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International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.

7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

EFFECTS OF WEB AND FLANGE THICKNESS ON BENDING STIFFNESS OF CHASSIS


Hemant B.Patil1, Sharad D.Kachave2
1

P.G.Student Mechanical, S.SV.P.S.B.S.D.C.O.Engg, Dhule North Maharashtra University, (India)


2

Mechanical, S.SV.P.S.B.S.D.C.O.Engg, Dhule North Maharashtra University, (India)

ABSTRACT
This paper presents, stress analysis and effect of web and flanges thickness on bending stiffness of a ladder type low loader truck chassis structure consisting of C-beams as a cross member, for study the effect on bending stiffness a chassis of 8 tonne capacity is consider, The commercial finite element package ANSYS was used for the solution of the problem. To reduce the expenses of the chassis of the trucks, the chassis structure design should be changed or the thickness should be optimized. Also determination of the stresses of a truck chassis before manufacturing is important due to the design improvement. In order to achieve an increase in the magnitude of bending stiffness the thickness of web and flange is increase in this case instead of adding stiffeners, then computed results are then compared to analytical calculation, founds that the nature maximum deflection and bending stiffness agrees. Also maximum stress (critical point) is found during analysis where maximum stress is developed. From this it finds that increase in flange thickness is more beneficial than web thickness to increase in bending stiffness.

Keywords: Bending Stiffness, Finite Element Method, Stress Analysis, Etc.

I. INTRODUCTION
Bending stiffness is important property to be consider while design chassis, so it is necessary to study the effect of various parameters affecting on the chassiss bending stiffness also the chassis of trucks is the backbone o f vehicles and integrates the main component systems such as the axles, suspension, power train, cab and trailer, and is usually subjected to the weight of cabin, its content, and inertia forces arising due to roughness of road surfaces etc. (i.e. static, dynamic and cyclic loading). The stress analysis is important in fatigue study and life prediction of components to determine the highest stress point commonly known as critical point which initiates to probable failure, this critical point is one of the factors that may cause the fatigue failure. The magnitude of the stress can be used to predict the life span of the chassis. The location of critical stress point is thus important so that the mounting of the components like engine, suspension, transmission and more can be determined and optimized, Finite Element Method (FEM) is one of the method to locate the critical point [1,2]. Safety factor is used to provide a design margin over the theoretical design capacity. This allows consolidation of uncertainties in the design process [3].Jadav Chetan S. et al reviews various factors affecting the fatigue life of an structure like cyclic stress state, geometry, surface quality, material type, residual stresses, size and distribution of internal defects, direction of loading & grain

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International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

size [4]. In this study, chassis structures are comparing by the thicknesses of the profiles. For determining the strength of the frame, structural analyses were performed for these the web and flange thickness are increase and decreases by 1mm The truck chassis was modeled and the finite element analyses were solved in CATIA V5R117. During this four different cases consider to study the effect of thickness on chassis stresses

Figure 1: Dimensions of section consider for analysis.


1. Analysis of Model as per design (base model), in which web & flange thickness are 5.9 mm and 9.5 mm respectively. 2. 3. 4. 5. Increase the thickness of web of cross members by 1mm i.e. (web is 6.9 mm and flange is 9.5 mm). Decrease the thickness of web of cross members by 1 mm i.e. (web is 4.9 mm and flange is 9.5 mm). Increase the thickness of flange of cross member by 1 mm i.e. (web is 5.9 mm and flange is 10.5 mm). Decrease the thickness of flange of cross member by 1 mm i.e. (web is 5.9 mm and flange is 8.5 mm).

II. BASIC CALCULATION FOR CHASSIS FRAME Front Overhang (a) = 650 mm. Rear Overhang (c) = 650 mm. Table 1: Material properties of the Chassis Steel

Youngs Modulus Poissons Ratio Density Bulk Modulus Tensile Yield Strength

200 *E9 Pa. 0.3 7850 Kg/m3. 1.6667 *E11 Pa 250 *E6 Pa.
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International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

Capacity of Truck = 8.0 ton = 8000 kg. Capacity of Truck with 1.3% = 10400 kg. Self weight of chassis frame = 1300 kg. Total load acting on chassis = Capacity of the Chassis + Self weight of chassis frame=11700 kg. Chassis has two beams. So load acting on each beam is half of the Total load acting on the chassis. Load acting on the single frame =11700/2 = 5850 kg / Beam. Uniformly Distributed Load is 1.598 kg/mm. Stress produced on the beam is as under = = M y/I= M/Z. = Bending Moment/Available section Modulus (Z). =7.75 x 105 /2.54 x 105= 3.05 kg/mm2. Deflection of chassis = [(5/384) x (q*L4)/ (E*I)] = [(5/384) x (1.598 x 23604)/ (2 x 104 * 24.56 x 106)] =0.853 mm. Bending Stiffness =Force / Deflection. =11700/0.853 =13716.295 N/mm.

Figure 2: Chassis as a simply supported beam with overhang. 55 | P a g e www.ijarse.com

International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

III. FE ANALYSIS OF CHASSIS

Figure 3: CAD Model of base model of chassis.

Figure 4 : Deformation and Equivalent (Von Mises Stress) stresses of base model.

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International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

Figure 5: Deformation and Equivalent (Von Mises Stress) stresses of case 1.

Figure 6: Deformation and Equivalent (Von Mises Stress) stresses of case 2. 57 | P a g e www.ijarse.com

International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

Figure 7 : Deformation and Equivalent (Von Mises Stress) stresses of case 3.

Figure 8: Deformation and Equivalent (Von Mises Stress) stresses of case 4. 58 | P a g e www.ijarse.com

International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Table 2: Summary and comparison of results for all cases. Stresses (N/mm2 ) Weight (kg) Bending Stiffness (N/mm) Analytical 111.04 105.16 124.02 100.31 108.36 544.17 550.96 537.38 557.56 533.35 13716.30 13829.79 13620.49 14079.42 13340.94 Numerical 11126.96 11589.90 9741.88 12011.83 11176.92 Stiffness to weight ratio Analytical 25.21 25.10 25.35 25.25 25.01 Numerical 20.45 21.04 18.13 21.54 20.96

Sr No.

Deflection (mm) Analytical Numerical 1.0515 1.0095 1.201 0.97404 1.0468

Base Model Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

0.853 0.846 0.859 0.831 0.877

1.4 Maximum Deflection (mm) 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Base Model Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Analytical Numerical

Figure 9: Maximum Deflection of all cases.


16000.00 14000.00 12000.00 10000.00 8000.00 6000.00 4000.00 2000.00 0.00 Base Model Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Bending Stiffness (N/mm)

Analytical Numerical

Figure 10: Bending Stiffness in all cases. 59 | P a g e www.ijarse.com

International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

Bending Stiffness to Weight ratio (N/Kg.mm)

30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 Base Model Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Analytical Numerical

Figure 11: Bending Stiffness to Weight ratio in all cases.


140 Maximum Stress Values (N/mm2 ) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Base Model Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4

Figure 12: Maximum Stresses in all cases. V. CONCLUSION


The maximum deflection and stress is found to be 1.201 mm & 124.02 N/mm 2 in case 2 whereas minimum deflection and stress is found to be 0.97404 mm & 100.31 N/mm 2 in case 3. The maximum bending stiffness found to be 12011.83 N/mm in case 3 and minimum bending stiffness is found to be 9741.88 N/mm in case 2. The maximum weight found to be 557.56 kg in case 3 whereas minimum weight found to be 533.35 kg in case 4. Bending stiffness to weight ratio is found to be maximum 21.54 N/Kg.mm in Case 3 and minimum 18.13 N/Kg.mm in case 2. Therefore from bending stiffness to weight ratio it clears that increase in flange thickness causes more increase in bending stiffness as compared with that causes due to increase in web thickness.

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International Journal Of Advance Research In Science And Engineering IJARSE, Vol. No.2, Issue No.7, July, 2013

http://www.ijarse.com ISSN-2319-8354(E)

REFERENCES
[1] Roslan Abd Rahman, Mohd Nasir Tamin, Ojo Kurdi Stress analysis of heavy duty truck chassis as a preliminary data for its fatigue life prediction using FEM Jurnal Mekanikal December 2008, No. 26, 76 85. [2] Cicek Karaoglu, N. Sefa Kuralay Stress analysis of a truck chassis with riveted joints Elsevier Science B.V Finite Elements in Analysis and Design 38 (2002) 11151130. [3] Mohd Azizi Muhammad Nora,, Helmi Rashida, Wan Mohd Faizul Wan Mahyuddin Stress Analysis of a Low Loader Chassis Elsevier Ltd. Sci Verse Science Direct Procedia Engineering 41 ( 2012 ) 995 1001. [4] Jadav Chetan S., Panchal Khushbu C., P atel Fajalhusen A Review of the Fatigue Analysis of an Automobile Frames International Journal of Advanced Computer Research, Volume-2 Number-4 Issue-6 December-2012, (ISSN (print): 2249-7277 ISSN (online): 2277-7970). [5] N.K.Ingole, D.V. Bhope Stress analysis of tractor trailer chassis for self weight reduction International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST), ISSN: 0975-5462 Vol. 3 No. 9 September 2011. [6] I. Kutay Yilmazcoban, Yaar Kahraman Truck chassis structural thickness optimization with the help of finite element technique TOJSAT the Online Journal of Science and Technology - Volume 1, Issue 3, July 2011. [7] Patel Vijay kumar V, Prof. R. I. Patel Structural Analysis of Automotive Chassis Frame and Design Modification for Weight Reduction International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology (IJERT), ISSN: 2278-0181, Vol. 1 Issue 3, May 2012. [8] Beam formula with shear and moment diagram, American forest and paper association, Inc, American Wood Council, 1111 19th St., NW. Suite 800, Washington. DC 20036, 202 463 4713.

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