ie. + the h,man !s"-he. The" *e'ie(e that menta' ai'ments am ,nt t the meta!h"si-a' dis- m! s,#e + an ,nkn .n medi,m / the s ,'. Thei#s is a h 'isti- a!!# a-h, taking in the !atient in his # he# enti#et", as .e'' as his mi'ie,.

The mem*e#s + the +,n-ti na' s-h ' #ega#d menta' hea'th dis #de#s as !e#t,#*ati ns in the !# !e#, statisti-a''" ?n #ma'?, *eha(i #s and mani+estati ns + ?hea'th"? indi(id,a's, # as d"s+,n-ti ns. The ?si-k? indi(id,a' / i'' at ease .ith himse'+ Aeg -d"st ni-B # making the#s ,nha!!" Ade(iantB / is ?mended? .hen #ende#ed +,n-ti na' again *" the !#e(ai'ing standa#ds + his s -ia' and -,'t,#a' +#ame + #e+e#en-e. In a .a", the th#ee s-h 's a#e akin t the t#i + *'ind men .h #ende# dis!a#ate des-#i!ti ns + the (e#" same e'e!hant. Sti'', the" sha#e n t n'" thei# s,*%e-t matte# / *,t, t a - ,nte# int,iti(e'" 'a#ge deg#ee, a +a,'t" meth d ' g". )s the #en .ned anti-!s"-hiat#ist, Th mas SDasD, + the State 7ni(e#sit" + Ne. = #k, n tes in his a#ti-'e "The +ying Truths of Psychiatry", menta' hea'th s-h 'a#s, #ega#d'ess + a-ademi- !#edi'e-ti n, in+e# the eti ' g" + menta' dis #de#s +# m the s,--ess # +ai',#e + t#eatment m da'ities. This + #m + ?#e(e#se enginee#ing? + s-ienti+i- m de's is n t ,nkn .n in the# +ie'ds + s-ien-e, n # is it ,na--e!ta*'e i+ the e;!e#iments meet the -#ite#ia + the s-ienti+i- meth d. The the #" m,st *e a''-in-',si(e Aanamneti-B, - nsistent, +a'si+ia*'e, ' gi-a''" - m!ati*'e, m n (a'ent, and !a#sim ni ,s. Ps"-h ' gi-a' ?the #ies? / e(en the ?medi-a'? nes Athe # 'e + se# t nin and d !amine in m d dis #de#s, + # instan-eB / a#e ,s,a''" n ne + these things. The ,t- me is a *e.i'de#ing a##a" + e(e#-shi+ting menta' hea'th ?diagn ses? e;!#ess'" -ent#ed a# ,nd <este#n -i(i'iDati n and its standa#ds Ae;am!'e: the ethi-a' *%e-ti n t s,i-ideB. Ne,# sis, a hist #i-a''"

+,ndamenta' ?- nditi n? (anished a+te# 1GJ0. 1 m se;,a'it", a-- #ding t the )me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i)ss -iati n, .as a !ath ' g" !#i # t 1GKF. Se(en "ea#s 'ate#, na#-issism .as de-'a#ed a ?!e#s na'it" dis #de#?, a'm st se(en de-ades a+te# it .as +i#st des-#i*ed *" 9#e,d. !!. The :e'olution of Psychoanalysis "The more ! became interested in *sychoanalysis% the more ! sa$ it as a road to the same kind of broad and dee* understanding of human nature that $riters *ossess." .nna ;reud T .a#ds the end + the 1Gth -ent,#", the ne. dis-i!'ine + !s"-h ' g" *e-ame ent#en-hed in * th E,# !e and )me#i-a. The st,d" + the h,man mind, hithe#t a !#ese#(e + !hi' s !he#s and the ' gians, *e-ame a 'egitimate s,*%e-t + s-ienti+i- As me . ,'d sa", !se,d s-ienti+i-B s-#,tin". The St#,-t,#a'ists - <i'he'm <,ndt and Ed.a#d 8#ad+ #d Tit-hene# - em*a#ked n a +ashi na*'e sea#-h + # the ?at ms? + - ns-i ,sness: !h"si-a' sensati ns, a++e-ti ns # +ee'ings, and images Ain * th mem #ies and d#eamsB. 9,n-ti na'ists, headed *" <i''iam 4ames and, 'ate#, 4ames )nge'' and 4 hn De.e" - de#ided the idea + a ?!,#e?, e'ementa' sensati n. The" int# d,-ed the - n-e!t + menta' ass -iati n. E;!e#ien-e ,ses ass -iati ns t a'te# the ne#( ,s s"stem, the" h"! thesiDed. 9#e,d #e( ',ti niDed the +ie'd Ath ,gh, at +i#st, his #e!,tati n .as 'imited t the 5e#man-s!eaking !a#ts + the d"ing 1a*s*,#g Em!i#eB. 1e dis!ensed .ith the ,nita#" nat,#e + the !s"-he and !# ! sed instead a

t#i-h t m", a t#i!a#tite # t#i'ate#a' m de' Athe id, eg , and s,!e#eg B. 1e s,ggested that ,# nat,#a' state is - n+'i-t, that an;iet" and tensi n a#e m #e !#e(a'ent than ha#m n". E>,i'i*#i,m A- m!# mise + #mati nB is a-hie(ed *" - nstant'" in(esting menta' ene#g". 1en-e ?!s"-h d"nami-s?. : st + ,# e;isten-e is ,n- ns-i ,s, 9#e,d the #iDed. The - ns-i ,s is *,t the ti! + an e(e#-in-#easing i-e*e#g. 1e int# d,-ed the - n-e!ts + 'i*id and Thanat s Athe 'i+e and death + #-esB, instin-ts AT#ie*e, # ?d#i(es?, in 5e#manB # d#i(es, the s mati--e# t geni- !hases + !s"-hi- A!e#s na'it"B de(e' !ment, t#a,ma and +i;ati n, mani+est and 'atent - ntent Ain d#eamsB. E(en his inte''e-t,a' ad(e#sa#ies ,sed this ( -a*,'a#", +ten in+,sed .ith ne. meanings. The !s"-h the#a!" he in(ented, *ased n his insights, .as 'ess + #mida*'e. :an" + its tenets and !# -ed,#es ha(e *een dis-a#ded ea#'" n, e(en *" its .n !# ! nents and !#a-titi ne#s. The #,'e + a*stinen-e Athe the#a!ist as a *'ank and hidden s-#een ,! n .hi-h the !atient !# %e-ts # t#ans+e#s his #e!#essed em ti nsB, +#ee ass -iati n as the e;-',si(e te-hni>,e ,sed t gain a--ess t and ,n' -k the ,n- ns-i ,s, d#eam inte#!#etati n .ith the mandat #" 'atent and + #*idden - ntent s"m* 'i-a''" t#ans+ #med int the mani+est - ha(e a'' 'ite#a''" (anished .ithin the +i#st de-ades + !#a-ti-e. Othe# ! st,'ates - m st n ta*'" t#ans+e#en-e and - ,nte#t#ans+e#en-e, am*i(a'en-e, #esistan-e, #eg#essi n, an;iet", and - n(e#si n s"m!t ms - ha(e s,#(i(ed t *e- me - #ne#st nes + m de#n the#a!e,ti- m da'ities, .hate(e# thei# #igin. S did, in (a#i ,s disg,ises, the idea that the#e is a -'ea# !ath 'eading +# m ,n- ns-i ,s A # - ns-i ,sB - n+'i-t t signa' an;iet", t #e!#essi n, and t

s"m!t m + #mati n A*e it ne,# ses, # ted in -,##ent de!#i(ati n, # !s"-h ne,# ses, the ,t- mes + -hi'dh d - n+'i-tsB. The e;isten-e + an;iet"-!#e(enting de+ense me-hanisms is a's .ide'" a--e!ted. 9#e,dEs initia' *sessi n .ith se; as the s 'e d#i(e# + !s"-hi- e;-hange and e( ',ti n has ea#ned him de#isi n and diat#i*e a!'ent". C'ea#'", a -hi'd + the #e!#essed se;,a'it" + Vi-t #ian times and the Viennese midd'e-'ass, he .as +as-inated .ith !e#(e#si ns and +antasies. The Oedi!,s and E'e-t#a - m!'e;es a#e #e+'e-ti ns + these +i;ati ns. 8,t thei# #igin in 9#e,dEs .n !s"-h !ath ' gies d es n t #ende# them 'ess #e( ',ti na#". E(en a -ent,#" 'ate#, -hi'd se;,a'it" and in-est +antasies a#e m #e # 'ess ta* t !i-s + se#i ,s st,d" and dis-,ssi n. E#nst 6#is said in 1G4K that Ps"-h ana'"sis is: "...3<4othing but human beha'ior considered from the stand*oint of conflict. !t is the *icture of the mind di'ided against itself $ith attendant an5iety and other dys*horic effects% $ith ada*ti'e and malada*ti'e defensi'e and co*ing strategies% and $ith sym*tomatic beha'iors $hen the defense fail." 8,t Ps"-h ana'"sis is m #e than a the #" + the mind. It is a's a the #" + the * d" and + the !e#s na'it" and + s -iet". It is a S -ia' S-ien-es The #" + E(e#"thing. It is a * 'd - and high'" 'ite#ate - attem!t t ta-k'e the !s"-h !h"si-a' !# *'em and the Ca#tesian * d" (e#s,s mind - n,nd#,m. 9#e,d himse'+ n ted that the ,n- ns-i ,s has * th !h"si ' gi-a' Ainstin-tB and menta' Ad#i(eB as!e-ts. 1e .# te:

"3The unconscious is4 a conce*t on the frontier bet$een the mental and the somatic% as the *hysical re*resentati'e of the stimuli originating from $ithin the organism and reaching the mind" 3Standard 8dition Volume =!V4. Ps"-h ana'"sis is, in man" .a"s, the a!!'i-ati n + Da#.inEs the #" + e( ',ti n in !s"-h ' g" and s -i ' g". S,#(i(a' is t#ans+ #med int na#-issism and the #e!# d,-ti(e instin-ts ass,me the ga#* + the 9#e,dian se; d#i(e. 8,t 9#e,d .ent a da#ing ste! + #.a#d *" s,ggesting that s -ia' st#,-t,#es and st#i-t,#es Ainte#na'iDed as the s,!e#eg B a#e - n-e#ned main'" .ith the #e!#essi n and #edi#e-ti n + nat,#a' instin-ts. Signs and s"m* 's #e!'a-e #ea'it" and a'' manne# + s,*stit,tes As,-h as m ne"B stand in + # !#ima#" *%e-ts in ,# ea#'" + #mati(e "ea#s. T e;!e#ien-e ,# t#,e se'(es and t +,'+i'' ,# .ishes, .e #es #t t Phantasies Ae.g., d#eams, ?s-#een mem #ies?B .he#e image#" and i##ati na' na##ati(es - dis!'a-ed, - ndensed, #ende#ed (is,a''", #e(ised t !# d,-e - he#en-e, and -ens #ed t !# te-t ,s +# m s'ee! dist,#*an-es - #e!#esent ,# s,!!#essed desi#es. C,##ent ne,# s-ien-e tends t #e+,te this ?d#eam. #k? - n%e-t,#e *,t its (a',e is n t t *e + ,nd in its (e#a-it" A # 'a-k the#e +B. These m,sings a* ,t d#eams, s'i!s + t ng,e, + #get+,'ness, the !s"-h !ath ' g" + e(e#"da" 'i+e, and ass -iati ns .e#e im! #tant *e-a,se the" .e#e the +i#st attem!t at de- nst#,-ti n, the +i#st in-de!th insight int h,man a-ti(ities s,-h as a#t, m"th-making, !# !aganda, ! 'iti-s, *,siness, and .a#+a#e, and the +i#st - he#ent e;!'anati n + the - n(e#gen-e + the aestheti- .ith the ?ethi-? Ai.e., the s -ia''" a--e!ta*'e and - nd nedB.

I# ni-a''", 9#e,dEs - nt#i*,ti ns t -,'t,#a' st,dies ma" +a# ,t'ast his ?s-ienti+i-? ?the #"? + the mind. It is i# ni- that 9#e,d, a medi-a' d -t # Ane,# ' gistB, the a,th # + a ?P# %e-t + # a S-ienti+i- Ps"-h ' g"?, sh ,'d *e s -hastised *" s-ientists in gene#a' and ne,# s-ientists in !a#ti-,'a#. Ps"-h ana'"sis ,sed t *e !#a-ti-ed n'" *" !s"-hiat#ists. 8,t .e 'i(e at an age .hen menta' dis #de#s a#e th ,ght t ha(e !h"si ' gi-a'--hemi-a'-geneti#igins. )'' !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and ta'k the#a!ies a#e dis!a#aged *" ?ha#d? s-ientists. Sti'', the !end,',m had s.,ng * th .a"s man" times *e+ #e. 1i!! -#ates as-#i*ed menta' a++'i-ti ns t a *a'an-e + * di'" h,m #s A*' d, !h'egm, "e'' . and *'a-k *i'eB that is ,t + ki't. S did 5a'en, 8a#th ' me,s )ng'i-,s, 4 han <e"e# A1I1I-JJB. Pa#a-e's,s A14G11I41B, and Th mas <i''is, .h att#i*,ted !s"-h ' gi-a' dis #de#s t a +,n-ti na' ?+a,'t + the *#ain?. The tide t,#ned .ith & *e#t 8,#t n .h .# te ?)nat m" + :e'an-h '"? and !,*'ished it in 1H21. 1e + #-e+,''" !# ! ,nded the the #" that !s"-hi- !# *'ems a#e the sad ,t- mes + ! (e#t", +ea#, and s 'it,de. ) -ent,#" 'ate#, 9#an-is 5a'' A1KIJ-1J2JB and S!,#Dheim A1KKH-1JF2B t#a-ed menta' dis #de#s t 'esi ns + s!e-i+ia#eas + the *#ain, the + #e#,nne# + the n .-dis-#edited dis-i!'ine + !h#en ' g". The ' gi-a' -hain .as sim!'e: the *#ain is the #gan + the mind, th,s, (a#i ,s +a-,'ties -an *e t#a-ed t its !a#ts. : #e', in 1J0G, !# ! sed a - m!# mise .hi-h has sin-e #,'ed the dis- ,#se. The !# !ensities + # !s"-h ' gi-a' d"s+,n-ti ns, he s,ggested, a#e inhe#ited *,t t#igge#ed *" ad(e#se en(i# nmenta' - nditi ns. ) $ama#-kist, he .as

- n(in-ed that a->,i#ed menta' i''nesses a#e handed d .n the gene#ati ns. Es>,i# ' - n-,##ed in 1J4I as did 1en#" :a,ds'e" in 1JKG and )d '+ :e"e# s n the#ea+te#. 1e#edit" !#edis! ses ne t s,++e# +# m !s"-hi- ma'aise *,t !s"-h ' gi-a' and ?m #a'? As -ia'B -a,ses !#e-i!itate it. )nd, "et, the de*ate .as and is +a# +# m (e#. <i'he'm 5#eisinge# !,*'ished ?The Path ' g" and The#a!" + :enta' Dis #de#s? in 1J4I. In it he t#a-ed thei# eti ' g" t ?ne,# !ath ' gies?, !h"si-a' dis #de#s + the *#ain. 1e a'' .ed + # he#edit" and the en(i# nment t !'a" thei# !a#ts, th ,gh. 1e .as a's the +i#st t ! int ,t the im! #tan-e + neEs e;!e#ien-es in neEs +i#st "ea#s + 'i+e. 4ean-:a#tin Cha#- t, a ne,# ' gist *" t#aining, -'aimed t ha(e -,#ed h"ste#ia .ith h"!n sis. 8,t des!ite this dem nst#ati n + n n-!h"si ' gi-a' inte#(enti n, he insisted that h"ste# id s"m!t ms .e#e mani+estati ns + *#ain d"s+,n-ti n. <ei# :it-he'' - ined the te#m ?ne,#asthenia? t des-#i*e an e;ha,sti n + the ne#( ,s s"stem Ade!#essi nB. Pie##e 4anet dis-,ssed the (a#iati ns in the st#ength + the ne#( ,s a-ti(it" and said that the" e;!'ained the na## .ing +ie'd + - ns-i ,sness A.hate(e# that meantB. N ne + these ?ne#( ,s? s!e-,'ati ns .as s,!! #ted *" s-ienti+i-, e;!e#imenta' e(iden-e. 8 th sides + the de*ate - n+ined themse'(es t !hi' s !hiDing and #,minating. 9#e,d .as a-t,a''" am ng the +i#st t *ase a the #" n a-t,a' -'ini-a' *se#(ati ns. 5#ad,a''", th ,gh, his . #k *,tt#essed *" the - n-e!t + s,*'imati n - *e-ame in-#easing'" meta!h"si-a'. Its - n-e!t,a' !i''a#s -ame t #esem*'e 8e#gs nEs R'an (ita' and S-h !enha,e#Es <i''. 9#en-h !hi' s !he# Pa,' &i- e,# -a''ed Ps"-h ana'"sis Ade!th !s"-h ' g"B ?the he#mene,ti-s + s,s!i-i n?.

III. The ;undamentals of Psychological Theories )'' the #ies - s-ienti+i- # n t - sta#t .ith a !# *'em. The" aim t s '(e it *" !# (ing that .hat a!!ea#s t *e ?!# *'emati-? is n t. The" #e-state the - n,nd#,m, # int# d,-e ne. data, ne. (a#ia*'es, a ne. -'assi+i-ati n, # ne. #ganiDing !#in-i!'es. The" in- #! #ate the !# *'em in a 'a#ge# * d" + kn .'edge, # in a - n%e-t,#e A?s ',ti n?B. The" e;!'ain .h" .e th ,ght .e had an iss,e n ,# hands - and h . it -an *e a( ided, (itiated, # #es '(ed. S-ienti+i- the #ies in(ite - nstant -#iti-ism and #e(isi n. The" "ie'd ne. !# *'ems. The" a#e !# (en e## ne ,s and a#e #e!'a-ed *" ne. m de's .hi-h ++e# *ette# e;!'anati ns and a m #e !# + ,nd sense + ,nde#standing - +ten *" s '(ing these ne. !# *'ems. 9# m time t time, the s,--ess # the #ies - nstit,te a *#eak .ith e(e#"thing kn .n and d ne ti'' then. These seismi- - n(,'si ns a#e kn .n as ?!a#adigm shi+ts?. C nt#a#" t .ides!#ead !ini n - e(en am ng s-ientists s-ien-e is n t n'" a* ,t ?+a-ts?. It is n t me#e'" a* ,t >,anti+"ing, meas,#ing, des-#i*ing, -'assi+"ing, and #ganiDing ?things? AentitiesB. It is n t e(en - n-e#ned .ith +inding ,t the ?t#,th?. S-ien-e is a* ,t !# (iding ,s .ith - n-e!ts, e;!'anati ns, and !#edi-ti ns A- ''e-ti(e'" kn .n as ?the #ies?B and th,s end .ing ,s .ith a sense + ,nde#standing + ,# . #'d. S-ienti+i- the #ies a#e a''eg #i-a' # meta!h #i-. The" #e( '(e a# ,nd s"m* 's and the #eti-a' - nst#,-ts, - n-e!ts and s,*stanti(e ass,m!ti ns, a;i ms and h"! theses - m st + .hi-h -an ne(e#, e(en in !#in-i!'e, *e - m!,ted, *se#(ed, >,anti+ied, meas,#ed, # - ##e'ated .ith the . #'d ? ,t the#e?. 8" a!!ea'ing t ,#

imaginati n, s-ienti+i- the #ies #e(ea' .hat Da(id De,ts-h -a''s ?the +a*#i- + #ea'it"?. $ike an" the# s"stem + kn .'edge, s-ien-e has its +anati-s, he#eti-s, and de(iants. Inst#,menta'ists, + # instan-e, insist that s-ienti+i- the #ies sh ,'d *e - n-e#ned e;-',si(e'" .ith !#edi-ting the ,t- mes + a!!# !#iate'" designed e;!e#iments. Thei# e;!'anat #" ! .e#s a#e + n - nse>,en-e. P siti(ists as-#i*e meaning n'" t statements that dea' .ith *se#(a*'es and *se#(ati ns. Inst#,menta'ists and ! siti(ists ign #e the +a-t that !#edi-ti ns a#e de#i(ed +# m m de's, na##ati(es, and #ganiDing !#in-i!'es. In sh #t: it is the the #"Es e;!'anat #" dimensi ns that dete#mine .hi-h e;!e#iments a#e #e'e(ant and .hi-h a#e n t. 9 #e-asts - and e;!e#iments - that a#e n t em*edded in an ,nde#standing + the . #'d Ain an e;!'anati nB d n t - nstit,te s-ien-e. 5#anted, !#edi-ti ns and e;!e#iments a#e -#,-ia' t the g# .th + s-ienti+i- kn .'edge and the .inn .ing ,t + e## ne ,s # inade>,ate the #ies. 8,t the" a#e n t the n'" me-hanisms + nat,#a' se'e-ti n. The#e a#e the# -#ite#ia that he'! ,s de-ide .hethe# t ad !t and !'a-e - n+iden-e in a s-ienti+i- the #" # n t. Is the the #" aesthetiA!a#sim ni ,sB, ' gi-a', d es it !# (ide a #eas na*'e e;!'anati n and, th,s, d es it +,#the# ,# ,nde#standing + the . #'d@ Da(id De,ts-h in ?The 9a*#i- + &ea'it"? A!. 11B: "... 3!4t is hard to gi'e a *recise definition of &e5*lanation& or &understanding&. :oughly s*eaking% they are about &$hy& rather than &$hat&> about the inner

$orkings of things> about ho$ things really are% not ?ust ho$ they a**ear to be> about $hat must be so% rather than $hat merely ha**ens to be so> about la$s of nature rather than rules of thumb. They are also about coherence% elegance% and sim*licity% as o**osed to arbitrariness and com*le5ity ..." &ed,-ti nists and eme#gentists ign #e the e;isten-e + a hie#a#-h" + s-ienti+i- the #ies and meta-'ang,ages. The" *e'ie(e - and it is an a#ti-'e + +aith, n t + s-ien-e - that - m!'e; !hen mena As,-h as the h,man mindB -an *e #ed,-ed t sim!'e nes As,-h as the !h"si-s and -hemist#" + the *#ainB. 9,#the#m #e, t them the a-t + #ed,-ti n is, in itse'+, an e;!'anati n and a + #m + !e#tinent ,nde#standing. 1,man th ,ght, +antas", imaginati n, and em ti ns are n thing *,t e'e-t#i- -,##ents and s!,#ts + -hemi-a's in the *#ain, the" sa". 1 'ists, n the the# hand, #e+,se t - nside# the ! ssi*i'it" that s me highe#-'e(e' !hen mena -an, indeed, *e +,''" #ed,-ed t *ase - m! nents and !#imiti(e inte#a-ti ns. The" ign #e the +a-t that #ed,-ti nism s metimes d es !# (ide e;!'anati ns and ,nde#standing. The !# !e#ties + .ate#, + # instan-e, d s!#ing + #th +# m its -hemi-a' and !h"si-a' - m! siti n and +# m the inte#a-ti ns *et.een its - nstit,ent at ms and s,*at mi!a#ti-'es. Sti'', the#e is a gene#a' ag#eement that s-ienti+i- the #ies m,st *e a*st#a-t Ainde!endent + s!e-i+i- time # !'a-eB, inte#s,*%e-ti(e'" e;!'i-it A- ntain detai'ed des-#i!ti ns + the s,*%e-t matte# in ,nam*ig, ,s te#msB, ' gi-a''" #ig # ,s Amake ,se + ' gi-a' s"stems sha#ed and a--e!ted *" the !#a-titi ne#s in the +ie'dB, em!i#i-a''" #e'e(ant A- ##es! nd t #es,'ts + em!i#i-a' #esea#-hB, ,se+,' Ain

des-#i*ing and3 # e;!'aining the . #'dB, and !# (ide t"! ' gies and !#edi-ti ns. ) s-ienti+i- the #" sh ,'d #es #t t !#imiti(e Aat mi-B te#min ' g" and a'' its - m!'e; Ade#i(edB te#ms and - n-e!ts sh ,'d *e de+ined in these indi(isi*'e te#ms. It sh ,'d ++e# a ma! ,ne>,i( -a''" and - nsistent'" - nne-ting !e#ati na' de+initi ns t the #eti-a' - n-e!ts. O!e#ati na' de+initi ns that - nne-t t the same the #eti-a' - n-e!t sh ,'d n t - nt#adi-t ea-h the# A*e negati(e'" - ##e'atedB. The" sh ,'d "ie'd ag#eement n meas,#ement - nd,-ted inde!endent'" *" t#ained e;!e#imente#s. 8,t in(estigati n + the the #" + its im!'i-ati n -an !# -eed e(en .ith ,t >,anti+i-ati n. The #eti-a' - n-e!ts need n t ne-essa#i'" *e meas,#a*'e # >,anti+ia*'e # *se#(a*'e. 8,t a s-ienti+i- the #" sh ,'d a++ #d at 'east + ,# 'e(e's + >,anti+i-ati n + its !e#ati na' and the #eti-a' de+initi ns + - n-e!ts: n mina' A'a*e'ingB, #dina' A#ankingB, inte#(a' and #ati . )s .e said, s-ienti+i- the #ies a#e n t - n+ined t >,anti+ied de+initi ns # t a -'assi+i-at #" a!!a#at,s. T >,a'i+" as s-ienti+i- the" m,st - ntain statements a* ,t #e'ati nshi!s Am st'" -a,sa'B *et.een - n-e!ts em!i#i-a''"-s,!! #ted 'a.s and3 # !# ! siti ns Astatements de#i(ed +# m a;i msB. Phi' s !he#s 'ike Ca#' 1em!e' and E#nest Nage' #ega#d a the #" as s-ienti+i- i+ it is h"! theti- -ded,-ti(e. T them, s-ienti+i- the #ies a#e sets + inte#-#e'ated 'a.s. <e kn . that the" a#e inte#-#e'ated *e-a,se a minim,m n,m*e# + a;i ms and h"! theses "ie'd, in an ine; #a*'e ded,-ti(e se>,en-e, e(e#"thing e'se kn .n in the +ie'd the the #" !e#tains t .

E;!'anati n is a* ,t #et# di-ti n - ,sing the 'a.s t sh . h . things ha!!ened. P#edi-ti n is ,sing the 'a.s t sh . h . things $ill ha!!en. 7nde#standing is e;!'anati n and !#edi-ti n - m*ined. <i''iam <he.e'' a,gmented this s me.hat sim!'isti! int + (ie. .ith his !#in-i!'e + ?- nsi'ien-e + ind,-ti ns?. O+ten, he *se#(ed, ind,-ti(e e;!'anati ns + dis!a#ate !hen mena a#e ,ne;!e-ted'" t#a-ed t ne ,nde#'"ing -a,se. This is .hat s-ienti+i- the #iDing is a* ,t - +inding the - mm n s ,#-e + the a!!a#ent'" se!a#ate. This mni! tent (ie. + the s-ienti+i- endea( # - m!etes .ith a m #e m dest, semanti- s-h ' + !hi' s !h" + s-ien-e. :an" the #ies - es!e-ia''" nes .ith *#eadth, .idth, and !# +,ndit", s,-h as Da#.inEs the #" + e( ',ti n - a#e n t ded,-ti(e'" integ#ated and a#e (e#" di++i-,'t t test A+a'si+"B - n-',si(e'". Thei# !#edi-ti ns a#e eithe# s-ant # am*ig, ,s. S-ienti+i- the #ies, g es the semanti- (ie., a#e ama'gams + m de's + #ea'it". These a#e em!i#i-a''" meaning+,' n'" inasm,-h as the" a#e em!i#i-a''" Adi#e-t'" and the#e+ #e semanti-a''"B a!!'i-a*'e t a 'imited a#ea. ) t"!i-a' s-ienti+i- the #" is n t - nst#,-ted .ith e;!'anat #" and !#edi-ti(e aims in mind. P,ite the !! site: the -h i-e + m de's in- #! #ated in it di-tates its ,'timate s,--ess in e;!'aining the 7ni(e#se and !#edi-ting the ,t- mes + e;!e#iments. )#e !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies s-ienti+i- the #ies *" an" de+initi n A!#es-#i!ti(e # des-#i!ti(eB@ 1a#d'".

9i#st, .e m,st disting,ish *et.een !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and the .a" that s me + them a#e a!!'ied A!s"-h the#a!" and !s"-h ' gi-a' !' tsB. Ps"-h ' gi-a' !' ts a#e the na##ati(es - -a,th #ed *" the the#a!ist and the !atient d,#ing !s"-h the#a!". These na##ati(es a#e the ,t- mes + a!!'"ing !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and m de's t the !atientEs s!e-i+i- -i#-,mstan-es. Ps"-h ' gi-a' !' ts am ,nt t st #"te''ing - *,t the" a#e sti'' instan-es + the !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies ,sed. The instan-es + the #eti-a' - n-e!ts in - n-#ete sit,ati ns + #m !a#t + e(e#" the #". )-t,a''", the n'" .a" t test !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies - .ith thei# dea#th + meas,#a*'e entities and - n-e!ts - is *" e;amining s,-h instan-es A!' tsB. St #"te''ing has *een .ith ,s sin-e the da"s + -am!+i#e and *esieging .i'd anima's. It se#(es a n,m*e# + im! #tant +,n-ti ns: ame'i #ati n + +ea#s, - mm,ni-ati n + (ita' in+ #mati n A#ega#ding s,#(i(a' ta-ti-s and the -ha#a-te#isti-s + anima's, + # instan-eB, the satis+a-ti n + a sense + #de# A!#edi-ta*i'it" and %,sti-eB, the de(e' !ment + the a*i'it" t h"! thesiDe, !#edi-t and int# d,-e ne. # additi na' the #ies and s n. <e a#e a'' end .ed .ith a sense + . nde#. The . #'d a# ,nd ,s in ine;!'i-a*'e, *a++'ing in its di(e#sit" and m"#iad + #ms. <e e;!e#ien-e an ,#ge t #ganiDe it, t ?e;!'ain the . nde# a.a"?, t #de# it s that .e kn . .hat t e;!e-t ne;t A!#edi-tB. These a#e the essentia's + s,#(i(a'. 8,t .hi'e .e ha(e *een s,--ess+,' at im! sing ,# mind n the ,tside . #'d / .e ha(e *een m,-h 'ess s,--ess+,' .hen .e t#ied t e;!'ain and - m!#ehend ,# inte#na' ,ni(e#se and ,# *eha(i #.

Ps"-h ' g" is n t an e;a-t s-ien-e, n # -an it e(e# *e. This is *e-a,se its ?#a. mate#ia'? Ah,mans and thei# *eha(i # as indi(id,a's and en masseB is n t e;a-t. It .i'' ne(e# "ie'd nat,#a' 'a.s # ,ni(e#sa' - nstants A'ike in !h"si-sB. E;!e#imentati n in the +ie'd is - nst#ained *" 'ega' and ethi-a' #,'es. 1,mans tend t *e !ini nated, de(e' ! #esistan-e, and *e- me se'+-- ns-i ,s .hen *se#(ed. The #e'ati nshi! *et.een the st#,-t,#e and +,n-ti ning + ,# Ae!heme#a'B mind, the st#,-t,#e and m des + !e#ati n + ,# A!h"si-a'B *#ain, and the st#,-t,#e and - nd,-t + the ,tside . #'d ha(e *een a matte# + # heated de*ate + # mi''ennia. 8# ad'" s!eaking, the#e a#e t. s-h 's + th ,ght:

One -am! identi+" the s,*st#ate A*#ainB .ith its !# d,-t AmindB. S me + these s-h 'a#s ! st,'ate the e;isten-e + a 'atti-e + !#e- n-ei(ed, * #n, -ateg #i-a' kn .'edge a* ,t the ,ni(e#se / the (esse's int .hi-h .e ! ,# ,# e;!e#ien-e and .hi-h m ,'d it. Othe#s .ithin this g# ,! #ega#d the mind as a *'a-k * ;. <hi'e it is ! ssi*'e in !#in-i!'e t kn . its in!,t and ,t!,t, it is im! ssi*'e, again in !#in-i!'e, t ,nde#stand its inte#na' +,n-ti ning and management + in+ #mati n. T des-#i*e this in!,t- ,t!,t me-hanism, Pa(' ( - ined the . #d ?- nditi ning?, <ats n ad !ted it and in(ented ?*eha(i #ism?, Skinne# -ame ,! .ith ?#ein+ #-ement?. E!i!hen men ' gists A!# ! nents + the #ies + eme#gent !hen menaB #ega#d the mind as the *"-!# d,-t + the - m!'e;it" + the *#ainEs ?ha#d.a#e? and ?.i#ing?. 8,t a'' + them ign #e the !s"-h !h"si-a' >,esti n: .hat !S the mind and 1O7 is it 'inked t the *#ain@

The the# -am! ass,mes the ai#s + ?s-ienti+i-? and ?! siti(ist? thinking. It s!e-,'ates that the mind A.hethe# a !h"si-a' entit", an e!i!hen men n, a n n-!h"si-a' !#in-i!'e + #ganiDati n, # the #es,'t + int# s!e-ti nB has a st#,-t,#e and a 'imited set + +,n-ti ns. It is a#g,ed that a ?mind .ne#Es man,a'? - ,'d *e - m! sed, #e!'ete .ith enginee#ing and maintenan-e inst#,-ti ns. It !# ++e#s a d"nami-s + the !s"-he. The m st !# minent + these ?!s"-h d"namists? .as, + - ,#se, 9#e,d. Th ,gh his dis-i!'es A)d'e#, 1 #ne", the *%e-t-#e'ati ns ' tB di(e#ged .i'd'" +# m his initia' the #ies, the" a'' sha#ed his *e'ie+ in the need t ?s-ienti+"? and *%e-ti+" !s"-h ' g". 9#e,d, a medi-a' d -t # *" !# +essi n Ane,# ' gistB !#e-eded *" an the# :.D., 4 se+ 8#e,e# / !,t + #th a the #" #ega#ding the st#,-t,#e + the mind and its me-hani-s: As,!!#essedB ene#gies and A#ea-ti(eB + #-es. 9' . -ha#ts .e#e !# (ided t gethe# .ith a meth d + ana'"sis, a mathemati-a' !h"si-s + the mind. :an" h 'd a'' !s"-h d"nami- the #ies t *e a mi#age. )n essentia' !a#t is missing, the" *se#(e: the a*i'it" t test the h"! theses, .hi-h de#i(e +# m these ?the #ies?. Th ,gh (e#" - n(in-ing and, s,#!#ising'", ! ssessed + g#eat e;!'anat #" ! .e#s, *eing n n-(e#i+ia*'e and n n+a'si+ia*'e as the" a#e / !s"-h d"nami- m de's + the mind -ann t *e deemed t ! ssess the #edeeming +eat,#es + s-ienti+i- the #ies. De-iding *et.een the t. -am!s .as and is a -#,-ia' matte#. C nside# the -'ash - h .e(e# #e!#essed - *et.een !s"-hiat#" and !s"-h ' g". The + #me# #ega#ds ?menta' dis #de#s? as e,!hemisms - it a-kn .'edges n'" the #ea'it" + *#ain d"s+,n-ti ns As,-h as *i -hemi-a' #

e'e-t#i- im*a'an-esB and + he#edita#" +a-t #s. The 'atte# A!s"-h ' g"B im!'i-it'" ass,mes that s mething e;ists Athe ?mind?, the ?!s"-he?B .hi-h -ann t *e #ed,-ed t ha#d.a#e # t .i#ing diag#ams. Ta'k the#a!" is aimed at that s mething and s,!! sed'" inte#a-ts .ith it. 8,t !e#ha!s the distin-ti n is a#ti+i-ia'. Pe#ha!s the mind is sim!'" the .a" .e e;!e#ien-e ,# *#ains. End .ed .ith the gi+t A # -,#seB + int# s!e-ti n, .e e;!e#ien-e a d,a'it", a s!'it, - nstant'" *eing * th *se#(e# and *se#(ed. : #e (e#, ta'k the#a!" in( '(es T.+@!<0 .hi-h is the t#ans+e# + ene#g" +# m ne *#ain t an the# th# ,gh the ai#. This is a di#e-ted, s!e-i+i-a''" + #med ene#g", intended t t#igge# -e#tain -i#-,its in the #e-i!ient *#ain. It sh ,'d - me as n s,#!#ise i+ it .e#e t *e dis- (e#ed that ta'k the#a!" has -'ea# !h"si ' gi-a' e++e-ts ,! n the *#ain + the !atient A*' d ( ',me, e'e-t#i-a' a-ti(it", dis-ha#ge and a*s #!ti n + h #m nes, et-.B. )'' this . ,'d *e d ,*'" t#,e i+ the mind .e#e, indeed, n'" an eme#gent !hen men n + the - m!'e; *#ain - t. sides + the same - in. Ps"-h ' gi-a' the #ies + the mind a#e meta!h #s + the mind. The" a#e +a*'es and m"ths, na##ati(es, st #ies, h"! theses, - n%,n-t,#es. The" !'a" Ae;-eeding'"B im! #tant # 'es in the !s"-h the#a!e,ti- setting / *,t n t in the 'a* #at #". Thei# + #m is a#tisti-, n t #ig # ,s, n t testa*'e, 'ess st#,-t,#ed than the #ies in the nat,#a' s-ien-es. The 'ang,age ,sed is ! '"(a'ent, #i-h, e++,si(e, am*ig, ,s, e( -ati(e, and +,DD" / in sh #t, meta!h #i-a'. These the #ies a#e s,++,sed .ith (a',e %,dgments, !#e+e#en-es, +ea#s, ! st +a-t and ad h - - nst#,-ti ns. N ne + this has meth d ' gi-a', s"stemati-, ana'"ti- and !#edi-ti(e me#its.

Sti'', the the #ies in !s"-h ' g" a#e ! .e#+,' inst#,ments, admi#a*'e - nst#,-ts, and the" satis+" im! #tant needs t e;!'ain and ,nde#stand ,#se'(es, ,# inte#a-ti ns .ith the#s, and .ith ,# en(i# nment. The attainment + !ea-e + mind is a need, .hi-h .as neg'e-ted *" :as' . in his +am ,s hie#a#-h". Pe !'e s metimes sa-#i+i-e mate#ia' .ea'th and .e'+a#e, #esist tem!tati ns, + #g !! #t,nities, and #isk thei# 'i(es / in #de# t se-,#e it. The#e is, in the# . #ds, a !#e+e#en-e + inne# e>,i'i*#i,m (e# h me stasis. It is the +,'+i''ment + this (e#.he'ming need that !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies -ate# t . In this, the" a#e n di++e#ent t the# - ''e-ti(e na##ati(es Am"ths, + # instan-eB. Sti'', !s"-h ' g" is des!e#ate'" t#"ing t maintain - nta-t .ith #ea'it" and t *e th ,ght + as a s-ienti+i- dis-i!'ine. It em!' "s *se#(ati n and meas,#ement and #ganiDes the #es,'ts, +ten !#esenting them in the 'ang,age + mathemati-s. In s me >,a#te#s, these !#a-ti-es 'ends it an ai# + -#edi*i'it" and #ig # ,sness. Othe#s snide'" #ega#d the as an e'a* #ate -am ,+'age and a sham. Ps"-h ' g", the" insist, is a !se,d -s-ien-e. It has the t#a!!ings + s-ien-e *,t n t its s,*stan-e. < #se sti'', .hi'e hist #i-a' na##ati(es a#e #igid and imm,ta*'e, the a!!'i-ati n + !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies Ain the + #m + !s"-h the#a!"B is ?tai' #ed? and ?-,st miDed? t the -i#-,mstan-es + ea-h and e(e#" !atient A-'ientB. The ,se# # - ns,me# is in- #! #ated in the #es,'ting na##ati(e as the main he# A # anti-he# B. This +'e;i*'e ?!# d,-ti n 'ine? seems t *e the #es,'t + an age + in-#easing indi(id,a'ism. T#,e, the ?'ang,age ,nits? A'a#ge -h,nks + den tates and - nn tatesB ,sed in !s"-h ' g" and !s"-h the#a!" a#e

ne and the same, #ega#d'ess + the identit" + the !atient and his the#a!ist. In !s"-h ana'"sis, the ana'"st is 'ike'" t a'.a"s em!' " the t#i!a#tite st#,-t,#e AId, Eg , S,!e#eg B. 8,t these a#e me#e'" the 'ang,age e'ements and need n t *e - n+,sed .ith the idi s"n-#ati- !' ts that a#e .ea(ed in e(e#" en- ,nte#. Ea-h -'ient, ea-h !e#s n, and his .n, ,ni>,e, i##e!'i-a*'e, !' t. T >,a'i+" as a ?!s"-h ' gi-a'? A* th meaning+,' and inst#,menta'B !' t, the na##ati(e, ++e#ed t the !atient *" the the#a!ist, m,st *e:
a.

.ll-inclusi'e 3anamnetic4 / It m,st en- m!ass, integ#ate and in- #! #ate a'' the +a-ts kn .n a* ,t the !# tag nist. Coherent / It m,st *e -h# n ' gi-a', st#,-t,#ed and -a,sa'. Consistent / Se'+-- nsistent Aits s,*!' ts -ann t - nt#adi-t ne an the# # g against the g#ain + the main !' tB and - nsistent .ith the *se#(ed !hen mena A* th th se #e'ated t the !# tag nist and th se !e#taining t the #est + the ,ni(e#seB. +ogically com*atible / It m,st n t (i 'ate the 'a.s + ' gi- * th inte#na''" Athe !' t m,st a*ide *" s me inte#na''" im! sed ' gi-B and e;te#na''" Athe )#ist te'ian ' gi- .hi-h is a!!'i-a*'e t the *se#(a*'e . #'dB. !nsightful 3diagnostic4 / It m,st ins!i#e in the -'ient a sense + a.e and ast nishment .hi-h is the #es,'t + seeing s mething +ami'ia# in a ne. 'ight # the #es,'t + seeing a !atte#n eme#ging ,t + a *ig * d" + data. The insights m,st - nstit,te

b.

c.

d.

e.

the ine(ita*'e - n-',si n + the ' gi-, the 'ang,age, and + the ,n+ 'ding + the !' t.
f.

.esthetic / The !' t m,st *e * th !'a,si*'e and ?#ight?, *ea,ti+,', n t -,m*e#s me, n t a.k.a#d, n t dis- ntin, ,s, sm th, !a#sim ni ,s, sim!'e, and s n. Parsimonious / The !' t m,st em!' " the minim,m n,m*e#s + ass,m!ti ns and entities in #de# t satis+" a'' the a* (e - nditi ns. 85*lanatory / The !' t m,st e;!'ain the *eha(i # + the# -ha#a-te#s in the !' t, the he# Es de-isi ns and *eha(i #, .h" e(ents de(e' !ed the .a" the" did. Predicti'e 3*rognostic4 / The !' t m,st ! ssess the a*i'it" t !#edi-t +,t,#e e(ents, the +,t,#e *eha(i # + the he# and + the# meaning+,' +ig,#es and the inne# em ti na' and - gniti(e d"nami-s. Thera*eutic / <ith the ! .e# t ind,-e -hange, en- ,#age +,n-ti na'it", make the !atient ha!!ie# and m #e - ntent .ith himse'+ Aeg -s"nt n"B, .ith the#s, and .ith his -i#-,mstan-es. !m*osing / The !' t m,st *e #ega#ded *" the -'ient as the !#e+e#a*'e #ganiDing !#in-i!'e + his 'i+eEs e(ents and a t #-h t g,ide him in the da#k A(ade me-,mB. 8lastic / The !' t m,st ! ssess the int#insia*i'ities t se'+ #ganiDe, #e #ganiDe, gi(e # m t eme#ging #de#, a-- mm date ne. data

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

- m+ #ta*'", and #ea-t +'e;i*'" t atta-ks +# m .ithin and +# m .ith ,t. In a'' these #es!e-ts, a !s"-h ' gi-a' !' t is a the #" in disg,ise. S-ienti+i- the #ies satis+" m st + the a* (e - nditi ns as .e''. 8,t this a!!a#ent identit" is +'a.ed. The im! #tant e'ements + testa*i'it", (e#i+ia*i'it", #e+,ta*i'it", +a'si+ia*i'it", and #e!eata*i'it" / a#e a'' 'a#ge'" missing +# m !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and !' ts. N e;!e#iment - ,'d *e designed t test the statements .ithin the !' t, t esta*'ish thei# t#,th-(a',e and, th,s, t - n(e#t them t the #ems # h"! theses in a the #". The#e a#e + ,# #eas ns t a-- ,nt + # this ina*i'it" t test and !# (e A # +a'si+"B !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies:
1.

8thical / E;!e#iments . ,'d ha(e t *e - nd,-ted, in( '(ing the !atient and the#s. T a-hie(e the ne-essa#" #es,'t, the s,*%e-ts .i'' ha(e t *e ign #ant + the #eas ns + # the e;!e#iments and thei# aims. S metimes e(en the (e#" !e#+ #man-e + an e;!e#iment .i'' ha(e t #emain a se-#et Ad ,*'e *'ind e;!e#imentsB. S me e;!e#iments ma" in( '(e ,n!'easant # e(en t#a,mati- e;!e#ien-es. This is ethi-a''" ,na--e!ta*'e. The Psychological 2ncertainty Princi*le / The initia' state + a h,man s,*%e-t in an e;!e#iment is ,s,a''" +,''" esta*'ished. 8,t * th t#eatment and e;!e#imentati n in+',en-e the s,*%e-t and #ende# this kn .'edge i##e'e(ant. The (e#" !# -esses + meas,#ement and *se#(ati n in+',en-e the h,man s,*%e-t and t#ans+ #m him # he# - as d 'i+eEs -i#-,mstan-es and (i-issit,des.

2.

3.

2ni,ueness / Ps"-h ' gi-a' e;!e#iments a#e, the#e+ #e, * ,nd t *e ,ni>,e, ,n#e!eata*'e, -ann t *e #e!'i-ated e'se.he#e and at the# times e(en .hen the" a#e - nd,-ted .ith the S. 8 s,*%e-ts. This is *e-a,se the s,*%e-ts a#e ne(e# the same d,e t the a+ #ementi ned !s"-h ' gi-a' ,n-e#taint" !#in-i!'e. &e!eating the e;!e#iments .ith the# s,*%e-ts ad(e#se'" a++e-ts the s-ienti+i(a',e + the #es,'ts. The undergeneration of testable hy*otheses / Ps"-h ' g" d es n t gene#ate a s,++i-ient n,m*e# + h"! theses, .hi-h -an *e s,*%e-ted t s-ienti+itesting. This has t d .ith the +a*,' ,s ACst #"te''ingB nat,#e + !s"-h ' g". In a .a", !s"-h ' g" has a++init" .ith s me !#i(ate 'ang,ages. It is a + #m + a#t and, as s,-h, is se'+s,++i-ient and se'+-- ntained. I+ st#,-t,#a', inte#na' - nst#aints a#e met / a statement is deemed t#,e e(en i+ it d es n t satis+" e;te#na' s-ienti+i#e>,i#ements.

4.

S , .hat a#e !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and !' ts g d + #@ The" a#e the inst#,ments ,sed in the !# -ed,#es .hi-h ind,-e !ea-e + mind Ae(en ha!!inessB in the -'ient. This is d ne .ith the he'! + a +e. em*edded me-hanisms: a. The Organi9ing Princi*le / Ps"-h ' gi-a' !' ts ++e# the -'ient an #ganiDing !#in-i!'e, a sense + #de#, meaning+,'ness, and %,sti-e, an ine; #a*'e d#i(e t .a#d .e'' de+ined Ath ,gh, !e#ha!s, hiddenB g a's, the +ee'ing + *eing !a#t + a .h 'e. The" st#i(e t ans.e# the ?.h"Qs? and ?h .Qs? + 'i+e. The" a#e dia' gi-. The -'ient asks: ?.h" am I As,++e#ing +# m a s"nd# meB and h . A-an I s,--ess+,''" ta-k'e itB?. Then, the !' t is s!,n:

?" , a#e 'ike this n t *e-a,se the . #'d is .himsi-a''" -#,e' *,t *e-a,se " ,# !a#ents mist#eated " , .hen " , .e#e (e#" " ,ng, # *e-a,se a !e#s n im! #tant t " , died, # .as taken a.a" +# m " , .hen " , .e#e sti'' im!#essi na*'e, # *e-a,se " , .e#e se;,a''" a*,sed and s n?. The -'ient is *e-a'med *" the (e#" +a-t that the#e is an e;!'anati n t that .hi-h ,nti' n . m nst# ,s'" ta,nted and ha,nted him, that he is n t the !'a"thing + (i-i ,s 5 ds, that the#e is a -,'!#it A+ -,sing his di++,se ange#B. 1is *e'ie+ in the e;isten-e + #de# and %,sti-e and thei# administ#ati n *" s me s,!#eme, t#ans-endenta' !#in-i!'e is #est #ed. This sense + ?'a. and #de#? is +,#the# enhan-ed .hen the !' t "ie'ds !#edi-ti ns .hi-h - me t#,e Aeithe# *e-a,se the" a#e se'+-+,'+i''ing # *e-a,se s me #ea', ,nde#'"ing ?'a.? has *een dis- (e#edB. b. The !ntegrati'e Princi*le / The -'ient is ++e#ed, th# ,gh the !' t, a--ess t the inne#m st, hithe#t ina--essi*'e, #e-esses + his mind. 1e +ee's that he is *eing #einteg#ated, that ?things +a'' int !'a-e?. In !s"-h d"nami- te#ms, the ene#g" is #e'eased t d !# d,-ti(e and ! siti(e . #k, #athe# than t ind,-e dist #ted and dest#,-ti(e + #-es. c. The Purgatory Princi*le / In m st -ases, the -'ient +ee's sin+,', de*ased, inh,man, de-#e!it, - ##,!ting, g,i't", !,nisha*'e, hate+,', a'ienated, st#ange, m -ked and s n. The !' t ++e#s him a*s ',ti n. The -'ientEs s,++e#ing e;!,#gates, -'eanses, a*s '(es, and at nes + # his sins and handi-a!s. ) +ee'ing + ha#d . n a-hie(ement a-- m!anies a s,--ess+,' !' t. The -'ient sheds 'a"e#s + +,n-ti na', ada!ti(e st#atagems #ende#ed

d"s+,n-ti na' and ma'ada!ti(e. This is in #dinate'" !ain+,'. The -'ient +ee's dange# ,s'" naked, !#e-a#i ,s'" e;! sed. 1e then assimi'ates the !' t ++e#ed t him, th,s en% "ing the *ene+its emanating +# m the !#e(i ,s t. !#in-i!'es and n'" then d es he de(e' ! ne. me-hanisms + - !ing. The#a!" is a menta' -#,-i+i;i n and #es,##e-ti n and at nement + # the !atientEs sins. It is a #e'igi ,s e;!e#ien-e. Ps"-h ' gi-a' the #ies and !' ts a#e in the # 'e + the s-#i!t,#es +# m .hi-h s 'a-e and - ns 'ati n -an *e a'.a"s g'eaned. IV. Criti,ue and Defense of Psychoanalysis -! am actually not a man of science at all. . . . ! am nothing but a con,uistador by tem*erament% an ad'enturer./ 3Sigmund ;reud% letter to ;leiss% ABCC4 "!f you bring forth that $hich is in you% that $hich you bring forth $ill be your sal'ation". 3The 0os*el of Thomas4 "<o% our science is no illusion. But an illusion it $ould be to su**ose that $hat science cannot gi'e us $e cannot get else$here." 3Sigmund ;reud% "The ;uture of an !llusion"4 1a# 'd 8' m -a''ed 9#e,d ?The -ent#a' imaginati n + ,# age?. That !s"-h ana'"sis is n t a s-ienti+i- the #" in the st#i-t, #ig # ,s sense + the . #d has ' ng *een

esta*'ished. =et, m st -#iti-isms + 9#e,dEs . #k A*" the 'ikes + 6a#' P !!e#, )d '+ 5#,n*a,m, 1a(e' -k E''is, :a'- 'm :a-mi''an, and 9#ede#i-k C#e.sB !e#tain t his ' ng-de*,nked - s-ienti+i- !#etensi ns. T da" it is .ide'" a--e!ted that !s"-h ana'"sis - th ,gh s me + its tenets a#e testa*'e and, indeed, ha(e *een e;!e#imenta''" tested and in(a#ia*'" + ,nd t *e +a'se # ,n- ## * #ated - is a s"stem + ideas. It is a -,'t,#a' - nst#,-t, and a As,ggestedB de- nst#,-ti n + the h,man mind. Des!ite as!i#ati ns t the - nt#a#", !s"-h ana'"sis is n t - and ne(e# has *een - a (a',e-ne,t#a' !h"si-s # d"nami-s + the !s"-he. 9#e,d a's stands a--,sed + gene#a'iDing his .n !e#(e#si ns and + #einte#!#eting his !atientsE a-- ,nts + thei# mem #ies t +it his !#e- n-ei(ed n ti ns + the ,n- ns-i ,s . The !#a-ti-e + !s"-h ana'"sis as a the#a!" has *een -astigated as a -#,de + #m + *#ain.ashing .ithin -,'t-'ike settings. 9eminists -#iti-iDe 9#e,d + # -asting . men in the # 'e + ?de+e-ti(e? Anat,#a''" -ast#ated and in+e#i #B men. S-h 'a#s + -,'t,#e e;! se the Vi-t #ian and midd'e--'ass # ts + his the #ies a* ,t s,!!#essed se;,a'it". 1ist #ians de#ide and de-#" his sti+'ing a,th #ita#ianism and +#e>,ent and e;!edient - n-e!t,a' #e(e#sa's. 9#e,d himse'+ . ,'d ha(e att#i*,ted man" + these diat#i*es t the de+ense me-hanisms + his -#iti-s. P# %e-ti n, #esistan-e, and dis!'a-ement d seem t *e !'a"ing a !# minent # 'e. Ps"-h ' gists a#e ta,nted *" the 'a-k + #ig # + thei# !# +essi n, *" its 'ite#a#" and a#tisti>,a'ities, *" the dea#th + em!i#i-a' s,!! #t + # its asse#ti ns and +,ndaments, *" the am*ig,it" + its te#min ' g" and nt ' g", *" the de#isi n + ?!# !e#?

s-ientists in the ?ha#d? dis-i!'ines, and *" the 'imitati ns im! sed *" thei# e;!e#imenta' s,*%e-ts Ah,mansB. These a#e !#e-ise'" the sh #t- mings that the" att#i*,te t !s"-h ana'"sis. Indeed, !s"-h ' gi-a' na##ati(es - !s"-h ana'"sis +i#st and + #em st - a#e n t ?s-ienti+i- the #ies? *" an" st#et-h + this m,-h-*andied 'a*e'. The" a#e a's ,n'ike'" t e(e# *e- me nes. Instead - 'ike m"ths, #e'igi ns, and ide ' gies - the" a#e #ganiDing !#in-i!'es. Ps"-h ' gi-a' ?the #ies? d n t e;!'ain the . #'d. )t *est, the" des-#i*e #ea'it" and gi(e it ?t#,e?, em ti na''"#es nant, he,#isti- and he#mene,ti- meaning. The" a#e 'ess - n-e#ned .ith !#edi-ti(e +eats than .ith ?hea'ing? the #est #ati n + ha#m n" am ng !e !'e and inside them. The#a!ies - the !#a-ti-a' a!!'i-ati ns + !s"-h ' gi-a' ?the #ies? - a#e m #e - n-e#ned .ith +,n-ti n, #de#, + #m, and #it,a' than .ith essen-e and #e!'i-a*'e !e#+ #man-e. The inte#a-ti n *et.een !atient and the#a!ist is a mi-# - sm + s -iet", an en-a!s,'ati n and #ei+i-ati n + a'' the# + #ms + s -ia' inte#- ,#se. 5#anted, it is m #e st#,-t,#ed and #e'ies n a * d" + kn .'edge g'eaned +# m mi''i ns + simi'a# en- ,nte#s. Sti'', the the#a!e,ti- !# -ess is n thing m #e than an insight+,' and in+ #med dia' g .h se ,se+,'ness is .e''attested t . 8 th !s"-h ' gi-a' and s-ienti+i- the #ies a#e -#eat,#es + thei# times, -hi'd#en + the -i(i'iDati ns and s -ieties in .hi-h the" .e#e - n-ei(ed, - nte;t-de!endent and -,'t,#e-* ,nd. )s s,-h, thei# (a'idit" and ' nge(it" a#e a'.a"s s,s!e-t. 8 th ha#d-edged s-ientists and thinke#s in the ?s +te#? dis-i!'ines a#e in+',en-ed *" - ntem! #a#" (a',es, m #es, e(ents, and inte#!e''ati ns.

The di++e#en-e *et.een ?!# !e#? the #ies + d"nami-s and !s"-h d"nami- the #ies is that the + #me# as"m!t ti-a''" as!i#e t an *%e-ti(e ?t#,th? ? ,t the#e? - .hi'e the 'atte# eme#ge and emanate +# m a ke#ne' + inne#, int# s!e-ti(e, t#,th that is immediate'" +ami'ia# and is the *ed# -k + thei# s!e-,'ati ns. S-ienti+i- the #ies - as !! sed t !s"-h ' gi-a' ?the #ies? - need, the#e+ #e, t *e tested, +a'si+ied, and m di+ied *e-a,se thei# t#,th is n t se'+- ntained. Sti'', !s"-h ana'"sis .as, .hen e'a* #ated, a 6,hnian !a#adigm shi+t. It *# ke .ith the !ast - m!'ete'" and d#amati-a''". It gene#ated an in #dinate am ,nt + ne., ,ns '(ed, !# *'ems. It s,ggested ne. meth d ' gi-a' !# -ed,#es + # gathe#ing em!i#i-a' e(iden-e A#esea#-h st#ategiesB. It .as *ased n *se#(ati ns Ah .e(e# s-ant and *iasedB. In the# . #ds, it .as e;!e#imenta' in nat,#e, n t me#e'" the #eti-a'. It !# (ided a +#ame. #k + #e+e#en-e, a - n-e!t,a' s!he#e .ithin .hi-h ne. ideas de(e' !ed. That it +ai'ed t gene#ate a .ea'th + testa*'e h"! theses and t a-- ,nt + # dis- (e#ies in ne,# ' g" d es n t det#a-t +# m its im! #tan-e. 8 th #e'ati(it" the #ies .e#e and, t da", st#ing the #ies a#e, in e;a-t'" the same ! siti n in #e'ati n t thei# s,*%e-t matte#, !h"si-s. In 1GHF, 6a#' 4as!e#s made an im! #tant distin-ti n *et.een the s-ienti+i- a-ti(ities + E#k'a#en and Ve#stehen. E#k'a#en is a* ,t +inding !ai#s + -a,ses and e++e-ts. Ve#stehen is a* ,t g#as!ing - nne-ti ns *et.een e(ents, s metimes int,iti(e'" and n n--a,sa''". Ps"-h ana'"sis is a* ,t Ve#stehen, n t a* ,t E#k'a#en. It is a h"! theti- ded,-ti(e meth d + # g'eaning e(ents in a !e#s nEs 'i+e and gene#ating insights #ega#ding thei# - nne-ti n t his -,##ent state + mind and +,n-ti ning.

S , is !s"-h ana'"sis a s-ien-e, !se,d -s-ien-e, # s,i gene#is@ Ps"-h ana'"sis is a +ie'd + st,d", n t a the #". It is #e!'ete .ith ne ' gisms and + #ma'ism *,t, 'ike P,ant,m :e-hani-s, it has man" in- m!ati*'e inte#!#etati ns. It is, the#e+ #e, e>,i( -a' and se'+-- ntained A#e-,#si(eB. Ps"-h ana'"sis di-tates .hi-h + its h"! theses a#e testa*'e and .hat - nstit,tes its .n +a'si+i-ati n. In the# . #ds, it is a meta-the #": a the #" a* ,t gene#ating the #ies in !s"-h ' g". : #e (e#, !s"-h ana'"sis the the #" is +ten - n+,sed .ith !s"-h ana'"sis the the#a!". C n-',si(e'" !# (ing that the the#a!" . #ks d es n t esta*'ish the (e#idi-a'it", the hist #i-it", # e(en the ,se+,'ness + the - n-e!t,a' edi+i-e + the the #". 9,#the#m #e, the#a!e,ti- te-hni>,es e( '(e +a# m #e >,i-k'" and s,*stantia''" than the the #ies that stensi*'" "ie'd them. The" a#e se'+-m di+"ing ?m (ing ta#gets? - n t #igid and #e!'i-a*'e !# -ed,#es and #it,a's. )n the# *sta-'e in t#"ing t esta*'ish the s-ienti+i- (a',e + !s"-h ana'"sis is its am*ig,it". It is ,n-'ea#, + # instan-e, .hat in !s"-h ana'"sis >,a'i+" as -a,ses - and .hat as thei# e++e-ts. C nside# the -#iti-a' - nst#,-t + the ,n- ns-i ,s. Is it the #eas n + # - d es it -a,se - ,# *eha(i #, - ns-i ,s th ,ghts, and em ti ns@ D es it !# (ide them .ith a ?#ati ? Ae;!'anati nB@ O# a#e the" me#e s"m!t ms + ine; #a*'e ,nde#'"ing !# -esses@ E(en these *asi>,esti ns #e-ei(e n ?d"nami-? # ?!h"si-a'? t#eatment in -'assi- A9#e,dianB !s"-h ana'"ti- the #". S m,-h + # its !#etensi ns t *e a s-ienti+i- endea( #.

Ps"-h ana'"sis is -i#-,mstantia' and s,!! #ted *" e!istemi- a-- ,nts, sta#ting .ith the maste# himse'+. It a!!ea's t neEs - mm n sense and !#e(i ,s e;!e#ien-e. Its statements a#e + these + #ms: ?gi(en O, =, and S #e! #ted *" the !atient - d esnEt it stand t Ae(e#"da"B #eas n that ) -a,sed O@? # ?<e kn . that 8 -a,ses :, that : is (e#" simi'a# t O, and that 8 is (e#" simi'a# t ). IsnEt it #eas na*'e t ass,me that ) -a,ses O@?. In the#a!", the !atient 'ate# - n+i#ms these insights *" +ee'ing that the" a#e ?#ight? and ?- ##e-t?, that the" a#e e!i!han ,s and #e(e'at #", that the" ! ssess #et# di-ti(e and !#edi-ti(e ! .e#s, and *" #e! #ting his #ea-ti ns t the the#a!ist-inte#!#ete#. This a--'amati n sea's the na##ati(eEs !# *ati(e (a',e as a *asi- An t t sa" !#imiti(eB + #m + e;!'anati n .hi-h !# (ides a time +#ame, a - in-ident !atte#n, and sets + te'e ' gi-a' aims, ideas and (a',es. 4,an &i(e#a is #ight that 9#e,dEs -'aims a* ,t in+anti'e 'i+e -ann t *e !# (en, n t e(en .ith a 5edankene;!e#imenta' m (ie -ame#a, as & *e#t Vae'de# s,ggested. It is e>,a''" t#,e that the the #"Es eti ' gi-a' -'aims a#e e!idemi ' gi-a''" ,ntesta*'e, as 5#,n*a,m #e!eated'" sa"s. 8,t these +ai',#es miss the ! int and aim + !s"-h ana'"sis: t !# (ide an #ganiDing and - m!#ehensi(e, n n-tendenti ,s, and !e#s,asi(e na##ati(e + h,man !s"-h ' gi-a' de(e' !ment. Sh ,'d s,-h a na##ati(e *e testa*'e and +a'si+ia*'e # e'se dis-a#ded Aas the $ gi-a' P siti(ists insistB@ De!ends i+ .e .ish t t#eat it as s-ien-e # as an a#t + #m. This is the -i#-,'a#it" + the a#g,ments against !s"-h ana'"sis. I+ 9#e,dEs . #k is - nside#ed t *e the m de#n e>,i(a'ent + m"th, #e'igi n, # 'ite#at,#e - it need

n t *e tested t *e - nside#ed ?t#,e? in the dee!est sense + the . #d. )+te# a'', h . m,-h + the s-ien-e + the 1Gth -ent,#" has s,#(i(ed t this da" an"h .@

The Dialogue of Dreams By: Dr. Sam Vaknin


)#e d#eams a s ,#-e + #e'ia*'e di(inati n@ 5ene#ati ns ,! n gene#ati ns seem t ha(e th ,ght s . The" in-,*ated d#eams *" t#a(e''ing a+a#, *" +asting and *" engaging in a'' the# manne#s + se'+ de!#i(ati n # int ;i-ati n. <ith the e;-e!ti n + this high'" d,*i ,s # 'e, d#eams d seem t ha(e th#ee im! #tant +,n-ti ns: 1. T !# -ess #e!#essed em ti ns A.ishes, in 9#e,dEs s!ee-hB and the# menta' - ntent .hi-h .as s,!!#essed and st #ed in the ,n- ns-i ,s. 2. T #de#, -'assi+" and, gene#a''", t !ige nh 'e - ns-i ,s e;!e#ien-es + the da" # da"s !#e-eding the d#eaming A?da" #esid,es?B. ) !a#tia' (e#'a! .ith the + #me# +,n-ti n is ine(ita*'e: s me sens #" in!,t is immediate'" #e'egated t the da#ke# and dimme# kingd ms + the s,*- ns-i ,s and ,n- ns-i ,s .ith ,t *eing - ns-i ,s'" !# -essed at a''. F. T ?sta" in t ,-h? .ith the ,tside . #'d. E;te#na' sens #" in!,t is inte#!#eted *" the d#eam and #e!#esented in its ,ni>,e 'ang,age + s"m* 's and dis%,n-ti n. &esea#-h has sh .n this t *e a #a#e e(ent, inde!endent + the timing + the stim,'i: d,#ing s'ee! # immediate'" !#i # t it. Sti'', .hen it d es ha!!en, it seems that e(en .hen the inte#!#etati n is dead .# ng / the s,*stantia' in+ #mati n is !#ese#(ed. ) - ''a!sing *ed! st Aas in :a,#"Es +am ,s d#eamB .i'' *e- me a 9#en-h

g,i'' tine, + # instan-e. The message - nse#(ed: the#e is !h"si-a' dange# t the ne-k and head. )'' th#ee +,n-ti ns a#e !a#t + a m,-h 'a#ge# ne: The - ntin, ,s ad%,stment + the m de' ne has + neEs se'+ and + neEs !'a-e in the . #'d / t the in-essant st#eam + sens #" Ae;te#na'B in!,t and + menta' Ainte#na'B in!,t. This ?m de' m di+i-ati n? is -a##ied ,t th# ,gh an int#i-ate, s"m* ' 'aden, dia' g,e *et.een the d#eame# and himse'+. It !# *a*'" a's has the#a!e,ti- side *ene+its. It . ,'d *e an (e#-sim!'i+i-ati n t sa" that the d#eam -a##ies messages Ae(en i+ .e .e#e t 'imit it t - ##es! nden-e .ith neEs se'+B. The d#eam d es n t seem t *e in a ! siti n + !#i(i'eged kn .'edge. The d#eam +,n-ti ns m #e 'ike a g d +#iend . ,'d: 'istening, ad(ising, sha#ing e;!e#ien-es, !# (iding a--ess t #em te te##it #ies + the mind, !,tting e(ents in !e#s!e-ti(e and in !# ! #ti n and !# ( king. It, th,s, ind,-es #e'a;ati n and a--e!tan-e and a *ette# +,n-ti ning + the ?-'ient?. It d es s , m st'", *" ana'"sing dis-#e!an-ies and in- m!ati*i'ities. N . nde# that it is m st'" ass -iated .ith *ad em ti ns Aange#, h,#t, +ea#B. This a's ha!!ens in the - ,#se + s,--ess+,' !s"-h the#a!". De+en-es a#e g#ad,a''" dismant'ed and a ne., m #e +,n-ti na', (ie. + the . #'d is esta*'ished. This is a !ain+,' and +#ightening !# -ess. This +,n-ti n + the d#eam is m #e in 'ine .ith 4,ngEs (ie. + d#eams as ?- m!ensat #"?. The !#e(i ,s th#ee +,n-ti ns a#e ?- m!'ementa#"? and, the#e+ #e, 9#e,dian. It . ,'d seem that .e a#e a'' - nstant'" engaged in maintenan-e, in !#ese#(ing that .hi-h e;ists and in(enting ne. st#ategies + # - !ing. <e a#e a'' in - nstant !s"-h the#a!", administe#ed *" ,#se'(es, da" and night. D#eaming is %,st the a.a#eness + this n-g ing !# -ess

and its s"m* 'i- - ntent. <e a#e m #e s,s-e!ti*'e, (,'ne#a*'e, and !en t dia' g,e .hi'e .e s'ee!. The diss nan-e *et.een h . .e #ega#d ,#se'(es, and .hat .e #ea''" a#e and *et.een ,# m de' + the . #'d and #ea'it" / this diss nan-e is s en #m ,s that it -a''s + # a A- ntin, ,sB # ,tine + e(a',ati n, mending and #ein(enti n. Othe#.ise, the .h 'e edi+i-e might -#,m*'e. The de'i-ate *a'an-e *et.een .e, the d#eame#s, and the . #'d might *e shatte#ed, 'ea(ing ,s de+en-e'ess and d"s+,n-ti na'. T *e e++e-ti(e, d#eams m,st - me e>,i!!ed .ith the ke" t thei# inte#!#etati n. <e a'' seem t ! ssess an int,iti(e - !" + %,st s,-h a ke", ,ni>,e'" tai' #ed t ,# needs, t ,# data and t ,# -i#-,mstan-es. This )#ei -#iti-a he'!s ,s t de-i!he# the t#,e and m ti(ating meaning + the dia' g,e. This is ne #eas n .h" d#eaming is dis- ntin, ,s: time m,st *e gi(en t inte#!#et and t assimi'ate the ne. m de'. 9 ,# t si; sessi ns take !'a-e e(e#" night. ) sessi n missed .i'' *e he'd the night a+te#. I+ a !e#s n is !#e(ented +# m d#eaming n a !e#manent *asis, he .i'' *e- me i##itated, then ne,# ti- and then !s"-h ti-. In the# . #ds: his m de' + himse'+ and + the . #'d .i'' n ' nge# *e ,sa*'e. It .i'' *e ,t + s"n-h. It .i'' #e!#esent * th #ea'it" and the n n-d#eame# .# ng'". P,t m #e s,--in-t'": it seems that the +am ,s ?#ea'it" test? A,sed in !s"-h ' g" t set a!a#t the ?+,n-ti ning, n #ma'? indi(id,a's +# m th se .h a#e n tB is maintained *" d#eaming. It +ast dete#i #ates .hen d#eaming is im! ssi*'e. This 'ink *et.een the - ##e-t a!!#ehensi n + #ea'it" A#ea'it" m de'B, !s"-h sis and d#eaming has "et t *e e;!' #ed in de!th. ) +e. !#edi-ti ns -an *e made, th ,gh: a. The d#eam me-hanisms and3 # d#eam - ntents + !s"-h ti-s m,st *e

s,*stantia''" di++e#ent and disting,ished +# m ,#s. Thei# d#eams m,st *e ?d"s+,n-ti na'?, ,na*'e t ta-k'e the ,n!'easant, *ad em ti na' #esid,e + - !ing .ith #ea'it". Thei# dia' g,e m,st *e dist,#*ed. The" m,st *e #e!#esented #igid'" in thei# d#eams. &ea'it" m,st n t *e !#esent in them n t at a''. *. : st + the d#eams, m st + the time m,st dea' .ith m,ndane matte#s. Thei# - ntent m,st n t *e e; ti-, s,##ea'ist, e;t#a #dina#". The" m,st *e -hained t the d#eame#Es #ea'ities, his Adai'"B !# *'ems, !e !'e that he kn .s, sit,ati ns that he en- ,nte#ed # is 'ike'" t en- ,nte#, di'emmas that he is +a-ing and - n+'i-ts that he . ,'d ha(e 'iked #es '(ed. This, indeed, is the -ase. 7n+ #t,nate'", this is hea(i'" disg,ised *" the s"m* ' 'ang,age + the d#eam and *" the dis% inted, dis%,n-ti(e, diss -iati(e manne# in .hi-h it !# -eeds. 8,t a -'ea# se!a#ati n m,st *e made *et.een s,*%e-t matte# Am st'" m,ndane and ?d,''?, #e'e(ant t the d#eame#Es 'i+eB and the s-#i!t # me-hanism A- ' ,#+,' s"m* 's, dis- ntin,it" + s!a-e, time and !,#! se+,' a-ti nB. -. The d#eame# m,st *e the main !# tag nist + his d#eams, the he# + his d#eam" na##ati(es. This, (e#.he'ming'", is the -ase: d#eams a#e eg -ent#i-. The" a#e - n-e#ned m st'" .ith the ?!atient? and ,se the# +ig,#es, settings, ' -a'es, sit,ati ns t -ate# t his needs, t

#e- nst#,-t his #ea'it" test and t ada!t it t the ne. in!,t +# m ,tside and +# m .ithin. d. I+ d#eams a#e me-hanisms, .hi-h ada!t the m de' + the . #'d and the #ea'it" test t dai'" in!,ts / .e sh ,'d +ind a di++e#en-e *et.een d#eame#s and d#eams in di++e#ent s -ieties and -,'t,#es. The m #e ?in+ #mati n hea("? the -,'t,#e, the m #e the d#eame# is * m*a#ded .ith messages and data / the +ie#-e# sh ,'d the d#eam a-ti(it" *e. E(e#" e;te#na' dat,m 'ike'" gene#ates a sh .e# + inte#na' data. D#eame#s in the <est sh ,'d engage in a >,a'itati(e'" di++e#ent t"!e + d#eaming. <e .i'' e'a* #ate n this as .e - ntin,e. S,++i-e it t sa", at this stage, that d#eams in in+ #mati n--',tte#ed s -ieties .i'' em!' " m #e s"m* 's, .i'' .ea(e them m #e int#i-ate'" and the d#eams .i'' *e m,-h m #e e##ati- and dis- ntin, ,s. )s a #es,'t, d#eame#s in in+ #mati n-#i-h s -ieties .i'' ne(e# mistake a d#eam + # #ea'it". The" .i'' ne(e# - n+,se the t. . In in+ #mati n ! # -,'t,#es A.he#e m st + the dai'" in!,ts a#e inte#na'B / s,-h - n+,si n .i'' a#ise (e#" +ten and e(en *e ensh#ined in #e'igi n # in the !#e(ai'ing the #ies #ega#ding the . #'d. )nth# ! ' g" - n+i#ms that this, indeed, is the -ase. In in+ #mati n ! # s -ieties d#eams a#e 'ess s"m* 'i-, 'ess e##ati-, m #e - ntin, ,s, m #e ?#ea'? and the d#eame#s +ten tend t +,se the t. Ad#eam and #ea'it"B int a .h 'e and a-t ,! n it.

e. T - m!'ete thei# missi n s,--ess+,''" Aada!tati n t the . #'d ,sing the m de' + #ea'it" m di+ied *" themB / d#eams m,st make themse'(es +e't. The" m,st inte#a-t .ith the d#eame#Es #ea' . #'d, .ith his *eha(i ,# in it, .ith his m ds that *#ing his *eha(i ,# a* ,t, in sh #t: .ith his .h 'e menta' a!!a#at,s. D#eams seem t d %,st this: the" a#e #emem*e#ed in ha'+ the -ases. &es,'ts a#e, !# *a*'", a-hie(ed .ith ,t need + # - gniti(e, - ns-i ,s !# -essing, in the the#, ,n#emem*e#ed, # dis#emem*e#ed -ases. The" g#eat'" in+',en-e the immediate m d a+te# a.akening. The" a#e dis-,ssed, inte#!#eted, + #-e !e !'e t think and #ethink. The" a#e d"nam s + Ainte#na' and e;te#na'B dia' g,e ' ng a+te# the" ha(e +aded int the #e-esses + the mind. S metimes the" di#e-t'" in+',en-e a-ti ns and man" !e !'e +i#m'" *e'ie(e in the >,a'it" + the ad(i-e !# (ided *" them. In this sense, d#eams a#e an inse!a#a*'e !a#t + #ea'it". In man" -e'e*#ated -ases the" e(en ind,-ed . #ks + a#t # in(enti ns # s-ienti+i- dis- (e#ies Aa'' ada!tati ns + 'd, de+,n-t, #ea'it" m de's + the d#eame#sB. In n,me# ,s d -,mented -ases, d#eams ta-k'ed, head n, iss,es that * the#ed the d#eame#s d,#ing thei# .aking h ,#s. 1 . d es this the #" +it .ith the ha#d +a-ts@ D#eaming AD-state # D-a-ti(it"B is ass -iated .ith a s!e-ia' m (ement + the e"es, ,nde# the -' sed e"e'ids,

-a''ed &a!id E"e : (ement A&E:B. It is a's ass -iated .ith -hanges in the !atte#n + e'e-t#i-a' a-ti(it" + the *#ain AEE5B. ) d#eaming !e#s n has the !atte#n + s me ne .h is .ide a.ake and a'e#t. This seems t sit .e'' .ith a the #" + d#eams as a-ti(e the#a!ists, engaged in the a#d, ,s task + in- #! #ating ne. A +ten - nt#adi-t #" and in- m!ati*'eB in+ #mati n int an e'a* #ate !e#s na' m de' + the se'+ and the #ea'it" that it --,!ies. The#e a#e t. t"!es + d#eams: (is,a' and ?th ,ght-'ike? A.hi-h 'ea(e an im!#essi n + *eing a.ake n the d#eame#B. The 'atte# ha!!ens .ith ,t an" &E: -,m EE5 +an+a#e. It seems that the ?m de'-ad%,stment? a-ti(ities #e>,i#e a*st#a-t thinking A-'assi+i-ati n, the #iDing, !#edi-ting, testing, et-.B. The #e'ati nshi! is (e#" m,-h 'ike the ne that e;ists *et.een int,iti n and + #ma'ism, aestheti-s and s-ienti+i- dis-i!'ine, +ee'ing and thinking, menta''" -#eating and - mmitting neEs -#eati n t a medi,m. )'' mamma's e;hi*it the same &E:3EE5 !atte#ns and ma", the#e+ #e, *e d#eaming as .e''. S me *i#ds d it, and s me #e!ti'es as .e''. D#eaming seems t *e ass -iated .ith the *#ain stem AP ntine tegment,mB and .ith the se-#eti n + N #e!ine!h#ine and Se# t nin in the *#ain. The #h"thm + *#eathing and the !,'se #ate -hange and the ske'eta' m,s-'es a#e #e'a;ed t the ! int + !a#a'"sis A!#es,ma*'", t !#e(ent in%,#" i+ the d#eame# sh ,'d de-ide t engage in ena-ting his d#eamB. 8' d +' .s t the genita's Aand ind,-es !eni'e e#e-ti ns in ma'e d#eame#sB. The ,te#,s - nt#a-ts and the m,s-'es at the *ase + the t ng,e en% " a #e'a;ati n in e'e-t#i-a' a-ti(it". These +a-ts . ,'d indi-ate that d#eaming is a (e#" !#im #dia' a-ti(it". It is essentia' t s,#(i(a'. It is n t

ne-essa#i'" - nne-ted t highe# +,n-ti ns 'ike s!ee-h *,t it is - nne-ted t #e!# d,-ti n and t the *i -hemist#" + the *#ain. The - nst#,-ti n + a ?. #'d-(ie.?, a m de' + #ea'it" is as -#iti-a' t the s,#(i(a' + an a!e as it is t ,#s. )nd the menta''" dist,#*ed and the menta''" #eta#ded d#eam as m,-h as the n #ma' d . S,-h a m de' -an *e innate and geneti- in (e#" sim!'e + #ms + 'i+e *e-a,se the am ,nt + in+ #mati n that needs t *e in- #! #ated is 'imited. 8e" nd a -e#tain am ,nt + in+ #mati n that the indi(id,a' is 'ike'" t *e e;! sed t dai'", t. needs a#ise. The +i#st is t maintain the m de' + the . #'d *" e'iminating ?n ise? and *" #ea'isti-a''" in- #! #ating negating data and the se- nd is t !ass n the +,n-ti n + m de''ing and #em de''ing t a m,-h m #e +'e;i*'e st#,-t,#e, t the *#ain. In a .a", d#eams a#e a* ,t the - nstant gene#ati n, - nst#,-ti n and testing + the #ies #ega#ding the d#eame# and his e(e#--hanging inte#na' and e;te#na' en(i# nments. D#eams a#e the s-ienti+i- - mm,nit" + the Se'+. That :an -a##ied it +,#the# and in(ented S-ienti+i- )-ti(it" n a 'a#ge#, e;te#na', s-a'e is sma'' . nde#. Ph"si ' g" a's te''s ,s the di++e#en-es *et.een d#eaming and the# ha'',-inat #" states Anightma#es, !s"-h ses, s'ee!.a'king, da"d#eaming, ha'',-inati ns, i'',si ns and me#e imaginati nB: the &E:3EE5 !atte#ns a#e a*sent and the 'atte# states a#e m,-h 'ess ?#ea'?. D#eams a#e m st'" set in +ami'ia# !'a-es and *e" the 'a.s + nat,#e # s me ' gi-. Thei# ha'',-inat #" nat,#e is a he#mene,tiim! siti n. It de#i(es main'" +# m thei# e##ati-, a*#,!t *eha(i ,# As!a-e, time and g a' dis- ntin,itiesB .hi-h is ONE + the e'ements in ha'',-inati ns as .e''. <h" is d#eaming - nd,-ted .hi'e .e s'ee!@ P# *a*'", the#e is s mething in it .hi-h #e>,i#es .hat s'ee! has t ++e#: 'imitati n + e;te#na', sens #", in!,ts Aes!e-ia''"

(is,a' nes / hen-e the - m!ensat #" st# ng (is,a' e'ement in d#eamsB. )n a#ti+i-ia' en(i# nment is s ,ght in #de# t maintain this !e#i di-a', se'+-im! sed de!#i(ati n, stati- state and #ed,-ti n in * di'" +,n-ti ns. In the 'ast H-K h ,#s + e(e#" s'ee! sessi n, 40T + the !e !'e .ake ,!. )* ,t 40T - ! ssi*'" the same d#eame#s / #e! #t that the" had a d#eam in the #e'e(ant night. )s .e des-end int s'ee! Athe h"!nag gi- stateB and as .e eme#ge +# m it Athe h"!n ! m!i- stateB / .e ha(e (is,a' d#eams. 8,t the" a#e di++e#ent. It is as th ,gh .e a#e ?thinking? these d#eams. The" ha(e n em ti na' - ##e'ate, the" a#e t#ansient, ,nde(e' !ed, a*st#a-t and e;!#ess'" dea' .ith the da" #esid,es. The" a#e the ?ga#*age - ''e-t #s?, the ?sanitati n de!a#tment? + the *#ain. Da" #esid,es, .hi-h -'ea#'" d n t need t *e !# -essed *" d#eams / a#e s.e!t ,nde# the -a#!et + - ns-i ,sness Ama"*e e(en e#asedB. S,ggesti*'e !e !'e d#eam .hat the" ha(e *een inst#,-ted t d#eam in h"!n sis / *,t n t .hat the" ha(e *een s inst#,-ted .hi'e A!a#t'"B a.ake and ,nde# di#e-t s,ggesti n. This +,#the# dem nst#ates the inde!enden-e + the D#eam :e-hanism. It a'm st d es n t #ea-t t e;te#na' sens #" stim,'i .hi'e in !e#ati n. It takes an a'm st - m!'ete s,s!ensi n + %,dgement in #de# t in+',en-e the - ntents + d#eams. It . ,'d a'' seem t ! int at an the# im! #tant +eat,#e + d#eams: thei# e- n m". D#eams a#e s,*%e-t t + ,# ?a#ti-'es + +aith? A.hi-h g (e#n a'' the !hen mena + 'i+eB:
1.

1omeostasis - The !#ese#(ati n + the inte#na' en(i# nment, an e>,i'i*#i,m *et.een Adi++e#ent *,t inte#de!endentB e'ements .hi-h make ,! the .h 'e.

2.

8,uilibrium - The maintenan-e + an inte#na' en(i# nment in *a'an-e .ith an e;te#na' ne. O*timi9ation Aa's kn .n as e++i-ien-"B - The se-,#ing + ma;im,m #es,'ts .ith minim,m in(ested #es ,#-es and minim,m damage t the# #es ,#-es, n t di#e-t'" ,sed in the !# -ess. Parsimony AO--amEs #aD #B - The ,ti'iDati n + a minima' set + Am st'" kn .nB ass,m!ti ns, - nst#aints, * ,nda#" - nditi ns and initia' - nditi ns in #de# t a-hie(e ma;im,m e;!'anat #" # m de''ing ! .e#.

3.

4.

In - m!'ian-e .ith the a* (e + ,# !#in-i!'es d#eams 1)D t #es #t t (is,a' s"m* 's. The (is,a' is the m st - ndensed Aand e++i-ientB + #m + !a-kaging in+ #mati n. ?) !i-t,#e is . #th a th ,sand . #ds? the sa"ing g es and - m!,te# ,se#s kn . that t st #e images #e>,i#es m #e mem #" than an" the# t"!e + data. 8,t d#eams ha(e an ,n'imited -a!a-it" + in+ #mati n !# -essing at thei# dis! sa' Athe *#ain at nightB. In dea'ing .ith gigantiam ,nts + in+ #mati n, the nat,#a' !#e+e#en-e A.hen !# -essing ! .e# is n t - nst#ainedB . ,'d *e t ,se (is,a's. : #e (e#, n n-is m #!hi-, ! '"(a'ent + #ms .i'' *e !#e+e##ed. In the# . #ds: s"m* 's that -an *e ?ma!!ed? t m #e than ne meaning and th se that -a##" a h st + the# ass -iated s"m* 's and meanings .ith them .i'' *e !#e+e##ed. S"m* 's a#e a + #m + sh #thand. The" ha,' a g#eat am ,nt + in+ #mati n / m st + it st #ed in the #e-i!ientEs *#ain and !# ( ked *" the s"m* '. This is a 'itt'e 'ike the 4a(a a!!'ets in m de#n !# g#amming: the a!!'i-ati n is di(ided t sma'' m d,'es, .hi-h a#e st #ed in a -ent#a' - m!,te#. The s"m* 's gene#ated *" the ,se#Es - m!,te# A,sing the 4a(a !# g#amming 'ang,ageB ?!# ( ke? them t s,#+a-e. The

#es,'t is a ma% # sim!'i+i-ati n + the !# -essing te#mina' Athe net-PCB and an in-#ease in its - st e++i-ien-". 8 th - ''e-ti(e s"m* 's and !#i(ate s"m* 's a#e ,sed. The - ''e-ti(e s"m* 's A4,ngEs a#-het"!es@B !#e(ent the need t #e-in(ent the .hee'. The" a#e ass,med t - nstit,te a ,ni(e#sa' 'ang,age ,sa*'e *" d#eame#s e(e#".he#e. The d#eaming *#ain has, the#e+ #e, t attend t and t !# -ess n'" the ?semi-!#i(ate 'ang,age? e'ements. This is 'ess time - ns,ming and the - n(enti ns + a ,ni(e#sa' 'ang,age a!!'" t the - mm,ni-ati n *et.een the d#eam and the d#eame#. E(en the dis- ntin,ities ha(e thei# #eas n. ) ' t + the in+ #mati n that .e a*s #* and !# -ess is eithe# ?n ise? # #e!etiti(e. This +a-t is kn .n t the a,th #s + a'' the +i'e - m!#essi n a!!'i-ati ns in the . #'d. C m!,te# +i'es -an *e - m!#essed t ne tenth thei# siDe .ith ,t a!!#e-ia*'" ' sing in+ #mati n. The same !#in-i!'e is a!!'ied in s!eed #eading / skimming the ,nne-essa#" *its, getting st#aight t the ! int. The d#eam em!' "s the same !#in-i!'es: it skims, it gets st#aight t the ! int and +# m it / t "et an the# ! int. This -#eates the sensati n + *eing e##ati-, + a*#,!tness, + the a*sen-e + s!atia' # tem! #a' ' gi-, + !,#! se'essness. 8,t this a'' se#(es the same !,#! se: t s,--eed t +inish the 1e#-,'ean task + #e+itting the m de' + the Se'+ and + the < #'d in ne night. Th,s, the se'e-ti n + (is,a's, s"m* 's, and - ''e-ti(e s"m* 's and + the dis- ntin, ,s m de + !#esentati n, thei# !#e+e#en-e (e# a'te#nati(e meth ds + #e!#esentati n is n t a--identa'. This is the m st e- n mi- and ,nam*ig, ,s .a" + #e!#esentati n and, the#e+ #e, the m st e++i-ient and the m st in - m!'ian-e .ith the + ,# !#in-i!'es. In -,'t,#es and s -ieties, .he#e the mass +

in+ #mati n t *e !# -essed is 'ess m ,ntain ,s / these +eat,#es a#e 'ess 'ike'" t --,# and indeed, the" d nEt. !+cerpts #rom an Intervie* a,o t -R!AMS . /irst p ,lished in S ite010 D#eams a#e *" +a# the m st m"ste#i ,s !hen men n in menta' 'i+e. On the +a-e + it, d#eaming is a - ' ssa' .aste + ene#g" and !s"-hi- #es ,#-es. D#eams -a##" n (e#t in+ #mati n - ntent. The" *ea# 'itt'e #esem*'an-e t #ea'it". The" inte#+e#e .ith the m st -#iti-a' *i ' gi-a' maintenan-e +,n-ti n - .ith s'ee!. The" d nEt seem t *e g a' #iented, the" ha(e n dis-e#ni*'e *%e-ti(e. In this age + te-hn ' g" and !#e-isi n, e++i-ien-" and !timiDati n - d#eams seem t *e a s me.hat ana-h# nisti-a''" >,aint #e'i- + ,# 'i+e in the sa(annah. S-ientists a#e !e !'e .h *e'ie(e in the aestheti!#ese#(ati n + #es ,#-es. The" *e'ie(e that nat,#e is int#insi-a''" !tima', !a#sim ni ,s and ?.ise?. The" d#eam ,! s"mmet#ies, ?'a.s? + nat,#e, minima'ist the #ies. The" *e'ie(e that e(e#"thing has a #eas n and a !,#! se. In thei# a!!# a-h t d#eams and d#eaming, s-ientists - mmit a'' these sins - m*ined. The" anth# ! m #!hesiDe nat,#e, the" engage in te'e ' gi-a' e;!'anati ns, the" att#i*,te !,#! se and !aths t d#eams, .he#e the#e might *e n ne. S , the" sa" that d#eaming is a maintenan-e +,n-ti n Athe !# -essing + the !#e-eding da"Es e;!e#ien-esB - # that it kee!s the s'ee!ing !e#s n a'e#t and a.a#e + his en(i# nment. 8,t n ne kn .s + # s,#e. <e d#eam, n ne kn .s .h". D#eams ha(e e'ements in - mm n .ith diss -iati n # ha'',-inati ns *,t the" a#e neithe#. The" em!' " (is,a's *e-a,se this is the m st e++i-ient .a" + !a-king and t#ans+e##ing in+ #mati n. 8,t <1IC1 in+ #mati n@ 9#e,dEs ?Inte#!#etati n + D#eams? is a me#e 'ite#a#" e;e#-ise. It is

n t a se#i ,s s-ienti+i- . #k A.hi-h d es n t det#a-t +# m its a.es me !enet#ati n and *ea,t"B. I ha(e 'i(ed in )+#i-a, the :idd'e East, N #th )me#i-a, <este#n E,# !e and Easte#n E,# !e. D#eams +,'+i' di++e#ent s -ieta' +,n-ti ns and ha(e distin-t -,'t,#a' # 'es in ea-h + these -i(i'iDati ns. In )+#i-a, d#eams a#e !e#-ei(ed t *e a m de + - mm,ni-ati n, as #ea' as the inte#net is t ,s. D#eams a#e !i!e'ines th# ,gh .hi-h messages +' .: +# m the *e" nd A'i+e a+te# deathB, +# m the# !e !'e As,-h as shamans - #emem*e# CastanedaB, +# m the - ''e-ti(e A4,ngB, +# m #ea'it" Athis is the -' sest t <este#n inte#!#etati nB, +# m the +,t,#e A!#e- gniti nB, # +# m ass #ted di(inities. The distin-ti n *et.een d#eam states and #ea'it" is (e#" *',##ed and !e !'e a-t n messages - ntained in d#eams as the" . ,'d n an" the# in+ #mati n the" *tain in thei# ?.aking? h ,#s. This state + a++ai#s is >,ite the same in the :idd'e East and Easte#n E,# !e .he#e d#eams - nstit,te an integ#a' and im! #tant !a#t + instit,ti na'iDed #e'igi n and the s,*%e-t + se#i ,s ana'"ses and - ntem!'ati n. In N #th )me#i-a - the m st na#-issisti- -,'t,#e e(e# - d#eams ha(e *een - nst#,ed as - mm,ni-ati ns <IT1IN the d#eaming !e#s n. D#eams n ' nge# mediate *et.een the !e#s n and his en(i# nment. The" a#e the #e!#esentati n + inte#a-ti ns *et.een di++e#ent st#,-t,#es + the ?se'+?. Thei# # 'e is, the#e+ #e, +a# m #e 'imited and thei# inte#!#etati n +a# m #e a#*it#a#" A*e-a,se it is high'" de!endent n the !e#s na' -i#-,mstan-es and !s"-h ' g" + the s!e-i+id#eame#B. Na#-issism IS a d#eam state. The na#-issist is t ta''" deta-hed +# m his Ah,manB mi'ie,. De( id + em!ath" and *sessi(e'" -ent#ed n the !# -,#ement + na#-issisti-

s,!!'" Aad,'ati n, admi#ati n, et-.B - the na#-issist is ,na*'e t #ega#d the#s as th#ee dimensi na' *eings .ith thei# .n needs and #ights. This menta' !i-t,#e + na#-issism -an easi'" se#(e as a g d des-#i!ti n + the d#eam state .he#e the# !e !'e a#e me#e #e!#esentati ns, # s"m* 's, in a he#mene,ti-a''" sea'ed th ,ght s"stem. 8 th na#-issism and d#eaming a#e )7TISTIC states + mind .ith se(e#e - gniti(e and em ti na' dist #ti ns. 8" e;tensi n, ne -an ta'k a* ,t ?na#-issisti- -,'t,#es? as ?d#eam -,'t,#es? d med t a #,de a.akening. It is inte#esting t n te that m st na#-issists I kn . +# m m" - ##es! nden-e # !e#s na''" Am"se'+ in-',dedB ha(e a (e#" ! # d#eam-'i+e and d#eams-a!e. The" #emem*e# n thing + thei# d#eams and a#e #a#e'", i+ e(e#, m ti(ated *" insights - ntained in them. The Inte#net is the s,dden and ( ',!t, ,s em* diment + m" d#eams. It is t g d t me t *e t#,e - s , in man" .a"s, it isnEt. I think :ankind Aat 'east in the #i-h, ind,st#ia'iDed - ,nt#iesB is m nst#,-k. It s,#+s this *ea,ti+,', .hite 'ands-a!e, in s,s!ended dis*e'ie+. It h 'ds it *#eath. It da#es n t *e'ie(e and *e'ie(es n t its h !es. The Inte#net has, the#e+ #e, *e- me a - ''e-ti(e !hantasm - at times a d#eam, at times a nightma#e. Ent#e!#ene,#shi! in( '(es massi(e am ,nts + d#eaming and the net is !,#e ent#e!#ene,#shi!.
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2se and .buse of Differential Diagnoses By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

The DS: IV-T& is a 'inea#, des-#i!ti(e A!hen men ' gi-a'B, and *,#ea,-#ati-. It is ?medi-a'?, ?me-hani--d"nami-?, and ?!h"si-a'? - akin t the 'd ta; n mies in 8 tan" and S ' g". It ign #es 'i+e -i#-,mstan-es, *i ' gi-a' and !s"-h ' gi-a' !# -esses, and 'a-ks an (e#a#-hing - n-e!t,a' and e;egeti+#ame. #k. : #e (e#, the DS: is hea(i'" in+',en-ed *" +ashi n, !#e(ai'ing s -ia' m #es and ' #es, and *" the 'ega' and *,siness en(i# nment. The -'assi+i-ati n + );is II !e#s na'it" dis #de#s - dee!'" ing#ained, ma'ada!ti(e, 'i+e' ng *eha(i # !atte#ns - in the Diagn sti- and Statisti-a' :an,a', + ,#th editi n, te;t #e(isi n L)me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i- )ss -iati n. DS:-IV-T&, <ashingt n, 2000M - # the DS:-IV-T& + # sh #t - has - me ,nde# s,stained and se#i ,s -#iti-ism +# m its in-e!ti n in 1GI2. The DS: IV-T& ad !ts a -ateg #i-a' a!!# a-h, ! st,'ating that !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ",ualitati'ely distinct clinical syndromes" A!. HJGB. This is .ide'" d ,*ted. E(en the distin-ti n made *et.een ?n #ma'? and ?dis #de#ed? !e#s na'ities is in-#easing'" *eing #e%e-ted. The ?diagn sti- th#esh 'ds? *et.een n #ma' and a*n #ma' a#e eithe# a*sent # .eak'" s,!! #ted. The ! '"theti- + #m + the DS:Es Diagn sti- C#ite#ia n'" a s,*set + the -#ite#ia is ade>,ate g# ,nds + # a diagn sis gene#ates ,na--e!ta*'e diagn stihete# geneit". In the# . #ds, !e !'e diagn sed .ith the

same !e#s na'it" dis #de# ma" sha#e n'" ne -#ite#i n # n ne. The DS: +ai's t -'a#i+" the e;a-t #e'ati nshi! *et.een );is II and );is I dis #de#s and the .a" -h# ni-hi'dh d and de(e' !menta' !# *'ems inte#a-t .ith !e#s na'it" dis #de#sN The di++e#entia' diagn ses a#e (ag,e and the !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ins,++i-ient'" dema#-ated. The #es,'t is e;-essi(e - -m #*idit" Am,'ti!'e );is II diagn sesBN The DS: - ntains 'itt'e dis-,ssi n + .hat disting,ishes n #ma' -ha#a-te# A!e#s na'it"B, !e#s na'it" t#aits, # !e#s na'it" st"'e A:i'' nB - +# m !e#s na'it" dis #de#sN ) dea#th + d -,mented -'ini-a' e;!e#ien-e #ega#ding * th the dis #de#s themse'(es and the ,ti'it" + (a#i ,s t#eatment m da'itiesN N,me# ,s !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e ?n t s!e-i+ied? - a -at-ha'', *asket ?-ateg #"?N the#.ise

C,'t,#a' *ias is e(ident in -e#tain dis #de#s As,-h as the )ntis -ia' and the S-hiD t"!a'BN The eme#gen-e + dimensi na' a'te#nati(es t the -ateg #i-a' a!!# a-h is a-kn .'edged in the DS:-IV-T& itse'+: -.n alternati'e to the categorical a**roach is the dimensional *ers*ecti'e that Personality Disorders re*resent malada*ti'e 'ariants of *ersonality traits that merge im*erce*tibly into normality and into one another/ A!.HJGB

The + '' .ing iss,es - ' ng neg'e-ted in the DS: - a#e 'ike'" t *e ta-k'ed in +,t,#e editi ns as .e'' as in -,##ent #esea#-h: The ' ngit,dina' - ,#se + the dis #de#AsB and thei# tem! #a' sta*i'it" +# m ea#'" -hi'dh d n.a#ds The geneti- and *i ' gi-a' ,nde#!innings + !e#s na'it" dis #de#AsB The de(e' !ment + !e#s na'it" !s"-h !ath ' g" d,#ing -hi'dh d and its eme#gen-e in ad 'es-en-e The inte#a-ti ns *et.een !h"si-a' hea'th and disease and !e#s na'it" dis #de#s The e++e-ti(eness + (a#i ,s t#eatments - ta'k the#a!ies as .e'' as !s"-h !ha#ma- ' g". 1. (he &oncept o# 2-isease2 <e a#e a'' te#mina''" i''. It is a matte# + time *e+ #e .e a'' die. )ging and death #emain a'm st as m"ste#i ,s as e(e#. <e +ee' a.ed and ,n- m+ #ta*'e .hen .e - ntem!'ate these t.in a++'i-ti ns. Indeed, the (e#" . #d den ting i''ness - ntains its .n *est de+initi n: dis-ease. ) menta' - m! nent + 'a-k + .e'' *eing m,st e;ist S784ECTIVE$=. The !e#s n m,st 9EE$ *ad, m,st e;!e#ien-e dis- m+it,#e + # his - nditi n t >,a'i+" as a disease. T this e;tent, .e a#e %,sti+ied in -'assi+"ing a'' diseases as ?s!i#it,a'? # ?menta'?. Is the#e an" the# .a" + disting,ishing hea'th +# m si-kness - a .a" that d es NOT de!end n the #e! #t that the !atient !# (ides #ega#ding his s,*%e-ti(e e;!e#ien-e@

S me diseases a#e mani+est and the#s a#e 'atent # immanent. 5eneti- diseases -an e;ist - ,nmani+ested - + # gene#ati ns. This #aises the !hi' s !hi-a' !# *'em # .hethe# a ! tentia' disease IS a disease@ )#e )IDS and 1em !hi'ia -a##ie#s - si-k@ Sh ,'d the" *e t#eated, ethi-a''" s!eaking@ The" e;!e#ien-e n dis-ease, the" #e! #t n s"m!t ms, n signs a#e e(ident. On .hat m #a' g# ,nds -an .e - mmit them t t#eatment@ On the g# ,nds + the ?g#eate# *ene+it? is the - mm n #es! nse. Ca##ie#s th#eaten the#s and m,st *e is 'ated # the#.ise ne,te#ed. The th#eat inhe#ent in them m,st *e e#adi-ated. This is a dange# ,s m #a' !#e-edent. )'' kinds + !e !'e th#eaten ,# .e''-*eing: ,nsett'ing ide ' gists, the menta''" handi-a!!ed, man" ! 'iti-ians. <h" sh ,'d .e sing'e ,t ,# !h"si-a' .e''-*eing as . #th" + a !#i(i'eged m #a' stat,s@ <h" is ,# menta' .e'' *eing, + # instan-e, + 'ess im! #t@ : #e (e#, the distin-ti n *et.een the !s"-hi- and the !h"si-a' is h t'" dis!,ted, !hi' s !hi-a''". The !s"-h !h"si-a' !# *'em is as int#a-ta*'e t da" as it e(e# .as Ai+ n t m #e s B. It is *e" nd d ,*t that the !h"si-a' a++e-ts the menta' and the the# .a" a# ,nd. This is .hat dis-i!'ines 'ike !s"-hiat#" a#e a'' a* ,t. The a*i'it" t - nt# ' ?a,t n m ,s? * di'" +,n-ti ns As,-h as hea#t*eatB and menta' #ea-ti ns t !ath gens + the *#ain a#e !# + + the a#ti+i-ia'ness + this distin-ti n. It is a #es,'t + the #ed,-ti nist (ie. + nat,#e as di(isi*'e and s,mma*'e. The s,m + the !a#ts, a'as, is n t a'.a"s the .h 'e and the#e is n s,-h thing as an in+inite set + the #,'es + nat,#e, n'" an as"m!t ti- a!!# ;imati n + it. The distin-ti n *et.een the !atient and the ,tside . #'d is s,!e#+', ,s and .# ng. The !atient )ND his en(i# nment a#e ONE and the same. Disease is a !e#t,#*ati n in the !e#ati n and management + the

- m!'e; e- s"stem kn .n as !atient-. #'d. 1,mans a*s #* thei# en(i# nment and +eed it in e>,a' meas,#es. This n-g ing inte#a-ti n IS the !atient. <e -ann t e;ist .ith ,t the intake + .ate#, ai#, (is,a' stim,'i and + d. O,# en(i# nment is de+ined *" ,# a-ti ns and ,t!,t, !h"si-a' and menta'. Th,s, ne m,st >,esti n the -'assi-a' di++e#entiati n *et.een ?inte#na'? and ?e;te#na'?. S me i''nesses a#e - nside#ed ?end geni-? ACgene#ated +# m the insideB. Nat,#a', ?inte#na'?, -a,ses - a hea#t de+e-t, a *i -hemi-a' im*a'an-e, a geneti- m,tati n, a meta* 'i- !# -ess g ne a.#" - -a,se disease. )ging and de+ #mities a's *e' ng in this -ateg #". In - nt#ast, !# *'ems + n,#t,#an-e and en(i# nment ea#'" -hi'dh d a*,se, + # instan-e, # ma'n,t#iti n - a#e ?e;te#na'? and s a#e the ?-'assi-a'? !ath gens Age#ms and (i#,sesB and a--idents. 8,t this, again, is a - ,nte#-!# d,-ti(e a!!# a-h. E; geni- and End geni- !ath genesis is inse!a#a*'e. :enta' states in-#ease # de-#ease the s,s-e!ti*i'it" t e;te#na''" ind,-ed disease. Ta'k the#a!" # a*,se Ae;te#na' e(entsB a'te# the *i -hemi-a' *a'an-e + the *#ain. The inside - nstant'" inte#a-ts .ith the ,tside and is s inte#t.ined .ith it that a'' distin-ti ns *et.een them a#e a#ti+i-ia' and mis'eading. The *est e;am!'e is, + - ,#se, medi-ati n: it is an e;te#na' agent, it in+',en-es inte#na' !# -esses and it has a (e#" st# ng menta' - ##e'ate ACits e++i-a-" is in+',en-ed *" menta' +a-t #s as in the !'a-e* e++e-tB. The (e#" nat,#e + d"s+,n-ti n and si-kness is high'" -,'t,#e-de!endent. S -ieta' !a#amete#s di-tate #ight and .# ng in hea'th Aes!e-ia''" menta' hea'thB. It is a'' a

matte# + statisti-s. Ce#tain diseases a#e a--e!ted in -e#tain !a#ts + the . #'d as a +a-t + 'i+e # e(en a sign + distin-ti n Ae.g., the !a#an id s-hiD !h#eni- as -h sen *" the g dsB. I+ the#e is n dis-ease the#e is n disease. That the !h"si-a' # menta' state + a !e#s n C)N *e di++e#ent d es n t im!'" that it :7ST *e di++e#ent # e(en that it is desi#a*'e that it sh ,'d *e di++e#ent. In an (e#-! !,'ated . #'d, ste#i'it" might *e the desi#a*'e thing - # e(en the --asi na' e!idemi-. The#e is n s,-h thing as )8SO$7TE d"s+,n-ti n. The * d" and the mind )$<)=S +,n-ti n. The" ada!t themse'(es t thei# en(i# nment and i+ the 'atte# -hanges - the" -hange. Pe#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e the *est ! ssi*'e #es! nses t a*,se. Can-e# ma" *e the *est ! ssi*'e #es! nse t -a#-in gens. )ging and death a#e de+inite'" the *est ! ssi*'e #es! nse t (e#-! !,'ati n. Pe#ha!s the ! int + (ie. + the sing'e !atient is in- mmens,#ate .ith the ! int + (ie. + his s!e-ies - *,t this sh ,'d n t se#(e t *s-,#e the iss,es and de#ai' #ati na' de*ate. )s a #es,'t, it is ' gi-a' t int# d,-e the n ti n + ?! siti(e a*e##ati n?. Ce#tain h"!e#- # h"! - +,n-ti ning -an "ie'd ! siti(e #es,'ts and !# (e t *e ada!ti(e. The di++e#en-e *et.een ! siti(e and negati(e a*e##ati ns -an ne(e# *e ? *%e-ti(e?. Nat,#e is m #a''"-ne,t#a' and em* dies n ?(a',es? # ?!#e+e#en-es?. It sim!'" e;ists. <E, h,mans, int# d,-e ,# (a',e s"stems, !#e%,di-es and !#i #ities int ,# a-ti(ities, s-ien-e in-',ded. It is *ette# t *e hea'th", .e sa", *e-a,se .e +ee' *ette# .hen .e a#e hea'th". Ci#-,'a#it" aside - this is the n'" -#ite#i n that .e -an #eas na*'" em!' ". I+ the !atient +ee's g d - it is n t a disease, e(en i+ .e a'' think it is. I+ the !atient +ee's *ad, eg -d"st ni-, ,na*'e t +,n-ti n - it is a disease, e(en .hen .e a'' think it isnEt. Need'ess t sa" that I am #e+e##ing t that m"thi-a' -#eat,#e, the +,''" in+ #med !atient. I+ s me ne is si-k and kn .s n *ette# Ahas ne(e#

*een hea'th"B - then his de-isi n sh ,'d *e #es!e-ted n'" a+te# he is gi(en the -han-e t e;!e#ien-e hea'th. )'' the attem!ts t int# d,-e ? *%e-ti(e? "a#dsti-ks + hea'th a#e !'ag,ed and !hi' s !hi-a''" - ntaminated *" the inse#ti n + (a',es, !#e+e#en-es and !#i #ities int the + #m,'a - # *" s,*%e-ting the + #m,'a t them a't gethe#. One s,-h attem!t is t de+ine hea'th as ?an in-#ease in #de# # e++i-ien-" + !# -esses? as - nt#asted .ith i''ness .hi-h is ?a de-#ease in #de# ACin-#ease + ent# !"B and in the e++i-ien-" + !# -esses?. <hi'e *eing +a-t,a''" dis!,ta*'e, this d"ad a's s,++e#s +# m a se#ies + im!'i-it (a',e-%,dgments. 9 # instan-e, .h" sh ,'d .e !#e+e# 'i+e (e# death@ O#de# t ent# !"@ E++i-ien-" t ine++i-ien-"@ 1ea'th and si-kness a#e di++e#ent states + a++ai#s. <hethe# ne is !#e+e#a*'e t the the# is a matte# + the s!e-i+i-,'t,#e and s -iet" in .hi-h the >,esti n is ! sed. 1ea'th Aand its 'a-kB is dete#mined *" em!' "ing th#ee ?+i'te#s? as it .e#e: 1. Is the * d" a++e-ted@ 2. Is the !e#s n a++e-ted@ Adis-ease, the *#idge *et.een ?!h"si-a'? and ?menta' i''nessesB F. Is s -iet" a++e-ted@ In the -ase + menta' hea'th the thi#d >,esti n is +ten + #m,'ated as ?is it n #ma'? ACis it statisti-a''" the n #m + this !a#ti-,'a# s -iet" in this !a#ti-,'a# timeB@ <e m,st #e-h,maniDe disease. 8" im! sing ,! n iss,es + hea'th the !#etensi ns + the a--,#ate s-ien-es, .e *%e-ti+ied the !atient and the hea'e# a'ike and ,tte#'" neg'e-ted that .hi-h -ann t *e >,anti+ied # meas,#ed the h,man mind, the h,man s!i#it.

&ead ?The :"th + :enta' I''ness? 2. Ps"cholog" as Stor"telling St #"te''ing has *een .ith ,s sin-e the da"s + -am!+i#e and *esieging .i'd anima's. It se#(es a n,m*e# + im! #tant +,n-ti ns: ame'i #ati n + +ea#s, - mm,ni-ati n + (ita' in+ #mati n A#ega#ding s,#(i(a' ta-ti-s and the -ha#a-te#isti-s + anima's, + # instan-eB, the satis+a-ti n + a sense + #de# A%,sti-eB, the de(e' !ment + the a*i'it" t h"! thesiDe, !#edi-t and int# d,-e the #ies and s n. <e a#e a'' end .ed .ith a sense + . nde#. The . #'d a# ,nd ,s in ine;!'i-a*'e, *a++'ing in its di(e#sit" and m"#iad + #ms. <e e;!e#ien-e an ,#ge t #ganiDe it, t ?e;!'ain the . nde# a.a"?, t #de# it in #de# t kn . .hat t e;!e-t ne;t A!#edi-tB. These a#e the essentia's + s,#(i(a'. 8,t .hi'e .e ha(e *een s,--ess+,' at im! sing the st#,-t,#es + ,# mind n the ,tside . #'d / .e a#e 'ess s,--ess+,' .hen .e t#" t - !e .ith ,# inte#na' ,ni(e#se. The #e'ati nshi! *et.een the st#,-t,#e and +,n-ti ning + ,# Ae!heme#a'B mind, the st#,-t,#e and m des + !e#ati n + ,# A!h"si-a'B *#ain and the st#,-t,#e and - nd,-t + the ,tside . #'d ha(e *een the s,*%e-t matte# + heated de*ate + # mi''ennia. 8# ad'" s!eaking, the#e .e#e Aand sti'' a#eB t. s-h 's + th ,ght: The#e a#e th se .h , + # a'' intents and !,#! ses, identi+" the s,*st#ate A*#ainB .ith its !# d,-t AmindB. S me + them ! st,'ate the e;isten-e + a 'atti-e + !#e- n-ei(ed, in* #n -ateg #i-a' kn .'edge a* ,t the ,ni(e#se / the (esse's int .hi-h .e ! ,# ,# e;!e#ien-e t *e m 'ded.

Othe#s #ega#d the mind as a *'a-k * ;. <hi'e it is ! ssi*'e in !#in-i!'e t kn . its in!,t and ,t!,t, it is im! ssi*'e, again in !#in-i!'e, t ,nde#stand its inte#na' +,n-ti ning and management + in+ #mati n. Pa(' ( - ined the . #d ?- nditi ning?, <ats n ad !ted it and in(ented ?*eha(i #ism?, Skinne# -ame ,! .ith ?#ein+ #-ement?. 8,t the" a'' ign #ed the !s"-h !h"si-a' >,esti n: .hat !S the mind and 1O7 is it 'inked t the *#ain@ The the# -am! +an-ies itse'+ m #e ?s-ienti+i-? and ?! siti(ist?. It s!e-,'ates that the mind A.hethe# a !h"si-a' entit", an e!i!hen men n, a n n-!h"si-a' !#in-i!'e + #ganiDati n, # the #es,'t + int# s!e-ti nB / has a st#,-t,#e and a 'imited set + +,n-ti ns. The" a#g,e that a ?,se#Es man,a'? + # the mind - ,'d *e - m! sed, #e!'ete .ith enginee#ing and maintenan-e inst#,-ti ns. The m st !# minent + these ?!s"-h d"namists? .as, + - ,#se, 9#e,d. Th ,gh his dis-i!'es A)d'e#, 1 #ne", the *%e-t-#e'ati ns ' tB di(e#ged .i'd'" +# m his initia' the #ies / the" a'' sha#ed his *e'ie+ in the need t ?s-ienti+"? and *%e-ti+" !s"-h ' g". 9#e,d / a medi-a' d -t # *" !# +essi n ANe,# ' gistB and 8'e,'e# *e+ #e him / -ame .ith a the #" #ega#ding the st#,-t,#e + the mind and its me-hani-s: As,!!#essedB ene#gies and A#ea-ti(eB + #-es. 9' . -ha#ts .e#e !# (ided t gethe# .ith a meth d + ana'"sis, a mathemati-a' !h"si-s Ad"nami-sB + the mind. 8,t this .as a mi#age. )n essentia' !a#t .as missing: the a*i'it" t test the h"! theses de#i(ed +# m these ?the #ies?. Sti'', thei# the #ies s ,nded - n(in-ing and, s,#!#ising'", had g#eat e;!'anat #" ! .e#. 8,t - n n(e#i+ia*'e and n n-+a'si+ia*'e as the" .e#e / the" - ,'d n t *e deemed t *e scientific.

Ps"-h ' gi-a' the #ies + the mind a#e meta!h #s + the mind. The" a#e +a*'es and m"ths, na##ati(es, st #ies, h"! theses, - n%,n-t,#es. The" !'a" Ae;-eeding'"B im! #tant # 'es in the !s"-h the#a!e,ti- setting / *,t n t in the 'a* #at #". Thei# + #m is a#tisti-, n t #ig # ,s, n t testa*'e, 'ess st#,-t,#ed than the #ies in the nat,#a' s-ien-es. The 'ang,age ,sed in !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies is 'ite#a#", ! '"(a'ent, #i-h, e++,si(e, and +,DD" / in sh #t, meta!h #i-a'. The" a#e s,++,sed .ith (a',e %,dgments, -,'t,#a' !#e+e#en-es, +ea#s, ! st +a-t and ad h - nst#,-ti ns. N ne + this has meth d ' gi-a', s"stemati-, ana'"ti- and !#edi-ti(e me#its. Sti'', these the #ies a#e ! .e#+,' des-#i!ti(e inst#,ments, admi#a*'e - nst#,-ts + the mind. )s s,-h, the" a#e * ,nd t satis+" s me needs. Thei# (e#" e;isten-e !# (es it. Pea-e + mind is an essentia' need, .hi-h .as neg'e-ted *" :as' . in his +am ,s hie#a#-h" + needs. Pe !'e sa-#i+i-e mate#ia' .ea'th, #esist tem!tati n, ign #e !! #t,nities, and s metimes #isk themse'(es and the#s / %,st t attain this *'iss. Pe !'e !#e+e# inne# e>,i'i*#i,m t ,te# h me stasis. It is the +,'+i''ment + this (e##iding need that !s"-h ' gi-a' the #ies -ate# t . In this, the" a#e n di++e#ent than the# - ''e-ti(e na##ati(es Am"ths, + # instan-eB. In s me #es!e-ts, th ,gh, the#e a#e st#iking di++e#en-es: 9i#st, !s"-h ' g" is des!e#ate'" t#"ing t 'ink ,! t #ea'it" and t s-ienti+i- dis-i!'ine *" em!' "ing *se#(ati n and meas,#ement and *" #ganiDing its #es,'ts and !#esenting them ,sing the 'ang,age + mathemati-s. This d es n t

at ne + # its !#im #dia' sin: that its s,*%e-t matte# is ethe#ea', e!heme#a' and ina--essi*'e. Sti'', it 'ends it an ai# + -#edi*i'it" and #ig # ,sness. Se- nd, .hi'e hist #i-a' na##ati(es a#e ?*'anket? na##ati(es / !s"-h ' g" is ?tai' #ed? # ?-,st miDed?. ) ,ni>,e na##ati(e is in(ented + # e(e#" !atient A-'ientB in .hi-h s3he is the !# tag nist Ahe# # anti-he# B. This mass -,st miDati n seems t #e+'e-t an age + in-#easing indi(id,a'ism. T#,e, the ?'ang,age ,nits? ,sed in the#a!" A'a#ge -h,nks + den tates and - nn tatesB a#e ne and the same + # e(e#" ?,se#?. In !s"-h ana'"sis, the the#a!ist is 'ike'" t a'.a"s make ,se + the t#i!a#tite st#,-t,#e + Id, Eg , S,!e#eg . 8,t these a#e 'ang,age e'ements and need n t *e - n+,sed .ith the !' ts. Ea-h -'ient, ea-h !e#s n, and his .n, ,ni>,e, i##e!'i-ati(e, !' t. T >,a'i+" as a ?!s"-h ' gi-a'? !' t, the na##ati(e m,st *e:
a.

.ll-inclusi'e 3anamnetic4 / It m,st en- m!ass, integ#ate and in- #! #ate a'' the +a-ts kn .n a* ,t the !# tag nist. Coherent / It m,st *e -h# n ' gi-a', st#,-t,#ed and -a,sa'. Consistent / Se'+-- nsistent Aits s,*!' ts -ann t - nt#adi-t ne an the# # g against the g#ain + the main !' tB and - nsistent .ith the *se#(ed !hen mena A* th th se #e'ated t the !# tag nist and th se !e#taining t the #est + the ,ni(e#seB.

b.

c.

d.

+ogically com*atible / It m,st n t (i 'ate the 'a.s + ' gi- * th inte#na''" Athe !' t m,st a*ide *" s me inte#na''" im! sed ' gi-B and e;te#na''" Athe )#ist te'ian ' gi- .hi-h is a!!'i-a*'e t the *se#(a*'e . #'dB. !nsightful 3diagnostic4 / It m,st ins!i#e in the -'ient a sense + a.e and ast nishment .hi-h is the #es,'t + seeing s mething +ami'ia# in a ne. 'ight # the ,t- me + seeing a !atte#n eme#ging ,t + a *ig * d" + data. The insights m,st a!!ea# t *e a ' gi-a' - n-',si n + the de(e' !ment + the !' t. .esthetic / The !' t m,st *e * th !'a,si*'e and ?#ight?, *ea,ti+,', n t -,m*e#s me, n t a.k.a#d, n t dis- ntin, ,s, sm th and s n. Parsimonious / The !' t m,st em!' " the minim,m n,m*e#s + ass,m!ti ns and entities in #de# t satis+" a'' the a* (e - nditi ns. 85*lanatory / The !' t m,st e;!'ain the *eha(i # + the# -ha#a-te#s, the he# Es de-isi ns and *eha(i #, and .h" e(ents ,n+ 'ded the .a" that the" did. Predicti'e 3*rognostic4 / The !' t m,st ! ssess the a*i'it" t !#edi-t +,t,#e e(ents, the +,t,#e *eha(i # + the he# and + the# meaning+,' +ig,#es and the inne# em ti na' and - gniti(e d"nami-s. Thera*eutic / <ith the ! .e# t ind,-e -hange A.hethe# it is + # the *ette#, is a matte# + - ntem! #a#" (a',e %,dgments and +ashi nsB.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

!m*osing / The !' t m,st *e #ega#ded *" the -'ient as a ,se+,' #ganiDing !#in-i!'e + his 'i+eEs e(ents !ast, !#esent, and +,t,#e. 8lastic / The !' t m,st ! ssess the int#insia*i'ities t se'+ #ganiDe, #e #ganiDe, assimi'ate eme#ging #de#, a-- mm date ne. data - m+ #ta*'", a( id #igidit" in its m des + #ea-ti n t atta-ks +# m .ithin and +# m .ith ,t.

l.

In a'' these #es!e-ts, a !s"-h ' gi-a' !' t is a the #" in disg,ise. S-ienti+i- the #ies m,st satis+" m st + the same - nditi ns. 8,t the e>,ati n is +'a.ed. The im! #tant e'ements + testa*i'it", (e#i+ia*i'it", #e+,ta*i'it", +a'si+ia*i'it", and #e!eata*i'it" / a#e a'' missing. N e;!e#iment - ,'d *e designed t test the statements .ithin the !' t, t esta*'ish thei# t#,th-(a',e and, th,s, t - n(e#t them t the #ems. The#e a#e + ,# #eas ns t a-- ,nt + # this sh #t- ming:
1.

8thical / T s,*stantiate a the #" e;!e#iments . ,'d ha(e t *e - nd,-ted n the !atient and the#s. T a-hie(e the ne-essa#" #es,'t, the s,*%e-ts m,st *e ign #ant + the +a-t that the" a#e *eing e;!e#imented ,! n Ain d ,*'e *'ind e;!e#imentsB # #emain in the da#k #ega#ding .hat the e;!e#imente#s .ant t a-hie(e. S me e;!e#iments ma" in( '(e ,n!'easant # e(en t#a,mati- e;!e#ien-es. This is ethi-a''" ,na--e!ta*'e. The Psychological 2ncertainty Princi*le / The -,##ent ! siti n + a h,man s,*%e-t -an *e +,''" kn .n. 8,t * th t#eatment and e;!e#imentati n in+',en-e the s,*%e-t and ( id this kn .'edge. The

2.

(e#" !# -esses + meas,#ement and *se#(ati n in+',en-e the s,*%e-t and -hange him # he#.
3.

2ni,ueness / Ps"-h ' gi-a' e;!e#iments a#e, the#e+ #e, * ,nd t *e ,ni>,e. The" -ann t *e #e!eated e'se.he#e and at the# times e(en i+ the" in( '(e the S. 8 s,*%e-ts. This is *e-a,se the s,*%e-ts a#e ne(e# #ea''" the same d,e t the a* (e-menti ned *sychological uncertainty *rinci*le. &e!eating the e;!e#iments .ith the# s,*%e-ts ad(e#se'" a++e-ts the s-ienti+i- (a',e + the #es,'ts. The undergeneration of testable hy*otheses / Ps"-h ' g" d es n t gene#ate a s,++i-ient n,m*e# + h"! theses, .hi-h -an *e s,*%e-ted t s-ienti+itesting. This has t d .ith the +a*,' ,s ACst #"te''ingB nat,#e + !s"-h ' g". In a .a", !s"-h ' g" has a++init" .ith s me !#i(ate 'ang,ages. It is a + #m + a#t and, as s,-h, is se'+s,++i-ient. I+ st#,-t,#a', inte#na' - nst#aints and #e>,i#ements a#e met / a statement is deemed t#,e e(en i+ it d es n t satis+" e;te#na' s-ienti+i#e>,i#ements.

4.

S , .hat a#e !' ts g d + #@ The" a#e the inst#,ments ,sed in the !# -ed,#es .hi-h ind,-e !ea-e + mind Ae(en ha!!inessB in the -'ient. This is d ne .ith the he'! + a +e. em*edded me-hanisms:
a.

The Organi9ing Princi*le / Ps"-h ' gi-a' !' ts ++e# the -'ient an #ganiDing !#in-i!'e, a sense + #de# and ens,ing %,sti-e, + an ine; #a*'e d#i(e t .a#d .e'' de+ined Ath ,gh, !e#ha!s, hiddenB g a's, the ,*i>,it" + meaning, *eing !a#t + a .h 'e. The" st#i(e t ans.e# the ?.h"Qs? and

?h .Qs?. P' ts a#e dia' gi-. The -'ient asks: ?.h" d I s,++e# +# m Ahe#e + '' .s a s"nd# meB?. Then, the !' t is s!,n: ?= , a#e 'ike this n t *e-a,se the . #'d is .himsi-a''" -#,e' *,t *e-a,se " ,# !a#ents mist#eated " , .hen " , .e#e (e#" " ,ng, # *e-a,se a !e#s n im! #tant t " , died, # .as taken a.a" +# m " , .hen " , .e#e sti'' im!#essi na*'e, # *e-a,se " , .e#e se;,a''" a*,sed and s n?. The -'ient is -a'med *" the (e#" +a-t that the#e is an e;!'anati n t that .hi-h ,nti' n . m nst# ,s'" ta,nted and ha,nted him, that he is n t the !'a"thing + (i-i ,s g ds, that his dis- m+ #t has a 'a*e', that the#e is s me ne t *'ame Ahe'!+,''" + -,sing his di++,sed ange#B and, that, the#e+ #e, his *e'ie+ in #de#, %,sti-e and thei# administ#ati n *" s me s,!#eme, t#ans-endenta' !#in-i!'e A # *eingB is #est #ed. This sense + ?'a. and #de#? is +,#the# enhan-ed .hen the !' t "ie'ds !#edi-ti ns .hi-h - me t#,e Aeithe# *e-a,se the" a#e se'+-+,'+i''ing !# !hesies # *e-a,se s me #ea' ?'a.? has *een dis- (e#edB.
b.

The !ntegrati'e Princi*le / The -'ient is ++e#ed, th# ,gh the !' t, a--ess t the inne#m st, hithe#t ina--essi*'e, #e-esses + his mind. 1e +ee's that he is *eing #einteg#ated, that ?things +a'' int !'a-e?. In !s"-h d"nami- te#ms, his ene#g" is #e'eased t d !# d,-ti(e and ! siti(e . #k, #athe# than t *e -hanne'ed dist #ted and dest#,-ti(e + #-es.

c. The Purgatory Princi*le / In m st -ases, the -'ient +ee's sin+,', de*ased, inh,man, de-#e!it, - ##,!ting, g,i't", !,nisha*'e, hate+,', a'ienated, st#ange, m -ked and s n. The !' t ++e#s him a*s ',ti n. $ike the high'" s"m* 'i- st #" + the Sa(i # / the -'ientEs s,++e#ings e;!,#gate, -'eanse,

a*s '(e, and at ne + # his sins and handi-a!s. ) +ee'ing + ha#d . n a-hie(ement a-- m!anies the s!inning + a s,--ess+,' !' t. The -'ient sheds 'a"e#s + +,n-ti na', ma'ada!ti(e -' thing. This is in #dinate'" !ain+,'. The -'ient +ee's dange# ,s'" naked, !#e-a#i ,s'" e;! sed. 1e then assimi'ates the !' t ++e#ed t him, th,s en% "ing the *ene+its emanating +# m the !#e(i ,s t. !#in-i!'es and n'" then d es he de(e' ! ne. me-hanisms + - !ing. The#a!" is a menta' -#,-i+i;i n and #es,##e-ti n and at nement + # the sins. It is high'" #e'igi ,s .ith the !' t in the # 'e + the s-#i!t,#es +# m .hi-h s 'a-e is g'eaned. F. Personalit" -isorders . An 'vervie* )'' !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e inte##e'ated, at 'east !hen men ' gi-a''" - th ,gh .e ha(e n 5#and 7ni+"ing The #" + Ps"-h !ath ' g". <e d n t kn . .hethe# the#e a#e / and .hat a#e / the me-hanisms ,nde#'"ing menta' dis #de#s. )t *est, menta' hea'th !# +essi na's #e- #d s"m!t ms Aas #e! #ted *" the !atientB and signs Aas *se#(edB. Then, the" g# ,! them int s"nd# mes and, m #e s!e-i+i-a''", int dis #de#s. This is des-#i!ti(e, n t e;!'anat #" s-ien-e. S,#e, the#e a#e a +e. eti ' gi-a' the #ies a# ,nd A!s"-h ana'"sis, t menti n the m st +am ,sB *,t the" a'' +ai'ed t !# (ide a - he#ent, - nsistent the #eti-a' +#ame. #k .ith !#edi-ti(e ! .e#s. Patients s,++e#ing +# m !e#s na'it" dis #de#s ha(e man" things in - mm n: 1. : st + them a#e insistent Ae;-e!t th se s,++e#ing +# m the S-hiD id # the )( idant Pe#s na'it"

Dis #de#sB. The" demand t#eatment n a !#e+e#entia' and !#i(i'eged *asis. The" - m!'ain a* ,t n,me# ,s s"m!t ms. The" ne(e# *e" the !h"si-ian # his t#eatment #e- mmendati ns and inst#,-ti ns. 2. The" #ega#d themse'(es as ,ni>,e, dis!'a" a st#eak + g#andi sit" and a diminished -a!a-it" + # em!ath" Athe a*i'it" t a!!#e-iate and #es!e-t the needs and .ishes + the# !e !'eB. The" #ega#d the !h"si-ian as in+e#i # t them, a'ienate him ,sing ,m!teen te-hni>,es and * #e him .ith thei# ne(e#ending se'+-!#e --,!ati n. F. The" a#e mani!,'ati(e and e;!' itati(e *e-a,se the" t#,st n ne and ,s,a''" -ann t ' (e # sha#e. The" a#e s -ia''" ma'ada!ti(e and em ti na''" ,nsta*'e. 4. : st !e#s na'it" dis #de#s sta#t ,t as !# *'ems in !e#s na' de(e' !ment .hi-h !eak d,#ing ad 'es-en-e and then *e- me !e#s na'it" dis #de#s. The" sta" n as end,#ing >,a'ities + the indi(id,a'. Pe#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e sta*'e and a''!e#(asi(e / n t e!is di-. The" a++e-t m st + the a#eas + +,n-ti ning + the !atient: his -a#ee#, his inte#!e#s na' #e'ati nshi!s, his s -ia' +,n-ti ning. I. The t"!i-a' !atients is ,nha!!". 1e is de!#essed, s,++e#s +# m a,;i'ia#" m d and an;iet" dis #de#s. 1e d es n t 'ike himse'+, his -ha#a-te#, his Ade+i-ientB +,n-ti ning, # his A-#i!!'ingB in+',en-e n the#s. 8,t his de+en-es a#e s st# ng, that he is a.a#e n'" + the dist#ess / and n t + the #eas ns t it.

H. The !atient .ith a !e#s na'it" dis #de# is (,'ne#a*'e t and !# ne t s,++e# +# m a h st + the# !s"-hiat#i- !# *'ems. It is as th ,gh his !s"-h ' gi-a' imm,n ' gi-a' s"stem has *een disa*'ed *" his !e#s na'it" dis #de# and he +a''s !#e" t the# (a#iants + menta' i''ness. S m,-h ene#g" is - ns,med *" the dis #de# and *" its - # ''a#ies Ae;am!'e: *" *sessi ns-- m!,'si ns, # m d s.ingsB, that the !atient is #ende#ed de+en-e'ess. K. Patients .ith !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e a'' !'astiin thei# de+en-es. The" ha(e an e;te#na' ' -,s + - nt# '. In the# . #ds: the" tend t *'ame the ,tside . #'d + # thei# misha!s. In st#ess+,' sit,ati ns, the" t#" t !#e-em!t a A#ea' # imagina#"B th#eat, -hange the #,'es + the game, int# d,-e ne. (a#ia*'es, # the#.ise in+',en-e the . #'d ,t the#e t - n+ #m t thei# needs. This is as !! sed t a,t !'asti- de+en-es Ainte#na' ' -,s + - nt# 'B t"!i-a', + # instan-e, + ne,# ti-s A.h -hange thei# inte#na' !s"-h ' gi-a' !# -esses in st#ess+,' sit,ati nsB. J. The -ha#a-te# !# *'ems, *eha(i ,#a' de+i-its and em ti na' de+i-ien-ies and 'a*i'it" en- ,nte#ed *" !atients .ith !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e, m st'", eg -s"nt ni-. This means that the !atient d es n t, n the .h 'e, +ind his !e#s na'it" t#aits # *eha(i ,# *%e-ti na*'e, ,na--e!ta*'e, disag#eea*'e, # a'ien t his se'+. )s !! sed t that, ne,# ti-s a#e eg -d"st ni-: the" d n t 'ike .h the" a#e and h . the" *eha(e n a - nstant *asis.

G. The !e#s na'it"-dis #de#ed a#e n t !s"-h ti-. The" ha(e n ha'',-inati ns, de',si ns # th ,ght dis #de#s Ae;-e!t th se .h s,++e# +# m the 8 #de#'ine Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# and .h e;!e#ien-e *#ie+ !s"-h ti- ?mi-# e!is des?, m st'" d,#ing t#eatmentB. The" a#e a's +,''" #iented, .ith -'ea# senses Asens #i,mB, g d mem #" and a satis+a-t #" gene#a' +,nd + kn .'edge. The Diagn sti- and Statisti-a' :an,a' L)me#i-an Ps"-hiat#i- )ss -iati n. DS:-IV-T&, <ashingt n, 2000M de+ines ?!e#s na'it"? as: "(enduring *atterns of *ercei'ing% relating to% and thinking about the en'ironment and oneself ( e5hibited in a $ide range of im*ortant social and *ersonal conte5ts." C'i-k he#e t #ead the DS:-IV-T& A2000B de+initi n + !e#s na'it" dis #de#s. The inte#nati na' e>,i(a'ent + the DS: is the ICD-10, C'assi+i-ati n + :enta' and 8eha(i ,#a' Dis #de#s, !,*'ished *" the < #'d 1ea'th O#ganiDati n in 5ene(a A1GG2B. C'i-k he#e t #ead the ICD-10 diagn sti- -#ite#ia + # the !e#s na'it" dis #de#s. Ea-h !e#s na'it" dis #de# has its .n + #m + Na#-issistiS,!!'":
a.

1PD A1ist#i ni- PDB / Se;, sed,-ti n, ?- n>,ests?, +'i#tati n, # man-e, * d"-*,i'ding, demanding !h"si-a' #egimeN

b. c. d.

<PD ANa#-issisti- PDB / )d,'ati n, admi#ati n, attenti n, *eing +ea#edN BPD A8 #de#'ine PDB / The !#esen-e + thei# mate # !a#tne# Athe" a#e te##i+ied + a*and nmentBN .sPD A)ntis -ia' PDB / : ne", ! .e#, - nt# ', +,n.

8 #de#'ines, + # instan-e, -an *e des-#i*ed as na#-issist .ith an (e#.he'ming se!a#ati n an;iet". The" DO -a#e dee!'" a* ,t n t h,#ting the#s Ath ,gh +ten the" -ann t he'! itB / *,t n t ,t + em!ath". Thei#s is a se'+ish m ti(ati n t a( id #e%e-ti n. 8 #de#'ines de!end n the# !e !'e + # em ti na' s,stenan-e. ) d#,g addi-t is ,n'ike'" t !i-k ,! a +ight .ith his !,she#. 8,t 8 #de#'ines a's ha(e de+i-ient im!,'se - nt# ', as d )ntis -ia's. 1en-e thei# em ti na' 'a*i'it", e##ati- *eha(i ,#, and the a*,se the" d hea! n thei# nea#est and dea#est. 4. An !+ample o# a Uni#"ing Approach <e a#e a'' na#-issists at an ea#'" stage + ,# 'i(es. )s in+ants, .e +ee' that .e a#e the -ent#e + the ,ni(e#se, mni! tent and mnis-ient. O,# !a#ents, th se m"thi-a' +ig,#es, imm #ta' and a.es me'" ! .e#+,', a#e the#e n'" t !# te-t and se#(e ,s. 8 th se'+ and the#s a#e (ie.ed immat,#e'", as idea'isati ns. Ine(ita*'", the ine; #a*'e !# -esses and - n+'i-ts + 'i+e g#ind these idea's int the +ine d,st + the #ea'. Disa!! intments + '' . disi'',si nment. <hen these a#e g#ad,a' and t 'e#a*'e, the" a#e ada!tati(e. I+ a*#,!t, -a!#i-i ,s, a#*it#a#", and intense, the in%,#ies s,stained *" the tende#, *,dding se'+-esteem, a#e i##e(e#si*'e. : #e (e#, the em!athi- s,!! #t + the -a#etake#s Athe P#ima#" O*%e-ts, the !a#entsB is -#,-ia'. In its a*sen-e,

se'+-esteem in ad,'th d tends t +',-t,ate, t a'te#nate *et.een (e#-(a',ati n Aidea'isati nB and de(a',ati n + * th se'+ and the#s. Na#-issisti- ad,'ts a#e the #es,'t + *itte# disa!! intments, + #adi-a' disi'',si nment .ith !a#ents, # 'e m de's, # !ee#s. 1ea'th" ad,'ts a--e!t thei# 'imitati ns Athe * ,nda#ies + thei# se'(esB. The" a--e!t disa!! intments, set*a-ks, +ai',#es, -#iti-ism and disi'',si nment .ith g#a-e and t 'e#an-e. Thei# sense + se'+-. #th is - nstant and ! siti(e, minima''" a++e-ted *" ,tside e(ents, n matte# h . se(e#e. The - mm n (ie. is that .e g th# ,gh the stages + a 'inea# de(e' !ment. <e a#e !# !e''ed + #.a#d *" (a#i ,s + #-es: the $i*id A+ #-e + 'i+eB and the Thanat s A+ #-e + deathB in 9#e,dEs t#i!a#tite m de', :eaning in 9#enke'Es . #k, s -ia''" mediated !hen mena Ain * th )d'e#Es thinking and in 8eha(i ,#ismB, ,# -,'t,#a' - nte;t Ain 1 #ne"Es !e#aB, inte#!e#s na' #e'ati ns AS,''i(anB and ne,# *i ' gi-a' and ne,# -hemi-a' !# -esses, t menti n *,t a +e. s-h 's + de(e' !menta' !s"-h ' g". In an e++ #t t gain #es!e-ta*i'it", man" s-h 'a#s attem!ted t !# ! se a ?!h"si-s + the mind?. 8,t these th ,ght s"stems di++e# n man" iss,es. S me sa" that !e#s na' de(e' !ment ends in -hi'dh d, the#s / d,#ing ad 'es-en-e. =et the#s sa" that de(e' !ment is a !# -ess .hi-h - ntin,es th# ,gh ,t the 'i+e + the indi(id,a'. C mm n t a'' these s-h 's + th ,ght a#e the me-hani-s and d"nami-s + the !# -ess + !e#s na' g# .th. 9 #-es / inne# # e;te#na' / +a-i'itate the de(e' !ment + the indi(id,a'. <hen an *sta-'e t de(e' !ment is en- ,nte#ed, de(e' !ment is st,nted # a##ested / *,t n t

+ # ' ng. ) dist #ted !atte#n + de(e' !ment, a *"!ass a!!ea#s. Ps"-h !ath ' g" is the ,t- me + !e#t,#*ed g# .th. 1,mans -an *e - m!a#ed t t#ees. <hen a t#ee en- ,nte#s a !h"si-a' *sta-'e t its e;!ansi n, its *#an-hes # # ts -,#' a# ,nd it. De+ #med and ,g'", the" sti'' #ea-h thei# destinati n, h .e(e# 'ate and !a#tia''". Ps"-h !ath ' gies a#e, the#e+ #e, ada!tati(e me-hanisms. The" a'' . the indi(id,a' t - ntin,e t g# . a# ,nd *sta-'es. The nas-ent !e#s na'it" t.ists and t,#ns, de+ #ms itse'+, is t#ans+ #med / ,nti' it #ea-hes a +,n-ti na' e>,i'i*#i,m, .hi-h is n t t eg -d"st ni-. 1a(ing #ea-hed that ! int, it sett'es d .n and - ntin,es its m #e # 'ess 'inea# !atte#n + g# .th. The + #-es + 'i+e Aas e;!#essed in the de(e' !ment + the !e#s na'it"B a#e st# nge# than an" hind#an-e. The # ts + t#ees -#a-k might" # -ks, mi-# *es 'i(e in the m st ! is n ,s s,## ,ndings. Simi'a#'", h,mans + #m th se !e#s na'it" st#,-t,#es .hi-h a#e !tima''" s,ited t thei# needs and ,tside - nst#aints. S,-h !e#s na'it" - n+ig,#ati ns ma" *e a*n #ma' / *,t thei# me#e e;isten-e !# (es that the" ha(e t#i,m!hed in the de'i-ate task + s,--ess+,' ada!tati n. On'" death !,ts a st ! t !e#s na' g# .th and de(e' !ment. $i+eEs e(ents, -#ises, % "s and sadness, disa!! intments and s,#!#ises, set*a-ks and s,--esses / a'' - nt#i*,te t the .ea(ing + the de'i-ate +a*#i- -a''ed ?!e#s na'it"?. <hen an indi(id,a' Aat an" ageB en- ,nte#s an *sta-'e t the #de#'" !# g#essi n +# m ne stage + de(e' !ment t

an the# / he #et#eats at +i#st t his ea#'" -hi'dh dEs na#-issisti- !hase #athe# than -i#-,m(ent # ?g a# ,nd? the hind#an-e. The !# -ess is th#ee-!hased: A1B The !e#s n en- ,nte#s an *sta-'e A2B The !e#s n #eg#esses t the in+anti'e na#-issisti- !hase AFB Th,s #e-,!e#ated, the !e#s n - n+# nts the *sta-'e again. <hi'e in ste! A2B, the !e#s n dis!'a"s -hi'dish, immat,#e *eha(i ,#s. 1e +ee's that he is mni! tent and mis%,dges his ! .e#s and the might + the !! siti n. 1e ,nde#estimates -ha''enges +a-ing him and !#etends t *e ?:#. 6n .-)''?. 1is sensiti(it" t the needs and em ti ns + the#s and his a*i'it" t em!athise .ith them dete#i #ates sha#!'". 1e *e- mes int 'e#a*'" ha,ght" .ith sadisti- and !a#an id tenden-ies. )* (e a'', he then demands ,n- nditi na' admi#ati n, e(en .hen he d es n t dese#(e it. 1e is !#e --,!ied .ith +antasti-, magi-a', thinking and da"d#eams his 'i+e a.a". 1e tends t e;!' it the#s, t en(" them, t *e edg" and e;!' de .ith ,ne;!'ained #age. Pe !'e .h se !s"-h ' gi-a' de(e' !ment is *st#,-ted *" a + #mida*'e *sta-'e / m st'" #e(e#t t e;-essi(e and - m!,'si(e *eha(i ,# !atte#ns. T !,t it s,--in-t'": .hene(e# .e e;!e#ien-e a ma% # 'i+e -#isis A.hi-h hinde#s ,# !e#s na' g# .th and th#eatens itB / .e s,++e# +# m a mi'd and t#ansient + #m + the Na#-issisti- Pe#s na'it" Dis #de#.

This +antas" . #'d, +,'' + +a'sit" and h,#t +ee'ings, se#(es as a s!#ing* a#d +# m .hi-h the #e%,(enated indi(id,a' #es,mes his !# g#ess t .a#ds the ne;t stage + !e#s na' g# .th. This time a# ,nd, +a-ed .ith the same *sta-'e, he +ee's s,++i-ient'" ! tent t ign #e it # t atta-k it. In m st -ases, the s,--ess + this se- nd ns'a,ght is g,a#anteed *" the de',si na' assessment that the *sta-'eEs + #tit,de and magnit,de a#e diminished. This, indeed, is the main +,n-ti n + this #ea-ti(e, e!is di-, and t#ansient na#-issism: t en- ,#age magi-a' thinking, t .ish the !# *'em a.a" # t en-hant it # t ta-k'e and (e#- me it +# m a ! siti n + mni! ten-e. ) st#,-t,#a' a*n #ma'it" + !e#s na'it" a#ises n'" .hen #e-,##ent atta-ks +ai' - nstant'" and - nsistent'" t e'iminate the *sta-'e, # t (e#- me the hind#an-e. The - nt#ast *et.een the +antasti- . #'d Atem! #a#i'"B --,!ied *" the indi(id,a' and the #ea' . #'d in .hi-h he kee!s *eing +#,st#ated / is t a-,te t - ,ntenan-e + # ' ng .ith ,t a #es,'ting de+ #mit". This diss nan-e - the ga! *et.een g#andi se +antas" and +#,st#ating #ea'it" - gi(es #ise t the ,n- ns-i ,s ?de-isi n? t g n 'i(ing in the . #'d + +antas", g#andi sit" and entit'ement. It is *ette# t +ee' s!e-ia' than t +ee' inade>,ate. It is *ette# t *e mni! tent than !s"-h ' gi-a''" im! tent. T Aa*B,se the#s is !#e+e#a*'e t *eing Aa*B,sed *" them. In sh #t: it is *ette# t #emain a !ath ' gi-a' na#-issist than t +a-e ha#sh, ,n"ie'ding #ea'it". N t a'' !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e +,ndamenta''" na#-issisti-. =et, I think that the de+a,'t, .hen g# .th is st,nted *" the e;isten-e + a !e#sistent *sta-'e, is #emissi n t the the na#-issisti- !hase + ea#'" !e#s na'

de(e' !ment. I +,#the# *e'ie(e that this is the O<+# de+a,'t a(ai'a*'e t the indi(id,a': .hene(e# he - mes a-# ss an *sta-'e, he #eg#esses t the na#-issisti- !hase. 1 . -an this *e #e- n-i'ed .ith the di(e#sit" + menta' i''nesses@ ?Na#-issism? is the s,*stit,ti n + a 9a'se Se'+ + # the T#,e Se'+. This, a#g,a*'", is the !#ed minant +eat,#e + na#-issism: the T#,e Se'+ is #e!#essed, #e'egated t i##e'e(an-e and *s-,#it", 'e+t t degene#ate and de-a". In its stead, a !s"-h ' gi-a' st#,-t,#e is + #med and !# %e-ted ,nt the ,tside . #'d / the 9a'se Se'+. The na#-issistEs 9a'se Se'+ is #e+'e-ted at him *" the# !e !'e. This ?!# (es? t the na#-issist that the 9a'se Se'+ indeed e;ists inde!endent'", that it is n t enti#e'" a +igment + the na#-issistEs imaginati n and, the#e+ #e, that it is a 'egitimate s,--ess # t the T#,e Se'+. It is this -ha#a-te#isti- .hi-h is - mm n t a'' !s"-h !ath ' gies: the eme#gen-e + +a'se !s"-hi- st#,-t,#es .hi-h ,s,#! the ! .e#s and -a!a-ities + the !#e(i ,s, 'egitimate and a,thenti- nes. 1 ##i+ied *" the a*sen-e + a -'ea#'" * ,nded, - hesi(e, - he#ent, #e'ia*'e, and se'+-#eg,'ating se'+ / the menta''" a*n #ma' !e#s n #es #ts t ne + the + '' .ing s ',ti ns, a'' + .hi-h in( '(e #e'ian-e ,! n +ake # in(ented !e#s na'it" - nst#,-ts:
a.

The <arcissistic Solution / The T#,e Se'+ is #e!'a-ed *" a 9a'se Se'+. The S-hiD t"!a' Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# a's 'a#ge'" *e' ngs he#e *e-a,se + its em!hasis n +antasti- and magi-a' thinking. The 8 #de#'ine Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# A8PDB is a -ase + a +ai'ed na#-issisti- s ',ti n. In 8PD, the !atient is a.a#e that the s ',ti n that she

!ted + # is ?n t . #king?. This is the s ,#-e + he# se!a#ati n an;iet" A+ea# + a*and nmentB. This gene#ates he# identit" dist,#*an-e, he# a++e-ti(e and em ti na' 'a*i'it", s,i-ida' ideati n and s,i-ida' a-ti n, -h# ni- +ee'ings + em!tiness, #age atta-ks, and t#ansient Ast#ess #e'atedB !a#an id ideati n.
b.

The .**ro*riation Solution / This is the a!!# !#iati n, # the - n+is-ati n + s me ne e'seEs se'+ in #de# t +i'' the (a-,,m 'e+t *" the a*sen-e + a +,n-ti ning Eg . <hi'e s me Eg +,n-ti ns a#e a(ai'a*'e inte#na''" / the#s a#e ad !ted *" the ?a!!# !#iating !e#s na'it"?. The 1ist#i ni- Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# is an e;am!'e + this s ',ti n. : the#s .h ?sa-#i+i-e? thei# 'i(es + # thei# -hi'd#en, !e !'e .h 'i(e (i-a#i ,s'", th# ,gh the#s / a'' *e' ng t this -ateg #". S d !e !'e .h d#amatise thei# 'i(es and thei# *eha(i ,#, in #de# t att#a-t attenti n. The ?a!!# !#iat #s? mis%,dge the intima-" + thei# #e'ati nshi!s and the deg#ee + - mmitment in( '(ed, the" a#e easi'" s,ggesti*'e and thei# .h 'e !e#s na'it" seems t shi+t and +',-t,ate .ith in!,t +# m the ,tside. 8e-a,se the" ha(e n Se'+ + thei# .n Ae(en 'ess s than ?-'assi-a'? na#-issistsB / the ?a!!# !#iat #s? tend t (e#-#ate and (e#-em!hasise thei# * dies. Pe#ha!s the m st st#iking e;am!'e + this t"!e + s ',ti n is the De!endent Pe#s na'it" Dis #de#. The Schi9oid Solution / These !atients a#e menta' D m*ies, t#a!!ed + #e(e# in the n -manEs 'and *et.een st,nted g# .th and the na#-issistide+a,'t. The" a#e n t na#-issists *e-a,se the" 'a-k a 9a'se Se'+ / n # a#e the" +,''" de(e' !ed ad,'ts,

c.

*e-a,se thei# T#,e Se'+ is immat,#e and d"s+,n-ti na'. The" !#e+e# t a( id - nta-t .ith the#s Athe" 'a-k em!ath", as d es the na#-issistB in #de# n t t ,!set thei# de'i-ate tight# !e a-t. <ithd#a.ing +# m the . #'d is an ada!ti(e s ',ti n *e-a,se it d es n t e;! se the !atientEs inade>,ate !e#s na'it" st#,-t,#es Aes!e-ia''" his se'+B t ne# ,s / and +ai',#e * ,nd / tests. The S-hiD t"!a' Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# is a mi;t,#e + the na#-issisti- and the s-hiD id s ',ti ns. The )( idant Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# is a -' se kin.
d.

The .ggressi'e Destructi'e Solution / These !e !'e s,++e# +# m h"! -h nd#iasis, de!#essi n, s,i-ida' ideati n, d"s!h #ia, anhed nia, - m!,'si ns and *sessi ns and the# e;!#essi ns + inte#na'ised and t#ans+ #med agg#essi n di#e-ted at a se'+ .hi-h is !e#-ei(ed t *e inade>,ate, g,i't", disa!! inting and . #th" + n thing *,t e'iminati n. :an" + the na#-issistie'ements a#e !#esent in an e;agge#ated + #m. $a-k + em!ath" *e- mes #e-k'ess dis#ega#d + # the#s, i##ita*i'it", de-eit+,'ness and -#imina' (i 'en-e. 7nd,'ating se'+-esteem is t#ans+ #med int im!,'si(eness and +ai',#e t !'an ahead. The )ntis -ia' Pe#s na'it" Dis #de# is a !#ime e;am!'e + this s ',ti n, .h se essen-e is: the t ta' - nt# ' + a 9a'se Se'+, .ith ,t the mitigating !#esen-e + a sh#ed + T#,e Se'+.

Pe#ha!s this - mm n +eat,#e / the #e!'a-ement + the #igina' st#,-t,#es + the !e#s na'it" *" ne., in(ented, m st'" +a'se nes / is .hat -a,ses ne t see na#-issists e(e#".he#e. This - mm n den minat # is m st a--ent,ated in the Na#-issisti- Pe#s na'it" Dis #de#.

The inte#a-ti n, #ea''", the *att'e, *et.een the st#,gg'ing #igina' #emnants + the !e#s na'it" and the ma'ignant and mni( # ,s ne. st#,-t,#es / -an *e dis-e#ned in a'' + #ms + !s"-hi- a*n #ma'it". The >,esti n is: i+ man" !hen mena ha(e ne thing in - mm n / sh ,'d the" *e - nside#ed ne and the same, #, at 'east, -a,sed *" the same@ I sa" that the ans.e# in the -ase + !e#s na'it" dis #de#s sh ,'d *e in the a++i#mati(e. I think that a'' the kn .n !e#s na'it" dis #de#s a#e + #ms + ma'ignant se'+-' (e. In ea-h !e#s na'it" dis #de#, di++e#ent att#i*,tes a#e di++e#ent'" em!hasised, di++e#ent .eights atta-h t di++e#ent *eha(i ,# !atte#ns. 8,t these, in m" (ie., a#e a'' matte#s + >,antit", n t + >,a'it". The m"#iad de+ #mati ns + the #ea-ti(e !atte#ns - ''e-ti(e'" kn .n as ?!e#s na'it"? a'' *e' ng t the same +ami'".
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.lthusser - . Criti,ue: Com*eting !nter*ellations and the Third Te5t By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

<ith the e;-e!ti n + NietDs-he, n the# madman has - nt#i*,ted s m,-h t h,man sanit" as has $ ,is )'th,sse#. 1e is menti ned t.i-e in the En-"-' !aedia 8#itanni-a as s me neEs tea-he#. The#e - ,'d *e n g#eate# 'a!se: + # t. im! #tant de-ades Athe H0s and the K0sB, )'th,sse# .as at the e"e + a'' the im! #tant -,'t,#a' st #ms. 1e +athe#ed >,ite a +e. + them. This ne.'"-+ ,nd *s-,#it" + #-es me t s,mma#iDe his . #k *e+ #e s,ggesting a +e. Amin #B m di+i-ati ns t it. A1B S -iet" - nsists + !#a-ti-es: e- n mi-, ! 'iti-a' and ide ' gi-a'. )'th,sse# de+ines a !#a-ti-e as: ".ny *rocess of transformation of a determinate *roduct% affected by a determinate human labour% using determinate means 3of *roduction4" The e- n mi- !#a-ti-e Athe hist #i-a''" s!e-i+i- m de + !# d,-ti nB t#ans+ #ms #a. mate#ia's t +inished !# d,-ts ,sing h,man 'a* ,# and the# means + !# d,-ti n, a'' #ganiDed .ithin de+ined .e*s + inte#-#e'ati ns. The ! 'iti-a' !#a-ti-e d es the same .ith s -ia' #e'ati ns as the #a. mate#ia's. 9ina''", ide ' g" is the t#ans+ #mati n +

the .a" that a s,*%e-t #e'ates t his #ea' 'i+e - nditi ns + e;isten-e. This is a #e%e-ti n + the me-hanisti- . #'d(ie. A#e!'ete .ith *ases and s,!e#st#,-t,#esB. It is a #e%e-ti n + the :a#;ist the #iDati n + ide ' g". It is a #e%e-ti n + the 1ege'ian +as-ist "social totality". It is a d"nami-, #e(ea'ing, m de#n da" m de'. In it, the (e#" e;isten-e and #e!# d,-ti n + the s -ia' *ase An t me#e'" its e;!#essi nB is de!endent ,! n the s -ia' s,!e#st#,-t,#e. The s,!e#st#,-t,#e is ?relati'ely autonomous" and ide ' g" has a -ent#a' !a#t in it - see ent#" a* ,t :a#; and Enge's and ent#" - n-e#ning 1ege'. The e- n mi- st#,-t,#e is dete#minant *,t an the# st#,-t,#e - ,'d *e d minant, de!ending n the hist #i-a' - n%,n-t,#e. Dete#minati n An . -a''ed (e#dete#minati n - see N teB s!e-i+ies the + #m + e- n mi!# d,-ti n ,! n .hi-h the d minant !#a-ti-e de!ends. P,t the#.ise: the e- n mi- is dete#minant n t *e-a,se the !#a-ti-es + the s -ia' + #mati n A! 'iti-a' and ide ' gi-a'B a#e the s -ia' + #mati nEs e;!#essi(e e!i!hen mena - *,t *e-a,se it dete#mines <1IC1 + them is d minant. A2B Pe !'e #e'ate t the - nditi ns + e;isten-e th# ,gh the !#a-ti-e + ide ' g". C nt#adi-ti ns a#e sm thed (e# and A#ea'B !# *'ems a#e ++e#ed +a'se Ath ,gh seeming'" t#,eB s ',ti ns. Th,s, ide ' g" has a #ea'isti- dimensi n and a dimensi n + #e!#esentati ns Am"ths, - n-e!ts, ideas, imagesB. The#e is Aha#sh, - n+'i-tingB #ea'it" - and the .a" that .e #e!#esent it * th t ,#se'(es and t the#s.

AFB T a-hie(e the a* (e, ide ' g" m,st n t *e seen t e## #, . #se, #emain s!ee-h'ess. It, the#e+ #e, - n+# nts and ! ses At itse'+B n'" ans.e#a*'e >,esti ns. This .a", it #emains - n+ined t a +a*,' ,s, 'egenda#", - nt#adi-ti n+#ee d main. It ign #es the# >,esti ns a't gethe#. A4B )'th,sse# int# d,-ed the - n-e!t + ?The P# *'emati-?: "The ob?ecti'e internal reference ... the system of ,uestions commanding the ans$ers gi'en" It dete#mines .hi-h !# *'ems, >,esti ns and ans.e#s a#e !a#t + the game - and .hi-h sh ,'d *e *'a-k'isted and ne(e# as m,-h as menti ned. It is a st#,-t,#e + the #" Aide ' g"B, a +#ame. #k and the #e!e#t i#e + dis- ,#ses .hi-h - ,'timate'" - "ie'd a te;t # a !#a-ti-e. )'' the #est is e;-',ded. It, the#e+ #e, *e- mes -'ea# that .hat is mitted is + n 'ess im! #tan-e than .hat is in-',ded in a te;t. The !# *'emati- + a te;t #e'ates t its hist #i-a' - nte;t A?m ment?B *" in- #! #ating * th: in-',si ns as .e'' as missi ns, !#esen-es as m,-h as a*sen-es. The !# *'emati- + the te;t + ste#s the gene#ati n + ans.e#s t ! sed >,esti ns - and + de+e-ti(e ans.e#s t e;-',ded >,esti ns. AIB The task + "scientific" Ae.g., :a#;istB dis- ,#se, + )'th,sse#ian -#iti-a' !#a-ti-e is t de- nst#,-t the !# *'emati-, t #ead th# ,gh ide ' g" and e(iden-e the #ea' - nditi ns + e;isten-e. This is a "sym*tomatic reading" + T<O TEOTS:

"!t di'ulges the undi'ulged e'ent in the te5t that it reads and% in the same mo'ement% relates to it a different te5t% *resent% as a necessary absence% in the first ... 3 ar5&s reading of .dam Smith4 *resu**oses the e5istence of t$o te5ts and the measurement of the first against the second. But $hat distinguishes this ne$ reading from the old% is the fact that in the ne$ one% the second te5t is articulated $ith the la*ses in the first te5t ... 3 ar5 measures4 the *roblematic contained in the *arado5 of an ans$er $hich does not corres*ond to any ,uestions *osed." )'th,sse# is - nt#asting the mani+est te;t .ith a 'atent te;t .hi-h is the #es,'t + the 'a!ses, dist #ti ns, si'en-es and a*sen-es in the mani+est te;t. The 'atent te;t is the ?dia#" + the st#,gg'e? + the ,n! sed >,esti n t *e ! sed and ans.e#ed. AHB Ide ' g" is a !#a-ti-e .ith 'i(ed and mate#ia' dimensi ns. It has - st,mes, #it,a's, *eha(i ,# !atte#ns, .a"s + thinking. The State em!' "s Ide ' gi-a' )!!a#at,ses AIS)sB t #e!# d,-e ide ' g" th# ,gh !#a-ti-es and !# d,-ti ns: A #ganiDedB #e'igi n, the ed,-ati n s"stem, the +ami'", A #ganiDedB ! 'iti-s, the media, the ind,st#ies + -,'t,#e. ".ll ideology has the function 3$hich defines it4 of &constructing& concrete indi'iduals as sub?ects"

S,*%e-ts t .hat@ The ans.e#: t the mate#ia' !#a-ti-es + the ide ' g". This Athe -#eati n + s,*%e-tsB is d ne *" the a-ts + ?hai'ing? # ?inte#!e''ati n?. These a#e a-ts + att#a-ting attenti n Ahai'ingB , + #-ing the indi(id,a's t gene#ate meaning Ainte#!#etati nB and making them !a#ti-i!ate in the !#a-ti-e. These the #eti-a' t 's .e#e .ide'" ,sed t ana'"De the )d(e#tising and the +i'm ind,st#ies. The ide ' g" + - ns,m!ti n A.hi-h is, ,ndenia*'", the m st mate#ia' + a'' !#a-ti-esB ,ses ad(e#tising t t#ans+ #m indi(id,a's t s,*%e-ts ACt - ns,me#sB. It ,ses ad(e#tising t inte#!e''ate them. The ad(e#tisements att#a-t attenti n, + #-e !e !'e t int# d,-e meaning t them and, as a #es,'t, t - ns,me. The m st +am ,s e;am!'e is the ,se + ?Pe !'e 'ike " , A*," this # d thatB? in ads. The #eade# 3 (ie.e# is inte#!e''ated * th as an indi(id,a' A?" ,?B and as a mem*e# + a g# ,! A?!e !'e 'ike...?B. 1e --,!ies the em!t" Aimagina#"B s!a-e + the ?" ,? in the ad. This is ide ' gi-a' ?mis#e- gniti n?. 9i#st, man" the#s mis#e- gniDe themse'(es as that ?" ,? Aan im! ssi*i'it" in the #ea' . #'dB. Se- nd'", the mis#e- gniDed ?" ,? e;ists n'" in the ad *e-a,se it .as -#eated *" it, it has n #ea' . #'d - ##e'ate. The #eade# # (ie.e# + the ad is t#ans+ #med int the s,*%e-t + Aand s,*%e-t t B the mate#ia' !#a-ti-e + the ide ' g" A- ns,m!ti n, in this -aseB. )'th,sse# .as a :a#;ist. The d minant m de + !# d,-ti n in his da"s Aand e(en m #e s t da"B .as -a!ita'ism. 1is im!'ied -#iti-ism + the mate#ia' dimensi ns + ide ' gi-a' !#a-ti-es sh ,'d *e taken .ith m #e than a g#ain + sa't. Inte#!e''ated *" the ide ' g" +

:a#;ism himse'+, he gene#a'iDed n his !e#s na' e;!e#ien-e and des-#i*ed ide ' gies as in+a''i*'e, mni! tent, e(e# s,--ess+,'. Ide ' gies, t him, .e#e im!e--a*'" +,n-ti ning ma-hines .hi-h -an a'.a"s *e #e'ied ,! n t #e!# d,-e s,*%e-ts .ith a'' the ha*its and th ,ght !atte#ns #e>,i#ed *" the d minant m de + !# d,-ti n. )nd this is .he#e )'th,sse# +ai's, t#a!!ed *" d gmatism and m #e than a t ,-h + !a#an ia. 1e neg'e-ts t t#eat t. a''-im! #tant >,esti ns Ahis !# *'emati- ma" ha(e n t a'' .ed itB: AaB <hat d ide ' gies ' k + #@ <h" d the" engage in thei# !#a-ti-e@ <hat is the ,'timate g a'@ A*B <hat ha!!ens in a !',#a'isti- en(i# nment #i-h in - m!eting ide ' gies@ )'th,sse# sti!,'ates the e;isten-e + t. te;ts, mani+est and hidden. The 'atte# - -e;ists .ith the + #me#, (e#" m,-h as a *'a-k +ig,#e de+ines its .hite *a-kg# ,nd. The *a-kg# ,nd is a's a +ig,#e and it is n'" a#*it#a#i'" - the #es,'t + hist #i-a' - nditi ning - that .e *est . a !#e+e##ed stat,s ,! n the ne. The 'atent te;t -an *e e;t#a-ted +# m the mani+est ne *" 'istening t the a*sen-es, the 'a!ses and the si'en-es in the mani+est te;t. 8,t: .hat di-tates the 'a.s + e;t#a-ti n@ h . d .e kn . that the 'atent te;t th,s e;! sed is T1E #ight ne@ S,#e'", the#e m,st e;ist a !# -ed,#e + - m!a#is n, a,thenti-ati n and (e#i+i-ati n + the 'atent te;t@ ) - m!a#is n + the #es,'ting 'atent te;t t the mani+est te;t +# m .hi-h it .as e;t#a-ted . ,'d *e +,ti'e *e-a,se it . ,'d *e #e-,#si(e. This is n t e(en a !# -ess + ite#ati n.

It is te,t ' gi-a'. The#e m,st e;ist a T1I&D, ?maste#te;t?, a !#i(i'eged te;t, hist #i-a''" in(a#iant, #e'ia*'e, ,ne>,i( -a' Aindi++e#ent t inte#!#etati n-+#ame. #ksB, ,ni(e#sa''" a--essi*'e, atem! #a' and n n-s!atia'. This thi#d te;t is CO:P$ETE in the sense that it in-',des * th the mani+est and the 'atent. )-t,a''", it sh ,'d in-',de a'' the ! ssi*'e te;ts Aa $I8&)&= +,n-ti nB. The hist #i-a' m ment .i'' dete#mine .hi-h + them .i'' *e mani+est and .hi-h 'atent, a-- #ding t the needs + the m de + !# d,-ti n and the (a#i ,s !#a-ti-es. N t a'' these te;ts .i'' *e - ns-i ,s and a--essi*'e t the indi(id,a' *,t s,-h a te;t . ,'d em* d" and di-tate the #,'es + - m!a#is n *et.een the mani+est te;t and ITSE$9 Athe Thi#d Te;tB , *eing the CO:P$ETE te;t. On'" th# ,gh a - m!a#is n *et.een a !a#tia' te;t and a - m!'ete te;t -an the de+i-ien-ies + the !a#tia' te;t *e e;! sed. ) - m!a#is n *et.een !a#tia' te;ts .i'' "ie'd n -e#tain #es,'ts and a - m!a#is n *et.een the te;t and itse'+ Aas )'th,sse# s,ggestsB is a*s ',te'" meaning'ess. This Thi#d Te;t is the h,man !s"-he. <e - nstant'" - m!a#e te;ts that .e #ead t this Thi#d Te;t, a - !" + .hi-h .e a'' -a##" .ith ,s. <e a#e ,na.a#e + m st + the te;ts in- #! #ated in this maste# te;t + ,#s. <hen +a-ed .ith a mani+est te;t .hi-h is ne. t ,s, .e +i#st ?d .n' ad? the ?#,'es + - m!a#is n AengagementB?. <e si+t th# ,gh the mani+est te;t. <e - m!a#e it t ,# CO:P$ETE maste# te;t and see .hi-h !a#ts a#e missing. These - nstit,te the 'atent te;t. The mani+est te;t se#(es as a t#igge# .hi-h *#ings t ,# - ns-i ,sness a!!# !#iate and #e'e(ant ! #ti ns + the Thi#d Te;t. It a's gene#ates the 'atent te;t in ,s. I+ this s ,nds +ami'ia# it is *e-a,se this !atte#n + - n+# nting Athe mani+est te;tB, - m!a#ing A.ith ,#

maste# te;tB and st #ing the #es,'ts Athe 'atent te;t and the mani+est te;t a#e *# ,ght t - ns-i ,snessB - is ,sed *" m the# nat,#e itse'+. The DN) is s,-h a ?:aste# Te;t, Thi#d Te;t?. It in-',des a'' the geneti--*i ' gi-a' te;ts s me mani+est, s me 'atent. On'" stim,'i in its en(i# nment ACa mani+est te;tB -an !# ( ke it t gene#ate its .n Ahithe#t 'atentB ?te;t?. The same . ,'d a!!'" t - m!,te# a!!'i-ati ns. The Thi#d Te;t, the#e+ #e, has an in(a#iant nat,#e Ait in-',des a'' ! ssi*'e te;tsB - and, "et, is -hangea*'e *" inte#a-ting .ith mani+est te;ts. This - nt#adi-ti n is n'" a!!a#ent. The Thi#d Te;t d es n t -hange - n'" di++e#ent !a#ts + it a#e *# ,ght t ,# a.a#eness as a #es,'t + the inte#a-ti n .ith the mani+est te;t. <e -an a's sa+e'" sa" that ne d es n t need t *e an )'th,sse#ian -#iti- # engage in ?s-ienti+i-? dis- ,#se t de- nst#,-t the !# *'emati-. E(e#" #eade# + te;t immediate'" and a'.a"s de- nst#,-ts it. The (e#" a-t + #eading in( '(es - m!a#is n .ith the Thi#d Te;t .hi-h ine(ita*'" 'eads t the gene#ati n + a 'atent te;t. )nd this !#e-ise'" is .h" s me inte#!e''ati ns +ai'. The s,*%e-t de- nst#,-ts e(e#" message e(en i+ he is n t t#ained in -#iti-a' !#a-ti-e. 1e is inte#!e''ated # +ai's t *e inte#!e''ated de!ending n .hat 'atent message .as gene#ated th# ,gh the - m!a#is n .ith the Thi#d Te;t. )nd *e-a,se the Thi#d Te;t in-',des )$$ ! ssi*'e te;ts, the s,*%e-t is gi(en t n,me# ,s - m!eting inte#!e''ati ns ++e#ed *" man" ide ' gies, m st'" at dds .ith ea-h the#. The s,*%e-t is in an en(i# nment + CO:PETIN5 INTE&PE$$)TIONS Aes!e-ia''" in this da" and age + in+ #mati n g',tB. The +ai',#e + ne inte#!e''ati n n #ma''" means the s,--ess + an the# A.h se inte#!e''ati n is *ased n the 'atent te;t gene#ated in the

- m!a#is n !# -ess # n a mani+est te;t + its .n, # n a 'atent te;t gene#ated *" an the# te;tB. The#e a#e - m!eting ide ' gies e(en in the m st se(e#e + a,th #ita#ian #egimes. S metimes, I)Ss .ithin the same s -ia' + #mati n ++e# - m!eting ide ' gies: the ! 'iti-a' Pa#t", the Ch,#-h, the 9ami'", the )#m", the :edia, the Ci(i'ian &egime, the 8,#ea,-#a-". T ass,me that inte#!e''ati ns a#e ++e#ed t the ! tentia' s,*%e-ts s,--essi(e'" Aand n t in !a#a''e'B de+ies e;!e#ien-e Ath ,gh it d es sim!'i+" the th ,ght-s"stemB. C'a#i+"ing the 1O<, th ,gh, d es n t shed 'ight n the <1=. )d(e#tising 'eads t the inte#!e''ati n + the s,*%e-t t e++e-t the mate#ia' !#a-ti-e + - ns,m!ti n. P,t m #e sim!'": the#e is m ne" in( '(ed. Othe# ide ' gies !# !agated th# ,gh #ganiDed #e'igi ns, + # instan-e - 'ead t !#a"e#. C ,'d this *e the mate#ia' !#a-ti-e that the" a#e ' king + #@ N .a". : ne", !#a"e#, the (e#" a*i'it" t inte#!e''ate - the" a#e a'' #e!#esentati ns + ! .e# (e# the# h,man *eings. The *,siness - n-e#n, the -h,#-h, the ! 'iti-a' !a#t", the +ami'", the media, the -,'t,#e ind,st#ies - a#e a'' ' king + # the same thing: in+',en-e, ! .e#, might. )*s,#d'", inte#!e''ati n is ,sed t se-,#e ne !a#am ,nt thing: the a*i'it" t inte#!e''ate. 8ehind e(e#" mate#ia' !#a-ti-e stands a !s"-h ' gi-a' !#a-ti-e A(e#" m,-h as the Thi#d Te;t - the !s"-he - stands *ehind e(e#" te;t, 'atent # mani+estB. The media - ,'d *e di++e#ent: m ne", s!i#it,a' !# .ess, !h"si-a' *#,ta'it", s,*t'e messages. 8,t e(e#" ne Ae(en indi(id,a's in thei# !#i(ate 'i+eB is ' king t hai' and inte#!e''ate the#s and th,s mani!,'ate them t s,--,m* t thei# mate#ia' !#a-ti-es. ) sh #t sighted (ie. . ,'d sa"

that the *,sinessman inte#!e''ates in #de# t make m ne". 8,t the im! #tant >,esti n is: .hat e(e# + #@ <hat d#i(es ide ' gies t esta*'ish mate#ia' !#a-ti-es and t inte#!e''ate !e !'e t !a#ti-i!ate in them and *e- me s,*%e-ts@ The .i'' t ! .e#. the .ish t *e a*'e t inte#!e''ate. It is this -"-'i-a' nat,#e + )'th,sse#Es tea-hings Aide ' gies inte#!e''ate in #de# t *e a*'e t inte#!e''ateB and his d gmati- a!!# a-h Aide ' gies ne(e# +ai'B .hi-h d med his the#.ise *#i''iant *se#(ati ns t *'i(i n. <ote !n .lthusser&s $ritings the ar5ist determination remains as O'er-determination. This is a structured articulation of a number of contradictions and determinations 3bet$een the *ractices4. This is 'ery reminiscent of ;reud&s Dream Theory and of the conce*t of Su*er*osition in Duantum echanics.
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S3MU!L (SAM) VA4%I% & rric l m Vitae Click on blue te5t to access rele'ant $eb sites ) thank you.

8 #n in 1GH1 in Pi#"at-=am, Is#ae'. Se#(ed in the Is#ae'i De+en-e 9 #-e A1GKG-1GJ2B in t#aining and ed,-ati n ,nits. !d cation 5#ad,ated a +e. semeste#s in the Te-hni n / Is#ae' Instit,te + Te-hn ' g", 1ai+a. Ph.D. in Phi' s !h" Ama% #: Phi' s !h" + Ph"si-sB / Pa-i+i- <este#n 7ni(e#sit", Ca'i+ #nia, 7S). :" d -t #a' thesis and the# * the $i*#a#" + C ng#ess. ks a#e a(ai'a*'e th# ,gh

5#ad,ate + n,me# ,s - ,#ses in 9inan-e The #" and Inte#nati na' T#ading. Ce#ti+ied E-C mme#-e C n-e!ts )na'"st *" 8#ain*en-h. Ce#ti+ied in Ps"-h ' gi-a' C ,nse''ing Te-hni>,es *" 8#ain*en-h. Ce#ti+ied 9inan-ia' )na'"st *" 8#ain*en-h.

9,'' !# +i-ien-" in 1e*#e. and in Eng'ish. 5 siness !+perience ABEC to ABEF 9 ,nde# and - - .ne# + a -hain + - m!,te#ised in+ #mati n ki sks in Te'-)(i(, Is#ae'. ABEG to ABEH Seni # ! siti ns .ith the Nessim D. 5a n 5# ,! + C m!anies in 5ene(a, Pa#is and Ne.-= #k ANO5) and )P&O9I: S)B: / Chie+ )na'"st + Edi*'e C mm dities in the 5# ,!Es 1ead>,a#te#s in S.itDe#'and / :anage# + the &esea#-h and )na'"sis Di(isi n / :anage# + the Data P# -essing Di(isi n / P# %e-t :anage# + the Nige#ian C m!,te#ised Cens,s / Vi-e P#esident in -ha#ge + &ND and )d(an-ed Te-hn ' gies / Vi-e P#esident in -ha#ge + S (e#eign De*t 9inan-ing ABEH to ABEI &e!#esented Canadian Vent,#e Ca!ita' 9,nds in Is#ae'. ABEI to ABEJ 5ene#a' :anage# + IPE $td. in $ nd n. The +i#m +inan-ed inte#nati na' m,'ti-'ate#a' - ,nte#t#ade and 'easing t#ansa-ti ns.

ABEE to ABBC C -+ ,nde# and Di#e-t # + ?:ik*ats-Tes,ah?, a ! #t+ 'i management +i#m *ased in Te'-)(i(. )-ti(ities in-',ded 'a#ge-s-a'e ! #t+ 'i management, ,nde#.#iting, + #e; t#ading and gene#a' +inan-ia' ad(is #" se#(i-es. ABBC to Present 9#ee'an-e - ns,'tant t man" + Is#ae'Es 8',e-Chi! +i#ms, main'" n iss,es #e'ated t the -a!ita' ma#kets in Is#ae', Canada, the 76 and the 7S). C ns,'tant t + #eign &ND (ent,#es and t 5 (e#nments n ma-# -e- n mi- matte#s. P#esident + the Is#ae' -ha!te# + the P# +ess #s < #'d Pea-e )-adem" AP<P)B and A*#ie+'"B Is#ae' #e!#esentati(e + the ?<ashingt n Times?. ABBF to ABBK C - .ne# and Di#e-t # + man" *,siness ente#!#ises: / The Omega and Ene#g" )i#-C nditi ning C n-e#n / )VP 9inan-ia' C ns,'tants / 1andiman $ega' Se#(i-es T ta' ann,a' t,#n (e# + the g# ,!: 10 mi''i n 7SD. C - .ne#, Di#e-t # and 9inan-e :anage# + COSTI $td. / Is#ae'Es 'a#gest - m!,te#ised in+ #mati n (end # and de(e' !e#. &aised +,nds th# ,gh a se#ies + !#i(ate !'a-ements ' -a''" in the 7S), Canada and $ nd n.

ABBF to ABBI P,*'ishe# and Edit # + a Ca!ita' :a#kets Ne.s'ette# dist#i*,ted *" s,*s-#i!ti n n'" t d Dens + s,*s-#i*e#s - ,nt#".ide. In a 'ega' !#e-edent in 1GGI / st,died in *,siness s-h 's and 'a. +a-,'ties a-# ss Is#ae' / .as t#ied + # his # 'e in an attem!ted take (e# + Is#ae'Es )g#i-,'t,#e 8ank. <as inte#ned in the State S-h ' + P#is n <a#dens.

:anaged the Cent#a' S-h ' $i*#a#", .# te, !,*'ished and 'e-t,#ed n (a#i ,s --asi ns. :anaged the Inte#net and Inte#nati na' Ne.s De!a#tment + an Is#ae'i mass media g# ,!, ?1a-Tiksh #et and Name#?. )ssistant in the $a. 9a-,'t" in Te'-)(i( 7ni(e#sit" At P# +. S.5. Sh hamB. ABBI to ABBB 9inan-ia' - ns,'tant t 'eading *,sinesses in :a-ed nia, &,ssia and the CDe-h &e!,*'i-. C ''a* #ated .ith the )gen-" + T#ans+ #mati n + 8,siness .ith S -ia' Ca!ita'. E- n mi- - mmentat # in ?N (a :aked ni%a?, ?Dne(nik?, ?:aked ni%a Denes?, ?ID(estia?, ?)#g,menti i 9akti?, ?The :idd'e East Times?, ?The Ne. P#esen-e?, ?Cent#a' E,# !e &e(ie.?, and the# !e#i di-a's, and in the e- n mi- !# g#ams n (a#i ,s -hanne's + :a-ed nian Te'e(isi n.

Chie+ $e-t,#e# in - ,#ses #ganised *" the )gen-" + T#ans+ #mati n, *" the :a-ed nian St -k E;-hange, and *" the :inist#" + T#ade. ABBB to GCCG E- n mi- )d(is # t the 5 (e#nment + the &e!,*'i- + :a-ed nia and t the :inist#" + 9inan-e. GCCA to GCCF Seni # 8,siness C ##es! ndent + # 7nited P#ess Inte#nati na' A7PIB. 6e, and 7o rnalistic Activities ),th # + e;tensi(e <e* sites in: / Ps"-h ' g" A?:a'ignant Se'+ $ (e?B - )n O!en Di#e-t #" C ' Site, / Phi' s !h" A?Phi' s !hi-a' :,sings?B, / E- n mi-s and 5e ! 'iti-s A?< #'d in C n+'i-t and T#ansiti n?B. O.ne# + the Na#-issisti- )*,se )nn ,n-ement and St,d" $ist and the Na#-issism &e(isited mai'ing 'ist Am #e than 4G00 mem*e#sB. O.ne# + the E- n mies in C n+'i-t and T#ansiti n St,d" $ist and the $ink and 9a-t id St,d" $ist. Edit # + menta' hea'th dis #de#s and Cent#a' and Easte#n E,# !e -ateg #ies in (a#i ,s <e* di#e-t #ies AO!en Di#e-t #", Sea#-h E,# !e, :enta'he'!.netB.

Edit # + the Na#-issisti- Pe#s na'it" Dis #de#, the Ve#*a' and Em ti na' )*,se, and the S! ,sa' AD mesti-B )*,se and Vi 'en-e t !i-s n S,ite 101 and 8e''a n'ine. C ',mnist and - mmentat # in ?The Ne. P#esen-e?, 7nited P#ess Inte#nati na' A7PIB, Inte#netC ntent, e8 k<e*, P !:atte#s, and ?Cent#a' E,# !e &e(ie.?. P ,lications and A*ards ?:anaging In(estment P #t+ 'i s in States + 7n-e#taint"?, $im n P,*'ishe#s, Te'-)(i(, 1GJJ ?The 5am*'ing Ind,st#"?, $im n P,*'ishe#s, Te'-)(i(, 1GG0 ?&e>,esting :" $ (ed One / Sh #t St #ies?, =edi th )ha# n t, Te'-)(i(, 1GGK ?The S,++e#ing + 8eing 6a+ka? Ae'e-t# ni- * k + 1e*#e. and Eng'ish Sh #t 9i-ti nB, P#ag,e and Sk !%e, 1GGJ-2004 ?The :a-ed nian E- n m" at a C# ss# ads / On the <a" t a 1ea'thie# E- n m"? Adia' g,es .ith Nik 'a 5#,e(skiB, Sk !%e, 1GGJ ?The E;! #te#sE P -ket* k?, :inist#" + T#ade, &e!,*'i+ :a-ed nia, Sk !%e, 1GGG ?:a'ignant Se'+ $ (e / Na#-issism &e(isited?, Na#-iss,s P,*'i-ati ns, P#ag,e and Sk !%e, 1GGG, 2001, 200F, 2004 The Na#-issism Se#ies Ae-* ks #ega#ding #e'ati nshi!s .ith a*,si(e na#-issistsB, Sk !%e, 1GGG-2004

?)+te# the &ain / 1 . the <est $ st the East?, Na#-iss,s P,*'i-ati ns in ass -iati n .ith Cent#a' E,# !e &e(ie.3CEEN:I, P#ag,e and Sk !%e, 2000 <inne# + n,me# ,s a.a#ds, am ng them Is#ae'Es C ,n-i' + C,'t,#e and )#t P#iDe + # :aiden P# se A1GGKB, The & ta#" C',* ).a#d + # S -ia' St,dies A1GKHB, and the 8i'ate#a' &e'ati ns St,dies ).a#d + the )me#i-an Em*ass" in Is#ae' A1GKJB. 1,nd#eds + !# +essi na' a#ti-'es in a'' +ie'ds + +inan-es and the e- n m", and n,me# ,s a#ti-'es dea'ing .ith ge ! 'iti-a' and ! 'iti-a' e- n mi- iss,es !,*'ished in * th !#int and <e* !e#i di-a's in man" - ,nt#ies. :an" a!!ea#an-es in the e'e-t# ni- media n s,*%e-ts in !hi' s !h" and the s-ien-es, and - n-e#ning e- n mimatte#s.

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(he A thor Sam $aknin is t%e aut%or o :a'ignant Se'+ $ (e Na#-issism &e(isited and )+te# the &ain - 1 . the <est $ st the East. &e served as a columnist or Cent#a' E,# !e &e(ie. and e'ook(eb , a 7nited P#ess Inte#nati na' A7PIB Seni # 8,siness C ##es! ndent, and t%e editor o mental %ealt% and )entral *ast *urope categories in +%e ,pen -irector. and Suite/0/ # 0ntil recentl., %e served as t%e *conomic Advisor to t%e 1overnment o 2acedonia# $isit Sam3s (eb site at %ttp455samvak#tripod#com